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First published in the UK in 2010 by mysousvide.co.uk 4 Delaware Road, London W9 2 LH
Notes: All recipes are for two people unless otherwise stated Quantities: 1 tsp = 5 ml 1 tbsp = 15 ml
All rights reserved Copyright © 2010 Ian & Evelyn Howarth
CONTENTS Introduction From nouvelle cuisine to modern cuisine Benefits of sous vide cooking Setting up a sous vide cooking trial Safety issues Basics of molecular cooking Smoking and roasting techniques Recipes
Starters Mains Sweets Cheese and biscuits Essential Equipment and utensils Glossary Index
INTRODUCTION Cooking en-sous vide is probably the most innovative development in modern cuisine. It is a process that has been embraced by most of the world’s top chefs because it delivers a level of precision in cooking which is unavailable through any other method. As amateur cooks we cannot aspire to reach the level of precision achieved by professional chefs using conventional cooking techniques, but with sous vide method, we have the opportunity to reach an equally high level. Sous vide cooking also has other striking benefits over traditional methods. It enables both the professional chef and the home cook to maximise the natural flavours of food, and at the same time retain most of the food’s nutrients. A parallel development to sous vide cooking in modern cuisine has been the increasing use in applying molecular techniques to the preparation and presentation of food. Sometimes this involves using familiar flavours in unusual contexts (as in Heston Blumenthal’s snail porridge or egg and bacon ice cream). Sometimes this technique involves using gelling agents that occur naturally in plant tissues, to create innovative textures with familiar ingredients. It is possible, for example, to prepare a pure pea puree, and present it so that it has the appearance of a green egg yolk, and when pricked will burst in the same way a barely cooked egg yolk does, spilling delicious pea puree onto the plate. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the reader to sous vide cooking and the fundamentals of molecular techniques through a few simple easy-to-prepare recipes. At first glance the recipes may appear complicated, because each dish has several components, many of which are unfamiliar. But, for example, the recipe for a “confit of smoked duck breast with crispy artichoke foam, broad bean puree, and orange and fig coulis” is far less complicated and less time consuming than a conventional “roast beef with roasted or mashed potatoes, two vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and beef gravy”. However, each recipe is accompanied with a simpler version.?? In this booklet, sous vide techniques are used mainly in preparing poultry and fish dishes. This is not because it is not appropriate for other ingredients, but because meats and vegetables require longer cooking times, and without specialist equipment such ingredients cannot be prepared en sous vide. Molecular techniques, on the other hand can be used in every dish, preparing some of the components using a molecular gelling agent (MG), and other components prepared using more conventional and familiar methods. As an illustration, the following recipe for citrus fruits prepared in seven ways (dégustation) uses two MG and four
conventional components: Orange supremes (conventional) Brittle mandarin foam (mg) Lemon and passion fruit sphere (mg) Lime and almond tuile (conventional) Pink grapefruit sorbet (conventional) Grapefruit syrup (conventional) Mixed candied zests (conventional) The main motivational force behind molecular gastronomy is to be able to prepare textures that are impossible to make by conventional means, and therefore give the diner a new, surprising and pleasant experience. None of the recipes should be thought of as being ‘fixed.’ The spirit of this cuisine is to explore and experiment, using one’s own creative ideas to change one ingredient for another, or to leave out one or more components, or even to add your own ingredients. Many components are worth preparing in greater quantity, so that the extra amount can be used for other elements of the recipe, or be frozen for other recipes. For example, it is not sensible to smoke just the two duck breasts required for the recipe in the booklet (page ). It would be better to smoke four or six breasts and freeze the extra. Similarly, when roasting nuts, it is best to make as much as five times the amount required in the recipe (page ). The remainder can be reserved in an airtight container for later use, or be consumed as a healthy snack. All of the recipes can be prepared using equipment and utensils found in most modern kitchens. Sometimes you can substitute one piece of equipment for one which will give the same result, such as using an electric hand whisk, instead of a hand blender. The demonstration on how to try sous vide recipes (Chapter 4) is solely to provide you with an insight into what you can achieve with the proper equipment. If you find that it is not for you, then at least you have avoided wasting money needlessly. If on the other hand, if you enjoy the food cooked en sous vide, you should then invest in the appropriate equipment. We hope that you enjoy your trial, and we hope that at least some of the recipes, or recipe ideas, will inspire you to embrace the new cuisines of sous vide and molecular gastronomy. Evelyn and Ian Howath
Escoffier is recognised as the father of modern French haute cuisine, and most of the classically trained chefs around
the world have been tutored in his techniques and recipes. His book, “ Le Guide culinaire”, published in 1903 gathered together and streamlined over 5000 recipes, and became the bible on classic French cuisine, and still remains so even today. Many of today’s leading British chefs were classically trained in some of the pre-eminent French kitchens However, during the early1970’s a group of young similarly trained Michelin-starred chefs in France, amongst them Paul Bocuse, and Jean and Pierre Troisgros, began to reject classical techniques in favour of a cuisine based on fresh produce, simpler lighter menus, and menus that were constantly changing. Moreover, the presentation of food on the plate became a cornerstone of the new cuisine alongside innovation and creativity. They were also interested in nutritious food and healthy eating. Classic haute cuisine continued to refrain from using the exotic herbs and spices from North Africa and the Far East that had been rejected in France since the Middle Ages. True, dishes could be prepared “á La Chinoise” and “á la Indienne”, but these merely reflected the use of ginger and curry respectively. Before the development of nouvelle cuisine, the French culinary landscape was probably the most introspective, and least eclectic. The new French chefs embraced the exotic ingredients including spices and fruits that were becoming available at Les Halles, the huge market in the centre of Paris. What these chefs were developing was not just a new cuisine, it was fusion cuisine. In addition to exploring new ingredients and new flavours, they were also interested in new techniques and processes. In 1974, one of these, Jean Troisgros, a three starred Michelin chef, became dissatisfied with the traditional method of making fois gras, and approached a local charcutier, George Pralus to see if he could prevent or significantly reduce the amount of fat from melting out of the product during cooking. His solution was to develop the first non commercial application of sous vide. At this time nouvelle cuisine was probably the most influential style of cuisine in the world, even having a strong influence in Japan. Strongly endorsed by the media, the movement became very successful and the chefs famous and wealthy, some even becoming TV celebrities. Unfortunately, the success of these chefs, attracted a whole army of less skilled chefs who opened restaurants offering poor imitations of nouvelle dishes, and eventually this undermined the reputation of the new cuisine. The legacy of ‘nouvelle cuisine’ for today’s modern cuisine is the emphasis placed on presentation, the freshness of ingredients, the composition of menus, and the combination of flavours. The presentation of food on the plate has become fundamental to modern cuisine, and it is becoming increasingly important in the home cooking environment. How the food looks on the plate delivers the first impression people get of what they would be actually eating. The better the food is presented, the more positive the effect it will have on our senses. This in turn will stimulate the palate, and create expectation and anticipation. At this stage of the dining experience, it is the senses of sight and smell that need to be ignited and excited, and therefore visual appeal and aroma need to be maximised. Those of us who follow “The Great British Menu” on BBC 1 will recognise how these elements affect the first stage in the judging process among the judging panel. The fundamentals of presentation are colour, shape and pattern. These elements make up the ‘canvass’ of the dish, but like any work of art, the dish needs a frame. Nowadays crockery and glassware are available in a host of shapes, and more recently colours too. However, for the home chef four basic shapes are sufficient for most plating designs: These shapes, in either plain white for side and dinner plates, or black in side plates for the two square designs will accomodate most design ideas for the home chef. Some design layouts will work best with one shape, whilst some food colours work better when presented on a white ground, and others on a black ground. Look how much more appealing this Indian style ice cream dish when presented on a black plate rather then a white one:
However, this chocolate dish looks better when served on a white ground, simply because the colour of the chocolate contrasts with the white, and it is easier to percieve the difference between the dark and the milk chocolates. Moreover, the shapes of the chocolate components are best suited to a square plate. Notice how the diagonal line of the chocolates draws the attention to the squareness of the plate, which in turn accentuates the squareness of the overall presentation Although nouvelle cuisine all but disappeared from the culinary language of the time, France was still the centre for culinary excellence. However, during the1990’s the focus for inspiration, invention and creativity in the professional kitchen shifted to Spain. During this period, Feran Adria, head chef at El Bulli, a restaurant in the town of Rosas, north of Barcelona, began experimenting with new textures. As the young exponents of nouvelle cuisine rejected the heavy sauces of haute cuisine, the team at El Bulli rejected starch based thickening agents in favour of a range of gelling agents called hydrocolloids. These agents, which occur naturally in vegetables such as seaweeds and beans, allowed the chefs at El Bulli to apply a new range of textures to familiar foods and ingredients. The first new texture to be offered in the restaurant was a light bean foam, made by placing a puree in a siphon, charged with nitrous oxide ( similar to a soda siphon) and sprayed onto the plate. The year was 1994, and later that year the bean foam was followed foams made from almond, beetroot and coriander. Success with foam textures, led to pioneering work on fruit and vegetable ravioli (spheres) and caviars (micro-spheres). These are liquids enclosed by a thin outer gel membrane. Many of the world’s top chefs have trained in his kitchen, and he is generally the acknowledged to be the father of the new modern cuisine with his pioneering work on molecular gastronomy. Texture, or rather the creation of a whole variety of textures from any single ingredient has become equally as important as taste, flavour and presentation. The ability to manipulate texture, by either conventional means or by using the new hydrocolloids enables the chef to create a whole new spectrum of flavours and textures from a single ingredient. Grant Achatz, owner of Alinea* in Chicago, which in 2010 was voted in the world’s top ten restaurants along with El Bulli, and The Fat Duck (Heston Blumenthal’s restaurant), has created this dish using rhubarb as the main ingredient: Rhubarb juice Dried rhubarb Rhubarb sponge on bay leaf Rhubarb sorbet Lavender poached rhubarb Gin compressed rhubarb Rhubarb gelée He could well have added rhubarb spheres, rhubarb foam, rhubarb ice cream rhubarb pudding, rhubarb genoise etc. Taste and flavour, of course are the final arbiters on how we judge the food placed before us. The search for new flavours and flavour combinations is one of the key motivations for professional chefs. The word umami has begun to enter their culinary language. ‘Umami’ is a word originating from Japan, popularly used to describe what the Japanese call ‘the fifth sense of savouriness’, following the first four senses of ‘sweetness’, ‘saltness’, ‘sourness’, and ‘bitterness’. It is now believed that the presence of umami in a dish will enhance its overall taste and flavour. Some food combinations are rich in umami, such as those of Tomato and Parmesan, Melon and Cured Ham, Steak and Caramelised Onions, and Pork and Beans, are classic and well-understood
. Foods which are naturally high in umami include: Parmesan cheese Cured ham Green tea Sardines, mackerel, tuna, and anchovies Shitake mushrooms Tomatoes Sweet potato Soy sauce Laver (Welsh seaweed) Red wine Olives Asparagus Beef and pork Some foods are not naturally rich in umami, but will become so as they mature, as a result of ripening. Some foods that are rich in umami, such as tomato, will become richer in umami as they ripen. Similarly, most meats become richer in umami as they mature with age, not just through hanging. Older animals are believed to have more umami. Umami flavour can be developed through searing, roasting, toasting and smoking of food. Searing meat in very hot oil elicits the Maillard Reaction, a process whereby the proteins on the surface of the meat are altered to raise the level of umami. Finally, long, slow cooking also helps to develop umami. By merely adding an ingredient which is already rich in umami, or an ingredient in which umami will develop will enhance the overall flavour of the dish. However, sometimes the addition of two umami-rich ingredients, will generate an intensity of flavour greater than the sum of the two individual parts. For example, Parmesan and Tomato together work in this way, but they will work even better when combined with Caramelised Onion. This is called ‘umami synergy’, and this is the holy grail of flavour. Finally, eating food whenever possible should be fun. If it can surprise or amuse, it will add an extra dimension to the eating experience. You don’t have to be a master of fun and surprise, such as Heston Blumenthal to elicit similar emotions, but you do have to look for opportunities to be creative. To illustrate the point, we have included a recipe which includes hot ice cream (recipe ), and another which presents a sorbet in an egg shell. It looks like a boiled egg with a runny yolk, but in the context of a starting dish In summary, we define modern cuisine as: Combining sous vide cookind techniques with the more conventional ones Creating variations in texture and colour and where possible food temperature within the same dish Maximising umami Creating visually appealing plates of foor Designing components within the dish which will surprise the diner or provide a sense of fun. We have endeavoured illustrate these elements within our recipes
Introduction to Sous Vide Cooking In one sense, the idea of cooking using the sous vide method is not new. Rather it goes back to the time when our ancestors started using fire to cook food. One of the earliest techniques, and which is still used today by certain cultures, is known as pit cooking. In this method, a pit is dug in the ground, and lined with stones on which firewood is placed. The wood is set alight and allowed to burn down to embers. Meat, fish or root vegetables are then place on the hot stones, and the whole pit, including the food, is then covered with earth or mud. Gradually, our ancestors learnt to wrap the food in leaves such as those of the banana or avocado plants. Some cultures around the world are still cooking food in this way. In pit cooking, the earth surrounding the food acts as an insulator, allowing the food to cook slowly, and at a reasonably constant temperature. The embers continue to burn by absorbing the air (and therefore oxygen) from the surrounding earth. It is the lack of oxygen which prevents the essential nutrients in the food from oxidising. Pit cooking mirrors sous vide cooking in the following ways:Low temperature Long cooking time Cooking in the absence of oxygen One of the characteristics of pit cooking is that the process imparts a smokiness to the flavour of the food being cooked. Smokiness adds e new dimension to flavour in the form of umami (page), and we can add this in various ways (pag) The most significant advance in cooking arrived onto the UK market in 1826 with the invention, and successful introduction, of the gas stove. This invention revolutionised domestic cooking, and many people in the cooking industry believe that in the not too distant future, ‘sous vide’ cooking will be regarded as an equally important landmark in culinary history. ‘Sous vide’ literally means cooking in a vacuum and requires: The food to be vacuum sealed in a plastic bag; A water bath into which the vacuum-packed food is placed, and whose temperature can be accurately controlled; A temperature-controller, capable of controlling and holding the water temperature within one degree centigrade. The plastic bag is fundamental for two reasons. Firstly, it is used to eliminate as much air (and therefore oxygen) as possible, thus preventing the loss of nutrients and flavours through oxidation. Secondly, under vacuum the bag allows for the efficient transfer of heat from the water to the food, which means that the food will be cooked efficiently, and in the quickest possible time. The ability to control the temperature of the water, and hence of the food, so accurately, enables the chef to determine with absolute certainty the degree of ‘doneness’ he wants to achieve. If, for example, you wish to cook a steak to medium rare conventionally, the centre of the meat will be cooked to medium rare, and the more you move from the centre to the outside of the meat, the degree of ‘doneness’ increases, and the outermost layer may be well done, and even dry. On the other hand, cooking the same piece of meat to medium rare by sous vide method, the ‘doneness’ will be consistent throughout; it will have the same look, the same texture, the same tenderness and juiciness from the centre of the meat to the outermost layer. When you encounter, for the first time, a piece of meat cooked through the sous vide method, particularly red meats, the appearance is a complete surprise. If, for example the meat has been cooked to medium rare, the surface looks
under done, although the meat is medium rare throughout. Being used to the conventional cooking, we don’t expect the outside of the meat to look the same as the inside. So you will need to sear the sous vide meat, in a pan, with a little vegetable oil, at a very high temperature, for about 15 to 20 seconds, each side. This process will cause a structural change in the outermost fibres of the meat (which is referred to as the ‘Maillard reaction’), and will give the meat the colour we are used to, as well as the unique taste and flavour, which will be very pleasant. There is yet no consensus within the food industry what temperature we will need to cook at so as to create a particular degree of doneness, but the following guidelines are currently being followed: Rare 52 to 55 °C (125 to 130 °F) Medium Rare 55 to 60 °C (130 to 140 °F) Medium 60 to 65 °C (140 to 150 °F)
We have not included a range for ‘well done’, as it is believed that, on reaching 67°C, the meat starts to lose its natural juices. However, cooking the meat to any degree between rare to medium is a matter of personal choice. In the case of chicken or pork, there are some safety issues which the home chef should be aware of (see [Douglas Baldwin] HYPERLINK "http://amath.colorado.edu/~baldwind/sous-vide.html" µhttp://amath.colorado.edu/~baldwind/sous-vide.html§ In chicken salmonella and e-coli bacteria are of greatest concern, and we are all taught to make sure that there is no pinkness in the meat, as this would indicate that the meat is not cooked properly.
There are also potential safety issues on all sous vide-cooked food, if the food is to be kept for later use (as in the case of chilled or frozen food). This would be especially so for commercial enterprises and restaurants. It is recommended that the sous vide-cooked food cooked in the home should always be consumed within four hours, and desirably, in less than that time. Fish is perfect for sous vide cooking, because through this method the natural and subtle flavours are enhanced, as opposed to conventional cooking where flavours are either masked or weakened. The guidelines for ‘doneness’ in fish are as follows: Rare 44°C 110°F Medium Rare 55° 130°F Medium 60°C 140°F
We ourselves prefer to cook ‘most kinds of fish to ‘medium’. So we recommend that you endeavour to cook all fish types to this degree of ‘doneness’. Advantages and Benefits of Sous Vide Flavour Sous vide cooked food is always full flavours, as the food is vacuum sealed. Nutrition The nutrients and vitamins are retained in the food, as the food is not exposed to liquids, air or high temperature. Juiciness All the juices are retained within the food cooked by sous vide. Tenderness Sous vide cooking transforms even the toughest cuts of meats, such as shoulder or breast of lamb, pork shoulder or ribs, poultry legs, and such cuts of beef as skirt and brisket, into very tender cuts. Texture The texture of the food does not deteriorate through sous vide cooking.
Doneness Food cooked by sous vide is cooked at exactly the same rate. So it will be cooked at exactly the same rate from the outside to the centre; Even if the food is left in the sous vide water bath/container for longer than the prescribed time, the degree of ‘doneness’ will remain the same. Economy With sous vide cooking, you can make the cheapest cuts of meat to look, taste and feel like the most expensive cuts; Also many cheap cuts happen to be the most flavoursome. For instance, brisket is generally known to be the most flavoursome cut of beef. Also meat from the breast of lamb is very tasteful, and it is known to make sensational koftas, moussakas, and cottage pies. .Consistency When you use the sous vide method of cooking, you will get the same quality of cooked food time after time, in the same way the professional chefs do. Umami By cooking food over much longer periods, as recommended for many of the sous vide recipes, the ‘umami’ is enhanced in the food. Setting Up a Sous Vide Cooking Trial In order to fully appreciate the pleasure and benefits of sous vide cooking, it is important that you acquire the appropriate equipment (page ...). But as this equipment can be quite expensive, we have designed this cooking trial using conventional, day-to-day cooking utensils. The method is designed to an accurate example of how food cooked by sous vide method should look, feel and taste, but it must only be used as a trial and for the ingredients specified We have selected to use fillet steak, salmon and duck for the main courses, as these are appropriate to be cooked by the sous vide method, and for safety reasons it is important that you do not substitute other ingredients
What You Need to Do You will need either a rice cooker, or a slow cooker, either with a warm setting. Plug the cooker into the electric socket and add two litres of hot (but not boiling) water, and set the cooker to warm. Leave it for ten minutes. This will allow the cooker to gradually rise its temperature from cold to warm. You must do this, as it is essential that the cooker is just warm before you set the temperature to that required for cooking process itself. While the cooker is warming, you will also have sufficient time to prepare the food in each of the recipes. Season the meat as specified in each recipe, and place in the Handi-vac plastic bag, and extract all the air using the Handi-vac machine. Whilst the cooker is warming, fill a container, such as a medium saucepan with cold water and add four or five ice cubes. Let the ice melt. Put 1¼ litres of water into a kettle, and bring to the boil You now need to empty the water from the cooker, and then replace it with the boiling water from the kettle,
followed with the iced water. Stir, using a wooden spoon or spatula. The temperature of the water in the cooker will now be around 60°C (140°F) and will cook the food to medium medium/rare. The warm control on the cooker should hold the temperature to within one degree of the target temperature, and will be long enough for the cooking times given in the recipes. Carefully lower the Handi-vac plastic bag containing the prepared food into the water, and leave for the time given in the appropriate recipe.
MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY Molecular gastronomy has been described as the scientific study of the physical and chemical processes that occur during cooking. Whilst that might be the most accurate definition, we prefer the definition given by the French scientist, Hervé This, who is recognized as the forefather of molecular gastronomy. He describes any dish as having three components: a love component - definition? an art component - definition? a scientific component - definition? As home chefs with a passion for food, we all try to deliver the love component, and to some extent, the art component. However, most home chefs certainly recognize that they have much to learn from the professionals, when it comes to presentation. However, we suspect that few of us have little regard for the science in cooking. But if we could learn and benefit from the ideas and recipes from some of the finest chefs in the world, we can happily ignore the science, and just prepare and present our family and friends with truly innovative and exciting dishes. In terms of pioneering new techniques, flavour combinations, and textures, Ferran Adria owner of the [world’s] finest restaurant, El Bulli, in Spain, started the revolution in 1994, when in March of that year the restaurant first served a bean foam, made using gelatine and a siphon (similar to the familiar soda siphon) to whip a bean pureé into a foam. Foams made from beetroot, coriander and almond followed in the same year. Later the restaurant pioneered ravioli (spheres) and caviars (micro spheres) made from a whole array of familiar fruit, vegetable and other ingredients. Nowadays, El Bulli is regarded as the cornerstone of modern global gastronomy, and many of the worlds greatest chefs were inspired by, or were even taught at, El Bulli, [Heston Blumenthal] being one. For many of us, Heston Blumenthal’s ‘egg and bacon ice cream’, and ‘snail porridge’ were our first encounters with molecular gastronomy. But as home chefs we don’t have to be so radical to be able to produce innovative dishes, which embody the three components: love, art and science! Molecular cuisine uses gelling agents, 100 % derived from natural substances, to create these unique textures: Spheres - can be likened to an egg yolk. It is a liquid contained within a very thin membrane, and it is all made out of fruit or vegetable juice. Crispy foams - Imagine a crunchie bar made from a fruit or vegetable but without the chocolate. Soft foams - Imagine the texture and feel of marshmallow or a whisked egg white. These foams can be formed from any fruit or vegetable juice, or even from dairy products, including cheeses and yoghurts. Brittle films & crisps - Can you imagine the brittleness of treacle toffee? You can make films, the thickness of a potato crisp, but made from 100% fruit or vegetable juice, and with the same brittleness of treacle toffee. Flexible films - These are like brittle films, but pliable. Bubbles & froths - These can look like soapy water or the froth on a cappuccino.
Geleés - These can have a texture ranging from the softness of jelly to the hardness of a fruit gum. They can also be either hot or cold. Smooth puddings - These have the feel and texture of double cream.
SMOKING FOOD Smoking food reminds us of BBQ’s and outdoor cooking, and smoking adds an extra dimension to the natural flavour of food. It enhances flavour in much the same way as adding salt does. Poultry, duck and fish are particularly well-suited to smoking. Smokiness can be added in three ways: To fish and meat by exposing the food to burning wood chips in a smoker; To fish and meats by cooking in a smoked ‘carrier’ such as smoked banana leaves; By adding an ingredient with a smoke flavour, which will impart smokiness to the food. Lapsong souchong tea and smoked banana leaves are ideal for this purpose. Smokers and wood chips are available for the domestic market (see our website), but perfectly acceptable smoked food can be prepared with some conventional cookware, and leaving out the wood chips. A grill pan with a wire rack will work quite well. Method When Using a Grill Pan, Wood Chips, and Lapsong Souchong Tea You will also need: Grill pan with a wire rack Kitchen foil - three times the width of the grill pan 2 tbsp fine chopped wood chips 2 tbsp soft brown sugar 1 tbsp rice (any type) 1 or 2 lapsong souchong tea bags Method: Line the grill pan with the foil Sprinkle the sugar on the foil, followed by wood chips, and then rice Remove the tea from the tea bags and sprinkle over the rice Lightly brush the wire rack with oil (to prevent the food from sticking when being smoked) Place the wire rack over the ingredients on the grill tray Place the food to be smoked onto the wire rack Loosely fold the foil over the wire rack, leaving sufficient space inside to allow the smoke to circulate freely Twist all the edges of the foil, enclosing fully the rack and food, to ensure that the smoke will remain inside (see images below) Lining the tray spread smoking ingredients lay fish on rack fold foil into an envelope
Place the grill pan on the smallest ring on top of the stove Switch the extractor onto full
Turn the ring to maximum heat, and leave for 10 minutes After 10 minutes, switch the heat off but the package unopened, and allow to rest for a further 10 minutes When you uncover the prepared food you will notice that the sugar has fused with the rice and the other ingredients. This is normal. The Smoked Food Fish - depending upon the thickness, the fish will almost certainly be cooked with just the smoking, and can be served immediately. It can also be made into a mousse, soufflé or fish pie (see recipe for smoked trout mousse on page....). Meat or Poultry - These can be cooked further en sous vide or by conventional means (see recipe for smoked duck breast page ) To achieve the best result, you should endeavour to use wood chips in the smoking process. Specially prepared wood chips are ideal, and are available in small containers through our website. The main types are: Alder, which provides a soft aroma suited to fish and poultry Hickory is a classic American hardwood used extensively for smoking, and gives a strong flavour Cherry imparts a full soft smoky flavour suitable for all types of ingredients Lapsong souchong tea bags can be used to obtain a smoky flavour to liquids, such as stocks, sauces, milk or cream. Simply add the tea bags, bring the liquid to simmering point, then remove from the heat and allow to infuse for 2030 minutes. Greater or less levels of smokiness can be achieved by infusing the tea bags for more or less time. A small piece of smoked banana leaf is included in the starter kit for use in one of the recipes (optional)
ROASTING AND TOASTING NUTS AND SPICES Roasting nuts Tips It is best to use blanched nuts for roasting, as this fully enhances their flavour. It is recommended that you roast nuts in bulk, and save in an airtight container, for use whenever you need to use roasted nuts. Roasted nuts can also be used as a healthy snack. Method Place the nuts in a bowl with a little water, and stir thoroughly to make sure that all the nuts are moist. Place the nuts on a baking tray, spreading them evenly Heat the oven to 150°C or 100°C (depending on type if nuts - see below) Place the tray with the nuts in the oven and leave for 15 minutes Remove the tray from the oven and thoroughly stir the nuts and re-spread them evenly Reduce the oven temperature to 100°C Place the tray back in the oven and leave for a further 15 minutes. Take the tray out of the oven, and remove the nuts from the tray, and allow to cool Taste the nuts for doneness. If not crunchy enough, place back in the oven for a little longer at 100°C Hazelnuts, almonds and peanuts - Oven should be at 150°C
Cashew, macadamia, pistachio and pine nuts - Oven should be at 100°C Roasted nuts can be used in a number of ways, for example: Used as a garnish when ground to a powder Used as a garnish, or to make sables or tuiles (see recipe ) when finely or coarsely chopped Made into a molecular component such as hazelnut gelee (see Recipe ...), or to flavour a liquid by infusion Toasting spices Toasting, like roasting, enhances and intensifies natural flavours. In this case it is the spice seeds being toasted. The commonly used spice seeds are: caraway, cardamom, clove, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, five spice, onion, pepper and star anise. Method Preparing Dry Marinade Place the seeds in a dry non-stick frying pan, and place on a low heat stirring continuously When the seeds start popping, or the aromas start being released, remove from heat, and allow to cool Place into a spice grinder, or mortar and pestle, and blend to a fine powder. HERE!!! 16/05/10 RECIPES All the recipes in this booklet are based on portions for two people. STARTERS Recipe 1. Smoked trout mousse with pea foam and smoked salmon shavings and savoury almond tuiles. Note; The smoked salmon shavings and almond tuiles need to be started the day before serving Trout Ingredients: 2 skinless trout fillets, about 100g Slice of Scottish smoked salmon (optional) 35g cottage cheese (or goats cheese for a stronger flavour) 50ml crème frâiche Juice of half a lemon Salt and pepper Method: Smoke the trout according to the instructions on page , but only on high heat for five minutes, and allow to rest off heat for a further five minutes. When cold, flake the trout, making sure there are no bones. In a food processor, blend all the ingredients, except the juice salt and pepper. Pass through a chinois or fine sieve, and season to taste with lemon salt and pepper. Chill until ready to serve.
Pea and mint foam Ingredients 100ml good quality vegetable stock 100g frozen peas or petit pois ½ tsp mint jelly Juice of half a lemon 1g lecithin Salt and pepper Method Cook the peas in the vegetable stock for a few minutes. In a food processor blend the cooked peas, stock and mint jelly, and then pass through a chinois or fine sieve. Season to taste with lemon, salt and pepper. Put the puree into a deep container, add the lecithin and blend with an immersion blender. Reserve Smoked salmon shavings You will need to start this the day before you plan to serve Ingredient one slice of smoked salmon Method Place a double layer of kitchen towel onto a dinner plate, and place the slice of salmon on top of the kitchen towel. Place a second double layer of kitchen towel on top of the salmon. Place a small saucepan, half filled with water on top of the salmon to press out some of the excess oil. Leave for half an hour. Roll the salmon into a cigar shape as tight as possible, and then roll in cling film. Twist the ends of the cling film to compress the salmon roll, and place it into the freezer overnight. Remove the salmon from the freezer, and working quickly, finely grate the salmon onto a non stick baking matt. Dry in an oven set at 100°C for up to 3 hours or until crispy. Reserve. Savoury almond sablé Ingredients 40g ground roasted almonds (see recipe on roasting nuts) 10g caster sugar 1 egg white 1½ tsp melted butter 1 level tbsp plain white flour
Method Place all of the ingredients except the flour in a bowl, and thoroughly mix together. Cover with cling film, and refrigerate overnight. The next day, sift the flour into the mixture, and mix thoroughly. Roll out onto a floured non stick baking sheet to a thickness of about 3mm (1/8 inch) thick. Cut into triangles, as follows:
The triangles should measure around 50mm along the base to 90mm high. Bake in the centre of the oven at 150°C for 15 minutes or until golden brown. Allow to cool and serve. Plating Place a mousse ring, or round mini mould, ( see glossary either about 70 x 35mm deep) onto the centre of a side plate. Carefully spoon the mousse into the ring, and gently pressing into the mould with the back of the spoon. If you don’t have a ring or mould you can use a desert spoon, but first dip it in hot water to prevent the mousse from sticking to the spoon Spoon the foam making a circle around the mousse, and about 12mm (1/2 “) away. Sprinkle the smoked salmon shavings over the mousse. Serve
Recipe 2 Crispy prosciutto cones, with melon spheres and camomile gelee, egg shell with melon sorbet and candied ginger yolk, fizzy watermelon juice, ginger syrup and raspberry ganish (Inspired by Gordon Ramsey in ‘ Healthy Appetite’) Melon spheres Ingredients 200g of flesh from a ripe cantaloupe or charantais melon 1 ½ tbsp ginger syrup (see below) ½ tsp alginate For the setting bath 500ml cold water ½ tsp calcium lactate For the rinsing bath, pour 500ml cold water into a saucepan Method Blend the melon to a puree in a food processor. Mix the sugar and alginate together in a cup. Transfer the puree to a saucepan, and add the sugar/alginate mixture. Using an electric whisk, whisk the puree continuously for 1½ to 2 minutes. Strain through chinois or fine sieve into a bowl, and allow to cool. Set aside one tablespoon of the puree and reserve the remainder in the fridge. Camomile gelee Ingredients 150ml boiling water 1 camomile tea bag 2 tbsp honey
3 g gelatine ?? Method Boil the sugar in the water until dissolved. Remove from heat and add the tea bag, and allow to infuse for 5 minutes. Remove the tea bag, and using an electric hand whisk, blend the gelatine into the liquid. Transfer to small container or ramekin dish and place in the fridge to set. Reserve Ginger syrup Ingredients 100g sugar 100ml water 1 inch piece of ginger root, peeled and finely grated ¼ tsp arrowroot powder Method Place all the ingredients, except the arrowroot, in a small saucepan, and bring to a simmer for 5 minutes. Remove from heat, and leave to infuse until cool. Strain through chinois or fine sieve into a bowl or container. Reserve. Fizzy watermelon juice Ingredients 300ml watermelon juice 100ml fizzy water 1 tbsp lemon juice 3 tbsp raspberry juice 2 shot glasses or liqueur glasses Method Blend all the ingredients, except the water together in a food processor and pass through a chinois or fine sieve. Reserve Melon sorbet Ingredients 100 g honeydew melon 100ml simple syrup (see page ) 1 tsp lemon juice 1 egg white 2 hard boiled eggs Method Carefully slice the tops off the hard boiled eggs (as if you were serving them as a dish with soldiers!) and remove the all the yolk and egg white.
Place the shells onto egg cups and fill with boiling water. Allow to cool and make sure there is no residue in the shells. Place the egg shells in a freezer bag and place in the freezer. Reserve Press the melon though a fine sieve and bend with the syrup and lemon juice. Place in the freezer and leave until the mixture is almost firm. Whisk the egg white in a small bowl until stiff peaks form. Remove the sorbet from the freezer and break up the sorbet thoroughly with a fork. Carefully fold the sorbet into the egg white until well combined. Fill the reserved egg shells with the sorbet and place in a freezer. Return to the freezer Crispy prosciutto cones Ingredients; Method Rap the prosciutto or ham slices around a savoy tube (icing nuzzle, and place on a tray in a pre-heated oven set at 150°C for an hour or until crispy and brittle. Allow to cool. Remove the nozzle and reserve the bacon cone. 2 thin slices of Prosciutto or Parma ham
Plating When ready to serve, prepare the setting bath, by dissolving the calcium lactate in the water, and whisking to make sure the lactate dissolves completely. To make the melon spheres have a cup of hot boiled water to hand. Dip a dessertspoon into the hot water, and then scoop some of the melon mixture onto the spoon. Hold the spoon just above the surface of the water, and lift the handle of the spoon so that the melon mixture flows off the end of the spoon into the water. Repeat until all the mixture is used, rinsing the spoon in the hot water each time to help the mixture pour easily into the water. Leave the spheres in the water bath for 20 seconds, then remove each separately and carefully fold into the rinsing bath. Reserve.. Remove the camomile gelee from the fridge, and dip the container into some hot water to loosen the gelee from the edges of the container, and tip the gelee onto a flat work surface. Using a hot knife cut the gelee into to 20mm cubes. Select the savoy tube used to make the bacon cones and place in a bowl of hand hot water for 10 seconds. Place the cube in the centre of the rectangular plate as illustrated, and use the warm savoy tube to make an depression on the top surface of the cube, to hold the bacon cone. Place the cone into the depression, and then place a melon sphere into the cone. Place an egg cup to one side of the gelee cube. Remove the sorbets from the freezer, and using a small tea spoon dipped in hot water scoop out a little of the sorbet from the centre to make a depression for the melon “yolk”, and place in the egg cup Place a shot glass on the plate on the opposite side of the gelee from the egg shell. Fill to two thirds full with the watermelon juice, and top up with fizzy water. Mix a little of the ginger infusion with the arrowroot, and stir into the rest of the infusion in a small saucepan. Bring to the boil to thicken the syrup and drizzle onto the plate as shown in the diagram . Mix a half teaspoon of the syrup with the reserved melon puree from making the spheres and place a little into the “yolk” depressions in the sorbet Spread a few raspberries around the plate
Recipe 3 Broad been soup with beetroot foam and feta cheese cream (inspired by Aiden Byrne ‘Great British Menu) Broad bean soup Ingredients 500ml good quality vegetable stock 100ml crème fraiche 450g frozen broad beans Juice of two lemons Salt and pepper Method Let the beans defrost, and then squeeze each bean between the thumb and forefinger to remove the outer membranes. Cook the beans in the stock until tender and then blend with the rest of the ingredients in a processor. Pass through a chinois or fine sieve into a bowl or container. Reserve. Beetroot foam Ingredients 100ml beetroot juice extracted with a juicer 2g lecithin Method Blend the lecithin into the juice. Reserve Feta cheese cream Ingredients 100ml Greek-style yoghurt 50g feta cheese Method Blend the ingredients in a processor to a smooth cream, and pass through a chinois or fine sieve into a bowl or container. Reserve Plating Warm the soup in a saucepan, and meanwhile blend the beetroot juice with an immersion blender to form a foam. Plate the soup, and using a table spoon, carefully drizzle the feta cream in a spiral on the surface of the soup, working from the centre outwards. Spoon the beetroot foam in drizzled drops around the edge of the soup.
MAINS Sous vide fillet of beef, with purees of potato, red pepper, and ginger, together with smoked paprika yoghurt, tomato chips and candied zests Beef Ingredients I medallion of beef fillet from the thickest end of the fillet, about 19mm (1”) thick Method Place the fillet in a Handi-vac bag and vacuum seal using the Handi-vac machine. Prepare the water bath as described on page and cook en sous vide for 30 minutes. Just before plating, remove the beef, and pat dry with a kitchen towel. Heat a little vegetable oil in a frying pan on high heat until smoking, and sear the steak for 15 seconds each side Potato puree Ingredients 1 large waxy yellow potato ( Desiree or Charlotte) 2 tbsp melted butter 2 tbsp double cream (or crème fraiche) Salt and pepper to taste Method Pell the potato, place in a steamer, and steam until soft throughout as tested with a fork. Place the potato with the butter and cream, into a food processor, and blend until smooth. Add a little more cream if necessary to achieve a smooth silky puree. Reserve Red pepper puree Ingredients 1 jar of preserved red peppers Salt Method Drain the peppers, and reserve the liquid. Blend the peppers to a puree in a food processor until smooth, adding a little of the reserved liquid if necessary. Season to taste, and reserve. Raisin puree Ingredients 100g raisins water
Method Place the raisins in a small saucepan, and barely cover with cold water, and leave to soak for approximately two hours. Bring to simmer, then remove from heat and allow to cool. Drain, and reserve the liquid. Blend the raisins with a little of the water in a food processor until pureed, adding more of the reserved water if necessary. Pass through a fine sieve or chinois, and reserve Smoked paprika yoghurt Ingredients 100ml plain yoghurt 1 tsp caster sugar ½ tsp paprika or to taste Method Mix the sugar and paprika together in a small bowl, and blend in the yoghurt using a fork. Make sure the paprika is well incorporated. Reserve Ginger syrup Ingredients 100 ml simple syrup (page) 40g peeled and thinly sliced ginger Method Put the syrup and ginger in a small saucepan and over a low heat simmer gently for 10 to 15 minutes or until the ginger is tender. Blend in a food processor until smooth and pass through a fine sieve or chinois. Reserve Red onion in vinegar gelee Ingredients 50ml red wine vinegar ½ medium red onion, finely chopped 1 tbsp sugar ½ level tsp agar Method Put the vinegar into a food processor with the sugar, agar and chopped onion, and blend until smooth. Pass through a fine sieve, or chinois, and put into a ramekin dish, and place in the fridge to set and until ready to use. Tomato chips Ingredients 1 medium plum tomato Salt
Method In a bowl blanch the tomato in boiled water (just off the boil) for about one minute. Empty the water and replace with cold water. When cool enough to handle, remove the skin and cut the tomato crosswise into 3mm (1”) slices. Sprinkle a silicone baking sheet with salt, and lie the slices on top. Place in an oven set at 60°C (°F) for three to four hours until crisp. Reserve Candied citrus zests Ingredients Zest of ½ orange Zest of 1 lemon Zest of 1 lime Zest of ¼ small pink grapefruit 200ml water 100g sugar Method Remove the peel from the fruits using a potato peeler or zester, making sure that no pith is left on the peel. If using a potato peeler trim the zest into strips about 3mm (1/8”) wide. Boil the water in a small saucepan, add sugar and continue to boil until all the sugar is dissolved. Add all the zest and simmer for I minute, and then remove from heat, and allow to cool. Leave to infuse for at least one hour. Reserve Plating The ideal plate shape is a rectangular one. Start by cutting the disk of beef into quarters
Recipe 5 Sous vide smoked salmon with tomato coulis, lemon, cucumber and mayonnaise gelees, smokey bubbles First prepare a mould using a small empty 300ml fruit juice carton for the gelées. Cut the top of the carton along the dotted line as illustrated below an reserve.
Lemon gelee Ingredients 100ml water 20g sugar 2 tbsp lemon juice Pinch sea salt 2 saffron threads 1 level tsp agar Pinch smoked paprika
Method Grind the saffron threads with sea salt in a mortar and pestle, or grind using the back of a spoon on a saucer, to make a yellow powder. Mix the powder with all the other ingredients except the agar and lemon juice and bring to a simmer in a small saucepan. Add the lemon juice and agar and blend continuously for 11/2 minutes. Remove from heat and allow to cool for about 1 minute and then pour into the prepared carton and allow to cool and set. Mayonnaise gelee Ingredients 80 ml semi skimmed milk 3 tbs mayonnaise ½ level tsp agar S&P Method Bring milk to a simmer and then remove from heat. Whisk in the mayonnaise and continue until completely dissolved and season to taste. Add agar, bring to boil and whisk continuously for 1½ minutes. Remove from heat and allow to cool for about 1 minute, and then pour into the prepared carton on top of the lemon gelee and allow to cool and set. Cucumber gelee Ingredients ½ cucumber ¼ tsp sugar Pinch sea salt ½ level tsp agar Method Peel and de-seed the cucumber and roughly chop. Blend in a food processor with the sugar and salt. Pass puree through a fine sieve or chinois and transfer to a small saucepan. Bring to boil, add agar and whisk continuously for 1 ½ minutes. Remove from heat and allow to cool for about 1 minute and then pour on top of the mayonnaise gelee in the prepared carton, and allow to cool and set. Place the carton into the refrigerator until ready to serve
Salmon Note; It is important to brine the salmon before cooking as this will prevent albumen leaching out of the salmon during the cooking process. Ingredients 2 salmon fillets about 20mm (3/4”) thick 1 smoked banana leaf (supplied) washed in clean water
For a brine mix: 1 litre water 80g sea salt 20g sugar Method In a large bowl dissolve the sugar and salt in the water to make the brine, and then add the washed salmon fillets, and leave for 30 minutes. Whilst waiting, prepare the tomato coulis and smokey bubbles Remove the salmon from the brine, rinse and pat dry with a kitchen towel. Season, and wrap the fillets side by side in the banana leaf, and place in a Handi-vac bag. Remove the air from the bag using the Handi-vac machine. Prepare the cooking vessel as described in Chapter 4, and place the bag in the water. Cook the fillets for 12 minutes, and then remove from the bag. You can either serve, or sear the fillets in very hot oil for about five seconds each side. Whilst the salmon is cooking in the water bath, prepare the gelee for plating. Tomato coulis Ingredients 100ml crème fraiche 3 large ripe plum tomatoes or 200ml passata 1 ½ tbsp extra virgin olive oil 2 small shallotts finely chopped 1 clove of garlic finely chopped 1 ½ tsp brandy Salt and pepper Method In a small saucepan sweat the shallots for three minutes on a low light, followed by the garlic and paprika (if using) and cook for a further two minutes. Remove from the heat, add the brandy and allow to steep for a minute. Blanch the tomatoes in boiling water for a few minutes, then peel, core and de-seed. Place the tomatoes (or passata) in a food processor with the evoo, crème fraiche, shallot/garlic mixture, and blend until smooth. Season to taste with salt and pepper, and then pass through a chinois or fine sieve. Reserve Smokey bubbles Ingredients 125 ml water 2 lapsong souchong tea bags 2 tbsp sugar 1 tsp lemon juice 1 tsp lecithin Method
In a small sauce pan, bring the water to the boil and then remove from the heat. Add the tea bags, sugar and lemon juice. Allow to infuse for about ten minutes, and then remove the tea bags. Add the lecithin and whisk using a blender or hand whisk until the liquid forms bubbles. Place in a jar or container and reserve.
Prepare the gelee for plating Remove the gelee from the fridge, and place the carton face down on a work surface. Starting at the open end, carefully cut along each edge of the carton to expose the gelee Using a knife dipped in boiling water, carefully slice the four edges of the gelee to form a clean sharp-edged block, measuring about 10 x 5 x 3cm. Using a hot knife, cut the block of gelee into two haves, as shown with the red line.
Now cut each block diagonally from one corner to the opposite corner as shown in the plating diagram To serve hot, leave the gelee whole and untrimmed. Carefully place it in a bowl of vey hot water but well below boiling, and leave for 10 minutes. Remove from the bag and trim as above. Serve immediately. Plating Place the salmon fillets on each plate, slightly offset from the centre Drizzle the coulis in a circle around the outside of the plated salmon and gelee. Quickly whisk the smoked bubbles to make a very light froth, and using a teaspoon, scoop some of the froth on top of the salmon. Serve
Recipe 6 Confit of smoked duck breast, with crispy skin, orange and fig coulis, crispy Jerusalem artichoke (or turnip) foam, broad been puree and mixed seeds Duck breast Duck 2 small skinless duck breasts 1 tub duck fat Method Set up a smoker according to the instructions in page 12 Place the duck breast on a wire tray or trivet, and seal
within the foil envelope. Heat the prepared container on high for ten minutes and then turn off the heat and allow to cool for ten minutes, still covered. Remove the breasts and allow them to cool thoroughly. Smear the reserved duck fat on the breasts, and place in a Handi-vac bag. Using the handi-vac machine, remove all the air, and place the sealed bag in the fridge until ready to use. Orange and fig coulis Ingredients 100ml fresh orange juice 3 fresh figs or 2 dried figs 1 tsp honey ¼ tsp arrowroot Method Cut the figs in half and scoop out the flesh, and place into the orange juice together with the honey in a small saucepan. If using dry figs place them in a bowl with the orange juice and leave to soak for at least three hours. Warm the liquid stirring until the honey dissolves and set aside. When cool pass the juice through a chinois or fine sieve to remove the seeds. Reserve Crispy Jerusalem artichoke foam Ingredients 100ml artichoke juice extracted using a juice extractor 10ml water 10g sugar 1 tsp methyl cellulose Salt Method Put the juice, water and sugar in a small saucepan and bring to a simmer. Remove from heat, allow to cool, transfer to a bowl, and place in a fridge for an hour. When chilled, add the methyl cellulose to the liquid, and blend using a hand whisk the liquid on a low setting until the methyl cellulose is well incorporated. Now set the hand whisk on its highest setting, and whisk the liquid on high until stiff peaks form. Using a palette knife, spread the foam evenly onto a non-stick baking sheet, to a thickness of 20 to 25cm Place in an oven set at 100°C to dehydrate for about three hours or until crisp. Reserve Broad bean puree Use 100ml of the broad been puree used to make the soup (page 19) Or use the recipe to make 100ml of the puree, adjusting the quantity as necessary. Reserve Duck breasts
Method Set up the cooking bath according to the instructions given in Chapter 4. Place the bag containing the duck breasts into the water bath and leave for 30 minutes. Remove the breasts from the bag and sear each breast on both sides in a little very hot oil in a frying pan for about 10 seconds each side. Allow to rest for a minute and then slice each breast at an angle of about 45° into four slices Plating Plate according to the following design
SWEETS Recipe 7 CHOCOLATE FOUR WAYS Pliable chocolate ganache with rum, milk chocolate truffles with passion fruit, crispy dark Mexican chocolate foam with chilli , white chocolate gelee with almond, raspberry and passion fruit syrups, and smoked cream foam Ingredients 250 ml double cream 100g dark chocolate (at least 70% solids) 1 tbsp water 2 tsp pure fruit sugar (fructose) such as Frusana ¼ tsp agar ¾ tsp gelatine pinch sea salt 1 tbsp dark rum (optional) Method Grate the chocolate into a glass bowl. In a small saucepan, bring to boil the water, sugar, gelatine and agar, whisking continuously until dissolved. Add the cream and salt, stirring until the cream is fully incorporated. Remove from heat. Pour the cream mixture through a chinois or fine sieve, and gradually add to the grated chocolate, stirring continuously until all the chocolate has melted. Pour the chocolate mixture onto the centre of a non-stick baking mat, and using a palette knife, spread the mixture to a thickness of about 12mm ( ½ inch). Place in the fridge until set. Cut into 20mm squares and reserve in a covered container Milk chocolate truffles with passion fruit Ingredients 100g good quality milk chocolate 15g (1 tbsp) softened butter
6 to 8 passion fruit 1 tsp honey A little cocoa powder for dusting Method Cut the passion fruit in half, scoop out the seeds into a sieve, placed over a small bowl, jug or container, and using the back of a dessert spoon gently press the seeds to release as much juice as possible into the bowl. Place half the juice in a small saucepan with the honey, warm until the honey is dissolved, and then remove from heat. Reserve the remaining juice in a cup to make the syrup Chop the chocolate using a serrated knife, and place in a bowl over a pan of hot water (just off the boil), but make sure the bottom of the bowl does not touch the water. When the chocolate is completely melted, stir in the passion fruit juice followed by the butter and honey, and continue stirring until the butter and honey are fully incorporated. Chill the mixture in the fridge for ½ hour or until the mixture has thickened. Stir the chocolate mixture gently, and then spoon into a piping bag fitted with a plain 12mm diameter nozzle, or one of a similar size. Pipe balls of the chocolate onto a tray covered with parchment or onto a non-stick baking sheet. Each ball should be about 20mm ( ¾ inch) diameter. Place in the refrigerator overnight. Remove from the fridge and using the palms of your hand roll the balls of truffle into spheres. Then, using a spatula, flatten the edges and top of each ball to form a square. Dust with cocoa powder. Reserve in the fridge.
Rigid Mexican dark chocolate foam with chilli Ingredients 100g Mexican dark chocolate with chilli (available from most supermarkets) 2 tbsp (30ml) crème fraiche 3 egg whites 1 tbsp caster sugar Pinch cayenne pepper (optional) Method Chop the chocolate using a serrated knife, and place in a bowl over a pan of hot water (just off the boil), but make sure the bottom of the bowl does not touch the water. When the chocolate is completely melted, stir in the crème fraiche, sugar, and cayenne pepper if using, and continue stirring until they are fully incorporated. Whisk the egg white until stiff peaks form. Using a spatula, gently fold the egg whites into the chocolate mixture. Using the spatula, spread the mixture onto a non-stick baking sheet (or parchment) to a thickness of about 20mm ( ¾ inch) Heat the oven to 100°C (200°F), and place the baking sheet in the oven for three hours, or until the foam is brittle and breaks with a snap. Cut into 20mm cubes using a serrated knife. Reserve in a sealed container White chocolate gelee Make the chocolate sauce immediately before serving Ingredients CHECK QUANTITY TO MAKE 2 GELS 35MM SQUARE
100g white chocolate grated 12g unsalted butter 2 tbsp water 2 tbsp finely chopped roasted almonds gelatine Method Put all of the ingredients, except the almonds and gelatine into a small saucepan and warm over low heat until the chocolate has melted. Stir in the almonds and gelatine, and pour half into a suitable mould such as soufflé dish, and half into a second dish, and allow to cool before placing in the fridge to set. When set, remove from the fridge, and place the dish in a bowl partially filled with hot water for a few seconds to release the gelee from the edges of the bowl. Make sure that the bowl contains only enough water to rise up ¾ side of the dish holding the gelee. Repeat with the second dish. Carefully tip the gelees onto a flat surface, and using a knife dipped in hot water, cut each gelee into cubes about 20mm square and place on a suitable plate, and place in the fridge until ready to use. Raspberry coulis Ingredients 100g raspberries 40g sugar arrowroot Method Place the raspberries in a pan, and place on the hob in a covered saucepan. Warm over the lowest heat, stirring occasionally. Stir in the sugar, and allow to cool, still covered. When cool, pass through a fine sieve to remove all the seeds. When ready to serve, mix a little juice with the arrowroot and mix with the rest of the juice. Pour into a small saucepan, and over the lowest heat warm coulis until it thickens. Serve. Passion fruit coulis Ingredients Method Take the reserved passion fruit juice prepared earlier for the chocolate. When ready to serve, mix a little juice with the arrowroot and mix with the rest of the juice. Pour into a small saucepan, and over the lowest heat warm coulis until it thickens. Serve.
Smoked cream Ingredients 100ml single cream I lapsong souchong tea bag
1 tbsp fructose Pinch sea salt Method Place the cream in a small saucepan, and bring to simmer. Add the tea bag and remove from heat. Allow the tea to infuse for 20 minutes or to taste. Add all the other ingredients, and gently warm to dissolve the sugar salt. Pour into a suitable container and place in the frdge until ready to use. Plating Remove the truffles from the fridge. Dust a plate with the cocoa powder, and carefully coat each of the truffles, shaking off any excess before plating.
Recipe 8 CITRUS DEGUSTATION Orange segments, liquid mandarin gelee, lime genoise, pink grapefruit sorbet, grapefruit glass, lemon custard and candied zests Orange segments Ingredients 1 orange 3 tbsp water 3tbsp fruit sugar Method Make a simple syrup by dissolving the sugar in the water in a small saucepan, bring to a simmer and then remove from heat. Reserve Using a sharp knife, carefully cut the peel from the orange in a spiral, leaving as much of the flesh as possible, but removing all of the pith. Carefully cut inside the membranes and remove each of the segments from the orange. Select the six segments most even in size, place them in an airtight container, and pour over the reserved syrup. Reserve. Liquid mandarin gelee (mandarin pudding) Ingredients Mandarin segments from a tin of mandarins 1 tsp agar 1 sheet gelatine Method Strain the segments and discard the syrup. Blend the mandarin segments to a puree in a food processor. Transfer
the puree to a saucepan, add the agar and gelatine. Bring the puree to a simmer whisking continuously and continue to simmer and whisk for 1½ minutes. Strain through chinois or fine sieve into a bowl, and allow to cool and set. Place in a covered container and place in the fridge overnight. Reserve. Pink grapefruit glass This needs to be started three day before serving Ingredients 100ml juice using a squeezer (about 1 grapefruit) 4 tsp caster sugar 1 tsp methyl cellulose
Method Mix the sugar and methocel together thoroughly. Pour the juice into a bow and then add the sugar to the juice. Blend using a hand blender for about 2/3 minutes, and leave covered overnight in the fridge to hydrate. Select a flat surface in the kitchen where you can place a silicone baking sheet that can remain undisturbed for two days. Raise the four edges of the sheet using four knives each one positioned parallel to the edge and just underneath. This will prevent the liquid from spilling over the edge. Pour the juice onto the centre of a silicone baking sheet, and allow the liquid to spread outwards. Leave the film to dry out for two days. When the film becomes brittle, break it into shards of about 50mm (2”). Reserve in an airtight container. Lime génoise This recipe makes enough for one 9" x 6" sheet Ingredients 60g plain flour 2 tablespoons butter (preferably clarified) large pinch salt 3 eggs 60g fruit sugar or 90g caster sugar 1 tbsp fresh lime juice
1 teaspoon grated lime zest
Method Melt the butter in a small saucepan and carefully pour the butter into a warm dish, leaving the butter residue behind. Add the lime juice and stir into the clarified butter Put the fruit sugar into a bowl, add the lime zest and the eggs and whisk to combine. Set the bowl over the pan of simmering water, making sure that the bottom of the bowl doesn’t touch the water. Warm the mixture until it’s warm to the touch, and whisk to dissolve the sugar, and remove from the heat. Whisk the mixture on the highest setting until the volume of the whipped mixture is about three times the size of the original mixture Carefully pour a few tablespoons of the foam into the butter lime juice mixture and fold to incorporate. When fully incorporated, gently fold this mixture into the whipped egg mixture. Sift the flour and salt into the mixture, and carefully fold the two together until fully incorporated. Using a spatula, spread onto a non-stick baking sheet to a thickness of about 19mm (¾”). Bake in a pre-heated oven at 165°C for about 20 minutes, or until golden and the top is springy when touched. You can test further by inserting a skewer in the centre of the cake. If it comes out clean the cake is done. Leave to cool and reserve. Pink grapefruit sorbet
Ingredients 1 pink grapefruit 75g caster sugar 230ml natural yoghurt 12g gelatine powder 2 egg whites Method Using a sharp knife, carefully cut the peel from the grapefruit in a spiral, leaving as much of the flesh as possible, but removing all of the pith. Carefully cut inside the membranes and remove each of the segments from the grapefruit, and place in a bowl. The membrane can be squeezed over the bowl to extract as much juice as possible. Discard the membrane. Blend the segments in a food processor, and add sugar to taste. You want the sorbet to be sharp to contrast with the sweetness of the orange and mandarin in the final dish. Add the yoghurt and blend to a smooth puree. Strain through a fine sieve or chinois into a clean bowl. Mix the gelatine with a little warm water and allow to dissolve. Meanwhile, whisk the egg whites to stiff peaks. Vigorously stir the dissolved gelatine into puree, and then fold in the egg whites. Spoon the mixture into a container, cover, and place in the freezer overnight. The following day, transfer the frozen sorbet to a food processor and pulse until the sorbet is smooth. Return the sorbet to the container and place in the fridge until ready to use.
Lemon custard You want to serve the custard hot and runny, so it is best prepared just before service Ingredients 4 tbsp lemon juice 100ml double cream 1 Tbsp milk 2 large egg yolks 5 tsp sugar Method Preheat the oven to 150°C. Place the juice, sugar and egg yolks into a bowl and whisk on high speed for about five minutes to incorporate all the ingredients. Gently heat the cream and milk in a small saucepan, stirring continuously till the mixture is hot, being careful not to allow it to reach simmering point. Gently add the cream to the egg mixture, whisking continuously on a low speed. Pour the mixture into a large ramekin dish (or small glass bowl) and place into a roasting dish. Fill the dish with boiling water until the level reaches half way up the ramekin dish. Cook the custard for about 40 minutes. Using an ice cream scoop, place three half scoops onto the plate as in the design below. Candied zests Peel the zests from the fruits using a potato peeler, making sure that the zest is free from pith.
Ingredients Zest of 1 lemon Zest of 1 lime Zest of ¼ small pink grapefruit Zest of ½ naval orange 300ml water 100g sugar Method Boil 100 ml of the water in a small saucepan, add the zests, and simmer for one minute. Remove from heat, allow to cool, then drain and dry on a kitchen towel. Add sugar to the remaining water and bring to the boil, and continue boiling until all the sugar is dissolved. Add all the zest and simmer for I minute, and then remove from heat, and allow to cool. Leave to infuse. Reserve Plating Take the mandarin pudding from the fridge, and blend to a smooth liquid gel using a food processor or hand blender, and reserve. Next place the orange segments in a triangle in the centre of the plate, with the narrowest edges of each segment facing inwards. Spoon some of the mandarin pudding into the triangular space between the segments. Using a bread knife, carefully cut a rectangle of the genoise to rest on the thicker parts of the orange segments and over the mandarin pudding. Remove the sorbet from the fridge and stir thoroughly to break up the sorbet. Using an ice cream scoop, scoop an oval mound of sorbet and place it on top of the genoise. Pierce the sorbet with one or two shards of the grapefruit glass. Using an ice cream scoop, place three half scoops onto the plate as in the design below. Finally, sprinkle some of the candied zests around the outside of the plate.
Recipe 9 INDIAN ICE CREAMS Hot Charantais melon ice cream, saffron kulfi, with date and tamarind syrups, and pistachio and strawberry crisps. Pomegranate seeds to garnish ( Inspired by Anjum Anand from “ Indian food made easy”) The hot melon ice cream is based on charantais melon rasayana, which is a traditional Indian cold sweet. Kulfi is a traditional Indian ice cream but made with full fat milk instead of eggs and cream. Melon ice cream Ingredients
100 ml charantais or cantaloupe melon puree 100 ml canned un-sweetened coconut milk 2 tsp fruit sugar 3 tsp methocel Method Place all the ingredients in a food processor, and blend on pulse or a low speed for a few minutes until all the ingredients are incorporated. Cover with cling film and leave in the fridge overnight. About 30 minutes before service, place the bowl over a pan of simmering water, and leave until the ice cream has heated throughout. Serve Saffron Kulfi Ingredients 500 ml whole milk 2 tsp fruit sugar Large pinch saffron threads 4 green cardamom pods 3 tsp chopped pistachios 3 tsp ground roasted almonds Method Use a pestle and mortar to grind the saffron threads to a powder with a little of the sugar. Make a thin paste with the almonds and a little of the milk. Heat the milk in a small saucepan over low heat to simmering point. Add the saffron, almond paste, sugar and cardamom pods, and continue to simmer until the liquid has reduced by half. Allow to cool and pass through a fine sieve or chinois into a bowl. Add the pistachios, stir thoroughly, cover with cling film and put in the freezer for three hours. Remove and stir the ice cream to break up any ice crystals. Return to the freezer for another hour and stir again. Return to the freezer and leave until set. Half an hour before serving put the ice cream in a mini blender, and quickly blend until smooth. Return to the freezer until ready to serve Date syrup Ingredients 100gm stoned and chopped Medjool dates. About 4 dates 100ml dry white wine 1 tbsp port Pinch salt Method Place all the ingredients in a small saucepan, cover and simmer for one hour. Transfer to a food processor and blend to a smooth puree. Pass through a fine sieve or chinois into a squeeze bottle or suitable container. Reserve Tamarind syrup
Ingredients 4 tsp tamarind paste 5 tbsp dry white wine 2 tbsp fruit sugar 4 pinches of cumin seeds About 16 coriander seeds Method Dry toast the seeds in a small saucepan on low heat until the aromas are released. Allow to cool and grind to a powder in a spice grinder or pestle and mortar. Place the powder back in the saucepan together with all the remaining ingredients, and bring to simmer. Remove from the heat and allow to cool. Reserve in a squeeze bottle or suitable container. Candied roasted Pistachio (SEE Achatz) Pistachio Tuiles Ingredients 4 sheets filo pastry 50g pistachio nuts 5 tbsp caster sugar 5 tbsp plain flour 90ml melted butter Method Preheat your oven to 350 degrees. Toast the nuts on a low light in a dry frying pan and allow to cool. Chop the nuts finely in a mini food processor or coffee grinder. Mix together the chopped nuts, sugar and flour in a bowl and set aside. Place a non-stick baking sheet on a flat surface, and lay a sheet of filo pastry on top. Brush the pastry lightly with butter. Sprinkle the pastry with approximately one third of the nut mixture. Repeat the process with another layer of filo pastry, butter and nuts. Finish with a final sheet of filo pastry. Lay a sheet of grease proof paper on top of the pastry, and lightly roll with a rolling pin. Remove the paper, and brush with melted butter Cut the layered sheet into rectangles (about 19mm x 80mm) or triangles. Bake the tuiles in the oven for about 10 to 12 minutes or until light gold Remove them from the oven and let cool for five minutes.
Strawberry crisps Ingredients 100g ripe strawberries 2 tbsp icing sugar Method Heat the oven to 100°C (225°F). Hull the strawberries, and slice thinly to about 3mm (1/8”) thick. Using a fine sieve sprinkle the sugar onto a silicone non stick baking sheet and lay the strawberry slices on top. Dehydrate in the oven for two hours. Remove from the oven, sprinkle more sugar onto the slices, then turn each slice over and return to the oven for a further half hour. Remove from the oven and allow to cool. The slices should be crisp. If not, return to the oven for a further 5 to 10 minutes. Reserve in an airtight container Plating
Recipe 10 CHEESE AND BISCUITS Almond tuile Ingredients (makes about 12 tuiles) 60g toasted flaked almonds 10g plain flour 1 tsp melted butter 10g caster sugar 1 tbsp finely grated parmesan 1 egg white Pinch salt Method In a bowl, combine the sugar, flour and almonds, and using a wooden spoon stir in the butter. Cover with cling film and place in the fridge overnight. Heat the oven to 180° (350°F). Remove the dough from the fridge. On a non stick baking sheet, place a mound of the dough using a teaspoon. Repeat with the remainder of the dough, leaving about 10cm between each mound. Using the back of a teaspoon dipped in cold water, flatten each mound to form a thin biscuit. Bake in the oven for about three to four minutes, or just as they are starting to brown. Remove from the oven and sprinkle each tuile with a little of the grated parmesan. Return to the oven for one to two minutes, or until the cheese has melted. Remove from the oven and allow to cool. Reserve Feta cheese spheres Ingredients For the spheres 50g feta cheese finely crumbled
1 tbspl Greek style yoghurt 1 tbsp semi skimmed milk 2g calcium lactate For the setting bath 1l water 5g sodium alginate For he rising bath, 1 litre cold water in a bowl Method For the spheres blend all the ingredients together in a food processor until smooth and pass through a chinois or fine sieve. Reserve For the setting bath place the water and sodium alginate into a medium saucepan. Have a cup of hot boiled water to hand. Dip a dessertspoon into the hot water, and then scoop some of the feta mixture onto the spoon. Hold the spoon it just above the surface of the water, and lift the handle of the spoon so that the feta mixture flows off the end of the spoon into the water. Repeat until all the mixture is used, rinsing the spoon in the hot water each time to help the mixture pour easily into the water. Leave the spheres in the water bath for 20 seconds, then remove each separately and carefully fold into the rinsing bath. Reserve. Blue cheese cream Ingredients 50g blue cheese 1 tbsp + 1 tsp (20ml) yoghurt 1 ½ tsp avocado or grape seed oil (or vegetable oil) Salt and pepper Method Blend the yoghurt and oil in a food processor, and then add the cheese. Continue to blend until smooth and then pass through a chinois or fine sieve. Season to taste and reserve Mozzarella foam Ingredients 50 g mozzarella, crumbled 50ml semi-skimmed milk 0.5% lecithin Method Blend milk and cheese in a food processor until smooth. Warm the liquid, but not to simmering point. Remove from heat and allow to cool. Pass through a chinois or fine sieve. Reserve.
Plating Place three biscuits, slightly overlapping in a line across the top of the plate. Add the lecithin to the mozzarella mixture and using an electric whisk, whisk on high to form a foam. Using a teaspoon, scoop some foam
GLOSSARY Agar agar Arrowroot
Blanch Candied Carpaccio Chinois Degustation Evoo Fructose Ganache genoise Hickory Infuse Immersion blender Lapsong souchong Lecithin mi cuit Mini mould Mouse ring Sable Setting bath Simple syrup 50g sugar dissolved in 100ml water Squeeze bottle Supremes temperature controller Tuile