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y The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals. y Aspirations for national independence in a country under foreign domination. Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/nationalism#ixzz1HvmtCXTP
... political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount. Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state. Often nationalism implies national superiority and glorifies various national virtues. Thus love of nation may be overemphasized; concern with national selfinterest to the exclusion of the rights of other nations may lead to international conflict.
One of the grandest and most ironic examples of nationalism in the last 100 years transpired in Nazi Germany. The most fundamental aspects of propaganda were instituted into massive scales in order to promote national pride......as well as ethnic pride. The demonstrations held at Nuremberg were on a grand scale, the national flag was plastered on everything and I do mean almost everything. The call for national solidarity went out on a global scale, families that had settled abroad returned to "answer the call to the fatherland". In my opinion there has never been such a large scale turn towards national pride in history. Other example include the U.S. call to arms after Pearl Harbor. If you remember the post 911 days.....the flags dis[played in most neighborhoods, the commercials on our strength as a nation and our diversity at the heart of being American. The U.S.S.R. also had massive campaigns to assert nationalism within it's borders, however the reality of the corrupt and crumbling empire staunched any real sense of it's solidarity. Japan, being a true empire during WW2, was at it's peak of nationalism during this time. Giving ones life for his country was not only a willingly accepted duty but considered an honor. Of course this feudal system of classes had been in place for centuries and they did believe their emperor was a divine being. Nationalism is a nations sense of pride in its self, so any nation that isn't wracked by civil war is normally considered nationalistic.
The Battle of New Orleans is a huge example of Nationalism. It was a melting pot where all types of Americans came together to fight and defend our country at the end of the Revolution (Not that this Battle really count because the treaty had already been signed! XD)
In its first powerful manifestation in the French Revolution, nationalism carried with it the notion of popular sovereignty, from which some have inferred that nationalism can occur only in democratic nations. However, this thesis is belied by the intense nationalism that characterized the German Empire and later Nazi Germany. Where nationalism arises, its specific form is the product of each particular nation's history.
which placed people under one rule and eliminated feudalism . One aspect of this strategy was the destruction of whatever remnants of socialism remained in the countries of eastern Europe. . though the strongest loyalty continued to adhere to the sovereign. How does nationalism come about? For people to express nationalism it is first necessary for them to identify themselves as belonging to a nation. These feelings of cultural superiority (ethnocentrism). made this possible. the NDP rejected the nationalism of the Waffle and expelled its leaders. religion. they glorified the nation that would establish their aims. For its part. the nationalistic economic doctrine of mercantilism appeared. The religious wars of the Reformation set nation against nation. and the consequent development of democratic political theory were closely connected with the emergence of modern nationalism. that is. To them the nation was inseparable from the people. The rise of centralized monarchies. The first roots of nationalism are probably to be found in the ancient Hebrews. What is nationalism like today? Today it operates alongside the legal structure and supplements the formal institutions of society in providing much of the cohesiveness and order necessary for the existence of the modern nation-state. The resulting concern and apprehension generated amongst Canadians has given rise to this new wave of sentiment for Canadian sovereignty. language. which are similar to nationalism. their desire for political power. In the 16th and 17th cent. a large group of people who have something in common. in sections of the Liberal and Conservative parties. the state) exist. which were not yet single nations. The growth of the middle classes. As strong centralized monarchies were built from petty feudal states. Anglo-American. a people as a whole superior to all other peoples. During the 1960s and 1970s Canadian nationalism figured prominently in anti-imperialist and socialist politics. and for the first time in history a people could create a government in accordance with the nation's general will. economic self-interest. that is. The ancient Greeks also felt superior to all other peoples and moreover felt a sense of great loyalty to the political community. aimed primarily against American economic. recurring invasions led such thinkers as Niccolò Machiavelli to advocate national political federation. There were also currents of economic nationalism. The theorists of the French Revolution held that people should establish governments of equality and liberty for everyone. gave way to much more universal identifications under the Roman Empire and with the Christian Church through its teaching of the oneness of humanity. When both a common identity and a formal authority structure over a large territory (i. During the 1980s. In areas such as Italy. imperialism adopted the strategy of neoliberalism in response to a crisis in profitability. and as local economies widened. who conceived of themselves as both a chosen people. During the past year or two we have seen evidence of a resurgence of Canadian nationalism reminiscent of that of the 1 960s or of the period surrounding the debate over the Charlottetown Accord.e. some of its elements can be traced throughout history. political and cultural domination and a desire to defend Canadian sovereignty. The realization that they might possess a common history. then nationalism becomes possible. although it was always difficult to distinguish how much of this was based on a desire to defend Canadian independence and how much was based on narrow.Although nationalism is unique to the modern world. and a people with a common cultural history. and nationalism found its first political expression. or race also aided people in forming a national identity.. The question being debated in the Canadian Left is whether this nationalistic sentiment plays a positive or negative role in the struggle for social progress. Although their aims were universal. as regional languages and art forms were evolved. popular identification with these developments became increasingly strong. The embracing of those policies by the Mulroney and Chretien governments has placed in jeopardy whatever limited sovereignty Canada previously enjoyed. and the crushing of the nation-building in the liberated former colonies in order to bring these countries fully into the capitalist market.
and in Poland under Russian rule. Italy also achieved national unification and freedom from foreign domination. there were strong nationalist movements among the peoples subject to the supranational Austrian and Ottoman empires. nationalism appears to have grown more extreme with the breakup of the Soviet empire. and narrow rather than liberal. where thinkers such as Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Gottlieb Fichte had developed the idea of Volk . especially through the peace treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference established the principle of national self-determination. national unity was maintained at the cost of the Civil War.What was nationalism like in the 19th century? It was in the 19th cent. and therefore transcends a narrow nationalism that claims superiority for itself.. Turkey. large or small. it was a highly authoritarian and militarist state. as well as India.g.. the growth of Muslim fundamentalism. At the same time. were developing nationalist movements. The spirit of nationalism took an especially strong hold in Germany. seeking to cast off imperial bonds. Italian fascism was in a similar manner based on extreme nationalist sentiments. the nationalism that inspired the German people to rise against the empire of Napoleon I was conservative. they appear in many European nations and Canada. and many others. saw the establishment of many independent nations. which struggled for Indian independence for over 60 years. After many years of fighting. Nationalist conflicts had much to do with bringing on World War I. and universal. During this time nationalism expressed itself in many areas as a drive for national unification or independence. the Organization of American States. upheld by the League of Nations and later by the United Nations. It was exactly this latter type of nationalism. with the emergence in Europe of strong. the European Union. Although interdependence and global communications interconnected all nations by the 1990s. International organizations. However. It was turned against such international movements as socialism. but certain areas inhabited by Italians (e. In the latter half of the 19th cent. And when the fragmented Germany was finally unified as the German Empire in 1871. Iraq. In the United States. separatist movements are not necessarily confined to newly independent states. however. that arose in Nazi Germany. Lebanon. At the same time. Xenophobic. tradition-bound. and it found outlet in pursuit of glory and empire (see imperialism ). nationalism became increasingly a sentiment of conservatives. Indonesia. that nationalism became a widespread and powerful force. After World War II nationalism in Asia and Africa spread at such a fast pace that dozens of new "nations" were created from former colonial territorial holdings. Sri Lanka. Asian and African colonial territories. While self-determination is a nationalist principle. it also recognizes the basic equality of all nations. with the breakup of Austria-Hungary and of the Ottoman Empire. progressive. and the collapse of Yugoslavia. What was nationalism like in the 20th century? The early 20th cent. Trieste) were not included in the new state. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Indian National Congress . where nationalism had evinced itself in the doctrine of Manifest Destiny. Iran. such as the United Nations. and this gave rise to the problem of irredentism . preaching the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and the need for the extermination of the Jews and the enslavement of Slavic peoples in their "living space" (see National Socialism ). as there were in Ireland under British rule. however.. integrated nation-states. and the .
This is also another positive occurance. fierce support of international sports teams as well as the military of your country and other such things. "Types of nationalism: Nationalism may manifest itself as part of official state ideology or as a popular (non-state) movement and may be expressed along civic. Examples: Flying national flags. This also creates pride in one's country. usually this is an over exaggeration although some. represent attempts to curb extreme nationalism. if one happens to encounter another citizen of your country in that forgien place you and that parson feel immediatley bonded. cultural. because I did. although it can bring about dictators like hitler and Napoleon. or American flag on their rucksack? Because their proud to display that their part of that country. nationalism influences confidence. These self-definitions of the nation are used to classify types of nationalism. . stressing cooperation among nations. In this way. In sports a whole nation can be brought together to cheer for their country's team.Organization for African Unity.com/Q/Cite_examples_of_nationalism#ixzz1Hvkr4MGH What are the different types of nationalism? (see details)? Ok. see nationalism as being a reason for racism. Nationalist movements can also be classified by other criteria. Nationalism does have it's good traits. But I'm having some trouble with understanding the differences between the different types of nationalism. I'm sure as many others have. Positive points: Nationalism is a hard topic to decide if it is good or bad. People who would normally be competitors join forces to cheer for one cause. For example. when travelling to another country. When one goes travelling to a forgien land why do they put a Canadian. although certainly not the majority. I looked through my textbook but they don't explain it in a clear enough way for me to understand. Read more: http://wiki. Nationalism also makes the wellbeing of one's nation important and aids in economic advances. don't say I didn't do my homework. Nationalism is sometimes likened to racism in some countries.answers. religious or ideological lines. This is like in any competition. ethnic. Could someone please explain to me the differences between these types? I'm including an excerpt of my book so you can see what exactly I'm getting at. such as scale and location. fueling confidence. However such categories are not mutually exclusive and many nationalist movements combine some or all of these elements to varying degrees. but the main focus is that it can be used as a tool to bring people together. Also. singing anthems.
nor hereditary (children of members may be considered foreigners if they grew up in another culture). Irish nationalism is associated with Catholicism. If the state derives political legitimacy from adherence to religious doctrines. and based on culture and ethnicity. nothing against the State". but many of the early (18th century) nationalists were Protestant. Romantic nationalism emphasized a historical ethnic culture which meets the Romantic Ideal. Civic-national ideals influenced the development of representative democracy in countries such as the United States and France. and from its function to protect the national group and facilitate its cultural and social life. The religion is usually a marker of group identity. from the degree to which it represents the "will of the people". very often combined with ethnic nationalism. partly because of the many national minorities in China. In practice. Membership of the civic nation is considered voluntary. For example. . Indian nationalism has been associated with Hinduism. Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of ethnicity. Membership in the nation is neither voluntary (you cannot instantly acquire a culture). As a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism. epitomized in this slogan of Mussolini: "Everything in the State. Italian fascism is the best example. Most Irish nationalist leaders of the last 100 years were Catholic. much ethnic and cultural nationalism is in some way religious. a contemporary form of Hindu nationalism.Civic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry. Membership in the nation is hereditary. It implies that the nation is a community of those who contribute to the maintenance and strength of the state. and that the individual exists to contribute to this goal. Since India gained independence. Chinese nationalism is one example of cultural nationalism. rather than the motivation for nationalist claims. although Religious Zionism exists. then it may be more of a theocracy than a nationstate. which always includes some element of descent from previous generations. and usually a shared language. In modern India. or Hindutva has been prominent among some groups. (The 'Chinese nationalists' include those in Taiwan who reject the mainland Chinese government but claim the mainland Chinese state). as a group. Romantic nationalism reflected the ideals of Romanticism and was opposed to Enlightenment rationalism. Religious nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared religion. The state derives political legitimacy from its status as homeland of the ethnic group. folklore developed as a Romantic nationalist concept. State nationalism is a variant on civic nationalism. Ethnic nationalism is now the dominant form. the mainstream of Zionism is more secular in nature. Cultural nationalism defines the nation by shared culture. nothing outside the State. Irish nationalism never centered on theological distinctions. It also includes ideas of a culture shared between members of the group and with their ancestors. Similarly.
If you think you're a "part of something larger than yourself". but who do not actually want to leave their diaspora community.The Nation of Israel is not merely a reference to people from the State of Israel. as Benedict Anderson terms it. Basically nationalism has more to do with the definition of the word "nation" than anything. and is united by a common religion. Sometimes this sentiment becomes part of the State's official doctrine. But usually it's totally informal.In the USA.) State Nationalism. Other diaspora include the Irish in the United States and the Lebanese in the Americas and Africa.Rather than Wales being ruled by England and therefore being forced to speak English. Anderson states that Diaspora nationalism acts as a "phantom bedrock" for people who want to experience a national connection.S. rather than citizens. This is a dangerous sentiment. some serious. then you're probably experiencing something akin to nationalism. and that "something" is a bunch of people with whom you have something in common. along with other Africa-rooted people throughout the world. is Civic Nationalism in reverse. but all Jewish people. . They are comrades. Here are a few examples of "nationalism".Diaspora nationalism (or.I can't think of a better example than the one your book gives for this. but the people identify with the Nation because of "culture". If you feel like you're a part of a particular nation." Nationalism and Patriotism are basically the same thing. "long-distance nationalism") generally refers to nationalist feeling among a diaspora. and some not so serious: Civic Nationalism. Diasporic Nationalism.The Nation of Islam bridges huge parts of the world. Romantic Nationalism. A diaspora refers to any people forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands. The statement "he's not MY president" which was popular during the Bush years. Cultural Nationalism. and the English ought to mind their own business. what you're experiencing is nationalist sentiment.When a people's culture is united by a powerful allegiance to the State. "if you don't vote. whatever that may be.It's basically the same as other kinds of nationalism. Ethnic Nationalism. what you have is State Nationalism. . Wales is where everyone speaks Welsh. are a part of the African diaspora. African-Americans in the U. May I suggest that the "Raider Nation" of Oakland Raiders fans are a good example of this. Religious Nationalism. you can't complain" is a civic nationalist sentiment.
a sovereign entity dominated by a single nation. but do not necessarily hold views about the significance of nationality elsewhere. behind their own borders can negotiate with each other fairly and amicably. and how you see yourself fitting into the world around you. economically and culturally. cultural. an anti-industrial Hindu ascetic. religion. and has no official source or significance. as a natural embodiment of the identity and will of the citizens. It is particularly associated with German reactions to the universalism and rationalism of the Enlightenment.Nationalism has much to do with how you view your own identity. Russian. good fences make good neighbours : peoples who are secure. It thus contains a different dimension from mere patriotism. creates a firm base for legitimate government. a modernizer and believer in rational planning. regimes which were oppressive and illiberal. K. or humanity in general. People who call themselves "citizens of the world" are nationalistic. Another is that. and ethnic grievances which have proved persistent. which can be a devotion to one's country or nation devoid of any project for political action. The implementation of the principle of self-determination by the Treaty of Versailles 1919 created states which were too small for successful defence or economic management. Gandhi. The same argument would suggest that such multinational entities as the Austro-Hungarian Empire and (later) the Soviet Union have important advantages over nation-states. a Marxist. In this view people can be better understood in terms of the linguistic. Most nationalists have a programme for their own particular nation. and M. Krishna Menon. and historical factors which bind them to a particular territory than by reference to their general human capacities. Nationalism turns devotion to the nation into principles or programmes. The general feature of universal principles of nationalism is an assertion of the primacy of national identity over the claims of class. but no particular content. The great disadvantage of this idea of the nation-state is that it does not correspond to reality. but in a weird non-specific way. The populations of the world are not distributed on clear-cut national territories and there are always minorities whose presence in the national state is difficult and potentially disruptive. the nationalism of the Congress Party in India before independence was able to incorporate such varied figures as Jawaharlal Nehru. One advantage of nation-states is that their authority. and Turkish peoples are distributed across the Eurasian land mass in such a way as to defy any attempts to draw boundaries for selfdetermination. It is in this sense that nationalism has been described as an ideologically empty bottle with strength and shape. In particular. . The economic dimension of such nationalism is the belief that the ownership and control of important resources should be maintained firmly within the nation itself. Thus. The political application is the principle of self-determination which seeks to base political life on the nation-state. the German. Just remember that what we call nationalism is nothing but a social phenomenon. One strain can be loosely labelled Romantic nationalism. Even such massive and painful demographic movements as the exchange of population between Greece and Turkey after the 1914-18 war and the expulsion of Germans from (re-defined) Poland after the 1939-45 war have barely alleviated the problem. as the American poet Robert Frost put it.
The word exists in English and in all the Latin languages with a root related to birth as in natal and native . But distinctly nationalist sentiments can be detected in England and France centuries earlier and Shakespeare put such sentiments into the mouths of many of his medieval characters. This triadic relation between language. The phrase the age of nationalism has been applied most often to post-Napoleonic Europe and to the movements which culminated in German and Italian unification. clan . insisted that common language was the key to nationality since it was possession of the language which related people to history. including King John. the issue can be the maintenance of cultural or political autonomy. and myth/shared experience constitutes probably the most coherent and developed theory of nationality. and gypsies or the royal nation (meaning the royal family or dynasty).What it is particular nationalisms seek to achieve can vary considerably. then it becomes possible to talk not only of English nationalism. But nationem in Latin referred to units much more like tribe . The particular importance of this period was that it established influential paradigms and approaches in the understanding of nationality. like American or Israeli. Fichte and the brothers Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm. and (paradoxically) John of Gaunt. and of Welsh nationalists. Nationalists may also seek to extend territory or to protect the interests of extraterritorial nationals. but also of British nationalism. For instance. indeed. and Belgians and fits oddly to a modern reality in which many different nationalities speak Spanish or English as a first language. In the classic cases. European. Indians. and territory in the way that defined nations. or whose known ancestors have. But nationalists can also seek to maintain a cultural identity: according to almost all the protagonists of Welsh nationalism. since one can acquire nationality. transferred from another nationality. has diverse and confusing answers. The late twentieth century can also be described as an age of nationalism. . The varieties of nationalism are determined in large part by the broad and indeterminate range of the term nation . But where England or Britain is threatened by integration into a larger. The question of what constitutes the common characteristics of nationality. territory. G. the preservation of the Welsh language and culture is the defining project of the movement. or family than the large. indeed. consist mainly of people who have. territorially based groupings which we think of as nations today. legend. Some of the classic arguments for nationalism. some modern nationalities. Henry V. entity and/or by disintegration. in nineteenth-century Germany and Italy. It is no longer the case that the criteria must be related to birth. and therefore the distinguishing criteria of membership of a nation. but it is incapable of explaining such multilingual nationalities as the Swiss. The idea that a nation refers primarily or solely to something like England or France is a relatively recent development in the use of the term. those of such German nationalists as J. Equally. English nationalism is rarely thought of per se and references to British nationalism are almost unknown. some of the assertions of nationality among the hundred nations of the former Soviet Union following its collapse 1991 might be described as nationalism ad absurdum. the core of the nationalist project was to establish political unity and independence. In eighteenth-century English there were references to nations of Smiths. Hebrews.
the Thatcher years were widely seen in Scotland as government by an English nationalist. returning four MPs to Westminster at the general election of 1997. phenomena. inhibited at first by the predominance of English-speaking in south Wales. Although the SNP's challenge declined after the inconclusive devolution referendum in 1979.com/topic/nationalism#ixzz1Hvm6aydX History Early Developments Although nationalism is unique to the modern world. France. The SNP gained six seats at Westminster in the general election of 1997. Scottish nationalism did not mobilize the masses. Plaid Cymru. The military campaigns led by Wallace and Robert I Bruce culminated in the declaration of Arbroath (1320).answers. From the personal union of England and Scotland in 1603. The resentment of Whitehall. and optimism that North Sea oil could provide a rosy future. it flourished. it may be distinguished since it almost invariably aims to be the basis of government. culture. The thrust of Norman advance into other regions of the British Isles stimulated rival nationalisms in turn. and economic growth. The ancient Greeks also felt .answers. The first roots of nationalism are probably to be found in the ancient Hebrews. and East Anglia persisted. which metamorphosed into the Scottish National Party (SNP) in 1934. based upon common history. or Germany for assistance encouraged the English to regard them as potential traitors. and more particularly from the governmental union in 1707. Concessions to the Irish catholics after the Act of Union of 1801 (µtoo little. the integration of the British economy. and 35 seats out of 129 in the Scottish Parliament. strenuous efforts were made to encourage a sense of British nationalism. Ireland always presented particular problems for the idea of a British people to parallel a British state. the survival of the Welsh language has given a cultural focus to nationalism. elected in 1999. The Welsh nationalist party. while the willingness of some catholics to look to Spain. the concept of British nationalism faltered and Celtic nationalist parties began to have some success. In the 19th cent. a people as a whole superior to all other peoples. The link between protestantism and Britishness made governments reluctant to let the catholic majority in Ireland share the rights upon which popular Britishness became based. The tendency of recent scholarship has been to see the roots of European nationalisms deep in the past rather than regarding them as essentially 19th-cent. who conceived of themselves as both a chosen people. though for centuries mistrust between Northumbria. language.. and claiming twelve seats in the 60-strong Welsh Assembly in 2003. But although agitation secured the re-establishment of a Scottish secretary in the cabinet (1885) and led to the foundation of a Scottish Home Rule Association (1886). as economic and political problems multiplied. and those in Wales led by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd and Glynd r gained wide popular support because they convinced many people that they fought to liberate Welshmen from English oppression. led the SNP to shock by-election victories at Hamilton (1967) and Govan (1973). dissatisfaction with the power of Anglicized landlords and the privileged position of the Anglican church was used by the Liberal Party to mobilize a Welsh-speaking population already undergoing a cultural revival. and the expansion of the Westminster government's powers of intervention. which in turn led to the development of protestant resistance to Home Rule (µloyalism¶) and ultimately to the partition of Ireland in 1921. found in many regions. could take a nationalist form in Scotland. made considerable inroads in the 1990s. Read more: http://www. imperial achievement. A sense of English nationalism seems to have developed during the campaigns to drive back the Danes. It was reinforced after 1066 by resentment of Norman-French domination. Nationalism in modern Scotland emerged as the autonomy of civil society and local government obtained by the Act of Union of 1707 began to be eroded by the increased speed of communications. At the October 1974 general election. Wessex. some of its elements can be traced throughout history. and a people with a common cultural history. In the 20th cent. and traditions. While accompanied by military success. too late¶ is the easy cliché) failed to prevent the growth of a more militant Irish nationalism.com/topic/nationalism#ixzz1HvlzlFcC Nationalism is a sense of shared identity and loyalty. that is. In Wales. Mercia. Conservative and Labour lack of interest in Home Rule led to the foundation of the National Party of Scotland (1928).Read more: http://www. the SNP took 30 per cent of the Scottish vote and eleven seats. Though it has much in common with religious and local loyalties. Increasing dislike of economic and political centralization. and especially after 1945.
Iran. where nationalism had evinced itself in the doctrine of Manifest Destiny. In the United States. though the strongest loyalty continued to adhere to the sovereign. traditionbound. Read more: http://www. and in Poland under Russian rule. and the Organization for African Unity. it also recognizes the basic equality of all nations. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Indian National Congress.answers. upheld by the League of Nations and later by the United Nations. and narrow rather than liberal. Nationalist conflicts had much to do with bringing on World War I. Iraq. preaching the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and the need for the extermination of the Jews and the enslavement of Slavic peoples in their "living space" (see National Socialism). seeking to cast off imperial bonds. and the collapse of Yugoslavia. The religious wars of the Reformation set nation against nation. the Organization of American States. they appear in many European nations and Canada. with the breakup of Austria-Hungary and of the Ottoman Empire. The growth of the middle classes. especially through the peace treaties ending World War I. the nationalism that inspired the German people to rise against the empire of Napoleon I was conservative. such as the United Nations. Sri Lanka. In the 16th and 17th cent. it was a highly authoritarian and militarist state. saw the establishment of many independent nations. Turkey. These feelings of cultural superiority (ethnocentrism). and the consequent development of democratic political theory were closely connected with the emergence of modern nationalism. however. Although their aims were universal. The Paris Peace Conference established the principle of national self-determination. While selfdetermination is a nationalist principle.g. After many years of fighting. After World War II nationalism in Asia and Africa spread at such a fast pace that dozens of new "nations" were created from former colonial territorial holdings. In areas such as Italy. and therefore transcends a narrow nationalism that claims superiority for itself. nationalism became increasingly a sentiment of conservatives. and nationalism found its first political expression. At the same time. which are similar to nationalism. and as local economies widened. and for the first time in history a people could create a government in accordance with the nation's general will. International organizations. Italian fascism was in a similar manner based on extreme nationalist sentiments. It was exactly this latter type of nationalism. represent attempts to curb extreme nationalism. Although interdependence and global communications interconnected all nations by the 1990s. To them the nation was inseparable from the people. recurring invasions led such thinkers as Niccolò Machiavelli to advocate national political federation. In the latter half of the 19th cent. with the emergence in Europe of strong. and it found outlet in pursuit of glory and empire (see imperialism). Lebanon. however. where thinkers such as Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Gottlieb Fichte had developed the idea of Volk. but certain areas inhabited by Italians (e. Italy also achieved national unification and freedom from foreign domination. Asian and African colonial territories. gave way to much more universal identifications under the Roman Empire and with the Christian Church through its teaching of the oneness of humanity. stressing cooperation among nations. national unity was maintained at the cost of the Civil War. the nationalistic economic doctrine of mercantilism appeared. It was turned against such international movements as socialism. separatist movements are not necessarily confined to newly independent states. Indonesia.. their desire for political power. The spirit of nationalism took an especially strong hold in Germany. the European Union.com/topic/nationalism#ixzz1HvmOPI2B . Xenophobic. large or small. which struggled for Indian independence for over 60 years. as regional languages and art forms were evolved. as there were in Ireland under British rule. As strong centralized monarchies were built from petty feudal states. progressive.superior to all other peoples and moreover felt a sense of great loyalty to the political community.. the growth of Muslim fundamentalism. The Nineteenth Century It was in the 19th cent. nationalism appears to have grown more extreme with the breakup of the Soviet empire. and universal. At the same time. that nationalism became a widespread and powerful force. were developing nationalist movements. they glorified the nation that would establish their aims. However. integrated nation-states. and this gave rise to the problem of irredentism. And when the fragmented Germany was finally unified as the German Empire in 1871. which were not yet single nations. and many others. as well as India. The Twentieth Century The early 20th cent.. Trieste) were not included in the new state. popular identification with these developments became increasingly strong. During this time nationalism expressed itself in many areas as a drive for national unification or independence. The theorists of the French Revolution held that people should establish governments of equality and liberty for everyone. there were strong nationalist movements among the peoples subject to the supranational Austrian and Ottoman empires. that arose in Nazi Germany.
however. Better an hour of life that is free/than forty years in slavery!"). Independent Greece not only fostered a revival of classical language and a glorification of ancient greatness . an ideology that harked back to the Byzantine Empire and whose proponents visualized a broad Balkan realm extending to Istanbul (then Constantinople) in which people of various languages and ethnic groups would be led by Greeks. Religion. for example. on the other hand. and many Greeks fought to escape Ottoman rule without being aware of any ideology. even though the great majority of Turks and Arabs were Muslims. Therefore. the Quraysh. even though not all orthodox Christians were Greek. and the Slavs would presumably have been content with a return to competent Ottoman rule.both common practices in later examples of Middle Eastern nationalism . All Greeks were orthodox Christians. Its leaders did not articulate nationalist positions. . Many of the ideologues were more familiar with conditions and ideas in western Europe than in the Peloponnesus. however. a distinctly nationalist ideology came in time to be accepted as the best expression of the people's will. By contrast. for example (who wrote in his immensely popular "War Hymn": "How long. Rhigas Pheraios. spent three years in exile in Europe./alone like lions on ridges. This approach to nationalism. Nationalist ideology followed rather than preceded the Greek rebellion.com/topic/nationalism#ixzz1HvmUQwec . an ethnically plural state dominated by Greeks. shall we live in bondage. concentrated his analysis of Turkish identity on language and folk customs and dismissed Islam as a transitory civilizational attribute that should not stand in the way of the adoption of European customs. my heroes. The foremost Turkish ideologue. The concept of one people dominating others within a specified territory later becomes commonplace in Middle Eastern nationalism. one of the most industrious advocates of a revived Arabic literary language. the Turks and Arabs encountered difficulty in harmonizing their particularist views with a history of pluralistic empire. Namik Kemal. One difference between Greeks and other nineteenth-century nationalists was the association of religion with a people's identity. In Greece.Greek Nationalism The earliest nationalist movement manifested itself in the Greeks' war to obtain independence from the Ottoman Empire (between 1821 and 1832). on peaks?/ . they had some common features. Written expressions of nationalist views among Turks and Arabs circulated during the last decades of the nineteenth century. Ziya Gökalp. manifesting a vision of the Greek people as a political entity rather than a geographical entity. the Arabs and Turks aspired mostly to a revival or assertion of ethno-linguistic identity within the pluralistic Ottoman Empire.answers. was associated with a revolutionary organization called the Philike Hetairia that was based in Greek communities outside Greece (the most important one was in Odessa). This ideology. Turkish and Arab Nationalism Although other nationalist stirrings in the nineteenth century were not consciously patterned on the Greek example. however. had a personal history of involvement with numerous revolutionary groups in western Europe dedicated to the ideals of the French Revolution. remained a problem. The Arab Abd al-Rahman alKawakibi. Read more: http://www. Many advocates of Turkish and Arab political and linguistic distinctiveness. whose Turkish drama Vatan (Fatherland) helped establish that word (watan in Arabic) as an element of nationalism. nor all Greek clergy nationalist in sympathy. . reflects the thinking of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other French ideologues rather than the German vision of complete identity of people and land. were educated in Europe or were familiar with European ideas. and the Turkish protonationalists supported the religiously plural Ottoman system. however. instead of under the despotic Ottoman sultan Abdülhamit II. on the Byzantine model. despite a patchwork leadership ranging from bandit chiefs to Greek intellectuals educated in western Europe. Just as adherents to the Megali Idea could visualize. Islam did not from the outset become an integral element of nationalist thought. called for a revival of the caliphate under an Arab of the prophet Muhammad's tribe. worked closely with American Protestant missionaries. Christian Arabs were prominent in the protonationalist Arab literary revival.but also developed the Megali Idea. and the Lebanese Christian Butrus alBustani. Like the Greeks. The earlier revolt of the south Slavs (between 1804 and 1830) that culminated in the creation of an autonomous principality of Serbia had been a manifestation of widespread discontent with Ottoman maladministration and military disorder.