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3rd International Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering

ICECE 2004, 28-30 December 2004, Dhaka, Bangladesh


M. Fahad*, M. Hasan*, T. Husna*, Md. Rafiqul Haider* and Mohammed Nazrul Islam*
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and
Technology, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh, E-mail:

ABSTRACT (SLM) causing a poor utilization of space bandwidth

A new weighted reference based class associative product. Also the discrimination between target and
joint transform correlation technique has been non-target object is not so high.
proposed for multiple target detection process.
Different channels are used for each member of the In this paper, a simplified class-associative technique
class to get the correlation output and then the is proposed where weighted versions of different
different channel outputs are summed up to get the member images of a class are processed in different
final correlation output. The phase encoding and channels using the SPFJTC technique. Here spatial
phase-shifting principle is used to eliminate the false plane weighting is used instead of Fourier plane
alarms and other extraneous signals. Finally, a new weighting which eliminates the problem of perfect
post processing technique is employed to enhance alignment of filter in the Fourier domain. In earlier
the discrimination ratio between target and non- methods, every time there is a change in the member
target objects. Simulation results are presented to of a class object, it requires a corresponding change
verify the efficiency of the proposed method. in the filter fabrication and weight value in Fourier
domain, and also perfect position of the filter in
Fourier plane. In case of spatial plane weighting this
1. INFORMATION problem can be easily eliminated and real time
operation can thus be achieved. Then all the
Optical pattern recognition may be broadly correlation outputs of different channels are
classified into two categories; namely, VanderLugt combined in a single output plane to obtain the final
type filter-based correlation [1] and joint transform output. Here the position of reference image in
correlation (JTC) [2]. A VanderLugt type correlator different joint images is kept fixed to avoid
requires a priori fabrication of the filter used in the overlapping of desired autocorrelation peaks of
correlation process, whereas the JTC technique can different channels. Finally by varying the weighting
be operated at the video frame rates [3]. However, a factor of different member images, almost equal
classical JTC suffers from poor discrimination, correlation peaks can be obtained in the output plane
strong zero-order peak and wide correlation width.
Among the various modifications of JTC technique,
the shifted phase-encoded fringe adjusted JTC 2. ANALYSIS
(SPFJTC) is found to be the superior one in terms of
producing single sharp delta-like correlation peak In a classical JTC, the reference image and input
for each target object with high discrimination scene image are placed side-by-side by using an
capability [3]. SLM to form a joint image. For class-associative
target detection, weighted reference images of
For classification of objects from a given class, different members of the class are placed in different
different filter-based techniques have been proposed joint images to process them in parallels in the
utilizing phase information from the Fourier respective channels. Let r1(x,y) and r2(x,y) represent
transform of each object in that class [4]. However, the two member images in a class, respectively, and
most of the existing class-associative JTC t1(x,y−y1), t2(x,y−y2) …... tn(x,y−yn) represent
techniques produce a pair of correlation peaks for different target images in the input scene. Then the
each target object and utilize at most 50% of the two joint image formed in two channels can be
input and output plane spatial light modulator expressed as

ISBN 984-32-1804-4 426

f11 ( x, y ) = α r1 ( x, y + y0 ) ⊗ φ ( x, y )
f1 ( x, y ) = α r1 ( x, y − y0 ) + ∑ ti ( x − xi , y − yi ) (1)
n (10)
+ ∑ ti ( x − xi , y − yi )
i =1
f2 ( x, y ) = β r2 ( x, y − y0 ) + ∑ti ( x − xi , y − yi ) (2) i =1
i =1 f12 ( x, y ) = −α r1 ( x, y + y0 ) ⊗ φ ( x, y )
where α+β=1. The value of α and β can be varied n (11)
depending on the energy content of the power + ∑ ti ( x − xi , y − yi )
spectra of the reference images to achieve equal i =1

correlation peaks. The corresponding joint power The JPS of these joint images are then subtracted
spectrum (JPS) of first and second joint images from one another and the resultant JPS is again
|F1(u,v)|2 and |F2(u,v)|2, respectively, are given by multiplied by the same phase mask and the FAF
n filter.
F1 (u , v ) = α 2 R1 (u , v ) + ∑ Ti (u , v )
[ ]
2 2 2

P1 (u , v ) = F11 (u , v ) − F12 (u , v ) Φ (u , v )
2 2
i =1
n Ti (u , v ) R1 (u , v ) Ti (u , v ) R1 (u , v ) (12)
+ 2α ∑ n
i =1 × cos[Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) − Φ r1 (u , v ) − vy0 ] = 4α ∑ Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) − ψ (u , v )
i =1 × cos   Φ(u , v )
Ti (u , v ) Tk (u , v ) − Φ r1 (u , v ) − vy0
n n
+ ∑∑ 
× cos[Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) − Φ tk (u , v ) − (uxk − vyk )]
PF1 (u , v ) = FAF1 (u , v ) × P1 (u , v )
i =1 k =1
k ≠i

(3) B(u , v )
n =
F2 (u , v ) = α R2 (u , v ) + ∑ Ti (u , v ) A(u , v ) + R1 (u , v )
2 2 2 2 2

Ti (u , v ) R1 (u , v )
i =1
n Ti (u , v ) R2 (u , v )
− 2α ∑ exp[ j (Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) − Φ r1 (u , v ) − vy0 )]
× cos[Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) − Φ r 2 (u , v ) − vy0 ]
i =1 × 2α ∑  
i =1 ×    Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) 
n n Ti (u , v ) Tk (u , v ) + exp  − j    × Φ 2
(u , v )
+ ∑∑   − Φ (u , v ) − vy  
i =1 k =1 × cos[Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) − Φ tk (u , v ) − (uxk + vyk )]    r 1 0   
k ≠i
(4) In this paper, B(u,v)=1 and A(u,v)≈10-4 are chosen to
In equations (3) and (4), the third term gives the eliminate the pole problem and to reduce the effect
desired correlation peaks, while others produce of noise component in the correlation plane.
unnecessary peaks and false alarms. Here the shifted Similarly the fringe adjusted power spectrum for the
phase encoded fringe adjusted JTC (SPFJTC) is second weighted reference image is given by
employed to get single peak per target and to
PF2 (u , v ) = FAF2 (u , v ) × P2 (u , v )
eliminate extraneous signals. For this purpose, a
phase mask Φ(u,v), of random phase distribution B(u , v )
A(u , v ) + R2 (u , v )
Ψ(u,v) from −π to π, is used in the Fourier plane.
Φ(u , v) = exp[ jΨ (u , v)] (5) Ti (u , v ) R2 (u , v )
Fourier transformation of the reference image and its n exp[ j (Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) − Φ r 2 (u , v ) − vy0 )]
1800 phase shifted version are multiplied by the × 2β ∑  
i =1 ×    Φ ti (u , v ) − (uxi + vyi ) 
phase mask and then inverse Fourier transformation + exp − j  − Φ (u , v ) − vy  × Φ (u , v ) 

yields the corresponding phase encoded reference    r2 0  

images. (14)
S11 =| α R1(u, v) | exp[ jφr1(u, v) + jvy0 ]×Φ(u, v) (6) Here for class associative target detection, each
reference image of the class is correlated with the
s11 = α r1 ( x, y + y0 ) ⊗ φ ( x, y ) (7) input scene or the target images to get two
S12 =| α R1 (u, v) | exp[ jφr1 (u, v) + jvy0 ] correlation plane outputs. Finally the correlation
(8) plane outputs are summed up to obtain the final
× exp[ jπ ] × Φ (u , v) output.
s12 = −α r1 ( x, y + y0 ) ⊗ φ ( x, y ) (9)
where ⊗ denotes the convolution operation. These Finally a post processing technique is incorporated
two phase-encoded reference images are then to equalize the target peaks and minimize the non-
combined with the input scene image to form two target peaks and noise. The correlation output is
joint images as given by

multiplied by the a filter whose characteristic technique performs well and the proposed filter
equation is given by further improve its performance.

F = exp[− ( max_ corr − shift )] (15)

where, ‘max_corr’ is the maximum peak of the

correlation output plane and the parameter ‘shift’ is
determined by trial and error basis. The ‘shift’
parameter is used to make the target correlation
peaks almost equal whose magnitudes are greater
than the ‘shift’ parameter and diminish the non-
target peaks whose values are less than the
parameter ‘shift’. Thus the filter ensures the better
discrimination in the output plane.
Figure 1: Joint image of the first channel.

Performance of the proposed technique is
investigated by computer simulation using binary
images of English characters. The letters ‘E’ and ‘M’
are used as the selected targets and members of a
class. In the joint images shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2,
the characters ‘E’ and ‘M’ placed on the left side
represent the reference images of the first and second
channels, respectively, and the characters ‘E’, ‘T’,
‘H’ and ‘M’ on the right side of both channels
Figure 2: Joint image of the second channel.
represent the input scene images. Figures 3 and 4
show the correlation outputs of the first and second
channels, respectively, using the FAF technique. The
weights used in the first and second channels with
the reference images of the class are α and β,
respectively, to get equal correlation peak in the
combined correlation output plane, where α=0.52
and β=1−α. Fig. 5 shows the combined correlation
output after linear addition of the correlation outputs
of the two channels. From Fig.s 3, 4 and 5 it is
evident that due to the addition of correlation outputs
of two channels, the non-target and noise peaks
increase in the combined correlation output. Figure 3: FJTC correlation output of first channel.
To overcome these limitations, a filter is proposed
that minimizes the non-target peaks and noise as well
as equalizes non-equal target peaks if any. Figure 6
shows the correlation output after filtering where
distinct correlation peaks corresponding to the two
targets and reduced noise can be observed.

Table I depicts the detection performance of the two

class-associative target detection processes using FAF
in terms of correlation peak intensity (CPI) and peak
to clutter ratio (PCR). PCR is defined as the ratio of
the desired target peak to the maximum non-target Figure 4: FJTC correlation output of second channel
peak. From table I it is obvious that the proposed

An improved multiple target detection technique
with better utilization of space bandwidth product is
proposed which employs different channel joint
transform correlation technique. In each channel one
member of the defined class is phase shifted and
phase-encoded to correlate with the target images.
Finally the different channel correlation outputs are
added to get the correlation plane output. This
technique produces a single correlation peak per
target and shows high discrimination for multiple
Figure 5: Combined correlation output. target detection even in noisy conditions by suitably
adjusting the FAF and the proposed filter

This research is supported by Bangladesh University
of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-
1000, Bangladesh.

Figure 6: Combined correlation output of FJTC

after filtering.

Table 1: Detection performance of the two class- REFERENCES

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