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9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT


9.2.1 PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA
A clolourless, pungent gas Its molecular formula is NH3 It is extremely soluble in water It is a weak alkali It is about one half as dense as air It reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to produce white fumes of ammonium chloride NH3 + HCl NH4Cl

Ammonia is alkaline in property and react with dilute acids in neutralization to produce salts. For examples : NH3 + HNO3 NH4NO3

2NH3 + H2SO4

(NH4)2SO4

Aqueous solution of ammonia produces OH ions (except Na ion, K ion, and Ca ion) forming metal hydrocides precipitate Fe3+ + 3OH(-) Fe(OH)3 Brown recipitate

Mg2+ + 2OH(-) Mg(OH)2 White recipitate

Some metal hydroxides such as zinc hydroxide and copper (II) hydroxide dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form complexes Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3 2OH(-) Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 2OH(-) [Zn(NH3)4] 2+ +

[Cu(NH3)4]

2+

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PROPERTIES OF

AMMONIA

9.2.2 USES OF AMMONIA

To make fertilizers - Provide plants the nitrogen they need to grow - These fertilizers are ammonium salts obtained from the neutralization of ammonia with different acids. Examples : (a) Ammonium phosphate reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid produces ammonium phosphates NH3 (aq) + H3PO (aq) 2NH3 (aq) + H3PO (aq) NH4H2PO4 (aq) (NH4)2 HPO4 (aq)

o Good fertiliserd because they provide two important nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen.

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(b)Ammonium nitrate ammonia is neutralized by nitric acid, ammonium nitrate is formed NH3 (aq) + HNO3 (aq) NH4NO3 (aq)

(c) Ammonium sulphate ammonia is neutralized by sulphuric acid 2NH3 (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (aq)

(d)Urea at a temperature of 200 and a high pressure of 200 atm, ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide to produce urea 2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) CO (NH2)2 (s) + H2O (l)

used as a raw material for the manufacture of nitric acid in the Ostwad process liquid ammonia used as cooling agent used as an alkali to prevent the coagulation of latex

Ammonia salts is used as smelling salts to revive people who have fainted

9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia


1. Haber process is the industrial method of producing ammonia.

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2. It needs direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst, often iron. 3. Nitrogen gas used in Haber process is obtained from the frictional distillation of liquid air. 4. Hydrogen gas used in Haber process can be obtained by two method : (a) The reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon) C + H2O CO + H2

(b) The reaction between steam and natural gas (consisting mainly of methane) CH4 + 2H2O CO2 + 3H2

5. In the Haber process : (a) A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and there volume of hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure between 200 500 atmospheres (b) The gas mixture is passed through a catalyst of powdered iron at a temperature of 450 -550 ))))))) (c) At this optimum temperature and pressure, ammonia gas is produces N2 + 3H2 2NH3

The Haber process

AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS

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1. Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins which are necessary for growth and cell repair. 2. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen supply directly from the air although it is abundant in the air (78%). Plants can only absorb soluble nitrogen compounds from soil through their roots. 3. The nitrogen compounds are usually solublenitric salt, ammonia and ammonia salt which are manufacture as chemical fertilixer. 4. Reactions of ammonia with acids produce ammonia fertilizers :(a) NH3 + HNO3 (b) 3NH3 + H3PO4 (c) 2NH3 + H2SO4 NH4NO3 (NH4)3PO4 (NH4)2SO4

9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIAL


9.6.1 WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS
1. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is formed by two or more different substances such as metal, glass, ceramic and polymer. 2. Some common composite materials are :(a) Reinforces concrete (b)Superconductor (c) Fibre optic (d)Fibre glass (e) Photochromic glass

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We must appreciate these various synthetic industrial materials. One of the way is by doing continuous research and development (R & D) to produce better materials used to improve our standard of living. As we live in a changing world, our society is getting more complex. New materials are required to overcome new challengers due to the limitation and shortage of natural materials. New technological developments are used by scientists to make new discoveries. New materials for clothing, shelter, tools and communication to impove our daily life are developed continuosly for the well-being of mankind. New needs and new problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials. For example, the new use of plastic omposite material will replace metal in the making of a stronger and lighter car body. This ill save fuel and improve speed. Plastic composite materials may one day used to make organs for organs transplant in human bodies. This will become nesesity with the shortage of human organ donors. The understanding of the interaction between different chemicals is important for both the development of new synthetic materials and the disposal of such synthetic materials as waste. A responsible and systemic method of handling the waste of synthetic materials and their by-product is important to prevent environmental

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pollution. The recycling and development of environmental friedly synthetic material should be enforced.

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