POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

Definition of power system stability according to IEEE:
Capability of a system to maintain an operating equilibrium point after being subjected to a disturbance for given initial operating conditions

Classification of Power system stability
Angle stability: Capability of the synchronous generators in the system to maintain its synchronism after being subjected to a disturbance. Frequency stability: The ability of the system to maintain a steady frequency, following a system drastic change resulting in a significant imbalance between generated and demand power Voltage stability: The capability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all its buses after a disturbance from an initial operating condition . Voltage Collapse: A power system undergoes voltage collapse if post-disturbance voltages are below acceptable limits (less than 0.8 p.u) in a significant part of system: Small disturbance voltage stability: This category considers small perturbations such as an incremental change in system load. It is the load characteristics and voltage control devices that determine the system capability to maintain its steady-state bus voltages. This problem is usually studied using power-flow-based tools (steady state analysis). In that case the power system can be linearised around an operating point and the analysis is typically based on eigenvalue and eigenvector techniques. Large disturbance voltage stability This category considers large disturbance such as system faults, switching or loss of load, or loss of generation. The capability to maintain its steady-state bus voltages is determined by the system and load characteristics, and the interactions between the different voltage control devices in the system. It can be studied by using non-linear time domain simulations in the short-term time frame and load-flow analysis in the long-term time frame (steady-state dynamic analysis)

Voltage stability timeframe: ± Short term/transient voltage instability: 0 - 30 seconds ‡ Motor dynamics/stalling ‡ Over Excitation Limiters ‡ HVDC and Static Var compensator ± long-term voltage stability: 1 ± 60 minutes ‡ Tap changers/Voltage regulators ‡ Over Excitation Limiters

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO VOLTAGE INSTABILITY

it will lose its capability of maintain constant secondary voltage in which case voltage collapse is likely to occur. They generate reactive power under light load since their production due to the shunt capacitance exceeds the reactive power requirement in the transmission line due to line impedance. Under heavy load. When voltage decreases in the distribution system. Underground cables produce reactive power since the power requirement never exceed the production due to their high shunt capacitance under all operating conditions. the load also decreases. But soon the generator field current reaches the ceiling level and with further increase in line current the terminal voltage decreases. they absorb more reactive power than they produce. HVDC link control strategies: Voltage stability problems may also be experienced at the terminals of HVDC links used for either long distance or back-to-back applications. Such a phenomenon is relatively fast with the time frame of interest being in the order of one second or less. The tap changer operates after time delay if voltage error is large enough restoring the load. Characteristics of transmission lines: Overhead lines either absorb or supply reactive power. Further. . They are usually associated with HVDC links connected to weak ac systems and are associated with the unfavorable reactive power ³load´ characteristics to the power system as HVDC converter consumes reactive power equal to 50-60% of the DC power. Decreasing terminal voltage causes further decrease in receiving end voltage and results in further voltage collapse. if the excitation system of generator is slow. The HVDC link control strategies have a very significant influence on such problems. the line current increases and generator excitation increase to maintain terminal voltage constant. If the resulting loading on the ac transmission stresses it beyond its capability. voltage instability occurs. the terminal voltage won¶t be able to keep up with the increasing line current and collapse process will be further intensified. On-load tap changer transformer physical limits. When the on-load changer reaches the physical limits. Thus the possibility of seeing voltage stability problem in buses decreases. Typically a transformer equipped with an on-load tap changer feeds the distribution network and maintains constant secondary voltage. depending on the load current. since the active and reactive power at the ac/dc junction are determined by the controls.Generator excitation limitations: With increasing load.

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