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GIS Image Mapping

Introduction And Background

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GIS Image Mapping

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT

In the past twenty-five years, a host of professions have been in the process of developing automated tools for efficient storage, analysis and presentation of geographic data. These efforts have apparently been the result of increasing demands by users for the data and information of a spatial nature. This rapidly evolving technology has come to be known as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is a computer based integrated database management system that stores a large volume of spatial data along with its attribute or non-spatial data which are captured, stored, retrieved, processed and analyzed to provide answers to queries of a geographical nature as and when required.

The fundamental key of GIS is that, the association of Geographic features present on earth surface, which can be the geo-referenced one with a database related to it. The term Geo-referencing refers to providing accurate location of a point or area in the space in terms of true earth co-ordinate system and Database is simply a collection of raw facts which are stored in a structural manner having relationship with each other. In a nutshell, Spatial data can be described as where thing are and attribute data are what things are.

The GIS history dates back 1960 where computer based GIS began to be used. The initial developments originated in North America, where Canada was pioneer in the development of GIS. Initially the Canadian Geographic Information System (CGIS) in Canada, US Bureau of Census, and the US Geological Survey, the Harvard Laboratory for computer graphics and Environs, Natural Experimental Research Centre (NREC), Department of Environments of UK were involved in early developments. In India the major development happened from the last one decade where in its earlier phase, the technique was used for Natural Resource management only, but now India has realized the importance of GIs for many applications like infrastructure development, facility
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GIS Image Mapping management, Business/market applications etc.

GIS technology Integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and the geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting outcomes and planning strategies.

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Objectives

 Maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning.  Provide efficient means for data distribution and handling.  Elimination of redundant database-minimize duplication.  Capacity to integrate information from many sources.  Complex analysis/queries involving geographical reference data to generate new

information.
 Update data quickly and cheaply.  Progress monitoring system in construction

 Networking solutions

 3-D data analysis

 Site location and Client Distance

 Comparison of data

 Construction scheduling and progress control with 3-D visualization  Government Regulations

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GIS Image Mapping

For any application there are five generic questions a GIS can answer

 Location: What exists at a particular location? This question seeks to find out for the answer like, location of a particular object or area in terms of latitude/longitude or X/Y.

 Condition: Identify where certain condition exists. This tends to answer for all those questions where certain conditions are satisfied.

 Trends: What has changed since? This question is applied to find a noticeable difference or change incurred within a particular time period.

 Pattern: what spatial pattern exists? This is the most logical question is answered by GIS that distribution of spatial features and reasons behind that distribution.

 Modelling: What if?

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Scope : Geo-Information Technologies have the potential to make a tremendous impact on all planning & management activity.

 It presents a wonderful opportunity in the private & public sector for generation of useful & cost effective applications.

 Sectors like Agriculture, Rural development, Irrigation, Industries & Minerals, Energy, Transport, Communications, Science, Technology & Environment are realizing the benefits of using GIS.

 Estimated manpower for providing GIS services in these sectors works out to a staggering figure of 1,40,000.

 Additional manpower is required for maintaining the data bases up-to-dataanother challenging task. Thus in the coming years, huge manpower will be required in the field of GIS.

 In World Bank assisted projects use of GIS is mandatory.  In India also with increasing awareness about benefits of GIS most government organizations are using GIS in any area related projects.

 For Forest Management, Planning, Transportation, water resources, power distribution to even Rainwater harvesting and Business, GIS is the important tool that defines strategies, reviews & appraisals.

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GIS Image Mapping

Importance: A Geographic Information System is a distinctive form of database of the world it is a geographic system with database (geodatabase) which describes the world in geographic terms.

 GIS enables us to observe, understand, interrogate, interpret, and visualize geospatial data in many ways that exposes relations, patterns and trends in the form of maps, globes, charts and reports.

 GIS answers questions and solve problems by analyzing the data we have and the information is quickly interpreted and shared.

 GIS plays a significant role in almost every decision we make. From selecting sites to targeting market segments, from planning distribution networks to responding to emergencies or redrawing country boundariesall these issues engage questions of geography.

 The extent of GIS Services is unimaginably wide, and can be applied to each and every phase of human existence or to put it better " it perfects the existence of living beings".

 GIS provide the best cost advantages possible and reliable quality.

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GIS Image Mapping  Many routine operations of business and government are tied to a location and rely on the use of geographic information to accomplish their goals. For example y y Engineering design (What is the topography of the building site?) Road and utility maintenance (Where is the downed power line blocking the road?) y Event (crime, fires, accidents) reporting (Where do the most accidents takes place?) y y y Permit tracking (Whose property is the permit attached to?) Land-use planning (Where is growth happening?) Marketing (Where are our customers?)

 Commercial site evaluation :- Zoning regulations, utility availability, traffic access, and proximity to consumers are all important considerations for retail businesses choosing building sites.

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GIS Image Mapping

INTRODUCTION ABOUT ORGANISATION

GeoSpatial Solutions located in Pune near new RTO on Alandi road with man power of 500 employees. Geospatial Solutions has Established in December 2005 by Sachin Yadav

Geospatial Solutions is a powerful firm initiated to use the technology of Geographical Information System (GIS) so that day to day tasks can be performed with ease and time saving manner.

Geospatial Solutions has already provided innovative solutions in several fields.

They are believe in delivering the best product to our clients.

This organization started with the earnest desire to bring about national development with technology aid and has come a long way since then.

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GIS Image Mapping

Mission :-

 They advise, not only on policies and architectures of these systems, but they also

design, develop and manage these systems too.

 They do this with an active, personal and pragmatic approach. Whether it is about

standard solutions or dedicated developments, They always ensure a smooth implementation with your existing IT-systems.

 They realize quick results which are generally amazingly simple and cost effective.

 And of course we do what we promise: offer fast and practical, innovative and

realistic solutions - including the required support.

 They believe in emphasizing the positive side of things, whether it concerns

resolving problems or our own employees.

 They therefore invest a lot into a pleasant and open work environment.

 Highly educated IT-professionals get the chance to work independently and can

develop themselves at their own pace.

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GIS Image Mapping Vision :-

GeoSpatial Solutions has some following vision :-

 Geospatial Solution has the ambition and drive required to stay at the front line of

this evolutionary chain.

 With deep knowledge and expertise through which they can offer our customers

maximum added value, not through endless reports, we have the guts to invent and to use new solutions.

 They are trying tackle requests flexibly and fast.

 In everything they do the concerns of their customers always has priority because

they believe in long lasting relationships and involvement.

 To reach these goals, they select their colleagues carefully.Not only on a basis of

knowledge and skills, but also by personality and their ability to work well both as part of a team or independently.

 In addition to this, Geospatial Solutions is active in the area of Research &

Development and they keep their knowledge up-to-date.

 And last but not least: They are faithful to their company culture, which is

recognizable by its short communication lines, fast interaction and mutual concern, because that might even be their greatest power.

 Their ambitions are to become GIS market leader in a number of selected regions

and markets and to offer their expertise worldwide. To be a renowned employer in the IT-industry. To be recognized as an organization with unique knowledge and skills in the GIS market.
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GIS Image Mapping

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

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Geographical Information System has three important components: computer hardware set of application modules and a proper organization context.

A working GIS integrates five key components: -

 Hardware

 Software

 Data

 People

 Methods

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GIS Image Mapping

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GIS Image Mapping Computer Hardware Module: The general hardware component of a geographical information system is the computer or central processing unit. It is linked to a disk drive storage unit, which provides space for storing data and programs. A digitizer, scanner and other device is used to convert data from maps and documents into digital form and send them to computer. A digitizer board is a flat board used for vectorisation of any map object. A plotter or other kind of display device is used to present the result of the data processing and a tape device is used for storing data or programs on magnetic tape.

Computer Software Module: The GIS software includes the programs and the user interface for driving the hardware. GIS software is essential to generate, store, analyze, manipulate and display geographic information or data. A good GIS software requires user friendliness, functionalities, compatibilities, updatability, documentation, costeffectivness. The following is a list of GIS software producers and their main products.
y y y y y y y y

Environmental Systems Research Institute ( ESRI ): ArcInfo, ArcView. Autodesk: AutoCAD Map Clark Labs: IDRISI International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences: ILWIS Mapinfo Corporation: Mapinfo. Bentley Systems: Microstation. PCI Geomatics: PAMAP TYDAC Inc. : SPANS

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GIS Image Mapping Data: Data is the most important component of a GIS. Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected in house, compiled to custom specifications and requirements, or purchased from a commercial data provider. A GIS can integrate spatial data with other existing data resources, often stored in a DBMS. The integration of spatial and tabular data stored in a DBMS is a key functionality afforded by GIS.

People: GIS technology has limited value without the people who manage and develop plans for applying it to real world problems. GIS user range from technical specialists who design and maintain the system to those who use it to help them perform their everyday work. This is what called 'brain ware' which is equally important as the Hardware and software. Brain ware refers to the purpose and objectives, and provides the reason and justification, for using GIS.

Method: A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed implementation plan and business rules, which are the models and operating practices unique to each organization.

For many years, though GIS has been considered to be too difficult, expensive, and proprietary. The advent of graphical user interface (GUI), powerful and affordable hardware and software, and public digital data has broadened the range of GIS application and brought GIS to mainstream use.

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GIS Image Mapping

Research Layout and Design

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GIS Image Mapping

Research Methodology
 Relating information from different sources GIS uses spatio-temporal (space-time) location as the key index variable for all other information. Just as a relational database containing text or numbers can relate many different tables using common key index variables, GIS can relate otherwise unrelated information by using location as the key index variable. The key is the location and/or extent in space-time. Any variable that can be located spatially, and increasingly also temporally, can be referenced using a GIS. Locations or extents in Earth spacetime may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence, and x, y, and z coordinates representing, longitude, latitude, and elevation, respectively. These GIS coordinates may represent other quantified systems of temporo-spatial reference (for example, film frame number, stream gage station, highway mile-marker, surveyor benchmark, building address, street intersection, entrance gate, water depth sounding,POS or CAD drawing origin/units). Units applied to recorded temporal-spatial data can vary widely (even when using exactly the same data, see map projections), but all Earth-based spatialtemporal location and extent references should, ideally, be relatable to one another and ultimately to a "real" physical location or extent in spacetime. Related by accurate spatial information, an incredible variety of real-world and projected past or future data can be analyzed, interpreted and represented to facilitate education anddecision making.[12] This key characteristic of GIS has begun to open new avenues of scientific inquiry into behaviors and patterns of previously considered unrelated realworld information.

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GIS Image Mapping

Data representation GIS data represents real objects (such as roads, land use, elevation, trees, waterways, etc.) with digital data determining the mix. Real objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete objects (e.g., a house) and continuous fields (such as rainfall amount, or elevations). Traditionally, there are two broad methods used to store data in a GIS for both kinds of abstractions mapping references: raster images and vector. Points, lines, and polygons are the stuff of mapped location attribute references. A new hybrid method of storing data is that of identifying point clouds, which combine threedimensional points with RGB information at each point, returning a "3D color image". GIS Thematic maps then are becoming more and more realistically visually descriptive of what they set out to show or determine.

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GIS Image Mapping

Raster A raster data type is, in essence, any type of digital image represented by reducible and enlargeable grids. Anyone who is familiar with digital photography will recognize the Raster graphics pixel as the smallest individual grid unit building block of an image, usually not readily identified as an artifact shape until an image is produced on a very large scale. A combination of the pixels making up an image color formation scheme will compose details of an image, as is distinct from the commonly used points, lines, and polygon area location symbols of scalable vector graphics as the basis of the vector model of area attribute rendering. While a digital image is concerned with its output blending together its grid based details as an identifiable representation of reality, in a photograph or art image transferred into a computer, the raster data type will reflect a digitized abstraction of reality dealt with by grid populating tones or objects, quantities, conjoined or open boundaries, and map relief schemas. Aerial photos are one commonly used form of raster data, with one primary purpose in mind: to display a detailed image on a map area, or for the purposes of rendering its identifiable objects by digitization. Additional raster data sets used by a GIS will contain information regarding elevation, a digital elevation model, or reflectance of a particular wavelength of light, Landsat, or other electromagnetic spectrum indicators.

Raster data type consists of rows and columns of cells, with each cell storing a single value. Raster data can be images (raster images) with each pixel (or cell) containing a color value. Additional values recorded for each cell may be a discrete value, such as land use, a continuous value, such as temperature, or a null value if no data is available. While a raster cell stores a single value, it can be extended by using raster bands to represent RGB (red, green, blue) colors, color maps (a mapping between a thematic code and RGB value), or an extended attribute table with one row for each unique cell value. The resolution of the raster data set is its cell width in ground units. Raster data is stored in various formats; from a standard file-based structure of TIF, JPEG, etc. to binary large object (BLOB) data stored directly in a relational database
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GIS Image Mapping management system (RDBMS) similar to other vector-based feature classes. Database storage, when properly indexed, typically allows for quicker retrieval of the raster data but can require storage of millions of significantly sized records.

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GIS Image Mapping

Vector In a GIS, geographical features are often expressed as vectors, by considering those features as geometrical shapes. Different geographical features are expressed by different types of geometry:

Points Zero-dimensional points are used for geographical features that can best be expressed by a single point referencein other words, by simple location. Examples include wells, peaks, features of interest, and trailheads. Points convey the least amount of information of these file types. Points can also be used to represent areas when displayed at a small scale. For example, cities on a map of the world might be represented by points rather than polygons. No measurements are possible with point features. Lines or polylines One-dimensional lines or polylines are used for linear features such as rivers, roads, railroads, trails, and topographic lines. Again, as with point features, linear features displayed at a small scale will be represented as linear features rather than as a polygon. Line features can measure distance. Polygons Two-dimensional polygons are used for geographical features that cover a particular area of the earth's surface. Such features may include lakes, park boundaries, buildings, city boundaries, or land uses. Polygons convey the most amount of information of the file types. Polygon features can measure perimeter and area. Each of these geometries are linked to a row in a database that describes their attributes. For example, a database that describes lakes may contain a lake's depth, water quality, pollution level. This information can be used to make a map to describe a particular attribute of the dataset. For example, lakes could be coloured depending on

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GIS Image Mapping level of pollution. Different geometries can also be compared. For example, the GIS could be used to identify all wells (point geometry) that are within one kilometer of a lake (polygon geometry) that has a high level of pollution.

Vector features can be made to respect spatial integrity through the application of topology rules such as 'polygons must not overlap'. Vector data can also be used to represent continuously varying phenomena. Contour lines and triangulated irregular networks (TIN) are used to represent elevation or other continuously changing values. TINs record values at point locations, which are connected by lines to form an irregular mesh of triangles. The face of the triangles represent the terrain surface.

vector

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GIS Image Mapping

Data capture

Data captureentering information into the systemconsumes much of the time of GIS practitioners. There are a variety of methods used to enter data into a GIS where it is stored in a digital format. Existing data printed on paper or PET film maps can be digitized or scanned to produce digital data. A digitizer produces vector data as an operator traces points, lines, and polygon boundaries from a map. Scanning a map results in raster data that could be further processed to produce vector data.

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GIS Image Mapping

Survey data can be directly entered into a GIS from digital data collection systems on survey instruments using a technique called coordinate geometry (COGO). Positions from a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) like Global Positioning System (GPS), another survey tool, can also be collected and then imported into a GIS. A current trend in data collection gives users the ability to utilize field computers with the ability to edit live data using wireless connections or disconnected editing sessions. This has been enhanced by the availability of low cost mapping grade GPS units with decimeter accuracy in real time. This eliminates the need to post process, import, and update the data in the office after fieldwork has been collected. This includes the ability to incorporate positions collected using a laser rangefinder. New technologies also allow users to create maps as well as analysis directly in the field, making projects more efficient and mapping more accurate.

GPS DEVICE

A LASER RANGE FINDER

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GIS Image Mapping

Remotely sensed data also plays an important role in data collection and consist of sensors attached to a platform. Sensors include cameras, digital scanners and LIDAR, while platforms usually consist of aircraft and satellites. Recently with the development of Miniature UAVs, aerial data collection is becoming possible at much lower costs, and on a more frequent basis. For example, the Aeryon Scout was used to map a 50 acre area with a Ground sample distance of 1 inch (2.54 cm) in only 12 minutes.

The majority of digital data currently comes from photo interpretation of aerial photographs. Soft-copy workstations are used to digitize features directly from stereo pairs of digital photographs. These systems allow data to be captured in two and three dimensions, with elevations measured directly from a stereo pair using principles of photogrammetry. Currently, analog aerial photos are scanned before being entered into a soft-copy system, but as high quality digital cameras become cheaper this step will be skipped.

Satellite remote sensing provides another important source of spatial data. Here satellites use different sensor packages to passively measure the reflectance from parts of theelectromagnetic spectrum or radio waves that were sent out from an active sensor such as radar. Remote sensing collects raster data that can be further processed using different bands to identify objects and classes of interest, such as land cover.

When data is captured, the user should consider if the data should be captured with either a relative accuracy or absolute accuracy, since this could not only influence how information will be interpreted but also the cost of data capture.

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GIS Image Mapping In addition to collecting and entering spatial data, attribute data is also entered into a GIS. For vector data, this includes additional information about the objects represented in the system.

After entering data into a GIS, the data usually requires editing, to remove errors, or further processing. For vector data it must be made "topologically correct" before it can be used for some advanced analysis. For example, in a road network, lines must connect with nodes at an intersection. Errors such as undershoots and overshoots must also be removed. For scanned maps, blemishes on the source map may need to be removed from the resulting raster. For example, a fleck of dirt might connect two lines that should not be connected.

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GIS Image Mapping

DATA ANALYISIS

It is difficult to relate wetlands maps to rainfall amounts recorded at different points such as airports, television stations, and high schools. A GIS, however, can be used to depict two- and three-dimensional characteristics of the Earth's surface, subsurface, and atmosphere from information points. For example, a GIS can quickly generate a map with isopleth or contour lines that indicate differing amounts of rainfall. Such a map can be thought of as a rainfall contour map. Many sophisticated methods can estimate the characteristics of surfaces from a limited number of point measurements. A two-dimensional contour map created from the surface modeling of rainfall point measurements may be overlaid and analyzed with any other map in a GIS covering the same area. Additionally, from a series of three-dimensional points, or digital elevation model, isopleth lines representing elevation contours can be generated, along with slope analysis, shaded relief, and other elevation products. Watersheds can be easily defined for any given reach, by computing all of the areas contiguous and uphill from any given point of interest. Similarly, an expected thalweg of where surface water would want to travel in intermittent and permanent streams can be computed from elevation data in the GIS.

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GIS Image Mapping Topological modeling A GIS can recognize and analyze the spatial relationships that exist within digitally stored spatial data. These topological relationships allow complex spatial modelling and analysis to be performed. Topological relationships between geometric entities traditionally include adjacency (what adjoins what), containment (what encloses what), and proximity (how close something is to something else).

Networks Geometric networks are linear networks of objects that can be used to represent interconnected features, and to perform special spatial analysis on them. A geometric network is composed of edges, which are connected at junction points, similar to graphs in mathematics and computer science. Just like graphs, networks can have weight and flow assigned to its edges, which can be used to represent various interconnected features more accurately. Geometric networks are often used to model road networks and public utility networks, such as electric, gas, and water networks. Network modeling is also commonly employed in transportation planning, hydrology modeling, and infrastructure modeling.

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GIS Image Mapping Hydrological Modeling GIS hydrological models can provide a spatial element that other hydrological models lack, with the analysis of variables such as slope, aspect and watershed or catchment area. Terrain analysis is fundamental to hydrology, since water always flows down a slope. As basic terrain analysis of a digital elevation model (DEM) involves calculation of slope and aspect, DEMs are very useful for hydrological analysis. Slope and aspect can then be used to determine direction of surface runoff, and hence flow accumulation for the formation of streams, rivers and lakes. Areas of divergent flow can also give a clear indication of the boundaries of a catchment. Once a flow direction and accumulation matrix has been created, queries can be performed that show contributing or dispersal areas at a certain point. More detail can be added to the model, such as terrain roughness, vegetation types and soil types, which can influence infiltration and evapotranspiration rates, and hence influencing surface flow. These extra layers of detail ensures a more accurate model. Also, check out GIS in Water Contamination and GIS in Environmental Contamination.

Cartographic modeling The term "cartographic modeling" was (probably) coined by Dana Tomlin in his PhD dissertation and later in his book which has the term in the title. Cartographic modeling refers to a process where several thematic layers of the same area are produced, processed, and analyzed. Tomlin used raster layers, but the overlay method (see below) can be used more generally. Operations on map layers can be combined into algorithms, and eventually into simulation or optimization models.

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GIS Image Mapping Map overlay The combination of several spatial datasets (points, lines or polygons) creates a new output vector dataset, visually similar to stacking several maps of the same region. These overlays are similar to mathematical Venn diagram overlays. A union overlay combines the geographic features and attribute tables of both inputs into a single new output. An intersect overlay defines the area where both inputs overlap and retains a set of attribute fields for each. A symmetric difference overlay defines an output area that includes the total area of both inputs except for the overlapping area. Data extraction is a GIS process similar to vector overlay, though it can be used in either vector or raster data analysis. Rather than combining the properties and features of both datasets, data extraction involves using a "clip" or "mask" to extract the features of one data set that fall within the spatial extent of another dataset. In raster data analysis, the overlay of datasets is accomplished through a process known as "local operation on multiple rasters" or "map algebra," through a function that combines the values of each raster's matrix. This function may weigh some inputs more than others through use of an "index model" that reflects the influence of various factors upon a geographic phenomenon.

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GIS Image Mapping

GIS DATA ANALYSIS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

GIS applications have proliferated in the construction industry in recent years. This fact is illustrated by the growing number of articles finding their way into civil engineering and construction journals and conference proceedings, in addition to the handful of special publications devoted to GIS (Oloufa et al. 1994)

GIS can be used for:

Progress monitoring system in construction

Networking solutions

3-D data analysis

Site location and Client Distance

Comparison of data

Construction scheduling and progress control with 3-D visualization Government Regulations

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GIS Image Mapping INTEGRATING PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND GIS

The intent of this project was to demonstrate the benefits of using GIS with construction project management. In this project integration of GIS and Project Management is developed using ArcGIS, MS Project, AutoCAD, and Visual Studio to assist construction managers in controlling and monitoring construction progress.

Successful project control is a challenging responsibility for all construction managers. Visualization of information is an important benefit for any project.

The objective of this project is to display the progress and sequence of construction work in 3-D while synchronizing this information with a formal CPM work schedule. This would help all parties involved in a construction project to visualize the progress in a natural way, hence minimizing delays and cost overruns. In addition to monitoring the schedule, the system can also be extended to monitor quantities of materials, costs, and resources.

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GIS Image Mapping STEP I: CREATING AUTOCAD DRAWINGS

The plan of a G+20 storey building was created using AutoCAD, Fig. 4 shows the floor plan and front elevation of the building in the case study.

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GIS Image Mapping STEP II: CREATING WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

WBS of the project. This is to be done to make project control effective and manageable. Activities in construction should be Mobilization of Site which generally includes site clearance and preparing an access road for the site etc. Next activity would have to be RCC Work in which SubStructure and SuperStructure should be included SubStructure would include construction of foundation. As the type of foundation for this structure is pile foundation Piling has to be done and which is divided into different groups (GRP). According to the groups the numbers of piles are decided after the piles have been laid, Pile caps have to be put on these piles simultaneously. On these pile caps a PCC Slab is to be laid which would make the pile foundation complete .i.e. the substructure activities would be completed. After the completion of substructure activities, superstructure activities have to be started. The type of formwork used is Mivan formwork i.e. the concreting work is done at the same time for all columns, walls, beams and slab. Superstructure is divided into different floors, and then it is further divided into 2 types i.e. wings (Type B, Type A).The two wings are then further divided into two parts i.e. in total 4 parts (Part I, Part II, Part III, and Part IV). Each and every part is again divided into structural parts i.e. BLDGColumn, Wall, Beam, and Slab. It is then planned that Shuttering and Reinforcement will be done simultaneously for BLDGColumn and Wall and then after that Staging for Beam and Slab will be done. Only after the whole of Shuttering and Reinforcement is done one can start the Concreting activity. And after concreting is over one has to do De-shuttering of the formwork.
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GIS Image Mapping STEP III: INITIATING SCHEDULING PROCESS MS Project 2003 was used as the scheduling tool. The project was scheduled based on the activities identified in the WBS described in Step 2. MS Project was used to schedule the project showing the start and completion dates, locating the critical path(s), showing the sequence and interrelationships between the activities. Fig. 6 shows the MS Project barchart schedule for the building whose plan and elevation were presented.

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GIS Image Mapping STEP IV: DIGITIZING AUTOCAD DRAWINGS TO GIS FORMAT After creating drawings in AutoCAD, the dwg files were transferred to ArcMap a module of ArcGIS. The topologic data structure of the basic design layers in AutoCAD was created as layers in GIS based on the layers and activities identified in the AutoCAD drawings. The Migration of Raw data into GIS format is shown in Fig

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GIS Image Mapping STEP V: CREATING FEATURE CLASSES W.R.T. ACTIVITIES The feature classes (Polygons, lines or points) created for activities were merged together into activities defined earlier in MS Project schedule. Thus, the activities which belong together but are located at different positions were joined together as one feature class. For example all the various components of the Column were merged into one merged feature class called the BLDGColumn activity.

Step VI: Creating Database w.r.t. Feature Class, Activities The attributes needed for each layer were created in a database. The database includes information about Z_Factor, TotalVolumeIncum, TotalReinforcementQtyInkg, StartOfConcreting, PercentageOfConc, CurrentQtyOfConcreting, StartOfReinforcement, PercentageOfReinforcement, StartOfShuttering, PercentageOfShuttering, TotalPercentageOfCompletion, DrawingNo, TotalCostForConcreting, TotalCostForReinforcement, Z_Actual, MoneyUsedForReinforcement, MoneyUsedForConcreting, LastUpdated, Name, ComponentName, Material, BaseHeightInmm, WallPosition for each activity.

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GIS Image Mapping STEP VII: CREATE UPDATES OF MS PROJECT SCHEDULE The percent complete information on the activities is entered in the database by the user in step V. This information will used in step VII to calculate the percent complete for each activity, which is obtained by calculating the average of the percent complete of the activities. Fig. 8 shows the attributes for a layer

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GIS Image Mapping STEP VIII: RUN-TIME APPLICATION The run time application is developed using Visual Studio 5.0 in C# language. With the help of this run-time application a User Interface was developed. Here the user would come to know about the location of the source file. The user interface displays present date and time. It has drop down lists for the user to select accordingly.

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GIS Image Mapping STEP IX: IMPORT INFORMATION ABOUT ACTIVITIES AND UPDATE GIS DATABASE The percent complete information is transferred with the help of custom run time application to MS Project every time a progress evaluation is made and the application is run. MS Project was run to generate the updated schedule network. The updated schedule shows the progress for all the activities as of the new date of the update (e.g. at the end of every month or daily updates) and the percent complete information.

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GIS Image Mapping

STEP X: SHOWING PROGRESS OF ACTIVITY IN 3-DIMENSIONAL VIEW The projects 3D view was created in ArcScene a module of ArcGIS. The activity layers created in Step V were converted into 3D layers in ArcScene. The new layers are shown in the 3D view created as shown in fig

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GIS Image Mapping

STEP XI: PREPARING REPORT AS PER REQUIRED FORMAT The progress of work was shown in graphical format and in different colors. The amount of work done on the various activities could be seen in 3D view. The project was updated as progress information became available and the corresponding MS project schedule was sent to ArcScene. The updating was done with the help of a custom runtime application. The various formats of reports can be generated as per the users requirement.

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GIS Image Mapping

Research findings

DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR RAHURI NAGAR PARISHAD AREA.

1.

PROCUREMENT OF SATELLITE DATA

Recent Digital Globe image was procured for preparation of base map. This base map was used for further field survey.

2.

DGPS SURVEY

The work area covered approximately 7 square kilometers. A grid of 250 mtsX250mts was placed on the project area and 16 gcp points were collected. These points were used for geo-referencing.

3. GEO-REFERENCING The raw satellite image was registered with the help of DGPS points and then projected

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GIS Image Mapping 4. TOTAL STATION SURVEY

In the total station survey we covered sewerage network, road network, electric poles, trees and other utilities. This data was then imported into GIS and projected.

5. DEVELOPMENT PLAN DIGITIZATION For the use of municipal corporation, development plan was mosaiced, a neat, true to scale layout of development plan was prepared. This layout was then projected to UTM projection and incorporated in to GIS.

6.

CREATING BASE MAP OF RAHURI

After the satellite image was registered, a base map consisting of building footprints, roads, water bodies and landuse land cover was prepared. This base map was then used as reference for field survey.

7.

CONVERSION AND MOSAICING CITY SURVEY SHEET

For the use of municipal corporation, city survey sheets were scanned, digitized, mosaiced , a neat, true to scale layout of city survey sheets was prepared. This layout was then projected to UTM projection and incorporated in to GIS.

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GIS Image Mapping 8. UTILITY NETWORK MAPPING

The base map prepared from satellite image and the total station survey data was integrated to prepare the utility map.

9.

FIELD SURVEY

Having the base map as reference, door- to-door survey was performed to collect the property tax information, eg the owner name, the property tax number.

10. DATA LINKING The attribute data collected from the field survey like the road names, the building names etc was linked to its respective entity in the base map.

11. DATA INTEGRATION The satellite image in the background, the base map prepared on the basis of this image, the development plan, the survey sheets and total station data was integrated to form GIS.

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GIS Image Mapping 12. DATA ANALYSIS Once the data was prepared, the data was queried to find the total tax ought to be collected, the tax actually being collected, the defaulters etc. Thus, it was easy for the municipal council to perform these tasks.

13. REPORT GENERATION Based on the data analysis, reports were generated.

14. LICENSED GIS SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Licensed copies of GIS softwares were provided to the municipal council. An application was developed from skilled programmers who have worked for reputed clients like IIT-Bombay Powai. This application acts as a gate way to view data.

15. COSTING According to government rules property tax assessment with the help of GIS was implemented for the Rahuri Municipal Council. The total project cost was 9 lacs.

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GIS Image Mapping DGPS SURVEY FOR THE STATE OF PUNJAB

1. DGPS Used- Trimble Geo XT 2. Collection of Ground Control Points, taking pictures of GCPs, coding GCPs for further verification, measuring the distances between the point and other neighboring static features for conformation of actual point location. 3. Import data from DGPS into the system with help of Pathfinder. 4. Process raw data to improve positional accuracy. 5. Convert data into shape file format. 6. Deliverable- Latitude-longitude-height in meters and shape files of point data.

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GIS Image Mapping TOTOL BAUXITE MINE PLANNING AND SOLUTION WITH THE HELP OF GIS AND RS FOR THE LEASE AREA OF NANAR AND SAGAVE VILLAGES, RATNAGIRI 1. Suggest optimal solutions for all the mining procedures like constructing roads, deciding suitable sites for labor establishment, equipment storage, availability of water, magazines, location for fixed machinery and over-burden dumping zone.

2. Suggest suitable port to reduce ore transportation cost with the help of Remote
Sensing.

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