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# : Grassmannian (......7.

5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 1 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:22:28 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} 2001 10 11 \end{center}
\section{: }
,(Issac Newton,
1642-1727)(Gottpied Leibniz, 1646-1716),
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$$\frac{d A(x)}{dx}=f(x).\eqno(1.1)$$
. $A(x)$,
, $f(x)$. , .
,
,
$$\int f(x)dx|^b_a=\int^b_af(x)dx \eqno(1.2)$$
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. ,
. $dx\wedge dy$,
$$dx\wedge dy=-dy\wedge dx.\eqno (1.5)$$
. , $dx\wedge dx=0$. ,
$dx\wedge dx=-dx\wedge dx$, $dx\wedge dx=0$, ,

. . .

## $$dx\wedge dy=\frac{\partial (x,y)}{\partial (x',y')}dx'\wedge dy'.\eqno (1. 6)$$ ,
$$dx=\frac{\partial x}{\partial x'}dx'+\frac{\partial x}{\partial y'}dy', dy =\frac{\partial y}{\partial x'}dx'+\frac{\partial y}{\partial y'}dy'.\eqno ( 1.7)$$ , $dx'\wedge dx'= dy'\wedge dy'=0$. $dx'\wedge dy'$ ,
$x=x(x',y'),y=y(x',y')$ $\frac{\partial (x ,y)}{\partial (x',y')}$, ,
,
$$dx\wedge dy=\frac{\partial (x,y)}{\partial (x',y')}dx'\wedge dy'.\eqno (1. 8)$$
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, ,,
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$A$$B$$x,y$, $A,B$ .
$A$$A_xdx+A_ydy, B$$B_xdx+B_ydy$,
$A_xdx\wedge d x=0$ $A_ydy\wedge dx$,
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, . , ,
(Analytical Mechanics), Frobenius,
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0.
$$d^2=0,\eqno (1.11)$$
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$d\alpha$ $\Delta^k$,
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$$d(\alpha\wedge\beta)=d\alpha\wedge \beta+(-1)^{{\rm deg}\alpha} \alpha\wedge d\beta, \eqno (1.16)$$ ,
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$d\alpha=0$$\alpha, d\beta,$$\{\alpha|d\alpha=0\}/{d\beta}.\eqno (1.17)$$\alpha=d\beta, d^2=0, d\alpha=0. (close form), d, homology. k, (d 0), d\beta, , homology. d, . , , , , \partial homology (cohomology). , , cohomology. , , , cohomology form , Betti (Bett i Number). , , , , , . , , , , , , , , quotient, quotient , , , . , , Betti , , , , Bet ti , Betti , , Betti , . \end{CJK*} \end{document} -- Single is Simple Couple is Trouble : Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science : S.S.Chern 2 (zz) : BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:23:42 2002) \documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage{CJK} \usepackage{CJKvert} \begin{document} \begin{CJK*}{GB}{song} \begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad }\end{center} \begin{center} 2001 10 19 \end{center} \section{} , . 8 , , . 8 , 80 . , . . , , , , . . . , . . , Gauss. Gauss , , Euler, Monge . , Gauss 19 . , . , 19 . , Gauss, Gauss . Gauss Riemann. Gauss Riemann, , . . Einstein , . , Einstein , (x,y) . , . , Einstein , , , , , , . . Euclid , . , . . , . , . , . , , , x^2+1=0 . , , , . , , , . . , , , . , . , 19 , . , . , , . . , , . , , . \section{ Stokes } ,$$\int^b_af(x)dx=\int f(x)|^b_a\rightarrow L(\int f(x)dx)=f(x),\eqno (2.1)$$. , , , , . , , . , , , , (2.1) . (2.1). , , , , , , , f(x). , , . . , , , . , . , . n, n. , , . , , , , , . , dx, dy . , . , dx , (dx)^2=0. dx, ,. . dx, . dx, , , , . (pair), , , , , , . , , Stokes . St okes . , n , k, . k, , , , . , , (homology). . k$$\Delta$, $\partial \Delta$.
$(k-1)$, $k-1$, $k$.
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$$\int_\Delta d\omega =\int_{\partial\Delta}\omega, \omega\; {\rm \mbox{ }}.\eqno (2.2)$$ Stokes .
. ,
.
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## $$\frac{d}{dx}x^{n+1}=(n+1)x^n\rightarrow \int x^ndx=\frac{1}{n+1}x^{n+1},\; n+1\ne 0.\eqno (2.9)$$ $n$$-1, . , n=-1, . . , , , n=-1, . , n=-1, dx/x. x=0, 1 x, , . , \log x:$$\int_1^x\frac{dx}{x}=\log x,\eqno (2.10)$$. . x$$a$, $\log ax$ .
$log$$1/x, \log ax$$1/x$,
C:
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$1$$x, 1$$1$ 0.
$C$$\log a, \log :\log$$ax$$\log x+\log a:$$\log (ax)=\log a+\log x.\eqno (2.12)$$, , . , . log , (2.12). , . y=\log x, , x=e^y,$$y=\log x\leftrightarrow x=e^y.\eqno (2.13)$$. e^y, \log x : \log x, . , , , :$$e^{x+y}=e^xe^y.\eqno (2.14)$$:$$e^{x+y}=e^{\log u+\log v}=e^{\log uv}=uv,\;u=e^x,v=e^y.\eqno (2.15)$$. , e^y$$y$ $e^y$.
$$dy=\frac{dx}{x}\Rightarrow \frac{\exp y}{dy}=\frac{dx}{dy}=x=\exp y,\eqno (2.16)$$ $\exp y$, $e^y$.
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(graph)..
, ,
, . , ,
, . Talyor .
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$$R_n=\int_a^bf^{(n)}(t)\frac{(b-t)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!}dt.\eqno (2.18)$$
.
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\end{CJK*}
\end{document}

## -: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science

: S.S.Chern 3 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:24:27 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} 2001 10 26 \end{center}
\section{}
. .
, , .
${\bf x}(t)=(x_1(t),x_2(t))$,
. , .
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$s$, $x$ $s$
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$$e_1=(\frac{dx_1}{ds},\frac{dx_2}{ds}),(e_1,e_1)=1,s\;{\rm \mbox{}}. \eqno (3.1)$$ ,
, ,
, ,
. , $e_1$, $e_2$ .
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$e_1$$s. , . e_1, (e_1,e_1)=1. , \frac{de_1}{ds} e_1, . , \frac{de_1}{ds} e_2. , k(s).$$\frac{de_1}{ds}=ke_2,e_2\;{\rm \mbox{}},(e_1,e_2)=0.\eqno (3.2 )$$k, , . {\bf :} , k . (k ) \section{} . {\bf x}(t)=(x_1(t),x_2(t),x_3(t)). 3 , x,y t . , . {\bf x}(t) , , t . , 3 x_i(t) (i=1,2,3). {\bf x}(t), t, 3 t , . , , . , , , t . , , e_1, , e_1$$s$ ,
$s$ . $e_1$ ,
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, .
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$$\frac{de_1}{ds}=ke_2.\eqno (3.3)$$
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, $\omega_{ij}$ 9 : $i,j$ 1
3, 9 . 9 , .

$$\omega_{ij}+\omega_{ji}=0.\eqno (3.6)$$
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. $e_i,e_j$
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. $(\omega_{ij})$ $3 \times 3$
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$\omega_{12}= -\omega_{21}$, .
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$de_1=ke_2$.
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$\omega_{13}=0$. $e_3$,
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$\omega_{31}$ 0. ,
3 :
\begin{eqnarray*}
\frac{de_1}{ds}&=& ke_2\\

## \frac{de_2}{ds}&=& -ke_1+\omega e_3\hspace{10cm} (3.7)\\

\frac{de_3}{ds}&=& -\omega e_2
\end{eqnarray*}
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. $y$,
$s,\theta$. $y$ (element
area), $y$ . .
$y$ , $dy$. $y$,
$dy$. $dy$$y , y . . e_1,e_2,e_3, , s. : \begin{eqnarray*} \frac{de_1}{ds}&=& a_2e_2+a_3e_3\\ \frac{de_2}{ds}&=& -a_2e_1+a_1 e_3\hspace{10cm} (3.14)\\ \frac{de_3}{ds}&=& -a_3e_1-a_1e_2 \end{eqnarray*} , . , , dy,dy:$$dy=(-\sin \theta e_2+\cos\theta e_3)(d\theta+a_3ds)-e_1(a_1\cos\theta+a_3\ sin\theta)ds.\eqno (3.15){\rm\mbox{} }=(a_2\cos\theta+a_3\sin\theta)d\theta\wedge ds.\eqno (3.16)a_2=\cos\tau,a_3=\sin \tau,\eqno (3.17)$$##$${\rm\mbox{} }=\cos(\tau-\theta)d\theta\wedge ds.\eqno(3.18)$$\cos(\tau-\theta)d\theta\wedge ds . , , . , , . s \theta, . s, \cos . , |\cos|$$\cos$ 4 .
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.
\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 4 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:25:41 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} 2001 11 2 \end{center}
\section{} .
.
, ,
,
. , ,
3 , , ,
. ,
. ,
.
, ,
. ?
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, . $v$
, $u$ , , $u$. ,
$u$, $v$. , ,
$v$ , $u$. ,
. $x$,
. , , , $x_u,x_v$

, (), $x_u,x_v$$x u,v. , x_u\times x_v\ne 0. , , . x, . , . , , , . x_u,x_v , . , e_3, e_3 , e_3$$(e_3,e_3)=1\; ({\rm \mbox{}}),\;e_3=\frac{x_u\times x_v} {|x_u\times x_v|^2}.\eqno (4.1)$$, (x_u,x_v,e_3). , \det(x_u,x_v ,e_3), \det (x_u,x_v,e_3)>0, . , . u,v , . : x_u x_v , Euclid , , , . e_1,e_2 , . e_1,e_2,e_3, , , . , \pm 1, 1. 1 , , 1,$$e_1,e_2,e_3\; ({\rm \mbox{}}):\;(e_i,e_j)=\delta_{ij},\;(e_1,e_2 ,e_3)=1,\;1\leq i,j,k\leq 3.\eqno (4.2)$$\section{} ? , (family), (). . . , u,v, , , . {\bf x}, e_i, dx, d$$de_i$. . $e_1,e_2,e_3$
, , 3 ,
$e_1,e_2,e_ 3$ .
$de_i$
$$de_i=\omega_{ij}e_j.\eqno (4.3)$$
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3 , $i,j,k$ 1 3, $\omega_{ij}e_j$
$j$ . 3 , $j=1,2,3$, 3 . Einstein

. Einstein : ,
, , $x_i$, $i$ .
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9 . $\omega_{ij}$ , ,
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, $\omega_1,\omega_2$, :
$$dx=\omega_1e_1+\omega_2e_2.\eqno (4.8)$$
5 : $\omega_1,\omega_2, \omega_{13},\omega_{23},\omega_{12}$. ,
.
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ivita $\omega_{12}$. $\omega_{12}$
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, $\omega_{12}$ (4.10).
, $\omega'_{12}$(4.10),
,
$$\omega_1\wedge (\omega'_{12}-\omega_{12})=0;\;\;\omega_2\wedge (\omega'_{1 2}-\omega_{12})=0.\eqno (4.13)$$
0 , 0,
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. $\omega_1,\omega_2$ 0 ,
0, . ,
$\omega'_{12}-\omega_{12}$ $\omega_1$,
$\omega_2$. $\omega_1,\omega_2$ ,
0. $\omega'_{12}$,
$\omega_{12}$. .
Levi-Civita .

$de_1=\omega_{12}e_2+\omega_{13}e_3$.
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. ,
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:
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, $j,k$, $j$, $k$, 1 3,

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$j=1$$\omega_{11}=0, j=3 \omega_{33}=0. , , ##$$d\omega_{13}=\omega_{12}\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqno (4.17)$$##$$d\omega_{23}=-\omega_{12}\wedge \omega_{13}.\eqno (4.18)$$Weingarten , . . Weingarten , \omega_{1},\omega_2, , (4.10) . , Betti Transform ation, . Weingarten d\omega_i . \section{} De_1 Levi-Civita . e_3, \omega_1\wedge \omega_{13}+\omega_2\wedge \omega_{23}=0, (4.1 1). , \omega_{13},\omega_{23}$$\omega_1,\omega_2$ ,

\omega_{13}=a\omega_1+b\omega_2,\;\omega_{23}=b\omega_1+c\omega_2.\eqno
(4
.19)$$. ? . . , , :$${\rm \mbox{}}\;\;{\rm I}=ds^2=(dx,dx)=\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2;\eq
no (4.20){\rm \mbox{
}}\;\;{\rm II}=(

dx,de_3)=a\omega^2+2b\omega_1\omega_
2+c\omega_2^2.\eqno (4.21)$$, (I).ds^2=(dx,dx). dx=\omega_1e_1+\ omega_2e_2, e_1,e_2, \omega_1^2+\omega_2^2. \omega 5 . \omega_1,\omega_2 . 3 , , ? Riemann , 2 . 2 ,  \omega_1^2+\omega_2^2. , e_3$$-(de_3,dx)$. ,$a\omega^2+2b\omega_1\omega_2+c\omega_2^2$, 2 . . , , .$a+ c$,$ac-b^2$. ,$H=\frac{a+c}{2}$,$K=a c-b^2$Gauss . , Gauss . 5 . Gauss . , Gauss , , Gauss , , . , . . , , . , Gauss . 0, . , , 0. , , . Gauss , Gauss$\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}$. Gauss . , 1 , . ,$0$, . , . , , (imag e) Gauss . . Gauss . , . , Gauss . Gauss , . , Gauss , . , 2 , , Gauss , Gauss . . .$d\omega_{ik}=\omega_{ij}\wedge\omega_{jk}$,$\omega_{12},i,k=1,2$,$d\omega_{12}=\omega_{13}\wedge\omega_{32}$.$\omega$,$\omega_{32}=-\omega_{23}$.$\omega_{13}\wedge\omega_{23}ac-b ^2$, Gauss . $$d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2,\eqno (4.22)$$ ,$K$Gauss . Gauss . Gauss Theorem Egregious, Egregious , . ? Gauss Riemann , . ,$\omega_{12}$Riemann .$\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$,$ds^2$, Riemann . Gauss , Riemann . , (deform), Riemann , Gauss . Gauss . Gauss , , . , , , . , Gauss-Bonnet . Gauss-Bonnet$180^o$, . Gauss-Bonnet . , . : (complex line). , , 1 , . . ( symplectic geometry). (symplectic structure), , , . 2 , , 4 , 4 , 4 . Gauss . 2 ,$d$0, Maxwell . . , Gauss-Bonnet Maxwell , , . , , . Gauss-Bonnet , . 50 , , , Gauss-Bonnet . . Gauss-Bonnet , , , Euler , Gauss-Bonnet . . Gauss-Bonnet ,$d \omega_{12}$Gauss-Bonnet . , Princeton , , , . , . Gauss-Bonnet . . \end{CJK*} \end{document} -: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science : S.S.Chern 5 (zz) ## : BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:26:43 2002) \documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage{CJK} \usepackage{CJKvert} \begin{document} \begin{CJK*}{GB}{song} \begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad ()} \end{center} \begin{center}{\Large \bf Gauss-Bonnet }\end{center} \begin{center} 2001 11 23 \end{center} \section{} . , , . , Gauss-Bonnet . , , , . , . 3 2 . , 3 , , . , Monge. Monge , , , . , , , . , (Ploytechnique). , . , , , Poincare Ploytechnique . Monge , , . , . Monge , , , . , Darboux. Darboux , , . , . . , . , , , . Darboux , . 1941 , , , . , Darboux , Darboux , , . , . Darboux , , , , , . , . , , , , , , , , , , , . Darboux . , . , , , ? , , . . 2 , ,$u,v$,$u$,$v$, , . , . Darboux . Darboux, Frobenius, , , , . , , , . , 1941 , , , ? Darboux , . , . \section{} ?, 2 , 2 , , . ,$u,v$. 2 , . , . , . . , , . , 2 , , . . Euclid , . , 1 , , . , , . , , , . , 2 , : , , . , , . , . , . , . . , . Mobius . , Mobius , . : , , Mobius , . . . , ?$e_3$,$e_3$3 , , , ,$e_1$. , . ,$e_2=e_3\times e_1$. . , . ? , . . , , , . , , . , 3 , , , , . , , . , . . , , , ?$e_1$, , .$e_1$?$e_1
$, ? , 2 , 3 . , 2 , , , , , 3 . 3 . , , , . 3 , , , , bundle. , , . , . , , , , . , .$x $,$dx$, .$xu,v$,$u,v$,$dx$:$x$,$dxe_1e_2$, , .$dx$,$e_1e_2$, ,$dx$$$dx=\omega_1e_1+\omega_2e_2.\eqno (5.1)$$$(dx,dx)$.$e_1,e_2$, $$\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2=ds^2\eqno (5.2)$$ . , . ,$g_{ij}dx_idx_j$, Ca rtesian , , .$dx\omega_1e_1+\omega_2e_2$, , , 0. , , .$d$$dx, 0. , d(\omega_1e_1)+d(\omega_2 e_2), , . ,$$d\omega_1=-\omega_2\wedge \omega_{12};d\omega_2=\omega_1\wedge \omega
_{12}
.\eqno (5.3)0=d\omega_3=\omega_1\wedge \omega_{13}+\omega_2\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqn
o (5
.4)$$\omega_{12},\omega_{13},\omega_{23}. , (xe_1e_2,e_3) e_1,e_2,e_3. de_i$$\omega_{ij}e_j$. : , ,$i,j,k$1 3.$de_i\omega_{ij}e_ j$,$\omega_{ij}$: , , , ,$\omega_{ij}$. . $$de_i=\omega_{ij}e_j.\eqno (5.5)$$ , . , , , , ,$t$. , , 3. , , 3,$E$3 . , .$de_i$(5.5).$\omega_{ij}$$i,j, , (e_i,e_j)=\delta_{ij}, . \omega_{ij}: (\omega_{ij}), . , \omega 0, , 3 : \omega_{12},\omega_{13},\omega_{23}. \omega_{12}$$d\omega_1,d\omega_2$(5.3), , Levi-Civita . (5.5).$d(de_i)=0$, ,$d\omega_ {ij}$, $$d\omega_{ij}=\omega_{ik}\wedge \omega_{kj}.\eqno (5.6)$$$\omega$, . ?$d\omega_{ij}=\omega_{ik}\wedge \omega_{kj}$,$i,j$. ,$\omega_{ii}$0,$\omega$,$i\ne j$.$k$$i, \omega_{ii}=0; k$$j$,$\omega_{jj}=0$.$ki$,$j$. 3 ,$k$. , , , ## $$d\omega_{12}=\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{32}.\eqno (5.7)$$ $$d\omega_{13}=\omega_{12}\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqno (5.8)$$ $$d\omega_{23}=\omega_{21}\wedge \omega_{13}.\eqno (5.9)$$$d\omega_{12}=\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{32}$.$\omega$, $$d\omega_{12}=-\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}.\eqno (5.10)$$$\omega_{13},\omega_{23}$$\omega_1,\omega_2:  \omega_{13}=a\omega_1+b\omega_2,\;\omega_{23}=b\omega_1+c\omega_2.\eqno (5 .11)$$ :
$$d\omega_{12}=-\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}=K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2.\eqno (5.12)$$
$K$ Gauss , Gauss $K=ac-b^2$. .
Gauss , .
Theorem Egregium, , , .
, . $E$,
$M$ : , ,
.
, ,
, : $E$$M. , M, E, . , . 3 , . , : \omega_1,\omega _2, \omega_{12},\omega_{13},\omega_{23}, 5 , \omega_{13},\omega_{23}$$\omega_1,\omega_2$((5.11)),
.
$${\rm \mbox{}}\;\;{\rm I}=ds^2=(dx,dx)=\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2;\eq no (5.13)$$
$${\rm \mbox{}}\;\;{\rm II}=(-dx,de_3)=\omega_1\wedge \omega_{13} + \omega_2\wedge \omega_{23}=a\omega^2+2b\omega_1\omega_2+c\omega_2^2.\eqno (5 .14)$$ $\omega_1\wedge \omega_{13}$ $\omega_2\wedge \omega_{23}$ .
$\omega_1^2+\omega_2^2$,
$\omega_1,\omega_2$.
,
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, $\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$ ,
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\section{Gauss-Bonnet }
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\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
-: Grassmannian (......7.5%), : Science
: S.S.Chern 6 (zz)
: BBS (Wed Jul 3 18:27:38 2002)
\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage{CJK}
\usepackage{CJKvert}

\begin{document}
\begin{CJK*}{GB}{song}
\begin{center} {\Large \bf \quad ()} \end{center}
\begin{center}{\Large \bf Gauss-Bonnet ()}\end{center}
\begin{center} 2001 11 30 \end{center}
\section{}
. : ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
. , , ,
: .
, ,
, . , $x^2+1=0$,
$\sqrt{-1 }$, $\sqrt{-1}$.
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. .
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. , Euler, ,
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, .
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. , ,

. , ,
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, , ,
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. \section{Gauss-Bonnet }
, Gauss-Bonnet , .
Gauss-Bo nnet : ,
, ,
, , Gauss $K$
, ,
2 , ,
($2\pi$) Euler .
$$\int\int KdA=2\pi\chi (M)\eqno (6.1)$$
Euler , ,
, $-$$+, 3 Euler . , Euler =2, , Euler 0. , . , . , , Euler : (genus), . , , , , , . , . , , . Gauss-Bonnet ,$$d\omega_{12}=-\omega_{13}\wedge \omega_{23}=K\omega_1\wedge\omega_2.\eqno (6.2)$$. , . , 3 , , , . , , , . , , , . , , ( ), . , (one parameter family), . 2 , , 3 . 3 x, , , , , , . 3 . , ? , . , . . , , . ? , . , , , . , , , , . , , , . ? xe_1e_2e_3,$$E=\{xe_1e_2e_3|M {\rm \mbox{}}\;\;e_3{\rm \mbox{}},\;e_1{\rm \ mbox{}}\}\eqno (6.3)$$e_3. x,e_1,e_2,e_3 , . . , e_1,e_2,e_3. dx, \omega_1,\omega_2,$$dx=\omega_1e_1+\omega_2e_2.\eqno (6.4)$$\omega_1\wedge\omega_2, 2 , (integral), , . , . , , . , . . 3 Euc lid . Euclid , Euclid , , . , , , . , , , , , , . , , . , , , . , . . , . , xe_1e_2e_3, 4 . , e_1,e_2,e_3. 3 , (6.4):$$de_i=\omega_{ij}e_j.\eqno (6.5)$$, , e_1,e_2,e_3, , . , , , , . : , ? , \omega_ i$$\omega_{ij}$. ,
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, .
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, $d(de_i)$. ,
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## $$d\omega_{ij}=\omega_{ik}\wedge \omega_{kj}.\eqno (6.6)$$

, . $\omega_{ij}$,
2 , ,
2 , . ,
. , ,
$\omega_{ij}$ , $i\ne j$ , ,
$i=1,j=2$, $k=3$. $k$ 1,
$\omega_{11}=0$, $k$ 2, $\omega_{22}=0$.
, . ,
,
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## $$d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge \omega_2. \eqno (6.8)$$

, $K$ Gauss ,
$\omega_1\wedge\omega_2$ , .
. $\omega_{12}$$E , . Gauss Riemann , Riemann \omega_{12}. Riemann , Gauss , Guass . Gauss-Bonnet . , , , . , d , 0. , \omega_{12}, , , 0. . 0? d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge \omega_2, 2 , E 3 . 3 Stokes . 3 , 3 . 3 , ? . , . , , E, E. , ? . , . , , . , , . , , , , , , , . , , , (singularity). , : ( ) , , , . , , , , . , , , , sink. source. . . , (index). , , , , . , ? , , 1. -1. , , sink source, 1 . -1. , . , , , , . d\omega_{12}=-K\omega_1\wedge \omega_2, Gauss . : , , , . , . , . , , . , , , , , , , . Euler ? , , , , , , . , , , , . , . , -1. 1, 1, -1. , +$$-$,
Euler . Gauss-Bonnet .
\section{Gauss-Bonnet }
Gauss-Bonnet . ,
Gauss-Bonnet ++(geodesic
curvature), Gauss . Gauss-Bonnet
$$\sum (\pi-\alpha)\;({\rm\mbox{}})+\sum \int k_g(s)ds\; ({\rm\mbox{}}) +\sum\int\int KdA\;({\rm \mbox{}})=2\pi\chi(M)\eqno(6.9)$$
, ,
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0. $\sum(\pi-\alpha)$ $2\pi$.
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, 4 $4\times 4$:
$$(F_{\alpha\beta}=\left(\matrix {0 & E_1 & E_2&E_3\cr -E_1& 0 &-B_0 &B_2\cr -E_2 &B_0&0 &-B_1 \cr -E_3 & -B_2 &B_1 &0\cr}\right).\eqno (6.10)$$
$E_1,E_2,E_3$ Electric Potential, $B_0,B_1,B_2$ Magnetic Po
tential, , .
2 , $d$ 0,
Maxwell
$$d(F_{\alpha\beta}dx^{\alpha}\wedge dx^{\beta})=0.\eqno (6.11)$$
Gauss-Bonnet .
Gauss, Bonnet.
Gauss , .
Bonnet . Bonnet ,
Gauss-B onnet .
Bonnet , .
, .
Maxwell , .
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\end{CJK*}
\end{document}
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