Production & Manufacture of Fibers

Fiber Forming and spinning
• Natural fibers are formed as they are grown or produced. • Manufactured fibers, however are made in the laboratory. • There are four basic processes involved:
• • • • Wet Spinning Dry Spinning Melt Spinning Emulsion Spinning
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Production & Manufacture of fibers

Wet Spinning Process

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The polymeric material is dissolved in some solution. This is forced through a spinning jet – spinneret, into another liquid that reacts with the fiber solution. Here the fiber solution coagulated to form the fiber. Examples are – rayon and some acrylic fibers.

Production & Manufacture of fibers

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Dry Spinning Process
• Here the fiber solution is forced through the spinneret into a warm chamber. • The warm air causes the solvent to evaporate, the fiber solution forms into filaments and hardens. • Acetate, triacetate etc. are made in this way.

Production & Manufacture of fibers

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Melt Spinning Process
• In this process the fiber polymer is melted, and the molten solution is forced through the spinneret. • As the soft filaments emerge into a cooler environment, they harden into usable filaments ready for converting into yarns. • Nylon and polyester are made in this way.

Production & Manufacture of fibers

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Bicomponent and bigeneric fibers

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Bicomponent fibers are composed of two variants or modifications of the same generic fiber type. Bigeneric are composed of two generic fiber types. As you can see above, there are three basic methods of making these. These are made to provide textile materials with different shrinkage levels, bulk or texture.

Production & Manufacture of fibers

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Natural protein fibers
• These are obtained from animal sources. • Hair coverings and animal secretions • Hair fibers – wool – from the fleece of sheep, camel, llama, vicuna etc. • Secretion fibers – silk-obtained from larva to spin cocoon. • Excellent absorbency, warmer, build up of static charge, poor resistance to alkalis, • Resistance to acid (except silk, it gets destroyed). • Good resiliency and elastic recovery.
Production & Manufacture of fibers 7

Natural cellulosic fibers
• • • • • • • • • These are obtained from plant sources. Examples are cotton, flax, jute, ramie and hemp. Cotton grows in warm climate with sufficient irrigation facilities. It comes from the seed pod of the cotton plant. It is picked by machine. After picking it is taken to the gin, where the fiber – cotton lint, is separated from the seed. Then it is classified according to staple length, fiber grade and fiber character. Bales of cotton are made and shipped. The length of cotton fiber varies from 0.5 inches to 2.5-3 inches. It has excellent ability to absorb moisture, the fiber is relatively stable, but elastic recovery is low.
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Production & Manufacture of fibers

Flax
• Flax is a bast fiber and is obtained from stalks or stems of the plant – Linum usitatissimmum • The plant requires a temperate climate and generally cloudy skies and adequate moisture. • For processing the fiber, the plant is pulled by mechanical pullers, so the root structure also comes out as a part of the stem. • After drying the flax is rippled, i.e. pulled through special threshing machines to remove seed pods. • Retting- the process of removing the outer woody covering to obtain the fibers from stem, can be done in any one of the ways– – – – Dew retting Pool retting Tank retting Chemical retting
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Production & Manufacture of fibers