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Raster-scan system:-

1)raster displays have less resolution. 2)the lines producced are ziz-zag as the plotted values are discrete. 3)high degree realism is achived in picture with the aid of advanced shading and hidden surface technique. 4)decreasing memory costs have made raster systems popular.

Raster scan and random scan are two types of display systems that use CRT monitors. These are used to project or exhibit softcopy information in the form of alphanumeric or graphic symbology. The information that is displayed using these two techniques is not permanent which is why it is called softcopy information. All the information that is presented in graphical form can only be viewed as long as it is there on the display screen which is the CRT monitor.

Random scan system:-

1)random displays have high resolutions since the picture definition is stored as a set of line drawing commands and not as a set of intensity values. 2)smooth lines are produced as the electron beam directly follows the line path. 3)realism is difficult to achieve. 4)random-scan system's are generally costlier.

Raster scan is based upon television technology which uses an electron beam that is swept across the screen and it creates a pattern of illuminated spots. In the case of random scan the electron beam is directed to only those parts of the screen where the picture is to be drawn. In random scan, one line of the picture is drawn at a time which is why it is also called a vector display. The display in random scan is basically a computer controlled oscilloscope.For a layman, raster scan and random scan can be described in a very simple way of using a pencil to draw something on a screen. The first way would be to lift and lower the pencil and draw anything on the screen. This is a tedious procedure and looks old now.Another way is to draw many parallel lines across the screen and using pressure the intensity can be varied to present different shades and thus achieving the graphical represent that you require on the CRT monitor. This makes it easy to draw horizontal and vertical lines at the same time and is called raster scan.

Digital differential analyzer (graphics algorithm)(DDA):-In computer graphics, a hardware or software implementation of a digital differential analyzer (DDA) is used for linear interpolation of variables over an interval between start and end point. DDAs are used for rasterization of lines, triangles and polygons. In its simplest implementation the DDA algorithm interpolates values in interval [(xstart, ystart), (xend, yend)] by computing for each xi the equations xi = xi1+1/m, yi = yi1 + m, where x = xend xstart and y = yend ystart and m = y/x

Performance

The DDA method can be implemented using floating-point or integer arithmetic. The native floating-point implementation requires one addition and one rounding operation per interpolated value (e.g. coordinate x, y, depth, color component etc.) and output result. This process is only efficient when an FPU with fast add and rounding operation is available.The fixed-point integer operation requires two additions per output cycle, and in case of fractional part overflow, one additional increment and subtraction. The probability of fractional part overflows is proportional to the ratio m of the interpolated start/end values.DDAs are well suited for hardware implementation and can be pipelined for maximized throughput.where m represents the slope the line and c is the y intercept . this slope can be expressed in DDA as

in fact any two consecutive point(x,y) laying on this line segment should satisfy the equation.

yend-ystart m= ----------xend-xstart

Computer graphics:- are graphics created using computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware.The development of computer graphics has made computers easier to interact with, and better for understanding and interpreting many types of data. Developments in computer graphics have had a profound impact on many types of media and have revolutionized animation, movies and the video game industry. Concepts and principles:- Images are typically produced by optical devices;such as cameras, mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water surfaces.A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image in binary format as a sequence of ones and zeros. Digital images include both vector images and raster images, but raster images are more commonly used Pixel:- In digital imaging, a pixel (or picture element[7]) is a single point in a raster image. Pixels are normally arranged in a regular 2-dimensional grid, and are often represented using dots or squares. Each pixel is a sample of an original image, where more samples typically provide a more accurate representation of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable; in color systems, each pixel has typically three components such as red, green, and blue. Graphics

Graphics:- are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Examples are photographs, drawings, line art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style.
Rendering:- Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model (or models in what

collectively could be called a scene file), by means of computer programs. A scene file contains objects in a strictly defined language or data structure; it would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information as a description of the virtual scene. The data contained in the scene file is then passed to a rendering program to be processed and output to a digital image or raster graphics image file. The rendering program is usually built into the computer graphics software, though others are available as plug-ins or entirely separate programs. The term "rendering" may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene. Though the technical details of rendering methods vary, the general challenges to overcome in producing a 2D image from a 3D representation stored in a scene file are outlined as the graphics pipeline along a rendering device, such as a GPU. A GPU is a purpose-built device able to assist a CPU in performing complex rendering calculations. If a scene is to look relatively realistic and predictable under virtual lighting, the rendering software should solve the rendering equation. The rendering equation does not account for all lighting phenomena, but is a general lighting model for computer-generated imagery. 'Rendering' is also used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing file to produce final video output. 3D projection:-3D projection is a method of mapping three dimensional points to a two dimensional plane. As most current methods for displaying graphical data are based on planar two dimensional media, the use of this type of projection is widespread, especially in computer graphics, engineering and drafting. Ray tracing:- is a technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light through pixels in an image plane. The technique is capable of producing a very high degree of photorealism; usually higher than that of typical scanline rendering methods, but at a greater computational cost.