You are on page 1of 40

GATE 2007

1. If E denotes expectation, the variance of a random variable X is given by (a) E (b) E (c) E (d) 2. The following plot shows a function y which varies linearly with x. the value of the integral I = . is
y 3 2 1

-1

3. For | | (a) X 4. lim

(a) 1.0

1, coth(X) can be approximated as (b) (c) (d) is: (b) 1 (c) 2

(b) 2.5

(c) 4.0

(d) 5.0

(a) 0.5

(d) not defined

5. Which one of the following functions is strictly bounded? (a) (b) (c) (d) 6. For the function (a) 3 , the linear approximation around x = 2 is: (b) 1-x (c) 3 22 1 2 (d)

7. An independent voltage source in series with an impedance delivers a maximum average power to a load impedance when (a) (b) (c) (d) 8. The RC circuit shown in the figure is
+
R C R C

(a) A low pass filter (c) A band pass filter


SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

(b) A high pass filter (d) A band reject filter


S Academy Page 1

9. The electron and hole concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor are per at 300 K. Now, if acceptor impurities are introduced with a concentration of per (where ), the electron concentration per at 300 K will be: (a) (b) (c) (d)

10. In a junction diode under reverse bias, the magnitude of the electrical field is maximum at (a) The edge of the depletion region on the p-side (b) The edge of the depletion region on the n-side (c) The junction (d) The centre of the depletion region on the n-side 11. The correct full wave rectifier circuit is:
(a) + +
Input

(b) + + Output - (d)

+ +
Input

+ + Output - -

(c)

+ +
Input

+ +
Input Output -

+ + -

+ + Output - -

12. In a trans conductance amplifier, it is desirable to have (a) A large input resistance and a large output resistance (b) A large input resistance and a small output resistance (c) A small input resistance and a large output resistance (d) A small input resistance and a small output resistance 13. X = 01110 and Y = 11001 are two 5-bit binary numbers represented in twos complement format. The sum of X & Y represented in twos complement format using 6-bits is: (a) 100111 (b) 001000 (c) 000111 (d) 101001 14. The Boolean function Y = AB + CD is to be realized using only 2-input NAND gates. The minimum number of gates required is: (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA S Academy Page 2

15. If the closed-loop transfer function of a control system is given as T(s) = , then it is (a) An unstable system (c) A minimum phase system

(b) An uncontrollable system (d) A non-minimum phase system , then its final value is:

16. If the Laplace transform of a signal y(t) us Y(s) = (a) -1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) unbounded

17. If R( ) is the autocorrelation function of a real, wide-sense stationary random process, then which of the following is NOT true? | R 0 (a) R( ) = R( ) (b) |R (c) R( ) = - R( ) (d) The mean square value of the process is R(0) 18. If S(f) is the power spectral density of a real, wide-sense stationary random process, then which of the following is ALWAYS true? (a) S(0) S(f) (b) S(f) 0 (c) S(-f) = -S(f) (d) 0 19. A plane wave of wavelength is travelling in a direction making angle 30 with positive x axis and 90 with positive y-axis. The field of the plane wave can be represented as ( is constant) (a) (c) . .

(b) (d)

20. If C is a closed curve enclosing a surface S, then the magnetic field intensity , the current density and the electric flux density are related by (a) (c) . . . . (b) (d) . . . .

21. It is given that , , are M non-zero, orthogonal vectors. The dimension of the vector space spanned by the 2M vectors , , , , , is: (a) 2M (b) M+1 (c) M (d) dependent of the choice of , , 22. Consider the function f(x) = closed interval [-4, 4] is: (a) 18 (b) 10 (c) -2.25 (d) Indeterminate

2. The maximum value of f(x) in the

23. An examination consists of two papers, paper 1 and paper 2. The probability of failing in paper 1 is 0.3 and that in paper 2 is 0.2. Given that a student has failed in paper 2, the probability of failing in paper 1 is 0.6. The probability of a student failing in both the papers is: (a) 0.5 (b) 0.18 (c) 0.12 (d) 0.06
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA S Academy Page 3

24. The solution of the differential equation under the boundary conditions (i) y = at x = 0 and (ii) y = at x = , where k, and are constants, is (a) y = . exp (b) y = . exp (c) y = . sinh (d) y = . exp

25. The equation 4 4 0 is to be solved using the Newton Raphson method. If x = 2 is taken as the initial approximation of the solution, then the next approximation using this method will be: (a) (b) (c) 1 (d) 26. Three functions f1(t), f2(t) and f3(t), which are zero outside the interval [0, T], are shown in the figure. Which of the following statements are correct?
2
2T/3 T/3

-2
2 1

-3

(a) (c)

and and

are orthogonal are orthogonal .

(b) (d)

and and

are orthogonal are orthonormal

27. If the semi-circular contour D of radius 2 is shown in the figure, then the value of the integral is :

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 4

jw j2 D 0 0 2

-j2

(a)

(b) j

(c)

(d)

28. Two series resonant filters are shown as in Figure. Let the 3-dB bandwidth of the Filter 1 be B1 and that of Filter 2 be B2. The value of is
4 /4

Filter 1

Filter 2

(a) 4

(b) 1

(c)

(d)

29. For the circuit shown in the Figure, the Thevinin voltage and resistance looking into X-Y are
1 i 2i + 1 2A 2 Y X

(a) 4/3 V, 2

(b) 4 V, 2/3

(c) 4/3 V, 2/3

(d) 4 V, 2

30. In the circuit shown, is zero volts at t = 0 sec. For t > 0, the capacitor current , where t is in seconds, is given by

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 5

20 K

10 V

20 K

(a) 0.50 exp(-25t)mA (c) 0.50 exp(-12.5t)mA

(b) 0.25 exp(-25t)mA (d) 0.25 exp(-6.25t)mA (in Volts) is

31. In the AC network shown in figure, the phasor, voltage


A

5
530 A

-j 3

j 3

(a) 0

(b) 530

(c) 12.530

(d) 1730

32. A junction has built-in potential of 0.8 V. The depletion layer width at a reverse bias of 1.2 V is 2 . For a reverse bias of 7.2 V, the depletion layer width will be (a) 4 (b) 4.9 (c) 8 (d) 12 33. Group I lists four types of p-n junction diodes. Match each device in Group I with one of the options in Group II to indicate the bias condition of the device in its normal mode of operation.
Group I P. Zener Diode Q. Solar Cell R. LASER Diode S. Avalanche Photodiode Group II 1. Forward Bias 2. Reverse Bias

(a) P-1, Q-2, R-1, S-2 (c) P-1, Q-2, R-1, S-2
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

(b) P-2, Q-1, R-1, S-2 (d) P-2, Q-1, R-2, S-2
S Academy Page 6

34. The DC current gain ( ) of a BJT is 50. Assuming that the emitter injection efficiency is 0.995, the base transport factor is (a) 0.980 (b) 0.985 (c) 0.990 (d) 0.995 35. Group I lists four different semiconductor device. Match each device in Group I with its characteristic property in Group II. Group I P. BJT Q. MOS Capacitor R. LASER diode S. JFET (a) P-3, Q-1, R-4, S-2 (c) P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2 Group II 1. Population inversion 2. Pinch-off voltage 3. Early Effect 4. Flat-band Voltage (b) P-2, Q-1, R-3, S-2 (d) P-3, Q-2, R-1, S-4 is

36. For the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure,


2 K

1K 1V 1K 1K

(a) -2 V

(b) -1 V

(c) -0.5 V

(d) 0.5 V

37. For the BJT circuit shown, assume that the of the transistor is very large and 0.7 . The mode of operation of the BJT is
10 K

10 V 2V

1 K

(a) Cut-off

(b) saturation

(c) normal active

(d) reverse active

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 7

38. In the Op-Amp circuit shown assume that the diode current follows the equation, I = exp / . For 2 , , and for 4 , . The relationship between the and is

2 K

(a) (c)

39. In the CMOS inverter circuit shown, if the transconductance parameters of the NMOS transistor are 40 / and their threshold voltages are
5V

(b) (d)

1 , the current I is

PMOS

2.5 V

I
NMOS

(a) 0 A

(b) 25 A

(c) 45 A

(d) 90 A

40. For the Zener diode shown in the figure, the Zener voltage at knee is 7 V, the knee current is negligible and the Zener dynamic resistance is 10 . If the input voltage ( ) range from 10 to 16 V, the output voltage ( ) range from
200

(a) 7.00 to 7.29 V

(b) 7.14 to 7.29 V

(c) 7.14 to 7.43 V

(d) 7.29 to 7.43 V


S Academy Page 8

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

41. The Boolean expression Y = to (a) Y = (c) Y =

can be minimized (b) Y = (d) Y =

42. The circuit diagram of a standard TTL NOT gate is shown in the figure. When Vi = 2.5 V, the modes of operation of the transistor will be
=5V

4 K

1.4 K

100

1 K

(a) (b) (c) (d)

43. In the following circuit, X is given by


0 1 1 0 4-to-1 Y
MUX

: reverse active; : normal active; : saturation; : cut-off : reverse active; : saturation; : saturation; : cut-off : normal active; : cut-off; : cut-off; : saturation : saturation; : saturation; : saturation; : normal active

0 1 4-to-1 1 0
MUX

(a) X = (c) X = AB+BC+AC


SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

(b) X = (d) X =
S Academy Page 9

44. The following binary values were applied to the X and Y inputs of the NAND latch shown in the figure in the sequence indicated below: X = 0, Y = 1; X = 0, Y = 0; X = 1, Y = 1; The corresponding stable P, Q outputs will be
X P

(a) P = 1, Q = 0; P = 1, Q = 0, P = 1, Q = 0 or P = 0, Q = 1 (b) P = 1, Q = 0; P = 0, Q = 1, P = 0, Q = 1 or P = 0, Q = 1 (c) P = 1, Q = 0; P = 1, Q = 1, P = 1, Q = 0 or P = 0, Q = 1 (d) P = 1, Q = 0; P = 1, Q = 0, P = 1, Q = 1 45. For the circuit shown in, the counter state ( , ) follows the sequence

>
Clock

>

(a) 00, 01, 10, 11, 00 (c) 00, 01, 11, 00, 01

(b) 00, 01, 10, 00, 01 (d) 00, 10, 11, 00, 10

46. An 8255 chip is interfaced to an 8085 microprocessor system as an I/O mapped I/O as shown in the figure. The address line A0 and A1 of the 8085 are used by the 8255 chip to decode internally its three ports and the control register. The address lines A3 to A7 as well as the IO/ signal are used for address decoding. The range of addresses for which of the 8255 chip would get selected is

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 10

8255

10 /

(a) F8H FBH

(b) F8H FCH 2 1

(c) F8H FFH (c) .

(d) F0H F7H

47. The 3 dB bandwidth of the low pass signal step function, is given by, (a) (b)

, where u(t) is the unit (d) 1 Hz

48. A Hilbert transformer is a (a) Non-linear system (c) Time-varying system

(b) Non-causal system (d) Low-pass system

49. The frequency response of a linear, time-invariant system is given by H(f) = . The step response of the system is (a) 5 1 (c) 1 . . (b) 5 1 (d) 1 . .

50. A 5-point sequence x[n] is given as x[-3] = 1, x[-2] = 1, x[-1] = 0, x[0] = 5, x[1] = 1. Let X( ) denote the dicrete-time Fourier transform of x[n]. The value of . is (a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 16 (d) 5+j10 51. The z-transform X[z] of a sequence x[n] is given by X[z] =
.

. It is given

that the region of convergence of X[z] includes the unit circle. the value of x[0] is (a) -0.5 (b) 0 (c) 0.25 (d) 0.5 52. A control system with a PD controller is shown in the figure. If the velocity error constant Kv = 1000 and the damping ratio = 0.5, then the value of KP and KD are
100 10

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 11

(a) KP = 100, KD = 0.09 (c) KP = 10, KD = 0.09

(b) KP = 100, KD = 0.9 (d) KP = 10, KD = 0.9 . The second-order (d) . If the plant

53. The transfer function of a plant is T(s) =

approximation of T(s) using dominant pole concept is (a) (b) (c)

54. The open-loop transfer function of a plant is given as G(s) =

is operated in a unity feedback configuration, then the lead compensator that can stabilize this control system is (a) (b) (c) (d) (b) 55. A unity feedback control system has open-loop transfer function G(s) = . The gain K for which is s = -1+j1 will lie on the root locus of this system is (a) 4 (b) 5.5 (c) 6.5 (d) 10

56. The asymptotic Bode plot of a transfer function is as shown in the figure. The transfer function G(s) corresponding to this Bode plot is
60 40 20
-40 dB/ decade

|
-20 dB/ decade

0 1 10 20 100
-60 dB/ decade

(a)

(b) 1 1 1 10

(c) 0 10

(d)

57. The state space representation of a separately excited DC servo motor dynamics is given as ; where is the speed of

the motor is, is the armature current and u is the armature voltage. The transfer function of the motor is

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 12

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

58. In delta modulation, the slope overload distortion can be reduced by (a) Decreasing the step size (b) Decreasing the granual noise (c) Decreasing the sample rate (d) Increasing the step 59. The raised cosine pulse p(t) is used for zero ISI in digital communications. The expression for p(t) with unity roll-off factor is given by p(t) = The value of p(t) at t = (a) -0.5 (b) 0 is (c) 0.5 (d)

60. In the following scheme, if the spectrum M(f) of m(t) is as shown, then spectrum Y(f) of y(t) will be
Cos(2

M(f)

m(t) y(t) f -B 0 B

Hilbert Transform
Sin (2

Y(f)

Y(f)

(a)

-B

0
Y(f)

(b)

f
-2B -B

0
Y(f)

2B

(c)

f
-B

(d)

f
-2B -B

2B

61. During transmission over a certain binary communication channel, bit errors occur independently with probability p. The probability of AT MOST one bit in error in a block of n bits is given by (a) (b) 1(c) np 1 1 (d) 1- 1 62. In a GSM system, 8 channels can co- exist in 200 kHz bandwidth using TDMA, A GSM based cellular operator is allocated 5 MHz bandwidth.
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA S Academy

Page 13

Assuming a frequency reuse factor of , i.e. a five-cell repeat pattern, the 63. In a Direct sequence CDMA system the chip rate is 1.2288 x 10 chips for second. If the processing gain is desired to be AT LEAST 100, the data rate (a) Must be less than or equal to 12.288 x 10 bits per sec (b) Must be greater 12.288 x 103 bits per sec (c) Must be exactly equal to 12.288 x 103 bits per sec (d) Can take any value less than 122.88 x 103 bits per sec 64. An air-filled rectangular waveguide has inner dimensions of 3 cm x 2 cm. the wave impedance of the TE20 mode of propagation in the waveguide at a frequency of 30 GHz is (free space impedance 377 (a) 308 (b) 355 (c) 400 (d) 461 65. The field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in free space is given by

maximum number of simultaneous channels that can exist in one cell is (a) 200 (b) 40 (c) 25 (d) 5

density in Watts is: (a) (b) 66. The

cos

sin

. The time average power flow (c) 50 (d)

field in a rectangular waveguide of inner dimensions a x b is given by . Where H0 is constant, a and b are the

dimensions along the x-axis and the y axis respectively. The mode of propagation in the waveguide is: (a) TE20 (b) TM11 (c) TM20 (d) TE10 67. A load of 50 is connected in shunt in a 2-wire transmission line of Z0 = 50 as shown in the figure. The 2-port scattering parameter matrix (S-matrix) of the shunt element is

=50

50

=50

(a)

(b)

0 1 1 0

(c)

(d)

68. The parallel branches of a 2-wire transmission line are terminated in 100 and 200 resistor as shown in the figure. The characteristic impedance of
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA S Academy Page 14

the line is Z0 = 50 and each section has a length of . The voltage reflection co-efficient at the input is:
4

4 50

50

100

50 4

200

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) above a perfectly conducting

69. A dipole is kept horizontally at a height of

infinite ground plate. The radiation pattern in the plane of the dipole ( plane) looks approximately as y y

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

70. A right circularly polarized (RCP) plane wave is incident at an angle of 600 to the normal, on an air-dielectric interface. If the reflected wave is linearly polarized , the relative dielectric constant is:

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 15

RCP 60 60

Linearly Polarized

air
dielectric

Common data for questions 71, 72, 73 : The figure shows the high-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics / silicon (MOS) capacitor having an area of 1 x 10-4 cm2, of a Metal / Assume that the permittivities ( ) of silicon and Sio2 are 1 x 10-12 F/cm and 3.5 x 10-13 F/cm respectively.
C 7 pF

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 3

1pF V 0

71. The gate oxide thickness in the MOS capacitor is: (a) 50 nm (b) 143 nm (c) 350nm 72. The maximum depletion layer width in silicon is (a) 0.143 m (b) 0.857 m (c) 1 m

(d) 1 m (d) 1.143 m

73. Consider the following statements about the C-V characteristics plot: S1 : The MOS capacitor has n type substrate S2 : If positive charges are introduced in the oxide, the C-V plot will shift to the left Then which of the following is true? (a) Both S1 and S2 are true (b) S1 is true and S2 is false (c) S1 is false and S2 is true (d) Both S1 and S2 are false

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 16

Common data for Questions 74 & 75: Two 4-ray signal constellations are shown. It is given that and constitute an ortho normal basis for the two constellations. Assume that the four symbols in both the constellations are equi-probable. Let denote the power spectral density of white Gaussian noise.

2 2 2

a -a a

2 Constellation 1

-a
Constellation 2

74. The ratio of the average energy of constellation 1 to the average energy of constellation 2 is: (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 8 (a) 4a2 75. If these constellations are used for digital communications over an AWGN channel, then which of the following statements is true? (a) Probability of symbol error for constellation 1 is over (b) Probability of symbol error for constellation 1 is higher (c) Probability of symbol error is equal for both the constellation (d) The value of N0 will determinate which of the two constellations has a lower probability of symbol error. Linked Answer Questions : Q.76 to Q 85 Carry Two Marks Each Statement for Linked Answer Questions 76 & 77: Consider the Op-Amp circuit shown in the Figure.

R C

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 17

76. The transfer function (a) (b)

is: (c) (d)

77. If Vi = V1 sin( ) and V0 = V2 sin( ), then the minimum and maximum values of (in radians) are respectively (a) (b) 0 and (c) and 0 (d) - and 0 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 78 & 79: An 8085 assembly language program is given below: Line 1 : MVI A, B5H 2: MVI B, 0EH 3: XRI 69H 4: ADD B 5: ANI 9BH 6: CPI 9FH 7: STA 3010H 8: HLT 78. The contents of the accumulator just after execution of the ADD instruction in the line 4 will be (a) C3H (b) EAH (c) DCH (d) 69H 79. After execution of line 7 of the program, the status of the CY and Z flags will be (a) CY = 0, Z = 0 (b) CY = 0, Z = 1 (c) CY = 1, Z = 0 (d) CY = 1, Z = 1 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 80 & 81: Consider a linear system whose state space representation is x(t) = Ax(t). If 1 the initial state vector of the system is x(0) = , then the system response 2 is x(t) = . If the initial state vector of the system changes to x(0) = 2 1 , then the system response becomes x(t) = 1

80. The eigen value and eigenvector pairs , for the system are 1 1 1 1 (a) 1, 2, (b) 2, 1, 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 (c) 1, 2, (d) 2, 1, 1 2 1 2 81. The system matrix A is: 0 1 1 (a) (b) 1 1 1
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

1 2

(c)

2 1

1 1

(d)

0 2

1 3
Page 18

S Academy

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 82 & 83: An input to a 6-level quantizer has the probability density function f(x) as shown in the figure. Decision boundaries of the quantizer are chosen so as to maximize the entropy of the quantizer output. It is given that 3 consecutive decision boundaries are -1, 0 and 1.
f(x)

a b
X -5 -1 0 1 5

82. The value of a and b are: (a) a = and b = (c) a = and b =

(b) a = and b = (d) a = and b =

83. assuming the reconstruction levels of the quantizer are the mid-points of the decision boundaries, the ratio of the signal power to quantization noise power is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 28 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 84 & 85: In the Digital-to-Analog converter circuit shown in the figure below, VR = 10V and R = 10k.
R 2R R 2R R i 2R 2R

2R

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 19

84. The current i is: (a) 31.25 A

(b) 62.5 A

(c) 125 A (c) -3.125 V

(d) 250 A (d) -6.250 V

85. The voltage V0 is: (a) -0.781 V (b) -1.562 V

ANSWERS
1-a 11-c 21-c 31-d 41-d 51-b 61-c 71-a 81-d 2-b 12-a 22-a 32-a 42-b 52-b 62-b 72-b 82-a 3-c 13-c 23-c 33-b 43-a 53-d 63-a 73-c 83-d 4-a 14-b 24-d 34-b 44-c 54-c 64-c 74-b 84-b 5-d 15-d 25-b 35-c 45-b 55-d 65-d 75-b 85-c 6-a 16-d 26-b 36-c 46-c 56-d 66-a 76-a 7-d 17-c 27-a 37-b 47-a 57-a 67-b 77-c 8-c 18-b 28-d 38-d 48-b 58-d 68-d 78-b 9-d 19-a 29-d 39-c 49-b 59-c 69-b 79-c 10-c 20-d 30-a 40-c 50-b 60-a 70-d 80-a

EXPLANATIONS 1. (a) Var (X) = E 2

2. (b) The equation of the straight line : y = x+1 The value of integral I = 1 3. (c) [2, p 776] coth (x) = 4. (a) lim

2.5

lim

0.5 [Using L Hospital Rule]

5. (d) For strictly bounded function f(x), condition is 0 will satisfy the criterion.

. Only

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 20

6. (a) According to Taylor series, f(x) = f(a) + Now putting f(x) = f(x) =
!

and a = 2, it can be derived as


!

, 2

7. (d) For maximum average power transfer to the load, load impedance must be 8. (c)
+
R C R C

Using Laplace transform of the given network, it can be derived as . Now putting RC = 1 (assumption),

. Hence it has two dominant poles with 3-dB Bandwidth 5.

Hence it is Bandpass Filter. 9. (d) [3, p 27] In intrinsic semiconductor, hole concentration p must be equal to the electron concentration n, so that n = p = ni, where ni is called intrinsic concentration. When acceptor impurity NA is introduced, semiconductor becomes P type. The total positive charge density becomes NA + np and total negative charge density is np, where suffix P shows P-type semiconductor. Since semiconductor is electrically neutral, the magnitude of the negative charge density must equal that of the positive charge density or NA + np = pp. As in P-type semiconductor NA >> ni, pp NA. Now according to Mass-action Law, np = nppp = or np = . Hence np = = . i.e. the field

10. (c) [3, p 50, 51, 64] According to Poissons equation

intensity curve is proportional to the integral of the charge density curve. Usually there is transition of polarity in charge density at p+ n (or normal p n) junction. Hence integration of such curve provides maximum value at the p+ n junction. 11. (c) [10, p 74] Figure (c) is the correct choice where total path is complete
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA S Academy Page 21

Type of Neg Feedback Input Resistance Output Resistance Voltage Series Or, Series Shunt Or, Voltage Amplifier Current Series Or, Series Series Or, Transconductance Amplifier Current Shunt Or, Shunt Series Or, Current Amplifier Voltage Shunt Or, Shunt Shunt Or, Transresistance Amplifier

Increases

Decreases

Increases

Increases

Decreases

Increases

Decreases

Decreases

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 22

12. through diodes and load impedance both when supply is of positive and negative polarity. 13. (a) Trans conductance amplifier means Current-Series amplifier. Hence input and output resistance both must increases. [3, p 420][6, p 676] 14. (c) In 2 complement format to convert N bit to (N+M) bit digit, sign bit of Nbit digit should be extended by M times. Hence 01110 + 11001 = 00111 or 000111. In otherway, (01110 + 11001) is equivalent to (001110 + 111001), hence sum is 000111. 15. (b) The minimum number of gates required is 3. Applying Demorgans Law, it can be derived
= .

is equivalent to

A B Y C D

16. (d) Closed loop transfer function is given by T(s) = Here all poles are at left side of s-plane. Hence it is stable system. [5, p 604] if the input transfer function of a linear time-invariant system has pole-zero concellation, the system will be either not state-controllable or unobservable, depending on how state variables are defined. If the transfer function does not have pole-zero concellation, the system can always be represented completely controllable and observable state model. Thus here the system with given transfer function is controllable system. Here one zero s = 5 is at right half of the s-plane. Hence it is non-minimum phase system Definition of Non-minimum phase system is as follows: [5, p 349] A transfer function which has one or more zeros in the right half s-plane is known as non-minimum phase transfer function. 17. (d) Final value Theorem states that when no poles are on imaginary axis or on the right hand side of the s-plane, lim lim Hence in the given Y(s) = is having one pole is on the right half s-plane 18. (c) [9, p 36] The auto-correlation function is an even function of . i.e.

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 23

19. (b) [9, p 47] The power spectral density of a stationary process is always nonnegative i.e. 0

20. (a) (a) As plane wave is travelling in a direction making an angle 30 with positive x-axis and 60 with positive z-axis and 90 with positive y axis, the . . . . . . . which can field equation is given by be simplified as .
. .

. .

21. (d) One of the Maxwell Laws (Amperes Law) states that flux density. Applying Stokes theorem [14, p 246], over this Maxwells equation, it becomes solution. . . .

where .

H being magnetic flux intensity, J being current density and D being electric . Hence the

22. (c) There are M non-zero orthogonal vectors in the dimension of the vector and , and , and so on are not space spanned by the 2M vectors as orthogonal. Hence there are M dimension required to represent them. 23. (a) Given function f(x) = x2 x 2. To find out maximum /minimum point in the closed interval, it is necessary to find out where its derivable is zero and its double derivative is negative /positive respectively. Hence 0 2 minima in the interval [-4, 4], which implies f(x) is maxima at x = -4 or x = |x=4 = 10 |x=-4 = 18 or +4. Hence 1 0. Hence x = 0.5. Now
x = 0.5

= 2 > 0 = positive. Hence there is one

24. (c) [14, p 601] P(A) = Probability of failing in Paper 1 =0.3 and P(B) = Probability of failing in Paper 1 = 0.2. It is given probability of failing in paper 1 given that a student has failed in Paper 2 is P(A|B)=0.6. Hence using | theorem, P(A 0.2 0.6 0.12

25. (d) To solve these type of problem, back-calculate using the options provided. The boundary conditions (i) y = y1 at x = 0 and (ii) y = y2 at x = , where k, y1 and y2 are constants, are satisfied by the two options i.e. (a) and (d). Now out of these two, options (d) y = (y1 y2).exp(-x / k) + y2 satisfies the equation .

26. (b) Using Newton Raphson Method [14, p 650], x0 = 2 and f(x) = x3 x2 + 4x 4 = 0, it can be derived x1 = 27. (b) Two functions are orthogonal if orthonormal if
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

. Hence with 0 and two functions are


S Academy Page 24

1.

Case (a) : Case (b) : Case (c) : Case (d) :

2 1

2 2

1 1

1 1

0 0

1 1

3 1

2 3 2

2 2

2 1

1 2

2 1

2 2

0 3

0 0

4 2

2 4

0 0

0 1

28. (a) According to [14, p 509], Cauchys integral formula : If f(s) is analytic within and on a closed curve D and if a is any point within D, then f(a) = . Here given 1 and (1, 0) is inside the semicircle D but not (-1, 0). Hence value of a can be a = 1. Thus

. 29. (d) for series resonance B = .

. Hence

30. (d) The Thevenins theorem in a network with dependent source is as follows: . 1 For calculation of VTH :
2i + i 1 2A 2 Y X

Here taking two loops as shown above, it can be derived as 2i i1 (i1 i2)=0, i = i1 i2 and (i1 i2) 2(i2 + 2) = 0 from which it is found as i2 = 0 and i1 = 4. Hence VTH = VOPEN = 2 x 2 = 4V.
1 i 2i + 1 2A 2 X

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 25

Form the network shown above, it can be stated that 2A current will pass through only XY shorted terminal as i current through 1 ohm is zero, dependent voltage source is also zero hence no effect of 2i voltage source. Hence iSHORT = 2A. Thus 31. (a)
20 K

2 .

1/sC 10/s 20 K 4

Using Thevenin Principle, which can be drawn as following:


10 K

1/sC 5/s 4

The expression of current through capacitor is as Hence 32. (d) 530 0.5 5 3 . 5 3 530 3.40 1730

33. (a) For a p+ n junction, relation between Depletion Capacitance CT and Depletion Width W and Depletion area A is given by CT = . If Vj is the junction or barrier potential i.e. Vj = V0 Vd (where V0 contact potential and Vd is the negative number for an applied reverse bias) then Depletion Width W
. . . .

hence 0.5, thus W2 = 4 .

. Putting all the values,

34. (b)

Group I P. Zener Diode Q. Solar cell R. LASER Diode S. Avalanche Photodiode

Group II 2. Reverse Bias 1. Forward Bias 1. Forward Bias 2. Reverse Bias

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 26

35. (b) [19, p 326] From the theory of Bipolar Junction Transistor, where is the current transfer ratio, emitter injection efficiency. Here = 36. (c) Group I P. BJT Q. MOS Capacitor R. LASER Diode S. JFET Group II 3. Early effect 4. Flat-band voltage 1. Population Inversion 2. pinch-off voltage is the DC current ratio and is the 0.995. Hence B = 0.9853.

37. (c) The Op-amp equivalent simplified diagram can be drawn as follows. The two equations are (from the diagram): Va = 1 0. Solving thersetwo equation, it can be derived 0.5 0.5 .
2 K

1K 1V 1K 1K

38. (b) From the figure, 2 . 1.3 . Hence

Thus in npn transistor and . Hence both the junction CB and BE are in forward biased. So mode of operation of the BJT is in Saturation.
n
2

10

0.7 . Hence 1.3 . Thus 10 10 10 1.3

3 .

10 K
1.3

2V

1 K

1.3

10 V

39. (d) The simplified Op-Amp circuit is given as follows:

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 27

+
2 K 0

In general, it can be derived as I = When Vi = 2 V: When Vi = 4 V: 2. I = 1 mA = IS exp I = 2 mA = IS exp

and 0-V = V0.

Taking ratio of the derived two equations, 40. (c) [6, p 426, 430, 429, 435] From the voltage transfer curve of CMOS, if 2.5 , 2.5 . It is given that 1 and 1
5V

S PMOS
D 2.5 V

2.5 V

I D
G NMOS S

From figure, for NMOS, i.e. NMOS is in saturation and for PMOS, i.e. PMOS is in saturation. Hence both are in saturation. Hence 2.5 1 , , ,
,

2.5

45

41. (c) The zener diode with its dynamic resistance can be equivalently deawn as follows.
200

10
10 V to 16 V

7V

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 28

16 V, changes from 7 10 7.143 to 7 10 7.429 42. (d) For solving this type of problem, it is better to use KMAP method.
Y= D+ BC +A D+AB CD 00 01 11 10 AB 1 00

It can be derived as

10

. Hence when

changes from 10 V to

01 11 10
1 1

Y= AB CD

D+ B +A D

Y= AB CD

D+BC +A

00

01
1

11

10

00

01
1

11

10

00 01 11 10
1

00 01 11 10

1 1 1

1 1 1

Y= AB CD

+A

D AB CD

Y=

+AB

00

01
1

11

10

00

01
1

11

10

00 01 11 10

00
1

01 11
1 1

10

43. (b) [20, p 201]

: Reverse Active;

: Saturation;

: Saturation;

: Cut-off

44. (a) For any 4 : 1 MUX, Output Y can be expressed as

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 29

0 1 1 0 4-to-1 Y Z
MUX

0 1 4-to-1 1 0
MUX

Y= . From the figure shown above, it can be derived as Z = which can be simplified as X =

45. (c) In the NAND latch given, if one of inputs to NAND gate is 0 then corresponding output will be 1 otherwise 0.
X=0 P=1

Y=1

Q=0

Hence when X = 0, Y = 0:
X=0 P=1

Y=0

Q=1

Hence when X = 1, Y = 1: As both the external inputs are 1, hence output state 0 or 2 depends on feedback path, initially Present P and Q state will be forced to both 0. Assuming there is propagation delay mismatch in the feedback path or NAND gate, which will force P = 1 and Q = 0 or P = 0 and Q X=1 = 1. P=1

Y=1 SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

Q=0

S Academy

Page 30

Or
X=1

P=0

Y=1

Q=1

46. (b) The characteristic equation of the counter can be written as follows: . , , , , , If starting value of counter is 00, then sequence will be 01, 10, 00, 01.. 47. (c) A7 to A4 should be 0 for chip selection and A2 is dont care and A1 & A0 have all possibilities. A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 A7 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 =F8 H 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 =F9 H 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 =FA H

1 48. (a) s(t) = Bandwidth,

1 . Hence

1 1 rad/s or

1 .

=FF H for 3-dB

49. (b) A Hilbert transformer is a Linear, Non-Causal, Time-Invariant and AllPass System. The Hilbert transformer is non-causal as its impulse response h(t) = 0 t < 0. 50. (b) The impulse frequency response of a LTI system is given by H(f) = . . 5 5 1 . The step response of the system

will be as Y(s) = H(s) X(s) =

51. (b) [8, p 285] From the expression of DTFT of x[n] i.e. X . and x[n] = . . Hence at n = 0, x[n=0]= . or 2 . 0 10 .

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 31

52. (b) [2, p 200] Taking inverse z-transform of X[z] =

53. (b) It is given that KV = lim lim lim

which includes unit circle, it can be derived as x[n] = 0.5 x Hence x[0] = 0.5 x u[-1] = 0. 1000 and 10 . Hence 10 x

with ROC | | 2

1.

|2|

or 10 100 10 0. Now comparing with standard characteristic equation i.e. 2 0, it can be derived as 100 2 10 100 or putting 100 & 0.5, 2 0.5 100 10 100 0.9. 54. (d) [5, p 213] [15, p 795] Using Dominant Pair of Complex-pole or Dominant Pole Concept i.e. Poles whose real part is much less than the other poles or in other words, the poles which are located near to the imaginary axis are more dominant in nature. As poles moves away from the imaginary axis in the left half of s-plane, it becomes less and less significant. This dominant pole tends to extend their effect on the transient response. Hence the second order approximation of T(s) using dominant pole concept is as follows: Putting s = 0, in the expression (s+5) i.e. T(s) = or

100. Now the characteristic equation 1 + G(s) = 0 or 1 +

1000 or

=0

55. (c) For stability, no poles of the closed loop transfer should be on the right half of s-plane or no repeated roots should be on the imaginary axis. Now the transfer function in option (a) and (b) is not Lead-Compensator as phase-angle is lagging type due to its negative values. Now out of two options (c) & (d), option (c) is having closed loop transfer poles in the left-hand side of the s-plane, which can be derived as follows: In unity feedback transfer function, closed loop transfer function characteristic equation 10 9 10 0 is having roots s = -9.13, 0.433+0.95j, -0.433-0.95j. Hence the closed loop system is stable. 56. (d) [15, p 486] Using Magnitude Condition of Root-Locus, i.e. | || 1. Hence for unity feedback control system , | 1 10 |
s=-1+j1 =

T(s) =

, Hence the

;Thus

57. (d) From the Bode-Plot, the transfer function G(s) can be written as

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 32

20

G(s) =
. .

where K is the gain at


.

function is G(s) =

60

= 0.1 rad/s. Hence 1000

2000. Hence transfer 1 10 0 10

58. (a) The Laplace transformation of the state-space representation of separately excited DC servo motor dynamics as follows: s simplified as 1 10 10 1 1

is

; 10 or

10

.Which can be 10 10

59. (d) In delta modulation, the slope overload distortion can be reduced by either increasing sampling rate or step size. 60. (c) Given expression p(t) = lim . The value of p(t) at t = lim can be

obtained using LHospital Rule in Mathematics i.e.lim

lim

which can be simplified as lim 0.5

lim

61. (a) The output y(t) can be expressed as y(t) = m(t)cos(2 + sin(2 where is the Hilbert transform of m(t). Hence y(t) is LSB of Single-SideBnad Modulation with carrier frequency B Hz. Hence correct output is
Y(f)

f
-B 0 B

62. (c) Probability of AT MOST one bit error in a block of n bits = Probability of one bit error + Probability of zero bit error n =n 1 1 1 1
SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA S Academy Page 33

63. (b) [C Y Lee] Total Band Width given is 5 MHz. 5 cell repeat pattern is followed and hence Band Width per cell = = 1 MHz. Now using TDM, one set of 8 channels can co-exist in 200 KHz. Thus in 1 MHz channels i.e. 40 simultaneus channels can co-exist. 64. (a) [23, p 726] Processing Gain in CDMA equals to is given hence
.

5 sets of 8 . Here it 100,

1.2288

10

100 or data rate where

and it is required

12.288 X 10 bits / sec. here

65. (c) The wave impedance of TEmn mode of propagation in the waveguide of dimension [a X b] is

399.86

10

and =

66. (d) It is known cos

, . Thus using

or ,
Y
53 5
90

cos

. Now it is given

53

-Y

The expression for E Field can be derived as 53

. So the average Power Flow will be or

5cos

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 34

5.

53 .

53

67. (a) [13, p 555] The x and y component of E field in a rectangle waveguide is as follows: and . Here as only y component exist and in y only sin part exists, then m = 1, n = 0. Hence the mode is TE20. 68. (b) [12, p 169] The 2-port scattering parameter matrix is given as where b is the reflected / transmitted normalized power wave and a is the incident normalized power wave and
; ; ;

Hence here condition and

0 as there is no reflection due to impedance matched 1 as there is full transmission. .

69. (d) The individual sections are sections. Hence for section,
A
50

4 50

100

B C

50 4

200

Hence here 100 ohms impedance AB is Ohms impedance CD is impedance is


SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

25

12.5

12.5

at EF . Thus at EF effective . Now impedance in EF is


S Academy Page 35

25

at EF and 200

equivalently impedance given by =

300 . Hence reflection co-efficient is

70. (b) [17, p 370] For vertical antennas, the non-directional radiators would be considered to have the same phase, whereas for horizontal antennas the non directional radiators would have opposite phase.
270

Real
180

Ground

Image
90

180 or = = = = |1

The total E field can be derived as 2 sin 180 2 sin 180 2 sin 0, 30 2 180

2 sin

1 1 0 correct plot.

2 sin 180 | 2 sin 180 2 sin 1 cos 2 sin now 2 , 90 0 which shows (c) is the ;

180 Hence

71. (d) [17, p 147] Polarizing angle / Brewster angle: angle at which, there is no reflected wave when the incident wave is parallel (or vertically polarized). If the incident wave is not entirely parallel polarized, there will be some reflection, but the reflected wave will be entirely of perpendicular (or horizontal polarization0. [ 13, p 455] The Brewster angle is also known as the polarizing angle because an arbitrarily polarized incident wave will be reflected with only the component of E perpendicular to the plane of incidence. of incidence. Here tan 60
.

for parallel polarization, where 3 3

is the angle

72. (a) [19, p 270] From figure, 7 7 10 and from data given, 3.5 10 / and MOS capacitor area A = 10 . Hence d= 0.5 10 50

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 36

73. (b) [19, p 270] The maximum depletion layer which is given by where semiconductor permitivitty 10 the given value, it can be derived as can ne derived from / . Here it is given, and A = 10 and hence

. Now putting 0.857 .

74. (c) Case S1 : MOS capacitor has an p-type substrate as shown in Fig 6-16 in [19] Case S2 : If positive charges are introduced in the oxide, they increase the depletion layer and decrease the capacitance, so C-V curve will shift to the left direction, because now small voltage is needed to decrease the capacitance. 75. (b) The constellation diagram shows the amplitude and phase of the modulated signal. Hence the ratio of the energy of the two constellation scheme is calculated as follows:

2 2

a -a a

2 Constellation 1

-a
Constellation 2

Ratio =

76. (b) The constellation 2 is having more orthogonal relations between the points. Hence probability of symbol error in Constellation 2 is less. 77. (a) The Laplace-transformed equivalent simplified Op-Amp circuit

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 37

(s) (s) R 1/sC

(s)

be derived as 78. (c) As ,

. From these two equations, it can ,

79. (b) The 8085 program is as follows Line 1: MVI A, B5 H : A = B5 H 2: MVI B, 0E H : B = 0E H 3: XRI 69 H : A = A69H = B5H69H = DCH 4: ADD B : A = A + B = DCH + 0EH = EAH Hence answer is EAH. 80. (c) Continued from Line 4: Line 5: ANI 9B H 6: CPI 9F H

2 2 Thus | = or 0 and = 0 or . Hence minimum and maximum values of are respectively [0 and ] or [0].

: A = A9BH = EAH9BH = 8AH : compare immediate with Accumulator and as 9F H is greater that 8A H which is stored in Accumulator, carry Flag is Set and Zero Flag is reset. 7: STA 3010 H : Store Accumulator Direct (Copy content of Accumulator to a memory location specified by the operated 3010 H). Here no flags are affected. Hence Carry Flag is Set and Zero Flag is reset.

81. (a) [5, p 588] The unforced response of system x(t) using state transition matrix (t) can be written as x(t) = 0 0 . Using given values of x(t) and x(0), (t) can be found out as 2 and hence 2 2 2 1 3 1 3

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

0 or = -1, -2
S Academy Page 38

Now eigen vector corresponding to = -1 is

| 82. (d) From the expression above | 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 . Hence A = 0 1 2 3 2 3

1 1 2 1 3 2 1 and eigen vector corresponding to = -2 is 2 1 3 1 1 Hence correct answer is 1 2, 1 2 1 3 0

0 or 0 0 2

0 or

1 3

83. (a) From property of Probability Density Function, 1 which is nothing but area under the PDF curve. Here area under the PDF curve is 4b+2a+4b which is equal to 1 hence 4b + a = . From symmetry and data given, the decision boundaries are at [-3, -1, 0, +1, +3]. Hence output of the quantizer will be at [-4, -2, -0.2, +0.5, +2, +4]. Hence entropy of the 6 level quantizer output will be H = 4 2 4 2 0.5 . 2 , P(-2) =
.

0.5 . . 2

Now P(-4) = P(-0.5) = H= 2 P(2) =

2 2 +
, ,

2 , P(+4) = 2

, P(0.5) =

2 . Hence

= -2 (4b

Case (a) : Case (b) : Case (c) : Case (d) :

2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4

0.7781 0.7526
. .

0.7739 0.6778
.

Thus case (a) is having maximum entropy and hence (a) is the solution. N=
.

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 39

84. (d) The noise power is given by = 4b The signal power is given by = N =

= 2b Hence signal-to-noise ratio is given by

2 |

. .

b b
,

28

85. (b) Here Node Voltage Analysis is performed to find out I as well as potential VA and VB is required to find out iA and iB for Q85. Given VR = 10V and R = 10K.
R
2R 2R

R
2R

i
2R

2R

V=0

V=0

Solving simultaneous equations (Use Calculator fx-991 MS to solve the equations), it can be derived that VA = 5, VB = 2.5 and VC = 1.25. . Hence i = 62.5 86. (c) From equivalent simplified Figure of Op-Amp based DAC, it can be . derived as 3.125
5
1.25

20;

0;

2R

2R

V=0

SAIMEDHA-HYD,Blore,TPT,VJA

S Academy

Page 40