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ease of maintenance - requires a separate section for each circuit with adequate clearances to adjacent sections and earth. (ii). provision of alternative facilities if circuit or equipment are damaged. This implies flexibility of operation within reasonable cost limits and a certain inbuilt redundancy. (iii). provision for future expansion - room on site for extension to incoming and outgoing circuits, uprating of transformer capacity and extension of busbars. Some typical substation arrangements are shown in figure 4.6. and a full discussion can be found in reference 8. Within the substation environment, the equipment choice may be considered under the following subsection headings.

4.4.1. Switchgear Devices capable of breaking fault current and achieving flexibility of operations are chosen according to the following criteria:
(i). (ii).

(iii). (iv).
(v). (vi). (vii).

(viii). (ix).

fault current to be interrupted - both symmetrical and asymetrical values. normal rated current - up to WOO A, higher for generator breakers. speed of interruption - 2 cycle fault clearance now available (autoreclosing) switching surge prevention on both breaking and making circuits. small inductive or capacitive current breaking ability without causing overvoltages. auto-reclose facilities. ease of maintenance. risk of explosion or fire hazard. earthquake resistance and pollution withstand.

Designs employing oil, high-pressure air-blast, sulphur hexafluoride insulant and vacuum interrupters are now available. 4.4.2. Isolators These are generally used to achieve greater flexibility of operation without the expense of fault current or even of load current making or breaking capability. They must be capable of remote control and of withstanding through fault current without collapse. Load switches capable of breaking normal load current are also available and their judicious incorporation into a switching complex using a circuit breaker back-up often reduce substation costs substantially. Positive operation even under severe weather conditions of ice, snow, sleet etc. are essential.

4.4.3. Busbars and supports

Aluminium tubes of large diameter enable load and fault currents to be carried without undue corona or radio interference. They also require less supports and attachments than bundle conductors as used on overhead lines. It is advisable to use as much local material as possible in designing gantries and plinths for substation components and this often dictates whether prestressed concrete or steel is employed. Where space is restricted, several tiers of busbars can be arranged but this increases maintenance problems and can cause widespread failure due to higher conductors falling onto tower ones. In general, single tier construction IP preferable with room for roads and control buildings. In cases of severe pollution or urban development, enclosing buildings may be necessary and this may dictate the use of metalclad designs of busbars and switchgear. 4.4.4. Transformers These are generally the largest item to be transported and special consideration must be given to site access at the planning stage. The following points must be considered: (i).
(ii). (iii).

method of cooling - forced oil or natural oil circulation, exclusion of moisture, oil drying and decontamination facilities. method of connection - delta/star with earthed star point on h.v. side is preferred. number of windings - auto transformer cheapest but does not provide electrical isolation. A delta winding is useful to reduce harmonics injected into the supply. Often a tertiary winding for auxiliary supplies or reactive compensation can produce considerable cost saving overall.