Supply Chain Management

Basics of Supply Chain Management

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Supply Chain Management

Business Challenges in Twenty First century • Managing Uncertainty • Understanding Customer • Understanding Globalization of Business

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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Strategy
Demand Flow Strategy

Collaboration Strategy

Supply Chain Strategy

Customer service strategy

Technology Integration Strategy

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Supply Chain Management

Collaborative Strategy • Manufacturer / Supplier Collaboration • Collaboration with Third Party and Fourth Party Logistics providers

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Supply Chain Management

Demand Flow Strategy • Channel Design • Demand Planning • Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI )

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Supply Chain Management

Customer Service Strategy • Customer Segmentation • Cost to Serve • Revenue Management

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Supply Chain Management

Information Technology Strategy • • • • IT Based Tools EDI ERP SAP

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Supply Chain Management

Definitions

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Supply Chain Management

What Is the Supply Chain?

• Also referred to as the logistics network • Suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, distribution centers and retail outlets – “facilities”
Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Customers Distribution Centers

and the

• Raw materials • Work-in-process (WIP) inventory • Finished products that flow between the facilities

Material Costs

Transportation Costs

Transportation Costs Transportation Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs

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Supply Chain Management

The Supply Chain
Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Distribution Centers

Customers

Transportation Costs Material Costs

Transportation Costs

Manufacturing Costs

Transportation Costs Inventory Costs

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Supply Chain

The Supply Chain – Another View

Management

Plan

Source

Make

Deliver

Buy

Suppliers

Manufacturers

Warehouses & Distribution Centers

Customers

Material Costs

Transportation Transportation Costs Transportation Costs Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs

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Supply Chain Management

What Is Supply Chain Management (SCM)?
Plan Source Make Deliver Buy

• A set of approaches used to efficiently integrate
– – – –
– – –

Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses Distribution centers
In the right quantities To the right locations And at the right time

• So that the product is produced and distributed

• System-wide costs are minimized and • Service level requirements are satisfied

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Supply Chain Management

History of Supply Chain Management

• 1960’s - Inventory Management Focus, Cost Control • 1970’s - MRP & BOM - Operations Planning • 1980’s - MRPII, JIT - Materials Management, Logistics • 1990’s - SCM - ERP - “Integrated” Purchasing, Financials, Manufacturing, Order Entry • 2000’s - Optimized “Value Network” with Real-Time Decision Support; Synchronized & Collaborative Extended Network

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Supply Chain Management

Why Is SCM Difficult?
Plan Source Make Deliver Buy

• Uncertainty is inherent to every supply chain
– – – – Travel times Breakdowns of machines and vehicles Weather, natural catastrophe, war Local politics, labor conditions, border issues

• The complexity of the problem to globally optimize a supply chain is significant
– – – Minimize internal costs Minimize uncertainty Deal with remaining uncertainty

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Supply Chain Management

The Importance of Supply Chain Management
• Dealing with uncertain environments – matching supply and demand
– Boeing announced a $2.6 billion write-off in 1997 due to “raw materials shortages, internal and supplier parts shortages and productivity inefficiencies” U.S Surgical Corporation announced a $22 million loss in 1993 due to “larger than anticipated inventories on the shelves of hospitals” IBM sold out its supply of its new Aptiva PC in 1994 costing it millions in potential revenue Hewlett-Packard and Dell found it difficult to obtain important components for its PC’s from Taiwanese suppliers in 1999 due to a massive earthquake


• U.S. firms spent $898 billion (10% of GDP) on supply-chain related activities in 1998
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Supply Chain Management The Importance of Supply Chain Management

• Shorter product life cycles of high-technology products
– Less opportunity to accumulate historical data on customer demand Wide choice of competing products makes it difficult to predict demand

• The growth of technologies such as the Internet enable greater collaboration between supply chain trading partners
– – If you don’t do it, your competitor will Major buyers such as Wal-Mart demand a level of “supply chain maturity” of its suppliers Firms have access to multiple products (e.g., SAP, Baan, Oracle, JD Edwards) with which to integrate internal processes

• Availability of SCM technologies on the market

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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management and Uncertainty

• Inventory and back-order levels fluctuate considerably across the supply chain even when customer demand doesn’t vary • The variability worsens as we travel “up” the supply chain • Forecasting doesn’t help!
Multi-tier Suppliers Manufacturer Wholesale Distributors Retailers Consumers

Sales

Sales

Time

Sales

Time

Time

Sales Time

Bullwhip Effect
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Supply Chain Management

Factors Contributing to the Bullwhip
• Demand forecasting practices

Min-max inventory management (reorder points to bring inventory up to predicted levels) Longer lead times lead to greater variability in estimates of average demand, thus increasing variability and safety stock costs Peaks and valleys in orders Fixed ordering costs Impact of transportation costs (e.g., fuel costs) Sales quotas

• Lead time

• Batch ordering
– – – –

• Price fluctuations
– Promotion and discount policies

• Lack of centralized information
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Supply Chain

Today’s Marketplace Requires:

Management

• Personalized content and services for their customers • Collaborative planning with design partners,

distributors, and suppliers
• Real-time commitments for design, production, inventory, and transportation capacity

• Flexible logistics options to ensure timely fulfillment
• Order tracking & reporting across multiple vendors and carriers
Shared visibility for trading partners
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Supply Chain

Supply Chain Management – Key Issues
• Forecasts are never right

Management

Very unlikely that actual demand will exactly equal forecast demand

• The longer the forecast horizon, the worse the forecast
– A forecast for a year from now will never be as accurate as a forecast for 3 months from now

• Aggregate forecasts are more accurate

Nevertheless, forecasts (or plans, if you prefer) are important management tools when some methods are applied to reduce uncertainty
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Supply Chain

Supply Chain Management – Key Issues

Management

Purchasing

Manufacturing

Distribution

Customer Service/ Sales
High inventories

Low purchase price

Few changeovers Stable schedules Long run lengths

Multiple vendors

Low inventories Low transportation

High service levels Regional stocks

SOURCE

MAKE

DELIVER

SELL

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Supply Chain

Supply Chain Management – Key Issues
ISSUE Network Planning

Management

CONSIDERATIONS
• Warehouse locations and capacities • Plant locations and production levels • Transportation flows between facilities to minimize cost and time • How should inventory be managed? • Why does inventory fluctuate and what strategies minimize this? • Impact of volume discount and revenue sharing • Pricing strategies to reduce order-shipment variability • Selection of distribution strategies (e.g., direct ship vs. cross-docking) • How many cross-dock points are needed? • Cost/Benefits of different strategies • • • • How can integration with partners be achieved? What level of integration is best? What information and processes can be shared? What partnerships should be implemented and in which situations?

Inventory Control Supply Contracts Distribution Strategies

Integration and Strategic Partnering

Outsourcing & Procurement Strategies Product Design

• What are our core supply chain capabilities and which are not? • Does our product design mandate different outsourcing approaches? • Risk management • How are inventory holding and transportation costs affected by product design? • How does product design enable mass customization?

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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management Operations Strategies
STRATEGY Make to Stock WHEN TO CHOOSE
standardized products, relatively predictable demand customized products, many variations many variations on finished product; infrequent demand

BENEFITS
Low manufacturing costs; meet customer demands quickly Customization; reduced inventory; improved service levels Low inventory levels; wide range of product offerings; simplified planning Enables response to specific customer requirements

Make to Order Configure to Order

Engineer to Order

complex products, unique customer specifications

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Supply Chain

Supply Chain Management – Benefits

Management

• A 1997 Integrated Supply Chain Benchmarking Survey of 331 firms found significant benefits to integrating the supply chain

Delivery Performance Inventory Reduction Fulfillment Cycle Time Forecast Accuracy Overall Productivity Lower Supply-Chain Costs Improved Capacity Realization

16%-28% Improvement 25%-60% Improvement 30%-50% Improvement 25%-80% Improvement 10%-16% Improvement 25%-50% Improvement 10%-20% Improvement

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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Imperatives for Success

• View the supply chain as a strategic asset and a differentiator

Wal-Mart’s partnership with Proctor & Gamble to automatically replenish inventory Dell’s innovative direct-to-consumer sales and build-to-order manufacturing

• Create unique supply chain configurations that align with your company’s strategic objectives
– – – – – – – – Operations strategy Outsourcing strategy Channel strategy Customer service strategy Asset network Forecasting Collaboration Integration
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Supply chain configuration components

• Reduce uncertainty

Supply Chain Management

Value of Information and SCM

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Supply Chain Management

Information In The Supply Chain
Plan
Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Distribution Centers

Retailer

Source

Make

Deliver

Sell

Order Lead Time Delivery Lead Time

Production Lead Time

Each facility further away from actual customer demand must make forecasts of demand Lacking actual customer buying data, each facility bases its forecasts on ‘downstream’ orders, which are more variable than actual demand To accommodate variability, inventory levels are overstocked thus increasing inventory carrying costs

It’s estimated that the typical pharmaceutical company supply chain carries over 100 days of product to accommodate uncertainty

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Supply Chain Management

Taming the Bullwhip

Four critical methods for reducing the Bullwhip effect:
• Reduce uncertainty in the supply chain
– –

Centralize demand information Keep each stage of the supply chain provided with up-to-date customer demand information More frequent planning (continuous real-time planning the goal) Every-day-low-price strategies for stable demand patterns
Use cross-docking to reduce order lead times Use EDI techniques to reduce information lead times

• Reduce variability in the supply chain

– –

• Reduce lead times

• Eliminate the bullwhip through strategic partnerships
– – Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) Collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR)
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Supply Chain Management

Methods for Improving Forecasts
Judgment Methods

Market Research Analysis

Panels of Experts • • • • Internal experts External experts Domain experts Delphi technique Accurate Forecasts Causal Analysis

• Market testing • Market surveys • Focus groups

Time-Series Methods

• • • •

Moving average Exponential smoothing Trend analysis Seasonality analysis

• Relies on data other than that being predicted • Economic data, commodity data, etc.

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Supply Chain Management

The Evolving Supply Chain

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Supply Chain

Supply Chain Integration – Push Strategies
• Classical manufacturing supply chain strategy • Manufacturing forecasts are long-range
– – – Orders from retailers’ warehouses

Management

• Longer response time to react to marketplace changes
Unable to meet changing demand patterns Supply chain inventory becomes obsolete as demand for certain products disappears

• Increased variability (Bullwhip effect) leading to:
– – – – – – Large inventory safety stocks Larger and more variably sized production batches Unacceptable service levels Inventory obsolescence How is demand determined? Peak? Average? How is transportation capacity determined?

• Inefficient use of production facilities (factories)

• Examples: Auto industry, large appliances, others?
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Supply Chain

Supply Chain Integration – Pull Strategies
• Production and distribution are demand-driven
– Coordinated with true customer demand

Management

• None or little inventory held

Only in response to specific orders
POS data

• Fast information flow mechanisms • Decreased lead times • Decreased retailer inventory • Decreased variability in the supply chain and especially at manufacturers • Decreased manufacturer inventory • More efficient use of resources • More difficult to take advantage of scale opportunities • Examples: Dell, Amazon

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Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Integration – Push/Pull Strategies

• Hybrid of “push” and “pull” strategies to overcome disadvantages of each • Early stages of product assembly are done in a “push” manner
– Partial assembly of product based on aggregate demand forecasts (which are more accurate than individual product demand forecasts) Uncertainty is reduced so safety stock inventory is lower

• Final product assembly is done based on customer demand for specific product configurations • Supply chain timeline determines “push-pull boundary”
“Generic” Product
Push Strategy Raw Materials
PushPull Boundary

“Customized” Product
Pull Strategy End Consumer 33

Supply Chain Timeline

Supply Chain Management

Choosing Between Push/Pull Strategies
Pull High Industries where:
• Customization is High • Demand is uncertain • Scale economies are Low

Industries where:
• Demand is uncertain • Scale economies are High • Low economies of scale

Where do the following industries fit in this model:

Demand Uncertainty

Computer equipment Industries where:
• Uncertainty is low • Low economies of scale • Push-pull supply chain

Furniture

Industries where:
• Standard processes are the norm • Demand is stable • Scale economies are High

• Automobile? • Aircraft? • Fashion? • Petroleum refining? • Pharmaceuticals? • Biotechnology? • Medical Devices?

Books, CD’s Push Low Low Pull

Grocery, Beverages High Push 34

Economies of Scale

Supply Chain Management

Characteristics of Push, Pull and Push/Pull Strategies
PUSH
Objective Complexity Focus Lead Time Processes
Minimize Cost

PULL
Maximize Service Level

High

Low

Resource Allocation

Responsiveness

Long

Short

Supply Chain Planning

Order Fulfillment

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Supply Chain

Supply Chain Collaboration – What Is It?

Management

• Many different definitions depending on perspective • The means by which companies within the supply chain work together towards mutual goals by sharing
– – – – – – –
– –

Ideas Information Processes Knowledge Information Risks Rewards
Accelerate entry into new markets Changes the relationship between cost/value/profit equation

• Why collaborate?

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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Collaboration

• Cornerstone of effective SCM • The focus of many of today’s SCM initiatives • The only method that has the potential to eliminate or minimize Retailers the Bullwhip effect
Suppliers

Synchronized Production Scheduling Collaborative Product Development

Manufacturer

Collaborative Demand Planning

Distributors/ Wholesalers

Collaborative Logistics Planning •Transportation services •Distribution center services

Logistics Providers

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Supply Chain Management

Benefits of Supply Chain Collaboration

Seller
• Reduced inventory • Increased revenue • Lower order management costs • Higher Gross Margin • Better forecast accuracy • Better allocation of promotional budgets

MATERIAL SUPPLIERS
• • • • Reduced inventory Lower warehousing costs Lower material acquisition costs Fewer stockout conditions • • • • •

SERVICE SUPPLIERS
Lower freight costs Faster and more reliable delivery Lower capital costs Reduced depreciation Lower fixed costs

• Improved customer service • More efficient use of human resources

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Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Collaboration Spectrum
Extensive Not Viable
Synchronized Collaboration

• The green arrow describes increasing complexity and sophistication of:
– – – – – – Information systems Systems infrastructure Decision support systems Planning mechanisms Information sharing Process understanding

Extent of Collaboration

Coordinated Collaboration

Cooperative Collaboration

Limited

Transactional Collaboration

Low Return

• Higher levels of collaboration imply the need for both trading partners to have equivalent (or close) levels of supply chain maturity • Synchronized collaboration demands joint planning, R&D and sharing of information and processing models
– Movement to real-time customer demand information throughout the supply chain

Many Number of Relationships

Few

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Supply Chain Management

Successful Supply Chain Collaboration
• • • •

Try to collaborate internally before you try external collaboration Help your partners to work with you Share the savings Start small (a limited number of selected partners) and stay focused on what you want to achieve in the collaboration • Advance your IT capabilities only to the level that you expect your partners to manage • Put a comprehensive metrics program in place that allows you to monitor your partners’ performance • Make sure people are kept part of the equation
– – Systems do not replace people Make sure your organization is populated with competent professionals who’ve done this before

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Supply Chain Management

Emerging Best Practices in SCM Strategy

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Supply Chain Management

The SCOR Model

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Supply Chain Management

Collaboration and the SCOR Model

• The Supply-Chain Council (SCC) is a global, not-for-profit trade association open to all types of organizations
– – 800 world-wide members Multi-industry

• SCC sponsors and supports educational programs including conferences, retreats, benchmarking studies, and development of the Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model (SCOR), the process reference model designed to improve users' efficiency and productivity • Promotes research and thought leadership in the supply chain management area • Adoption of common standards for reference to process, information and material goods flows is essential to enable trading partner collaboration

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Supply

Process Reference Models

Chain Management

• Process reference models integrate the well-known concepts of business process reengineering, benchmarking, and process measurement into a cross-functional framework
Business Process Reengineering Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state Benchmarking Best Practices Analysis Process Reference Model Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-inclass” results Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-in-class” results Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “best-inclass” performance

Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “bestin-class” performance

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Supply Chain

SCOR Structure

Management

Plan

Deliver Return

Source Return

Make

Deliver Return

Source Return

Make

Deliver Return

Source

Make

Deliver Return

Source Return

Return

Suppliers’ Supplier

Supplier
Internal or External

Your Company

Customer
Internal or External

Customer’s Customer

SCOR Model
Building Block Approach
Processes Best Practice Metrics Technology
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Supply Chain

SCOR 7.0 Model Structure
Plan
P2 Plan Source P1 Plan Supply Chain P3 Plan Make P4 Plan Deliver

Management

P5 Plan Returns

Suppliers

Source
S1 Source Stocked Products S2 Source MTO Products

Make
M1 Make-to-Stock

Deliver
D1 Deliver Stocked Products

M2 Make-to-Order

D2 Deliver MTO Products

S3 Source ETO Products

M3 Engineer-to-Order

D3 Deliver ETO Products

D4 Deliver Retail Products

Return Source

Return Deliver

Enable
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Customers

Supply

SCOR Implementation Roadmap
Analyze Basis of Competition Operations Strategy
•Competitive Performance Requirements •Performance Metrics •Supply Chain Scorecard •Scorecard Gap Analysis •Project Plan

Chain Management

SCOR Level 1

Configure supply chain

Material Flow

•AS IS Geographic Map •AS IS Thread Diagram •Design Specifications •TO BE Thread Diagram •TO BE Geographic Map

SCOR Level 2

Align Performance Levels, Practices, and Systems

Information and Work Flow

•AS IS Level 2, 3, and 4 Maps •Disconnects •Design Specifications •TO BE Level 2, 3, and 4 Maps

SCOR Level 3

Implement supply chain Processes and Systems

Develop, Test, and Roll Out

•Organization •Technology •Process •People

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Supply

Examples of SCOR Adoptions

Chain Management

• Consumer Foods – Project Time (Start to Finish) – 3 months – Investment - $50,000 – 1st Year Return - $4,300,000 • Electronics – Project Time (Start to Finish) – 6 months – Investment - $3-5 Million – Projected Return on Investment - $ 230 Million • Software and Planning – SAP bases APO key performance indicators (KPIs) on SCOR Model • Aerospace and Defense – SCOR Benchmarking and use of SCOR metrics to specify performance criteria and provide basis for contracts / purchase orders
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Supply Chain Management

The SCOR Model As Context for This Course
• Pharmaceutical sales and marketing activities have their own set of logistics related activities that can be fully described using the Segment SCOR model Analysis,
Plan

Marketing Planning

Patients

Pharmacies, Hospitals, Doctors
Deliver Source Make Deliver Return Return Return

Source Return

Make

Deliver
Source Make Deliver Source Return Return

Return

Return

Suppliers’ Supplier

Supplier

Your Company

Customer

Customer’s Customer

Internal or External

Internal or External

Marketing Data Suppliers

Doctors, Hospitals

Marketing and Sales Functions

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Supply Chain Management

The SCOR Model As Context for This Course
• Two interrelated “supply chains” work together to deliver drugs to market:
– – The Marketing and Sales “supply chain” which is principally information-based The Logistics supply chain which is principally product-based
Plan

Sales

Deliver Return

Source Return

Make

Deliver Return

Source

Make

Deliver
Source Make Deliver Return Source Return

Return

Return

Return

Suppliers’ Supplier

Supplier

Your Company

Customer

Customer’s Customer

Plan
Internal or External Internal or External

Manufacturing & Distribution

Deliver Return

Source Return

Make

Deliver Return

Source

Make

Deliver
Source Make Deliver Return Source Return

Return

Return

Return

Suppliers’ Supplier

Supplier

Your Company

Customer

Customer’s Customer

50
Internal or External Internal or External

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