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Andreea-Cristina Ardelean English-French, II NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION BODY LANGUAGE

Communication is the most vital element of any organization, is the activity of conveying meaningful information. There are three methods of communication: Written communication Verbal communication Non verbal communication Non verbal communication is a term used to describe any method of transferring information without words -it may be intentionate and unconscious. The majority of our communication is non verbal: it is also called silent language and plays a key role in everyday life. Types of non verbal communication: facial expression and eye contact body movements and posture gestures touch space voice smell dress The most important form of non verbal communication is represented by body language, which consists of: body posture, gestures, facial expressions and eye contact. Body language is more than body positions and movements, is how we position our bodies, our facial expression, our breath, how we touch ourselves and others. ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER THAN WORDS!

A note about eyes looking right and left... Signal looking right (generally) looking left (generally) looking right and up looking right sideways looking right and down looking left and up looking left sideways looking left down direct eye contact (when speaking) direct eye contact (when listening) widening eyes rubbing eye or eyes eye shrug pupils dilated (enlarged) blinking frequently blinking infrequently eyebrow raising (eyebrow 'flash') Possible meaning(s) creating, fabricating, guessing, lying, storytelling recalling, remembering, retrieving 'facts' visual imagining, fabrication, lying imagining sounds accessing feelings recalling images truthfulness recalling or remembering sounds self-talking, rationalizing honesty - or faked honesty attentiveness, interest, attraction interest, appeal, invitation disbelief, upset, or tiredness frustration attraction, desire excitement, pressure various greeting, recognition, acknowledgement

winking

friendly acknowledgement, complicity (e.g., sharing a secret or joke)

The mouth is associated with very many body language signals, which is not surprising given its functions - obviously speech, but also those connected with infant feeding, which connects psychologically through later life with feelings of security or love . Signal pasted smile tight-lipped smile twisted smile bottom lip jutting out laughter smile - head tilted, looking up dropped-jaw smile forced laughter teeth grinding chewing gum smoking Possible meaning(s) faked smile secrecy or withheld feelings mixed feelings or sarcasm upset relaxation playfulness, teasing, coy faked smile nervousness, cooperation tension, suppression tension, suppression self-comforting

chewing pen or pencil self-comforting tongue poke pursing lips hand clamped over mouth nail biting disapproval, rejection thoughtfulness, or upset suppression, holding back, shock frustration, suppression

The head is very significant in body language. It tends to lead and determine general body direction, but it is also vital and vulnerable being where our brain is, so the head is used a lot in directional (likes and dislikes) body language and in defensive (selfprotection) body language too. Signal head nodding slow head nodding fast head nodding head held up head held high head tilted to one side head head head head head head Possible meaning(s) agreement attentive listening hurry up, impatience neutrality, alertness superiority, fearlessness, arrogance non-threatening, submissive, thoughtfulness interest, positive reaction criticism, admonishment disagreement strong disagreement negative, disinterested

head forward, upright head / body head tilted downward head head shaking pronounced head shaking head head

head down (in head response to a speaker or proposition) head down (while performing an activity) chin up active listening head

defeat, tiredness

head head / face

pride, defiance, confidence attention, interest, attraction

Arms are quite reliable indicators of mood and feeling, especially when interpreted with other body language. Signal crossed arms (folded arms) crossed arms with clenched fists gripping own upper arms Possible meaning(s) defensiveness, reluctance hostile defensiveness insecurity

one arm across body nervousness clasping other arm by side (female) arms held behind body with hands clasped confidence, authority

handbag held in front nervousness of body (female) holding papers across nervousness chest (mainly male) adjusting cuff, watchstrap, tie, etc., using an arm across the body arms/hands covering genital region (male) holding a drink in front of body with both hands nervousness

nervousness nervousness

seated, holding drink nervousness on one side with hand

from other side touching or scratching shoulder using arm across body nervousness

Body language involving hands is extensive. This is because hands are such expressive parts of the body, and because hands interact with other parts of the body. Signal palm(s) up or open palm(s) up, fingers pointing up palm(s) down palm up and moving up and down as if weighing hand(s) on heart (left side of chest) finger pointing (at a person) Possible meaning(s) submissive, truthful, honesty, appealing defensive, instruction to stop authority, strength, dominance striving for or seeking an answer seeking to be believed aggression, threat, emphasis

finger tips and thoughtfulness, looking for thumbs touching each or explaining connections other on opposite or engagement hands ('steepling') index finger and thumb touching at tips thumb(s) up thumbs down rubbing hands satisfaction, 'OK'

positive approval, agreement, all well disapproval, failure anticipation, relish

together touching nose, while speaking lying or exaggeration

hand(s) clamped over suppression, shock mouth picking nose day-dreaming, inattentive, socially disconnected, stress rejection of or resistance to something evaluation, tiredness or boredom evaluation

hands clamped on ears hand supporting chin or side of face chin resting on thumb, index finger pointing up against face hand(s) on hip(s) hands in pockets handshake - palm down handshake - palm up handshake - both hands handshake - equal and vertical pumping handshake weak handshake firm handshake handshake with arm clasp

confidence, readiness, availability disinterest, boredom dominance submission, accommodating seeking to convey trustworthiness and honesty, seeking to control non-threatening, relaxed enthusiasm various outward confidence seeking control, paternalism

Legs and feet body language is more difficult to control consciously or fake than some body language of arms and hands and face. Legs and feet can therefore provide good clues to feelings and moods, if you know the signs. Signal Possible meaning(s)

leg direction, sitting - interest, attentiveness general (according to direction) uncrossed legs, sitting - general parallel legs together, sitting (mainly female) openness properness

crossed legs, sitting - caution, disinterest general crossing legs, sitting - interest or disinterest in specific change direction of upper crossed knee open legs, sitting (mainly male) legs crossed, standing (scissor stance) foot forward, standing arrogance, combative, sexual posturing insecurity or submission or engagement directed towards dominant group member

Proxemics - personal space - is defined as (the study of) the amount of space that people find comfortable between themselves and others. Personal space dimensions depend notably on the individual, cultural and living background, the situation, and relationships, however some general parameters apply to most people, which for Western societies, are shown below. Zone Close intimate Intimate Distance 0-15cm 15-45cm For lovers, and physical touching relationships physical touching

relationships Personal Social- consultative Public 45-120cm 1.2-3.6m 3.6m+ family and close friends non-touch interaction, social, business no interaction, ignoring