RESEARCH PAPER

Temperature dependence of optical properties of InAs
quantum dots grown on GaAs(113)A and (115)A substrates
M. Bennour

L. Bouzaı ¨ene

F. Saidi

L. Sfaxi

H. Maaref
Received: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 August 2011
Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011
Abstract We have investigated the temperature
dependence of photoluminescence (PL) peak position
of InAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) grown on
GaAs(11N)A (N = 3, 5) substrates. The interband
transition energy is calculated by the resolution of the
3D Schro¨dinger equation for a parallelepipedic InAs
QD, with a width of about 8 nm and a height around
3 nm. Experimentally, it was found that the PL
spectra quenches at about 160 K. In addition, the full
width at half maximum (FWHM) has an abnormal
evolution with varying temperature. The latter effect
maybe due to the carrier repopulation between QDs.
The disorientation of the GaAs substrate and the low
width of terraces which was presented in the high
index surfaces have an important contribution in the
PL spectra. Despite the non-realist chosen shape of
QD and the simplest adopted model, theoretical and
experimental results revealed a clear agreement.
Keywords InAs quantum dots Á GaAs(11N)A Á
Photoluminescence Á Localized state Á
Theory, modeling and simulation
Introduction
Self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) have
unique physical properties as well as great potential
for novel optoelectronics device applications due to
their special three-dimensional confinement structure
(Henini and Bugajski 2005; Sheng and Leburton
2002). In order to produce good quality of QDs
structures with high densities and low size dispersion,
a growth on high index surfaces has been put forward
(Gong et al. 2006; Godefroo et al. 2004; Temko et al.
2003; Schmidbauer et al. 2006), in particular growth
on GaAs(11N) substrates (Caroff et al. 2005; Liang
et al. 2007). Recently, we have obtained bimodal sizes
of quantum dots at a low growth rate (0.008 A/s),
whereas the homogenous size of QDs is obtained at
0.08 A/s (Bouzaı ¨ene et al. 2010). Furthermore, Liang
et al. (Liang et al. 2007) have shown the influence of
GaAs substrate orientation on the surface morphology
and on the optical properties of the InAs QDs.
Numerical methods using the finite elements analyses
(FEM) were applied by some authors for finding the
energy levels in pyramidal QD (Grundmann et al.
1995; Stier et al. 1999; Hwang et al. 2004). For this
geometry, resolving the Schro¨dinger equation using
the finite differences methods (FDM) is very complex.
The most attractive of FDM is that it can be very easy
to implement but the basic form is restricted to handle
rectangular shapes. However, it is very difficult to
establish the exact geometry of QD in already grown
structures. Although, pyramidal and lens shapes are
M. Bennour Á L. Bouzaı ¨ene (&) Á F. Saidi Á
L. Sfaxi Á H. Maaref
Laboratoire de Micro-Optoe´lectronique et Nanostructures,
De´partement de Physique, Faculte´ des Sciences,
Universite´ de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement,
5019 Monastir, Tunisia
e-mail: lotfi.bouzaiene@fsm.rnu.tn
123
J Nanopart Res
DOI 10.1007/s11051-011-0557-y
more realistic, many recent studies have used a very
simplest model (parallelepiped or cubic QD) which
can be described by the 3D confinement potential and
can be solved by easy methods (FDM) (Yang 2008;
Boichuk et al. 2010; Abdi ben Nasrallah et al. 2010;
Wei et al. 2010; Bouazra et al. 2010). However, many
theoretical studies focused on the electronic structures
of InAs/GaAs QDs grown along the (001) or (111)
directions, but little effort was made to study the
thermalized electronic structures of QDs grown along
the (11N)A directions.
In this article, the optical transition energy as well as
the wave function were investigated by the resolution
of the Schro¨dinger equation using the finite differences
method based on single-band effective mass approx-
imation. Comparison between single-band, eight-band
k.p, and direct diagonalization empirical-pseudo
potential method (the more accurate) were reported
in reference (Wang et al. 2000). It was shown that the
commonly used eight-band k.p model did not fare
significantly better in terms of accuracy for determin-
ing the electron band structure. The system under
investigation has the simplest possible geometry
(parallelepipedic), it nevertheless provides a good
starting point to describe the 3D confining potential.
We take into account the strain distribution and the
piezoelectric field which were present in high index
surfaces. Temperature dependent photoluminescence
measurements were carried out to investigate the
interband transition energy of the confined carrier in
the InAs arrays of the QDs. We compare the interband
transition energies to the PLmeasurement results. This
allows us to analyse the thermal confining carriers in
single QD and several QDs.
Experiments
InAs QDs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy
(MBE) on GaAs(113)A and GaAs(115)A substrates.
After oxide desorption at 600 °C, a GaAs buffer layer
of 0.4 lmis grown at substrate temperature of 580 °C.
Afterward, InAs was deposited at 500 °C, an As/In
flux ratio of 40, and a growth rate of 0.08 A
˚
´
/s. The first
sample (S1) consists of a 4 mL InAs deposited on
GaAs(113)A substrate. Whereas, the second (S2)
consists of 2.5 mL InAs deposited on GaAs(115)A.
The substrate temperature was measured by an
infrared pyrometer. Complementary uncapped QDs
have been grown under the particular growth condi-
tions for morphology characterization by atomic force
microscopy (AFM). PL spectroscopy was excited with
514.5 nm line of an argon ion laser. The samples were
fixed in a continuous-flow, He-cryostat, providing
temperature between 10 and 300 K. The PL was
detected by an InGaAs diode detector.
Theoretical consideration
We assumed that the 3D quantum-confinement
structure is a parallelepipedic. This geometry is not
realistic but provides a good model to describe the
three-dimensional confinement. Within this frame-
work, the Schro¨dinger equation can be following
from (Califano and Harrison 1999):
À
"h
2
2
_
o
ox
1
m
Ã
x; y; z ð Þ
ow x; y; z ð Þ
ox
_ _
þ
o
oy
1
m
Ã
x; y; z ð Þ
ow x; y; z ð Þ
oy
_ _
þ
o
oz
1
m
Ã
x; y; z ð Þ
ow x; y; z ð Þ
oz
_ _
_
þ V x; y; z ð Þ ÀE ð Þw x; y; z ð Þ ¼ 0 ð1Þ
where m* is the electron or hole effective mass. E and
w(x,y,z) are the quantized energy levels and their
corresponding electronic wave function, respectively.
The boundary conditions are:
wðx; y; zÞ ¼ 0 as x !Æ1
wðx; y; zÞ ¼ 0 as y !Æ1
wðx; y; zÞ ¼ 0 as z !Æ1
V(x,y,z) represents the 3D confining potential energy
as a function of the spatial coordinates. It’s splitter
into different contributions:
V ¼ Vpz x; y; z ð Þ inside the dots
V ¼ V
A
þV
ctr
outside the dots in the barrier ð Þ;
_
ð2Þ
where V
A
is the offset of the unstrained conduction
band or valence band, which is taken from (Stoleru
et al. 2002):
Conduction band:
V
A
¼ E
o
v, av
þ
D
0
3
þE
g
ð3Þ
J Nanopart Res
123
Valence band:
V
A
¼ E
o
v;av
þ
D
0
3
ð4Þ
D
0
is the spin-orbit splitting, E
g
is the unstrained band
gap, and E°
v,av
is the average valence band-edge. V
ctr
is the strain-induced shift of the conduction band or
valence band which is expressed as:
Conduction band:
V
ctr
¼ a
c
ðe
xx
þe
yy
þe
zz
Þ ð5Þ
a
c
is the deformation potential for the conduction
band.
Valence band:
V
ctr
¼ a
v
e
xx
þe
yy
þe
zz
_ _
À
1
2
b e
zz
À
1
2
e
xx
þe
yy
_ _
_ _
ð6Þ
a
v
is the equibiaxial deformation potential for the
valence band and b is the uniaxial deformation
potential.
V
pz
is the piezoelectric potential energy that can be
written as:
V
pz
ðx; y; zÞ ¼ e xF
x
þyF
y
þzF
z
_ _
ð7Þ
where F is the magnitude of the piezoelectric field for
a (11N)A (N = 3, 5) orientated substrate, which can
be written as:
F
~
ð11NÞA
F
x
¼
À4e
14
d C
11
þ2C
12
ð Þ N
2
À1 ð Þ 2 þN
2
ð Þ
e
0
e
r
D
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2N
2
þ4
p
F
y
¼ 0
F
z
¼
6e
14
dN C
11
þ2C
12
ð Þ 2 þN
2
ð Þ
e
0
e
r
D
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 þN
2
p
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ð8Þ
where
D ¼ 2 þN
4
_ _
C
11
þ2 1 þ2N
2
_ _
C
12
þ4 1 þ2N
2
_ _
C
44
ð9Þ
C
11
, C
12,
and C
44
are the elastic stiffness tensor
coefficients and e
14
is the piezoelectric constant of the
material (Vaccaro et al. 1995), and d is the lattice-
constant mismatch:
d ¼
a
GaAs
Àa
InAs
a
InAs
ð10Þ
To determine the symmetry of the deformation,
the strain-tensor elements can be described with the
coordinate system of the epitaxial growth. In this
basis, the strain-tensor elements for GaAs(11N)A are
as following (Caridi and Stark 1992):
11N ð Þ: e
xx
¼ e
yy
¼ d ð11Þ
e
zz
¼ d
2
D
_
Àð1 þ2N
2
ÞC
11
Àð3 þ2N
2
þN
4
ÞC
12
þ2ð1 þ2N
2
ÞC
44
Š ð12Þ
Table 1 illustrates the physical constants considered
in this study.
In order to solve Eq. (1) numerically over a three-
dimensional volume (L
x
, L
y
, L
z
), the structure is
discretized into an array using the FDM. Thus,
Eq. (1) becomes:
À
"h
2
4
1
D
2
x
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
iÀ1;j;k
_ _
w
iÀ1;j;k
þ
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
iþ1;j;k
_ _
w
iþ1;j;k
þ
2
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
iÀ1;j;k
þ
1
m
iþ1;j;k
_ _
w
i;j;k
_ _
þ
1
D
2
y
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;jÀ1;k
_ _
w
i;jÀ1;k
þ
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;jþ1;k
_ _
w
i;jþ1;k
þ
2
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;jÀ1;k
þ
1
m
i;jþ1;k
_ _
w
i;j;k
_ _
þ
1
D
2
z
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;j;kÀ1
_ _
w
i;j;kÀ1
þ
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;j;kþ1
_ _
w
i;j;kþ1
þ
2
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;j;kÀ1
þ
1
m
i;j;kþ1
_ _
w
i;j;k
_ _
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
þ V
i;j;k
ÀE
i;j;k
_ _
w
i;j;k
¼ 0
ð13Þ
J Nanopart Res
123
Here Dx = Dy = Dz and we can write Eq. (13) as
follows:
Aw
i;j;k
¼ E
i;j;k
w
i;j;k
ð14Þ
where A is a tensor of rank 6:
A
i;i;j;j;k;k
¼ À
1
2D
2
x
_
6
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
iÀ1;j;k
þ
1
m
iþ1;j;k
þ
1
m
i;jÀ1;k
þ
1
m
i;jþ1;k
þ
1
m
i;j;kÀ1
þ
1
m
i;j;kþ1
_
þ
2
"h
2
V
i;j;k
¼ A
0
A
i;iÀ1;j;j;k;k
¼
1
2D
2
x
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
iÀ1;j;k
_ _
¼ A
1
;
A
i;iþ1;j;j;k;k
¼
1
2D
2
x
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
iþ1;j;k
_ _
¼ A
2
A
i;i;j;jÀ1;k;k
¼
1
2D
2
x
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;jÀ1;k
_ _
¼ A
3
;
A
i;i;j;jþ1;k;k
¼
1
2D
2
x
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;jþ1;k
_ _
¼ A
4
A
i;i;j;j;k;kÀ1
¼
1
2D
2
x
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;j;kÀ1
_ _
¼ A
5
;
A
i;i;j;j;k;kþ1
¼
1
2D
2
x
1
m
i;j;k
þ
1
m
i;j;kþ1
_ _
¼ A
6
However, with this writing, we cannot determine the
eigenvalues and eigenvectors of any system because
Eq. (14) is not linear. In order to further simplify the
problem, we have distributed the tensor A which
was six dimensions into a single matrix D with
(n
1
9 n
2
9 n
3
) dimension. For writing this matrix,
we have used the method described by El-Moghraby
et al. (2003), then we can write Dw = Ew, where:
C
0
, C
1,
and C
2
are sub-matrices of dimension
(n
1
n
2
9 n
1
n
2
):
C
0
¼
B
0
B
2
0 Á Á Á 0
B
1
B
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
B
2
0 Á Á Á 0 B
1
B
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl..fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl¸
n
2
Blocks
; C
1
¼
B
3
0 0 Á Á Á 0
0 B
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 Á Á Á 0 0 B
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl..fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl¸
n
2
Blocks
; C
2
¼
B
4
0 0 Á Á Á 0
0 B
4
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 Á Á Á 0 0 B
4
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl..fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl¸
n
2
Blocks
Table 1 Physical constants of the material of InAs and GaAs (Stoleru et al. 2002)
e
14
(C/m
2
) e
r
D
0
(eV) m
e
/m
0
a
c
(eV) a
v
(eV) E
v,av
(eV) b (eV)
InAs -0.045 15.15 0.38 0.0226 -5.08 1.00 -6.747 -1.8
GaAs -0.23 13.18 0.34 0.0667 -8.013 1.16 -6.92 -1.7
J Nanopart Res
123
B
0
, B
1
, B
2
, B3, and B4 are sub-matrices of
dimension (n
1
9 n
1
).
Having established the general forms of the
matrices involved, there are several computer pack-
ages available, which can be used to solve this system
of equations. In that situation, the package MAT-
LAB
Ò
was used.
Results and discussion
Figure 1a–c shows the wave function of the ground
state for the conduction band of InAs QD on
GaAs(001) (113), and (115) orientations, with height
h = 5 nm and width L
x
= L
y
= 8 nm. The shape of
the wave function shows a slight deformation for the
high index substrates compared with the conventional
substrate GaAs(001). We can attribute this behavior
to the piezoelectric field which attracted some
electrons inside the quantum dot. In the non-existence
of the piezoelectric field, the potential is fairly
isotropic around the dot, but for the high index
surfaces, the electrons are transferred inside the dots
under the effects of the dipolar moment generated by
the piezoelectric potential.
Solving the Schro¨dinger equation also affords a
numerical estimate of the ground state energy with
regard to the size of QDs and the substrate orienta-
tions. In Fig. 2, we present the interband transition
energy from the ground electronic sub-band to the
ground heavy-hole sub-band (E
1
? HH
1
) based to
the height of InAs QD for different orientations such
as GaAs(001) (113)A, and (115)A. A blue-shift is
observed when the disorientation between (11N) and
(001) enlarged. We have observed this behavior for
all dots heights considered in Fig. 2. Sanguinetti et al.
(Sanguinetti et al. 2000) have attributed this effect to
the piezoelectric field. As well the increasing of the
hydrostatic strain when the disorientation between
(11N) and (001) augmented, lead to an enhancement
of the energy emission (Mlinar and Peeters 2006).
Therefore, the shift in the ground state energy shown
Fig. 1 The calculated electron envelope wave functions of the ground state for a parallelepiped shaped InAs QDs with a size
(8 9 8 9 5 nm
3
) for a GaAs(001) substrate orientation, b GaAs(115)A substrate orientation, c GaAs(113)A substrate orientation
B
0
¼
A
0
A
2
0 Á Á Á 0
A
1
A
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
2
0 Á Á Á 0 A
1
A
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl..fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl¸
n
1
elements
; B
p
¼
A
q
0 0 Á Á Á 0
0 A
q
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 Á Á Á 0 0 A
q
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl..fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl¸
n
1
elements
where
p ¼ 1
p ¼ 2
p ¼ 3
p ¼ 4
!
!
!
!
q ¼ 3
q ¼ 4
q ¼ 5
q ¼ 6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
J Nanopart Res
123
in Fig. 2 maybe due to combined effects of the
piezoelectric field and of the hydrostatic strain.
Moreover, a red-shift was observed when the height
is great; this is due to the important confinement of
the carriers inside the large QDs.
Besides, we have investigated the temperature
effect on the optical transition energy. The temper-
ature dependencies PL emission spectra of the
samples S1 and S2 are illustrated in Fig. 3a, b,
respectively. It is obvious that the QD PL shifts
toward lower energies, and quenches at high temper-
atures (above 140 °C for GaAs(113)A and 160 °C for
GaAs(115)A). This quenching suggests the existence
of non-radiative recombination centers between the
barriers. At elevated temperature, carriers can be
thermally excited toward the wetting layer and the
barrier, and then it is captured by the non-radiative
recombination centers. In Fig. 4a, c, we present a
comparison between PL peaks positions versus the
temperature with our theoretical results. From the
AFM images and the profile of single InAs QD as
shown in Fig. 5a–d, the height of the QD is 30 and
35 A
˚
´
, their width is 80 and 77 A
˚
´
for (113)A and
(115)A substrate orientations, respectively.
The temperature dependence of the unstrained
band gap (E
g
) follows the typical Varshni law
(Varshni 1967), which was taken for the GaAs and
InAs as follows (Baira et al. 2009):
E
GaAs
g
T ð Þ ¼ E
GaAs
g
0 ð Þ À
0:00058T
2
300 þT
ð15Þ
E
InAs
g
T ð Þ ¼ E
InAs
g
0 ð Þ À
0:000419T
2
271 þT
ð16Þ
where E
g
(0) is the band gap energy at the temperature
T = 0 K.
We can easily notice here that the temperature
dependent band gap of GaAs is independent of the
crystal orientation (Lu¨erben et al. 2000).
Figure 4a, c demonstrates qualitatively different
behaviors. At lower temperatures (under 50 K) the
carriers are well localized in the QDs for both
samples. However, the slight differences between
experimental and theoretical results at the lower
temperatures are owing to us not taking into account
the exciton effects in the calculations. Then, when the
temperature climbed, a reduction of the energy peak
position is observed. This is close to the behavior of
the bulk material; suggesting that the bulk material
related mechanism such as the thermal lattice
expansion and electron–phonon interaction, contrib-
ute more to the energy gap variation (Lee et al. 2002).
Nevertheless, the measured experimental data of QDs
shows significant deviation from theoretical energy at
high temperature. This indicates that QDs have
1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5
10K
20K
30K
40K
50K
60K
80K
100K
120K
140K
160K
P
L

I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
u
,
a
)
E (eV)
InAs/GaAs(115)A
(b)
1,05 1,10 1,15 1,20 1,25 1,30 1,35 1,40 1,45
x10
10K
20K
30K
40K
50K
60K
80K
100K
120K
140K
P
L

I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
u
,
a
)
E (eV)
x3
InAs/GaAs(113)A
(a)
Fig. 3 PL spectra
measured at different
temperatures of the a InAs/
GaAs(113)A, b InAs/GaAs
(115)A
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0,85
0,90
0,95
1,00
1,05
1,10
1,15
1,20
1,25
1,30
1,35
E
n
e
r
g
y

(
e
V
)
h (nm)
001
(115)A
(113)A
Fig. 2 Calculated electron–heavy-hole transition energies in a
parallelepipedic InAs QD as a function of the height for three
different orientations: GaAs(001), GaAs(113)AandGaAs(115)A
J Nanopart Res
123
different temperature dependent energy gap variation
properties than the single QD (theoretical result). In
fact, at high temperatures, the ground state of isolated
QD are slightly up to the energy emission from
several QDs. Indeed, when the carriers are thermally
active, it is transferred between the different sizes of
QDs so that experimental results show clearly that the
dots have considerably inhomogeneous shape com-
pared with that of the isolated InAs QDs grown on
GaAs(001) at similar growth condition which we
have taken in our samples (Bouzaı ¨ene et al. 2011).
Therefore, the inhomogeneous broadening of PL
peaks as shown in Fig. 3, may stem from coupled
QDs or/and multimodal distribution in the QDs sizes.
In order to study the behavior of the carrier in the
several InAs QDs grown on high index substrates, we
have presented in Fig. 4b, d the temperature depen-
dence of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) for
both the samples S1 and S2. We have denoted a
decrease of the FWHM with respect to temperature
until 80 K then it climbs considerably for tempera-
tures up to 100 K. This behavior has been observed
previously and explained qualitatively with therm-
ionic emission of the photo-carriers out of the QDs
potential (Bouzaı ¨ene et al. 2010; Mazin et al. 1994).
Furthermore, it was found that at high degree of
disorientation substrate from GaAs(001) the QDs
become coupled (Smirnov et al. 2010). In fact, we
can explain the FWHM drop by the carriers tunneling
between the coupled InAs QDs and between the
inhomogeneous distributed QDs ensembles via the
wetting layer (WL). It is worth noticing that, for
the ground state the FWHM is about 93 meV for
the QDs grown on GaAs(115)A and 65 meV for the
InAs/GaAs(113)A, and this also evidences that
the QDs are coupled. The last assumption, is due to
the disorientation of the substrate and to the different
terraces which existed on the GaAs(113)A and
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
F
W
H
M
(
m
e
V
)
Temperature(K)
(b)
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
85
90
95
100
105
F
W
H
M

(
m
e
V
)
Temperature (K)
(d)
10 100
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
1,25
Experimental results
Theoretical results
E
n
e
r
g
y

(
e
V
)
Temperature (K)
(c)
10 100
1,20
1,22
1,24
1,26
1,28
1,30
1,32
1,34
Theoretical results
Experimental results
E
n
e
r
g
y

(
e
V
)
Temperature (K)
(a)
Fig. 4 Temperature
dependence of the PL peak
energy for a InAs/
GaAs(113)A, c InAs/
GaAs(115)A. FWHM
dependence of the PL peak
energy for b InAs/
GaAs(113)A, d InAs/
GaAs(115)A
J Nanopart Res
123
GaAs(115)A surfaces. The terraces caused progres-
sive inhibition of the atom migration, and then the
nucleation of the islands is localized along the step
edges, where the surface energy is lower. The
localization of the strain at the step edges or on
patterned substrates followed that the adatoms trans-
ferred between the large islands lead to train the
coupled QDs. Then the increase of the FWHM when
the temperature is high enough, the effect of
electron–phonon scattering becomes a dominant
contribution. On the other hand, the supposition of
the nonuniformity size distribution of the QDs occur
on the high index substrate, the reason is following to
that stress distribution on the surface of GaAs(11N)A
is inhomogeneous. Therefore, the increment of non-
uniformity and enlarged FWHM are obtained.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the optical properties of the InAs
quantum dots grown on GaAs(113)A and GaAs
(115)A substrates were investigated using tempera-
ture dependent PL measurement. We have calculated
the ground state energy and their corresponding wave
functions by solving the three-dimensional Schro¨-
dinger equation and the interband transition energy
from the ground electronic sub-band to the heavy-
hole sub-band (E
1
? HH
1
). We have observed a
reasonable agreement between our experimental and
theoretical results. From the asymmetry in the PL
peaks and the abnormal progress of the FWHM with
temperature we can assume that the QDs are coupled
and they have not uniform size distribution. This
behavior is attributed to the accumulation of strain on
the step edges surface which was presented in the
high index substrates.
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