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Volume Integral Relations for a Control

t = 0, the water depth in the tank is 30 cm. Estimate the time required to fill the remainder of the tank.

in( Fig 2 ) The velocity V2 = 5 m/s, and the exit flow rate Q4 = 120 m3/h. Find (a) V1; (b) V3; and (c) V4 if it is known that increasing Q3 by 20% would increase Q4 by 10%.

incompressible flow, (a) derive an analytic expression for dh/dt in terms of (Q1, Q2, Q3). (b) If h is constant ,determine V2 for the given data if V1 = 3 m/s and Q3 = 0.01 m3/s.

4. Water at 20C flows steadily through the piping junction in Fig. 4, entering section 1 at 20 gal/min. The average velocity at section 2 is 2.5 m/s. A portion of the flow is diverted through the showerhead, which contains 100 holes of 1-mm diameter. Assuming

uniform shower flow, estimate the exit velocity from the showerhead jets.

5-The water tank in Fig. 5 stands on a frictionless cart and feeds a jet of diameter 4 cm and velocity 8 m/s, which is deflected 60 by a vane. Compute the tension in the supporting cable.

6-Water at 20C exits to the standard sea-level atmosphere through the split nozzle in Fig. P3.62. Duct areas are A1 _ 0.02 m2 and A2 _ A3 _ 0.008 m2. If p1 _ 135 kPa (absolute) and the flow rate is Q2 _ Q3 _ 275 m3/h, compute the force on the flange bolts at section 1.

7- When the pump in Fig. 8 draws 220 m3/h of water at 20C from the reservoir, the total friction head loss is 5 m. The flow discharges through a nozzle to the atmosphere. Estimate the pump power in kW delivered to the water.

8- The pump-turbine system in Fig. 9 draws water from the upper reservoir in the daytime to produce power for a city. At night, it pumps water from

lower to upper reservoirs to restore the situation. For a design flow rate of 15,000 gal/min in either direction, the friction head loss is 17 ft. Estimate the power in kW (a) extracted by the turbine and (b) delivered by the pump.

9-The horizontal pump in Fig. 10 discharges 20C water at 57 m3/h. Neglecting losses, what power in kW is delivered to the water by the pump?

10- The water jet in Fig. 11strikes normal to a fixed plate. Neglect gravity and friction, and compute the force F in newtons required to hold the plate fixed.

11-A steam turbine contains eight 4-cm-diameter nozzles each exiting steam at 200 m=s as shown in Fig. 12. The turbine blades are moving at 80 m=s and the density of the steam is 2.2 kg/m3. Calculate the maximum power output assuming no losses.

12-A 10-cm-diameter hose maintained at a pressure of 1600 kPa provides water from a tanker to a fire. There is a nozzle at the end of the hose that reduces the diameter to 2.5 cm. Estimate the force that the water exerts on the nozzle. The losses can be neglected in a short nozzle.

1 ) A 12 mm diameter water pipe is 60 m long and delivers water at 5 lit/min at 20C. What fraction of this pipe is taken up by the entrance region? 2) An oil with =900 kg/m3 and =0.0002 m2/s flows upward through an inclined pipe as shown in the following Fig. The pressure and elevation are known at sections 1 and 2, 10 m apart. Assuming steady laminar flow, (a) verify that the flow is up, (b) compute hf between 1 and 2, and compute (c) Q, (d) V, and (e) Red. Is the flow really laminar?

3) Oil, with =900 kg/m3 and =0.00001 m2/s, flows at 0.2 m3/s through 500 m of 200-mm diameter cast-iron pipe. Determine (a) the head loss and (b) the pressure drop if the pipe slopes down at 10 in the flow direction. 4) The thin layer of rain at 20C flows down a parking lot at a relatively constant depth of 4 mm. The area is 40 m wide with a slope of 8 cm over 60 m of length. Estimate (a) the flow rate, (b) shear at the surface, (c) the Reynolds number, and the velocity at the surface. 5)The viscosity is to be determined by rotating a long 6-cm-diameter, 30-cm-long cylinder inside a 6 cm diameter cylinder. The torque is measured to be 0.22 Nm and the rotational speed is measured to be 3000 rpm. Estimate the viscosity. Assume that S = 0.86. 6) Water at 20C flows in a 4-cm-diameter pipe with a flow rate of 0.002 m3=s. Estimate (a) the wall shear stress, (b) the maximum velocity, (c) the pressure drop over 20 m. .

7) In the following Fig, suppose that p1 = 700 kPa and the fluid specific gravity is 0.68. If the flow rate is 27 m3/h, estimate the viscosity of the fluid. What fluid in is the likely suspect?

8) A 70 percent efficient pump delivers water at 20C from one reservoir to another 20 ft higher, as in Fig. The piping system consists of 60 ft of galvanized-iron 2-in pipe, a reentrant entrance, two screwed 90 long-radius elbows, a screwed-open gate valve, and a sharp exit. What is the input power required in horsepower with and without a 6 well-designed conical expansion added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.4 ft3/s.

9) A pressure drop of 500 kPa is measured over 200 m of a horizontal length of 8-cm-diameter cast iron pipe transporting water at 20C. Estimate the flow rate using (a) the Moody diagram and (b) an alternate equation. 10) A 4-mm-diameter horizontal,40-m-long pipe is attached to a reservoir containing 20C water .The surface of the water in the reservoir is 4 m above the pipe outlet. Assume a laminar flow and estimate the average velocity in the pipe. Also, calculate the length of the entrance region. 11) Water at 15C is transported in a 6-cm-diameter wrought iron pipe at a flow rate of 0.004 m3/s. Estimate the pressure drop over 300 m of horizontal pipe using (a) the Moody diagram and (b) an alternate equation.

12) A smooth rectangular duct that measures 10 x 20 cm transports 0.4 m3/s of air at standard conditions horizontal distance of 200 m. Estimate the pressure drop in the duct.

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