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Covering the
roong industry
Irelands most comprehensive
range of quality natural roong
products, sourced from leading
manufacturers around the world.
In association with
Uniclass L5214
September 2008
(47) Ne5
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The lifetime of a building begins with the
choice of materials and for hundreds of
years, architects and designers have been
inspired by the natural beauty of slate.
Through its aesthetic potential and practical
qualities this materials unique character
enhances the architectural vision.
Bangor Blue
Bangor Blue slates are
extracted from some of the
worlds nest deposits at the
Penrhyn quarry in North Wales.
Formed up to 590 million
years ago, each piece of slate
has its own unique ngerprint
that reects the power and
presence of the landscapes
from which it was created.
They are as much a part of
the vernacular landscape of
Ireland as stone walls and
hawthorn hedgerows, and
have roofed crofters cottages
and farmhouses alike. They
adorn many of the countrys
most prestigious and historic
buildings. With such a
pedigree, they are the best
slate by far for todays and
tomorrows roong in Ireland.
In 2008, LBS purchased the Welsh Slate company, bringing
these iconic products into Irish ownership. It is a tting
tribute to the history of Bangor Blue slates in the Irish market
that a local company has invested in their future here and
world-wide, where Welsh Slates are in high demand for
international projects.
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As Welsh Slate produces only natural products from the nest raw
material, each slate has its own unique visual characteristics. Bangor Blue
slates often feature naturally occurring markings which are usually green.
Although this manual is based on the Welsh brands of slate, it can
be used for technical information for all natural slates supplied by
LBS. Where appropriate in the tables, the sizes of non-Welsh slates
are included and clearly marked.
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LBS Natural Slate
Types of slate

Forna (Spain)
Penryhn Bangor Blue (Wales)
Westmorland Green (England)
Leon (Spain)
Burlington Blue/Grey (England)
La Barrosa (Spain)

Vigo (Spain)
Vermont Green (USA)
Sierra (Spain)
*Please note that Rio slates must be hook-xed. They should be cut using a suitable
power saw and any holes required should be drilled and not punched. (see page 9)
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3 2 1
Rio Green (Brazil)*
Rio Black (Brazil)*
In addition to the aesthetic
qualities of Welsh slate, the
material also benets from
a number of highly practical
properties. It is exceptionally
durable, unaffected by normal
extremes of temperature and is
highly resistant to acids, alkalis
and other chemicals. It retains
Geology of Slate
Slate is a metamorphic rock
that started life hundreds of
millions of years ago as muddy-
rich sediments, or volcanic
ash, which were deposited on
the sea oor via streams and
rivers. Over millennia these
sediments, which comprised
of chlorite, mica and clay
minerals, were compressed
to form a sedimentary rock
known as mudstone.
When the tectonic plates of
the earth moved to form the
continents and mountains we
know today, this sedimentary
rock metamorphosed under
intense heat and pressure,
and was literally pushed up
at right angles through the
earth and into the mountains.
This geological pressure
forced the material to undergo
fundamental changes in its
chemical composition, and
re-aligned the minerals, forming
a whole series of parallel layers
known as cleavage, along which
the rock splits easily (making it
ideal for roong slate).
The age of slate ranges from
the Cambrian era (from 600
million years ago when the rst
its colour, even in UV light and
is impermeable to water. In
addition, it is non-combustible
and compatible with all other
building materials. Slate is
easily maintained; making it
an economical choice for all
building purposes.
LBS are continually reviewing
their product range and may
have additional brands to those
marine life dawned on earth),
to the Ordovician era (500
million years ago), to the
Silurian era (400 million years
ago), to the Devonian era (350
million years ago). Slates from
the Cambrian era (such as the
Penryhn quarry) are generally
accepted as the best quality
due to the high purity of the
original deposits and the fact
that they have been baked
and cooked in the earth for an
extra 100 200 million years
longer than other slates,giving
them a much harder and denser
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Customer services
Technical Support
and Advice
At LBS we are dedicated
to satisfying the needs of
our customers through the
provision of quality services
and products combined with
comprehensive after-sales
support. Detailed technical
advice is freely available from
the companys highly trained
and experienced Technical
Department with an unrivalled
knowledge of natural roong
slates. This includes assistance
with Roof Specication
and Cost Estimation via a
computer-based system.
BS 5534: 2003
UK Code of Practice for Slating
and Tiling
ICP 2: 2002
Irish Code of Practice for
Slating and Tiling
BS EN 12326-1: 2004
Specication for slate and stone
products for discontinuous roong
and cladding.
BS 747: 2000
Specication for roong felts.
References and standards
The following References and
Standards should be referred
to when specifying or xing
natural slate roong products.
BS 4016: 1997
Specication for exible building
membranes (breather type).
BS 8000
Workmanship on building sites:
Part 6: 1990, Code of practice
for slating and tiling of roofs and
BS 1202: 1974
Specication for nails.
BS 6399
Part 2: 1997, Code of practice for
wind loads.
Part 3: 1988, Code of practice for
imposed roof loads.
BS 5250: 2002
Code of practice for control of
condensation in buildings.
BS 8104: 1992
Code of practice for assessing
exposure to wind-driven rain.
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Design specication
General guidance on design
is given here but for further
details, please refer to BS
5534: 2003, UK Code of
Practice for Slating and Tiling
or ICP2: 2002, Irish Code of
Practice for Slating and Tiling.
For your information, the
paragraphs below set out the
scope of these codes.
BS 5534: 2003 Maximum
rafter lengths covered by the
code for pitches of 30 or less is
9 metres in moderate exposure
locations and 6 metres in severe
exposure locations. For longer
rafter lengths please contact
LBS Technical Department.
ICP2: 2002 The minimum
recommendations are
intended for use where the
length of the roof slope,
measured by horizontal
projection (on plan, not down
the slope), does not exceed
6 metres. In all other cases,
LBS advice should be sought.
The design of longer roofs
is likely to require additional
weather-resisting and/or
moisture-resisting provisions.
These provisions could be in
the form of using increased
headlaps, boarding/decking
out, counterbattens and/or a
superior roong underlay and
so on. These provisions should
be capable of collecting any
water, which may penetrate
the slating and discharging it
clear of the building.
As the Codes of Practice
recognize, there will be
situations where roof geometry
will be such that it is not
possible to x slates at the
minimum pitches and laps
without additional measures.
For example, rafter lengths
may be longer than allowed
for in the codes; pitches may
be too low in relation to the
site exposure; roofs may be
curved and so on. Whilst not
every scenario can be covered,
within certain limits, LBS will
be able to advise on how to
overcome these problems
and our Technical Department
should be contacted in the rst
instance to check if a solution
can be offered.
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Natural slating is carried out using the traditional double-lap
system, where water-tightness is achieved by the creation of a
headlap and sidelap. These and other slating terms are explained
in the diagram below.
bond/side lap
holing gauge =
gauge + lap +
8 to 15mm
8 to 15mm
20 to 25mm
head lap
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Exposure to wind-driven rain
Exposure Zones
This map shows the exposure
to wind-driven rain taken from
ICP2: 2002 and BS 5534: 2003.
Exposure gradings and local
knowledge should be referred
to when discussing design
Further information is
available from the LBS
Technical Department.
Wind loads and weather resistance
Slates xed in accordance with the details given in this guide
will have adequate resistance to wind loads, wind uplift and rain
penetration under most conditions. The tables on page 08-09 give
details of minimum pitches according to exposure and slate size.
Detailed guidance on wind load calculations is given in BS 5534:
2003, BS 6399 and ICP2: 2002.
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Technical data
Slate Type Slate Size
for Headlap
Weight per
metre laid
weight per
slate (kg)
Batten Guage
for 100mm
headlap mm
lin m batten
per m
per m
at 100mm
Copper nail
(length x dia.)
Bangor Blue
Capital 600 x 300 6 100 Yes 35.64 2.68 250 4.00 13.30 35 x 3.35
County 600 x 300 8 100 Yes 45.22 3.40 250 4.00 13.30 40 x 3.35
Capital 500 x 300 6 100 Yes 37.01 2.23 200 5.00 16.60 35 x 3.35
County 500 x 300 8 100 Yes 46.98 2.86 200 5.00 16.60 40 x 3.35
Celtic 500 x 300 10 100 Yes 53.62 3.23 200 5.00 16.60 40 x 3.35
Capital 400 x 300 6 No Yes 39.52 1.78 150 6.67 22.20 35 x 3.35
County 400 x 300 8 No Yes 50.62 2.28 150 6.67 22.20 40 x 3.35
Celtic 400 x 300 10 No Yes 57.94 2.61 150 6.67 22.20 40 x 3.35
Spanish etc**
All 600 x 300 5 100 Check 35.91 2.70 250 4.00 13.30 35 x 3.35
All 500 x 250 5 100 Check 38.00 1.90 200 5.00 20.00 35 x 3.35
All 600 x 300 7 100 Check 39.90 3.00 250 4.00 13.30 40 x 3.35
All 500 x 250 7 100 Check 44.80 2.24 200 5.00 20.00 40 x 3.35
Table 1: General Information
Table 2: Coverage
* Nails should penetrate batten not less than 15mm.
**Prior to specication, check sizes available for individual brands with LBS.
s Slate-and-a-halfs are available for verge, valley and hip slating.
s Weights are exclusive of packing material.
s Slates in bold type are the most widely used in the Irish market.
s Bangor Blue slates can be supplied to any size, for example to match heritage projects. Please ask for details.
Headlap mm 80 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 140
Slate Size mm Slates per m
600 x 300 13.30 13.40 13.50 13.70 13.80 14.00 14.20 14.50
500 x 300 16.60 16.80 17.00 17.30 17.50 17.70 18.00
500 x 250 20.00 20.30 20.50 20.80 21.00 21.40 21.60
400 x 300 20.80 22.20
Introduction to Table 3
Table 3 sets out the minimum pitch criteria for natural slates. For convenience, most are supplied pre-holed to 100mm (bold type) and can
be used for headlaps up to 105mm. All other headlaps are achieved by holing on site using the formula shown on the diagram on Page 6.
Check with LBS regarding availability.
It is important to note that Table 3 follows the Codes of Practice as follows:
s Northern Ireland BS 5534: 2003, Maximum rafter lengths (pitches 30 or less): Normal Exposure, 9 metres; Severe Exposure, 6 metres.
s Republic of Ireland ICP 2: 2002, The minimum recommendations are intended for use where the length of the roof slope, measured by
horizontal projection (on plan, not down the slope), does not exceed 6 metres.
Please see Page 5 Design Specication for details of roof situations outside the scope of the Codes of Practice. LBS Technical
Department will advise in these instances.
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Technical data
Slate Nail Length x 3.35mm diameter
Thickness Minimum 10mm nailhead
<7mm 35mm minimum
>7mm 40mm minimum
Application NI Code ROI Code
Flashings 4 4
Soakers 3 3
Abutment 3 3
Mitred hip 3 3
Mitred valley 3 3
Open valley 5 5
450mm Rafter Centres 600mm Rafter Centres
50mm wide x 25mm deep 50mm wide x 25mm deep
400mm Rafter Centres
>400mm Rafter Centres
but 600mm
47mm wide x 22mm deep 47mm wide x 36mm deep
Pitch Fully Supported Not Fully Supported
20 34 100mm 150mm
35 75mm 100mm
Pitch Fully Supported Not Fully Supported
35 75mm 100mm
22.5 and <35 100mm 150mm
<22.5 150mm 225mm
Nail Sizes
Minimum Recommended Lead Codes
Minimum Batten Sizes (NI)
Minimum Batten Sizes (ROI)
Recommended Headlaps for Underlays (NI)
Recommended Headlaps for Underlays (ROI)
Nails used throughout any roof structure should comply with the standard set out in
the relevant Codes of Practice.
Table 3: Minimum Rafter pitches for double-lap nailed slates (see notes on page 8)
Distance between batten centres
(gauge) is calculated as follows:
Gauge =
Slate Length Headlap
Minimum pitch 20 22.5 25 27.5 30 32.5
Headlaps mm
BS 5534: 2003 (NI) Normal Exposure
600 x 300 100 100 100 100
500 x 300 115 105 100 100 100 100
500 x 250 100 100 100 100
400 x 300 80 80
BS 5534: 2003 (NI) Severe Exposure
600 x 300 100 100
500 x 300 130 120 110 100 100
500 x 250 110 100 100
400 x 300 100 100
ICP2: 2002 (ROI) Normal Exposure
600 x 300 105 100 100 100 100
500 x 300 100 100 100 100 100
500 x 250 110 100 100 100 100
400 x 300 80 80
ICP2: 2002 (ROI) Severe Exposure
600 x 300 140 120 110 105 100
500 x 300 120 100 100 100 100
500 x 250 130 115 110 100 100
400 x 300 100 100
Slales al 100nn headlap in bold lype are preholed as slandard.
They can be used up to 105mm headlap. All others to be holed on site.
Hook Fixing
Hooks should not be used at pitches below 25. Crimped hooks
should be used below 30. When hook-xing, additional nails
should be used at verges, valleys, hips and abutments. Eaves and
undereaves should be nailed instead of hook-xed.
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Welsh Slate benets from a number of highly practical properties.

It is exceptionally durable, unaffected by normal extremes of
temperature and is highly resistant to acids, alkalis and other
chemicals it is an ideal roong material.
In addition, slate is non-combustible, retains its colour,
even in UV light and is impermeable to water.
Water Permeability Impermeable
Sunlight Unaffected by UV light
Heat Unaffected by normal heating, freezing
and thermal cycling
Chemical Resistance Unaffected by atmospheric pollution,
sea air and sea spray
Biological Resistance Unaffected by vegetable growth,
rot or insect attack
Compatibility Compatible with all building materials
Fire Resistance Slate is non combustible and does not
support combustion. AA re rating
Thermal expansion 8.511x10-6 mm per C
Thermal conductivity Approx. 2.0 W/mk
Testing to ASTM
Requirements for S1 classication (expected use of 75-100 years)
C120 Modulus of rupture <62MPa
C121 Water absorption <0.25%
C217 Weather resistance <0.05mm
Testing to EN 12326-1 : 2004
Certicates of compliance can be downloaded from our website.
Welsh Slate Roong has a life expectancy of over 100 years and
is easily maintained, and because it can often be re-used it is an
economical and environmentally responsible choice.
General properties of Welsh Slate
Bangor Blue
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The slating process
Setting Out the Roof
For a detailed description of
the process of roof slating,
reference should be made to
BS 5534 : 2003 or ICP2 : 2002
Codes of Practice for Slating
and Tiling.
However, the basic steps are
set out below:
1.1 All natural slates must be
sorted into at least three
grades in order to ensure
a neat roof. The thicker
ones are xed at the
eaves, medium in the
centre and thinnest
towards the ridge. Do not
mix different grades along
the same row. Slates
should be holed from the
underside to the correct
gauge measured from the
tail of the slate using a
threaded action slate
holing machine.
1.2 Fix the underlay as
1.3 Mark out the roof to the
correct battening gauge
(see table on pages
8-9). The gauge may be
adjusted to divide the slope
length into equal margins
provided the specied lap
is not reduced.
1.4 Batten the roof.
1.5 Check the actual width
of slates and mark out
perpends on battens at
correct centres allowing
5mm joint gaps.
1.6 Where required load out
the slates on the roof so
that the thickest slates
are in the lowest courses
and the thinnest near
the ridge.
1.7 Fix undereaves courses
bed up.
1.8 Fix the slates to perpend
lines, cutting individual
slates as necessary to
t hips and valleys. Each
slate must be xed with
two nails.
Slate Nails
1.9 Slate nails should be
copper to BS 1202 and
have adequate length to
penetrate 15mm into
the batten.
Cutting Slates
1.10 In order to maintain
adequate laps and allow
proper xing, slates must
not be cut too narrow. In
general no slates should
be less than 150mm wide.
At all verges and
abutments, alternate
courses must be started
either with half-width
slates or with slate-and-
a-half widths to maintain
bond. If the half-slate
would be less than
150mm, slate-and-a-half
widths must be used.
At valleys, hips and other
places where slates
must be cut on the rake,
it is essential that slates
are of an adequate
width to accommodate
secure xings.
Lead staining
Lead develops a patina of lead carbonate which can be washed
off by rain and can cause staining of slates. It is strongly
recommended that all lead which may discharge water onto slate,
including soakers, should be treated with patination oil as it is xed.
For more information contact:
The Lead Sheet Association
Unit 10 Archers Park
Branbridges Road
East Peckham
Kent TN12 5HP
Tel: 01622 872432
Fax: 01622 871649
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Open Rafters
Unsupported underlay such as
LBS Pro-Guard.
Boarded Roofs
T&G or square edged boarding,
woodwool slabs or bitumen-
impregnated sarking board.
Underlay laid directly onto
boards should be of bitumen
felt or vapour permeable
meeting the requirements
of BS 5534. Where vapour
permeable underlays are not
used, boarded roofs should
be counter battened to allow
ventilation under the slates and
free drainage of any water that
may reach the underlay.
Vapour permeable
underlay to BS 5534
or EN 13111
T&G or square edged boarding, woodwool
slabs or bitumen-impregnated sarking board.
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Eaves and verges
Dress the underlay into the
gutter over a timber tiltling llet
to prevent troughing behind
the fascia. Alternatively, an
LBS Underlay Support Tray can
be used as this also prevents
deterioration of the underlay
by UV light. Fix undereaves
and eaves courses of slates
with tails aligned and projecting
45mm (minimum) to 55mm
(maximum) beyond the fascia
or wall face. Longer slate nails
may be required at the eaves
Verge on Bargeboard
Ensure that undercloak and
underlay are well lapped.
Nail undercloak fair face
down, to a true line and
projecting 38mm (minimum)
to 50mm (maximum) from
face of bargeboard. Fill the gap
between undercloak and slates
with mortar, and strike off to
give a neat, ush joint. Mortar
for bedding and pointing, 1:3
cement:sand pigmented to
match colour of slates.
Verge on brickwork
Ensure that undercloak and
underlay are well lapped.
Bed the undercloak in mortar
fair-face down, to a true line,
projecting 38mm (minimum)
to 50mm (maximum) beyond
face of wall, and point neatly
to match in with joints in
walling. Cut verge slates
as necessary and x ush
with undercloak. Fill the gap
between undercloak and slates
with mortar, and strike off to
give a neat, ush joint. Mortar
for bedding and pointing, 1:3
cement:sand pigmented to
match colour of slates.
Verge Generally
Slate-and-a-halfs should be
used on alternate courses. At
no time should slates be less
than 150mm wide.
Soffit with 10mm
ventilation gap
Fascia board
carrie into
45mm min to
55mm max
Eaves undercourse
slate (fixed bed-up to
ensure neat bottom
edge of slating)
38mm min
to 50mm
Undercloak slate
butt jointed
100mm max
150mm wide
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Valley Gutter
Dress underlay over tilting
llets. Cut slates neatly and
accurately to form a gap not
less than 100mm wide centred
on the gutter.
Mitred Valley
Cover with a strip of underlay
600mm wide, underlapping
general underlay. Cut slates
neatly and accurately and
interleave with lead soakers
to form a straight, close,
weathertight mitred junction.
Fix soakers by nailing to
battens at the top edge.
Although the British and Irish
Codes of Practice recommend
minimum pitches of 27.5
and 35 respectively at a
maximum rafter length of 6
metres (moderate exposure),
mitred valleys are generally
best avoided unless essential
to the design of the roof as
experience shows that a
high level of maintainence is
required. Where the slopes
intersect at less than 90 the
minimum pitch should be 50.
Code 5 lead
gutter lining
Valley board
Cut and
mitred slate
Slating nails must not
penetrate valley lead
Code 3
lead soaker
Cut and mitred
slate-and-a-half slate
Jack rafter Valley rafter
Tilting fillets
Code 5 lead gutter
lining carried over tilting
fillets and welted
Valley boards laid with their
tops level with those of
the rafters
Valley gutter (cross section)
A = minimun 100mm
B = minimum 50mm
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Mitred Hip
Cover with a strip of underlay
600mm wide, overlapping
general underlay. Cut slates
neatly and accurately, bevelled
edge down. Interleave with
lead soakers to form a straight,
weathertight, close-mitred
junction. Fix soakers by nailing
to battens at the top edge.
N.B. Careful consideration
must be given to mitred hip
details at low roof pitches and
in areas of severe exposure
contact LBS Technical
Department. (BS5534 minimum
pitch is 30, ICP2 minimum
pitch is 35).
Tiled Hip
Cover with a strip of underlay
600mm wide, overlapping
general underlay. Fix hip iron to
hip rafter with 5mm hot dipped
galvanised screws or nails.
Hip irons to BS 5534 : 2003,
hot-dip galvanised after
manufacture. Cut slates to
t closely at junction. Make
weathertight with ridge tiles
laid to a true line with edges
and joints, solidly bedded in
mortar, neatly struck off ush
as the work proceeds. Shape
rst tile to align with corner of
eaves and ll end with mortar
and slips of slate nished ush.
Mortar for bedding hip tiles
1:3 cement:sand pigmented to
approved colour.
Metal roll hips
Metal roll hips should conform
with sheet metal technical
For advice on pitches less then
30, contact the LBS Technical
Jack rafter
Hip rafter
Hip board
Code 3
lead soaker
+ lap
+ 25mm
Hip tiles bedded and jointed in mortar
50mm timber roll
Lead tack 50mm wide at 750mm
centres under timber roll
Code 4 lead tip, 460 to 500mm wide,
1.5 to 1.8m lengths with 75mm lapped joints
Mitred Hip Soaker widths
Pitch 30-35 150mm at head
Pitch 35 + 100mm at head
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Sloping Edge
Cut slates as necessary and
interleave with lead soakers
to form a close, weathertight
abutment. Fix soakers by
turning down over the head
of each slate. Ensure that lead
ashings are neatly dressed
down over soakers immediately
after slating is complete.
Top Course
Turn underlay 100mm up
abutment. Finish slating with
a head-nailed short course to
maintain gauge. Ensure that
ashings are xed immediately
after slating is complete.
Code 4 lead flashing in 1.5
to 2.0m lengths, wedged at
laps and at 450mm centres
Code 4 lead flashing
wedged into brickwork
Minimum width of soaker 100mm
or half the width of the slate size used,
whichever is the greater
Code 3 lead soakers at each course.
Minimum length = gauge + lap + 25mm
Clips, normally 0.6mm thick tinned copper, or
0.38mm terne-coated stainless steel 50mm wide
at 300-500mm centres and laps
Code 4 lead flashing
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Tiled ridge
Lay a length of underlay
over ridge to overlap general
underlay by not less than
150mm. Finish slating with
a head-nailed short course
to maintain gauge. Make
weathertight with ridge tiles
laid to a true line with edges
and joints solidly bedded in
mortar, neatly struck off ush
as the work proceeds. Fill ends
of ridges at gables with mortar
and slips of slate nished
ush. Mortar for bedding
ridge tiles,1:3 cement:sand
pigmented to approved colour.
Where it is necessary to adjust
gauges to ensure adequate
ridge covering overlap, the
last two courses may be cut
providing that the minimum
headlap is maintained.
Metal Roll Ridge
Code 4 or 5 lead ridge, 460 to
500mm wide, 1.5 to 1.8 metre
lengths with welted joints. Lead
tack 50mm wide at 150mm
centres, under timber roll.
Horizontal laps at 150mm.
Underlay taken
over ridge
Top batten may be thicker
than standard
Underlay taken
over ridge
Ridge tile bedded and
jointed in mortar
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Changes in roof pitch
Tilting fillet
Code 5
lead flashing
40mm min to
50mm max
Clips (as specified on
abutment detail) with
additional fixing (x)
Mansard Roof
Change in pitch:
greater than 150
Tilting fillet
Code 5
lead flashing
Clips (as specified on
abutment detail) with
additional fixing (x)
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Vertical slating
Vertical slating
Fix in accordance with BS 5534 :
2003 or ICP2 : 2002.
Bottom edges
Fix additional batten for under
eaves course. Fix slates with
tails neatly aligned. A tilting llet
should be used to support the
eaves course.
Top edges
Finished with head-nailed short
course to maintain gauge.
Cut slates as necessary to leave
a neat 5mm gap adjacent to
abutment, or use purpose-made
Cut slates as necessary and
interleave with lead soakers
to form a neat, weathertight,
close mitred junction.
Fix soakers by nailing to battens
at the top edge.
Roof verges
Splay cut slates at ends
of courses to t closely
under verge.
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 22 8/9/08 16:39:39
Roong ventilation
Airow requirements mm
10mm 10mm
25mm 25mm
25mm 25mm
Pitched roof above 15
Mono pitched roof above 15
Cold deck at roof
Flat roof abutment
Pitched roof below 15
Mono pitched roof below 15
Ceiling follows line of roof
(Any pitch)
Why Ventilate? The average
home produces 24 pints of
water every day of which half
escapes into the roof space.
Moisture is generated through
cooking, showering, bathing,
exercising in our homes etc.
Adequate ventilation must be
provided to remove this volume
of water before it has time to
damage the roof structure.
If there is insufcient ventilation,
moisture build up over a period
of time can lead to the rotting
of roof timbers, rusting and
weakening of metal xings,
felt damage and mould growth.
convection, to the cold areas
of the building including the
roof void.
It is widely recognised that
the best method of avoiding
condensation build up in attic
voids is to ventilate the eaves
continuously and to apply high
level ventilation where necessary.
To eliminate this unnecessary
cost, LBS offer a comprehensive
range of roof ventilation
products which are suitable
for both new build and
refurbishment situations.
Also personal items stored in the
loft area are often rendered
useless and the general outcome
involves signicant expenditure
to rectify the problems.
Condensation is also
encouraged by the widespread
use of insulating materials,
central heating and double
glazing. Along with the
reduction in natural ventilation,
the temperature differential
between the dwelling areas
and the cold roof is increased.
The warm, internal air carrying
high levels of water is naturally
drawn, by the process of
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 23 8/9/08 16:39:41
Roong ventilation
Building Regulation Approved
Document F2 (Ireland, England
and Wales), Building Standards
(Scotland) G4.1 and Building
Regulation (Northern Ireland) C8
require that adequate provision
is made in all roof voids to
prevent excessive condensation.
Further guidance is also
given in BS 5250: 2002
Code of Practice for the
Control of Condensation in
Buildings. The most effective
means of controlling harmful
condensation is to provide
efcient roof-space ventilation.
This can be achieved by
providing eaves / low level
through to ridge / high level
Ventilators have been purpose
designed to provide efcient
roof ventilation terminals.
These combine the natural
slate from our comprehensive
range of slates and a discreet
integral roof ventilation unit
and underlay protector. The
Ventilators can be used as
roof terminals for natural
ventilation and with adaptors
as mechanical ventilation and
soil pipe ventilation terminals.
For further information
please contact the Technical
References / Standards
Building Regulation Approved
Document F2: 1995 edition
Condensation in Roofs
Building Regulation (Ireland)
Technical Guidance Document
F Part 2: 2005 edition
Condensation in Roofs
Building Regulation (Ireland)
Technical Guidance Document
L Part 2: 2006 edition Air
Conditioning and
Mechanical Ventilation
Building Regulation Approved
Document H1: 1992 edition
Sanitary Pipework and
BS 5250: 2002 Code of
Practice for Control of
Condensation in Buildings
BS 5534: 2003 Code of
Practice for Slating and Tiling
British Standards (Scotland)
Regulations 1990-1994,
Technical Standards
for Compliance G4.1
Interstitial Condensation
British Regulations (Northern
Ireland) 1994, C8
BS 5925: 1991 Code of Practice
for ventilation principles and
designing for natural ventilation
BS 5720: 1979 Code of Practice
for mechanical ventilation and
air conditioning in buildings
CIBSE Guide B2: Ventilation and
Air Conditioning
Building Research
Establishment IP 13/94 Passive
stack ventilation systems:
design and installation
Building Research
Establishment IP 4/06
Airtightness of ceilings energy
loss and condensation risk
Building Research
IP 5/06 Modelling Condensation
and airow in roofs
BS 8000-6: 1990 Workmanship
on building sites. Code of
practice for slating and tiling
of roofs and cladding.
ICP 2:2002 Code of Practice
for slating and tiling
For information on all LBS
ventilation products, please
refer to our Ventilation
brochure which is available
on request.
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 24 8/9/08 16:39:42
Suitable for mechanical, soil
pipe and natural ventilation
Enhanced sidelap feature
to accommodate angle of
creep requirements
Driving rain resistant tested
to meet worst UK conditions
External SAA re rating
4mm large insect grille
Specication Clauses
Roofspace Ventilation
Provide low/high level
roofspace ventilation by
means of a Ventilator, ensure
correct installation of underlay
protector. Install at_____metre
centres to provide ventilation
equivalent to 5,000/10,000mm
metre in accordance with
Building Regulations Approved
Document F2: 1995 and BS
5250: 2002. Fix in accordance
with manufacturers instructions.
Soil Vent Pipe and Mechanical
Extraction Terminals
Soil vent pipe stacks/mechanical
extraction ducting to be
terminated at the roofslope by
means of Ventilator, ensure
correct installation of underlay
protector. Attach Vent Pipe
Adaptor and Flexible Pipe,
ensure all joints and connections
are airtight in accordance with
Building Regulations Approved
Document H1: 1990. Fix in
accordance with manufacturers
instructions. All pipes and
ducts in cold roofspaces are
to be insulated.
Roof underlay protector
included to maintain integrity
of underlay
Injection moulded lower tray
and grille
Designed to EN ISO 9001
and 9002 independent
Installations Performance
Nett free ventilation area: 10,000mm
Minimum pitch: 22.5
Spacing centres to achieve ventilation area of:
/metre 2.0 metres
/metre 1.0 metre
Airow resistance with pipe adaptor at:
/hour (15 litres /sec) 9.6Pa
/hour (30 litres /sec) 38.0Pa
/hour (60 litres /sec) 149.7Pa
Flexible pipe
Slate vent
Slate vent installed as soil vent or
mechanical extraction fan outlet
Slate vent
Slate vent installed as as roof
space ventilator
When used where
insulation follows
rafters it may be
necessary to trim the
throat of the ventilator
to prevent blockage by
the insulation
Roong ventilation
In-Line Natural Slate vent
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 25 8/9/08 16:39:44
Roof Ventilation
and Accessories
Our range includes:
- Eaves Ventilation
- Rafter Roll
- Inline Slate Vents
- Ventilated Dry Ridge
Fixing System.
Ridge Tiles
Our range includes:
- Clay
- Natural Slate
- Copper
- Zinc.
Dry Verge Systems
Manthorpe Smart Verge:
a cost effective system that
avoids the maintenance
problems and costs associated
with mortar bedding.
There are various reasons why
you should buy roof windows
from LBS:
leading-edge maintenance-
free hinges that do not
require lubrication.
LBS roof windows satisfy the
requirement on background
ventilation into a room, with
the window fully closed and
integral blinds inside the
glass, sealed within the
double glazing unit.
each roof window comes
complete with its own
identication card which
facilitates easy-ordering of
accessories, custom-made
blinds, ashings and electric
operation kits.
Roong Ventilation
and Accessories
Roof Windows
In addition to our range of Natural Slates,
LBS also offer a comprehensive range of Roof
Ventilation and Accessory products to offer the
total roong package.
LBS provide a quality roof window range which
is competitively priced with a toughened glazing
system as standard. They can also be supplied
with a wide range of glazing options including
tinted, frosted, self-cleaning and triple-glazing.
Eaves Carrier
Acts as a tilting llet at eaves
and prevents damage to the
underlay by UV light.
LBS stock a wide range of
copper nails, copper hooks
and stainless steel hooks in
a variety of gauges.
Breather & Non-Breather
Roong Felts
- LBS Pro-Guard Breather
- LBS Pro-Guard Plus
- LBS Pro-Guard.
timber sourced from
Certied Managed Forests.
windows are supplied with a
toughened glazing system as
standard which can include
tinted, frosted, self-cleaning
and triple glazing.
LBS offer a wide choice of
blind options. We also have
a range of opening poles,
security locks and roof
window restrictors available.
the windows can be easily
tted on-site at any stage
of property construction,
renovation or extension.
every LBS roof window
comes with a 10 year
no hassle guarantee.
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 26 8/9/08 16:39:46
Environmental responsibility
Welsh Slate Limited is totally
committed to restoring and
remodelling landscapes that
are affected by quarrying.
With this aim we operate a
joint venture, The Ecology
Company, with Cynen
Environmental Consultants.
Exceptionally high
environmental performance
standards have been achieved
through development
programmes that use natural
materials and processes to
recreate the unique character
of each site.
Welsh Slate has been awarded
ISO 14001 Environmental
Management System.
Quality assurance
Quality assurance
Welsh Slate is the group
consisting of the roong,
aggregate and architectural
interests at Penrhyn, Blaenau
Ffestiniog, Cwt-y-Bugail and
An Investor In People company,
Welsh Slate Limited was the
rst natural slate company in
the world to achieve IS0 9002
accreditation and to produce
roong slates satisfying BS680.
The company exercises
stringent quality control
measures at all stages of
extraction and manufacture
through to delivery.
Welsh Slate carefully selects
material at the rock face for
its best possible enduse. The
selected raw material is then
cut out using automated laser
guided saws into processable
blocks. Only the best material is
utilised for each product.
In 2002, the company
achieved BS EN ISO 9001:
2000 accreditation. Since
2004, Welsh Slate Limited
has been producing roong
slates in accordance with
EN 12326-1: 2004.
All LBS natural slates conform
to EN 12326: 1: 2004 and carry
guarantees that are backed up
by the supplying quarry.
Please contact the company
for further details.
BS EN 12326-1:2004
KM 8014
BS EN 12326-1:2004
KM 39388
BS EN 12326-1:2004
KM 21917
Welsh slate quality marks
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 27 8/9/08 16:39:51
Penrhyn Quarry, North Wales
Following centuries of tradition,
Bangor Blue slates originate as
huge quarried blocks that are
moved to the factory where
are divided into sizes suitable
for splitting into the sizes
Sample service
LBS provides a free sample service.
Please call the appropriate number on the back cover or email your
requirements to
published in this manual.
Edge-dressing and packing
complete the operation for
the hand-split slates for which
Welsh Slate has been famous
for generations.
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 28 8/9/08 16:39:53
Lagan Building
Northern Ireland
Sheepwalk Road
County Antrim
BT28 3RD
028 9264 8691
028 9264 8935
Republic of Ireland
Clonminam Industrial Estate
County Laois
057 866 0511
057 866 0611
Further copies of this or any
other LBS publications are
available on request. We also
invite you to visit our website:
Please send a scaled hard copy
of your plans or a pdf by email
where we can quantify your
drawings free of charge.
We have a team of sales
representatives who cover
the entire country from our
distribution centres in Lisburn
and Portlaoise and can deliver
samples and advise on your
specic projects.
Weve got
it covered
In association with
05677_Roofing_Tech_Brochure.indd 1 8/9/08 16:39:04