IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 8, No.
2, May 1993
417
O N MODELLING IRON CORE NONLINEARITIES
Washington L. A. Neves Student Member, IEEE Hermann W. Dommel Fellow, IEEE
Department of Electrical Engineering University of British Columbia Vancouver, B. C., Canada V6T 124
Abstract
An algorithm is presented for the computation of the saturation characteristics of transformer iron cores based on supplied conventional V,,,  I,,, curves and n d o a d losses at rated frequency. Laboratory measurements on a steel sample were carried out. It is shown that the iron core losses are a nonlinear function of the applied voltage. Taking these losses into account improves the nonlinear fluxcurrent characteristic.
1
Introduction
The simulation of electromagnetic transients in power systems is essential for insulation coordination studies and for the adequate design of equipment and its protection. To carry out these studies on digital computers, mathematical models are needed for the various components. Models for transformers and reactors are especially important for studying inrush currents, ferroresonance, harmonics and subharmonics. In these types of studies, iron core nonlinearities play an important role. The major nonlinear effects in iron cores are:
0
Saturation Eddy Currents Hysteresis
0
0
92 W 1768 PWRS A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Power System Engineering Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE/PES 1992 Winter Ueeting, New York, New York, January 26  30, 1992. Uanuscript submitted August 28, 1991; made available for printing December 23, 1991.
Saturation is the predominant effect in power transformers, followed by eddy current and hysteresis effects[l]. Thus, the instantaneous saturation characteristic, which gives flux linkage A as a function of current i , is an essential part for modelling the iron core nonlinearities. Santesmases et al.[2] represent transformer cores by a simple equivalent circuit consisting of a nonlinear inductance (A  it curve) in parallel with a nonlinear resistance (v  i, curve). These elements are obtained from functions derived from the dynamic hysteresis loops. This is essentially the same model proposed by Chua and Stromsmoe[3]. The resistance in this model accounts for the energy losses due to the loops. Chua and Stromsmoe did make comparisons between simulations and laboratory tests for a small audio transformer, and for a supermdloy core inductor as well. A family of flux current loops for 60, 120 and 180 Hz sinusoidal excitations of various amplitudes were obtained as well as minor dynamic hysteresis loops. The agreement between simulations and measurements was very good. In this paper we use the same model proposed in references [2] and [3]. However, the nonlinear parameters are calculated in a simpler way directly from the transformer test data. The nonlinear resistance (piecewise linear v  i, curve) is found from the noload (excitation) losses, and this information is then used to compute the current through the nonlinear inductance and to construct the piecewise linear A  il curve. Transformer manufacturers usually supply the saturation curves in the form of rms voltages as a function of rms currents. Numerical methods have been used for some time to convert these V,,,I,,, curves into peak flux  peak current curves[4,5]. As shown in this paper, these methods can be modified to take the iron core losses into account, thereby producing the nonlinear inductance as well as the parallel nonlinear resistance.
08858950/93$03.00 0 1992 IEEE
.. which would produce these voltage dependent noload losses.. . characteristic. .. Vrmb. the total r m s current It. curve (Section
2. and subsequently compute their rms values I. assume that the applied voltage is V. .. r ma . curve from the given noload losses at rated frequency. as shown in Figure 2.418
2
Saturation Curves
Figure l(a) shows a voltage source connected to a transformer whose excitation branch is represented by a nonlinear inductance in parallel with a nonlinear resistance. and A . From these data points we want to construct a piecewise linear resistance curve.
. the winding resistances and leakage inductances are ignored.1
Computation of the w .. curves... Vrm. For the construction of the v . of the current if(t) through the nonlinear inductance from I. Pz.i.. (c) Nonlinear A . .
0
P
2.
2. .i. and X . P..
obtain the rms values I~. .i.i...i Curve
Let us assume that the noload losses PI . For instance. . before describing the reverse problem of constructing the v .Average Power curve.il (Section 2.. respectively). and varies sinusoidally as a function of time. compute the peak values of the inductive current i l ( t ) point by point from their rms values and Tms voltages.
0
0
The conversion algorithm works as follows:
1.1):
0
compute the peak values of the current i. . are available as a function of the applied voltage Vrmdt.
v2(d) = V. with
a
Figure 2: V . (b) Nonlinear w ... as shown in Figure 3(b). and the applied voltage v ( t ) .ir characteristic. Their nonlinear characteristics are computed according to the following assumptions:
0
I
+
the v . . as shown in Figure 3(a).. the noload test is performed with a sinusoidal voltage source. For the construction of the X ..i.i. ( t )point by point from the noload losses. Let us first explain how the noload losses can be obtained from a given v . sin d
(1)
.2):
0
Figure 1: (a) Voltage source connected t o transformer. curve.i.i curves (Figures l(b) and f l(c)) are symmetric with respect to the origin (& and Lk are the slopes of segment k of the v .
. . .on the horizontal axis is straightforward. (b) vi. e k . For the first linear segment in the w . curve to be computed. .VZ .. .. . t o 8 = it can be seen that :
5. .... . in the linear case. This will give us the curve &(e) over 1/4 of a cycle. .
For the following segments ( I C 2 2).(e)de.. . (c) Output current. The only unknown in equation (5) i the slope Rk in the last segment. it is sufficient From Figure 3.i.7
i
In general. 0 . with the applied k voltage . k
( 3)
for IC = 1 . Then
Figure 3: (a) Sinusoidal voltage input signal.Vl)/R2 if el 5 6 5
5
. Since PI = V. to observe 1/4 of a cycle. 3 . constructing the w ..
(5)
The "break points" 81. . either graphically (as indicated by the dotted lines in Figure 3). . .
(6)
for j = 1 .. &(e) can be found for each .(e) through the nonlinear w . . Gom which the noload losses are found as
P=
'Js
s o
w(e)i. 2 . . on the vertical axis of Figure 3(a) is simply a rescaling procedure from rms to peak values.. .& 2 Because of the symmetry of the v . The average s power can therefore be rewritten in the form
.82. curve from the given noload losses.1. V. characteristic. . m.l in equation (5) are known from
0.e.. or with equations. .i.. V = v?77lSk h.(e) = v sin e (Figure 3a).419
where V = V.. = arcsin(Vj/Vk).. . the calculation of the peak current Irk. .. i. I. we must use the power definition of equation (2). 2 .
~ .
(2)
Let us now address the reverse problem. ..i.i. . curve with respect to the origin.k . . curve.. Obtaining the points V1.
if 0 < 81.
is computed from
In this fashion. Let us now compute the peak values of the inductive current. blk and cl.
For the following segments (k 2 2). Rk is then easily computed and Irkis calculated from
For the first linear segment in the X .
This computation is done segment by segment..
with the resistive current I. using equation (9). it is assumed Xk(0) = Xk sine. known.it curve. The same procedure n applied in Figure 3 for the computation of the .. its rrns value is calculated as well because it is needed later for the construction of the X .i.ms known from the transformer test data.it curve computation.. is found from the definition of the rms value. already computed from equation (10) and the total current It.ir curve. are converted to peak fluxes and the rrns values of the current through the nonlinear inductance are converted t o peak values. similarly to the case of the v .it curve symmetric with respect to the origin. curve. Whenever a point Irk been found for the horizonhas tal axis in Figure 3(b). br. This has the advantage that the limits of integration in equation (14) are the same as those i equation (5). Y C l k = 0. starting with I.. their rms values are evaluated. we have'
Here.. owing to the fact that the voltage (or flux) is assumed to be sinusoidal and the X ..i.il curve
with constants ark.ir curve is computed using the rms current information from the U .420
with a.
The peak current I/. Peak voltages . It can be shown that for sinusoidal input voltages. curve can then be used for the X . Then.
where w is the angular frequency. and P k known values. Thus.
.. the peak values of the inductive current are computed directly for every segment in the X . and ending with the last point I. and y k = 1/Lk to be computed. Hence. It can be shown that a / .ir curve. then k
The X .. only the last segment (Lk) of equation (14) is unknown. the harmonic components of the resistive current are orthogonal t o their respective harmonic components of the inductive current (see Appendix A)..
3
Comparisons Between Experiments and Simulations
Laboratory experiments were performed with a silicon iron steel core assembled in an Epstein frame[6]. br... br. Since Y must be positive. for computing purposes only.. At first. > 0 and clk < 0.2
Computation of the X . k (15)
yt +
+
2.... Equation (14) can be rewritten in the form 01. it does not matter what the flux phase is.. Here. assuming Xk(0) = Xk sin e. The conversion of peak values of v to flux A is again a rescaling procedure.
'For computation of the Tms value of the inductive current. for each linear segment in the A .i l curve. each segment k. > 0. the peak curfor rents are obtained by evaluating I~I.zr curve com' putation.
06
0.1240 0.1850 1.4223 0.15
0.1514 0.0630 0. curve
.5695 16.ir points connected by straight line segments (the first two columns of Table 11). It can be seen that the computed X .7839 20.4620 2.i.0974 0.9723 1.6537 39.25
Cwrent(A)
Figure 5: Computed v .02
Losses not included 4 Losses included Measured points
06 .il curve is closer to the measured one if we consider the core losses. the initial magnetization curve[7] for the core material was measured as well (Appendix B).8370 4.0785 0.0
1.1057
Noload losses and rrns current at 60 He were measured for different voltage levels (Table I).0858 0.9880 26.ir and X . Figure 4 shows the measured and the calculated points (connected by straight line segments) with and without including the core losses.0579 0.1313 0.0000 0.0252 0.4880 12.0892 0.6357 35.5311 9.5090 1.0100
0.0950 0.00
.1098 0.5819 1.'S)
Current(A)
Figure 4: X .i. Figure 5 shows the computed w . For comparison purposes.8830 2.il curve
&(A)
0.421
0.1484 0.2371
0.0946 0.8497
0.0524 0.0445 0.0000 0.0120 0.5967 33.0544 0. curve (Figure 5) is nonlinear and this may be important when modelling transformers and reactors for transients or harmonic studies.0333 0.2
0.08
0.0
0.4349 0.0251
4.0698 0.3270 29.05
0. and X .04
t
0.1
0.0727 0.2628 0.20
Table 11: Computed
ZI
0.2674 0.0776 0.
0
0.0894 0.6909 0.0321 0.i.1997 0.0599 0. Table I1 shows the computed w .40
08 .il curves
X(F.10
Table I: Laboratory measurements
Losses(W)
0.0000 0.il points (including core losses).0610 0.5004 22. The w .1684 0.
564574. Bonneville
&(e)
= dGsin(6
+ 71)+ & m s i n ( 3 6 + 73) + .
6. Oregon. CT17. 7. 1. Am. 4. C.. + Jsin(n6 + y.ir curves. S..3)
and
ir(6) = bl
COS 6
+ b3
COS 38
(A. they can easily be used for modelling transformers and iron core reactors in electromagnetic transients and harmonic loadflow programs. 1. it produces a nonlinear v .Brazil. pp.7) (A4
= Jas
= JbT
+ + ... 1971.. Lumped Circuit Models for Nonlinear Inductors Exhibiting Hysteresis Loops. Glenn W.
2.
(A.. Mag. A.
5.
Appendix A tween i. New York. il(8) and S
&(e). L. H . The voltage across the transformer terminals and its correspondent flux linkage can be written in the form
5
Acknowledgements
and
The financial support of Mr. b o . + a. Burgwin.
values of i.
+
64. IEEE Trans. W. (A. ... Testing Mats. Nov. Evaluating the we have
I. 4. 0. Washington Neves from the National Research Council CNPq of Brazil and from Universidade Federal da Paraiba.
. No. Swift. Stromsmoe. Mag16. Melville B. = arctan(b.). Power Transformer Core Behavior Under Transient Conditions. IEEE Tkans.
+U:. Basic Electrical Measurements (Section 168). Ayala.
+ . PAS90. J . Ir. .
= &(e) i@). vol. As shown ip the paper. No. . 779796..4)
where n = 1 ./a.. PB . Jose Marti €or valuable discussions on this project. curve as well. + b$ + . and i l

Orthogonality Be
Consider the circuit of Figure l(a).). sin ne.
+ . A Direct Piecewise Linearized Approach to Convert rms Saturation Characteristic to Instantaneous Saturation Curve.i l and v .
Comparisons between measqrements and simulations were made.i . Dommel. Inc. .1941 pp. Santesmases. Proc.5)
3.(B) through the nonlinear resistance and the current I r ( e ) through the nonlinear inductance. curves have been obtained. Portland.e. 1950.
A direct method for the computation of iron core saturation curve (A .
(A. Campina Grande. Once the A . January 1980. 156160.i and A .i l ) has been presented. &(e) . Electromagnetic Transients Program Reference Manual (Section 6 ) . . Due to the odd symmetry of the v .. Permeability with the 25 c m Epstein Frame. pp.. Soc. It is based on the transformer test data.i.. and i l ( 8 ) will have only odd harmonic components in the form
i. Besides the Air curve. J . Proceedings.. Stout. 234240. pp. L.(f?). The authors would also like to thank Dr. Cachero.. August 1986. September/October. S. . G.ir curves can be obtained if losses are inc luded .
respectively. The total current &(e) is then:
&(e)
i. vol.6)
T ~
where 7. S. Measurement of Core Loss and A . on Circuit Theory... with core losses taken into account. . Chua and K . Analytical Approximation of Dynamic Hysteresis Loops and its Application to a Series Ferroresonant Circuit. January 1970. IEE 117. vol. S. 3 . No. Preptice Hall. + bg
U . No 5. V. cos ne. IEEE Trans. more accurate A . Syst. + b.(O) = a1 sin 6 f us sin 36
6
Bibliography
1. H.422
4
Conclusions
Power Administration. 22062210. Prusty and M. is gratefully acknowledged. Let us use Fourier analysis to represent the current i. Power App. . It is a modification of previous methods. ASTEA Vol 41. 1970 pp.
C.Ing. and M. R is set to provide a low current. R is changed to give a slightly greater value of the current in the primary winding and the process is repeated up to the desired limit. Neves was born in Brazil on March 1. + + b:. Brazil. Germany in 1959 and 1962.
U:
(A. From equations (A. Since July 1973 he has been with the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.8) and (A. Canada. Santa Cat arina. Canada.Ing. and S is reversed several times t o assure the sample is in a definite hysteresis cycle (AA' and A'A trajectories of Figure B. He is currently a Ph.9)
respectively.
(~.7). (A.423 and
ItrmS
= Ju!
+ b: + a i + b.
R
Figure B . Munich. respectively. Oregon. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technical University. The secondary winding is connected to a digital waveform analyzer where the voltage waveform is obtained and numerically integrated in order to give the flux linkage across the secondary winding.9). Figure B.
Biographies
Washington L. Domme1 is a Fellow of IEEE and a registered professional engineer in British Columbia. Dommel w a s born in Germany in 1933. l : Initial magnetization curve measurement. The voltage across the secondary winding of the Epstein frame is integrated and the flux difference between AA' is obtained. Vancouver. respectively. Hennann W. A
'I\
Figure B.D candidate at the University of British Columbia.
the core into saturation using alternating current at power frequency and gradually reducing the core excitation to zero. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Universidade Federal da Paraiba in 1979 and 1982. symmetrical hysteresis loop tips for different peak values of magnetization. and Dr.C.2: Hysteresis loop locus. Since November 1985 he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering of Universidade Federal da Paraiba. . The Epstein frame is demagnetized before any measurement is taken.10)
Appendix B . From 1982 to 1985 he was with the Department of Electrical Engineering of Faculdade de Engenharia de Joinville. 1957.Sc. After demagnetization. After the first reading. This is accomplished by driving
. Campina Grande . Canada. + .PB. Dr. power supply through a reversing switch SIammeter and a decade resistance box R. This value is divided by two and segment O A is plotted.l is the circuit used to measure it. the first reading takes place.2). The magnetizing winding of the Epstein frame (primary winding) is connected t o a D. . He received the Dip1.Measurement of the Initial Magnetization Curve
The initial magnetization curve is a plot of the locus of the D. Portland. He received the BSc. and from 1966 to 1973 with Bonneville Power Administration. Brazil. Then.A. From 1959 to 1966 he was with the Technical University Munich. it can be seen that
Krms
= Irrrns
2
+K r r n s .
. curve should be related to the vertical axis of the U . which by virtue of either embedded delta windings.
. “Harmonic Impedance Measurement of Transformers. and U . due to cancellation of fundamental frequency reactive components. Campina GrandePB. Is it not true that the model is valid for only one frequency? Does not the loss model produce the same loss for all frequencies? If so it would not be applicable for transients of another frequency or for superposed transient frequencies. computed without considering losses? Did the authors measure i. recent laboratory measurements (with the aid of microcomputer software) on a 120/60V.
3 Qm c.0
ic
3. Vol. NV): The authors are to be commended for proposing a simple and elegant procedure to determine the nonlinear transformer U .00
140. 1992. There are also problems with obtaining meaningful information from tested rms current vs voltage tests of transformers. NY): The
subject of the paper is well presented.00
I
I
I
1
10. but rather change in shape. Y. Manuscript received February 24.00
m0 .00
40.
250.00
[A] B. and A . Szabados and J. the curves in the figure above.00
Washington Neves’ and Hermann Dommel (University of British Columbia. The supply voltage is sinusoidal and instruments used to measure the rms current and active power are accurate under distorted currents.00
100.i. It would be desirable to elaborate more on the curves shown in Fig. Current and voltage waveforms (512 points) were obtained in the scope. 12.
Reference
I
I
I
I
I
350. and Syst. Is it possible to obtain any useful information from rms currents when they are so confused by capacitive effects. curves from opencircuit test data. in analytical form (perhaps polynomial functions of the supply voltage). The answer the following additional questions would be appreciated. curve according to the equation:
I
I I I
~~
0. Analog voltmeter and amperemeter were used just for checking purposes. threeleg core construction. However. it may not be convenient to represent transformer nonlinearity in such a form.i.00
60.i.00
I 0. but the flexibility of the model seems too restricted to be of practical application. or the usual testing from the delta winding result in removal of triple harmonics from the measured rms values. The vertical axis of the A .i. 4.i. in power system harmonic studies. Brazil
.I
60. These curves are shown for three different supply voltages below. 60VA shelltype transformer indicate that the A . 1. and U . The end results are in tabulated form (i. Yahia Baghzouz: The AC measurements (Table I) were performed using a digital waveform analyzer. 1992. Lee. How is i. 2. with losses included.i. However.i. by reading the peak value of the excitation current on a scope? Figure 5 implies that the core loss resistance seen by the supplyfrequency current component decreases as the supply voltage increases.i . B. and i. Curves
’ On leave from Universidade Federal da Paraiba. It is understood that the A .. PAS100. curve.e.00 0. curves do not simply
v = lo0V
v = 120v
V = 140V
120.i. 1981. it best to express the peak values of each harmonic component of i. 50206. The two curves extend as the rms value of the supply voltage increases. For example. and results reported by other investigators [A] contradict the authors’ findings.00
50. Curves
extend. pp. White Plains.0 00
(mA)
Fig.O
180.00
80. Meredith (New York Power Authority.OO
150. Power App. The digital analyzer calculated the r m s currents. peak curves.
U
. Lhghmuz (University of Nevada.C.. NO.00
J
0.00 160.00
v
F 100. From the applications point of view. The single nonlinear inductance also appears to assume uniform flux density within the core Iaminations.00
a
80. The result is that the rms exciting currents for voltages below 90% are capacitive/resistive in nature. corresponds to the last two columns of Table 11.00
R J.00
..00
20. The discusser has found multivalued A .424
Discussion
mO . Table 11). Have the authors examined these conditions prior to recording the measured values in Table I? 2.1 ohm resistance connected in series with the Epstein frame primary winding. Another major restriction would occur for three phase transformers.00
100.” IEEE Trans. Newly manufactured transformers have such high permeability steels that magnetizing currents are less than capacitive charging currents.00
(mA)
Fig.i. The rms current at 100% is often lower than the rms current at 90%.00
*
$
m. More detailed core models such as those presented and discussed i 92 W M 1776 PWRS confirm that such an assumption is n invalid at even low order harmonic situations. Canada): We would like to thank the discussers for their comments and questions. It would seem impossible to derive meaningful information from such test results unless either the capacitance or the BH curve is already known. A . We will address each discusser at a time. interphase coupling and lack of knowledge of the harmonic content of the current? Manuscript received January 30.00
I
20. Las Vegas.i. The current sample waveform was taken from a standard 0.00
40. voltages and no load losses. The method is perfectly valid under the following assumptions: 1.
i. and A . ODell. The shape of the U .425
Where I is the peak value of the voltage. F m m a g n e t ~ n a m i c sChapter 1. either from tests or calculations. Chen. Its accurate calculation is very complex [II]. The application of the model is not restricted. We may use our model for those situations. curve is also singlevalued and extends as the peak value of the voltage increases. We calculated i . The program assumes i . V = 140. A. The measured curve was then obtained by DC measurements (Appedix B). IV]. several fivelegged and shelltype three phase transformers. Inc. 142. IEE Pub.. Fundamental and Harmonic Flux Behavior i a 100 kVA DistributionTmnsjormer.i.i. not to mention the large quantity of current and voltage transformers.2.J. If we take the last U .i. curve. curves. Although the method is not exact. = 0 and computes i. The Macmillan . Hill and K. They need to be known somehow. using our routine and compared to the initial magnetization curve. and A . the frequency dependent winding impedances and stray capacitances play a very important role. We are currently dealing with distribution transformers that shows resonant peaks as low as 4. The flux distribution in the core may not be uniform even at low frequencies [I]. It is appropriate to represent them as singlevalued functions of current which give the best overall response. Ap the peak value of the $ flux and o the angular frequency. and U .t. switching off a transformer when a fault nearby is cleared). The data presented in Table I1 is suitable to be used in an Electromagnetic Transients Program. W.i. In a transient.
11. Magnetism and MetauwgV o Sofr Magnetic Materials.London 1981. September 1976. We computed A for 60 Hz and obt&ed Ap = 197. In our work we compute peak v . They made comparisons between measurements and simulation for different frequencies (60. We are aware of the high permeability of the new magnetic steel laminations and the capacitive effect in the excitation current. It may be difficult to apply the model for deltaconnected three phase transformers whose data are not supplied by the manufacturer and in which the delta connected winding cannot be opened for tests. 120 and 180 Hz) using both sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms as inputs. The knowledge of BH curves from steel manufacturers does not help. 111.
. the number of data required is small. and A . curve for these transformers.1992. C. We have used curves obtained by this approach to represent magnetizing branches of large transformers and carried out simulations of inrush currents and ferroresonance. In our simulations. curves were obtained from single frequency tests. we think we can apply this model for different frequencies with reasonable accuracy. will depend on the core material and transformer design.i. winding capacitances must be included in the algorithm when computing the A . three linear segments of the A .0 khz during short circuit frequency response tests.i.99 volts. No. the voltage will have harmonic components. Chua and Stromsmoe [3] had also obtained the iron core circuit parameters from single frequency tests. curve obtained by our approach is theoretically identical to the DC initial magnetization curve and extends as the peak value of the flux linkage increases.C. Unfortunately.18 mWb . There are uncertainties on iron cores modelling. T.
2528. Most of the transformers in service are not new and probably do not show this effect. Our A . We assumed the fu distribution do not l change in frequency.i. pp. curve fittings of the results of Table I1 may be appropriate. References I. Robert J. Chua and Stromsmoe had also carried out measurements in which a sinusoidal field was superimposed by a D. and A . Overshott. The A .. Basak and A. Besides. Abdul Qader. In the same way.00\/2= 197.i.18 mWb _ P t . rite 0tigi. The simulations showed close agreement with field tests. IEEE Transn actions on Magnetics. curves.i. 5. For situations in which the frequencies involved are mainly the natural frequencies of the system (for instance. IV.n of the Anomalous Loss in Grainoriented Siliconiron. A. New York. MAG19. If applications require analytical forms to represent U . The computation of the nonlinear resistance does not present any problem since the capacitance does not affect power losses. Meredith: Although the parameters of the U . it is very useful. H. Vol. To compute i. Section 2. curves have successfully represented the magnetizing branch of transformers.i curves. as well as the core material used. curve when losses are included in the model. Press LTD. This model is suitable for low frequency range (few wiz) applications. We do not see any contradiction here since we may be dealing with different materials.99/(2~X 60) = 525.i. Dover Publications.i. pp. the flux and voltage may vary from small values to larger ones. and A . It seems there is no direct relationship between reference [Ai and our paper. The core loss mechanism is also complicated [III. We would like to thank the discussers again for their valuable comments.i. A scale factor of \/2 is probably missing. The last two columns of Table I1 show the computed A . A sinusoidal voltage signal applied to a nonlinear element produces a distorted current waveform. without considering the losses we just set losses equal to zero.
21002102. Their effects can easily be included in our algorithm. They are usually different from BH curves of transformers due to effects such as air gaps and butt joints. September 1983.i.i.i. We think our model is also useful for newly manufactured transformers. We have found distribution transformers in which the core loss resistance increases as the supply voltage increases. field. S. 1986.
Manuscript received April 10. The agreement between simulations and measurement was excellent. They should be modelled as well.The A axis in the curve provided by the discusser does not extend up to 525. f Chapter 4. if a sinusoidal current is applied to a nonlinear element. However. In power systems there are many singlephase transformers (transformer banks). we do not have information about the prowdure used by the discusser to obtain the v . Reference [A] presents an experimental method to obtain the impedance for each harmonic component in a transformer.