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Paitoon Rakluea, Noppin Anantrasirichai, Kanok Janchitrapongvej, and Toshio Wakabayashi
This paper presents a novel multiband microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna design technique for multiple independent frequency bands. The new technique uses various slot sizes at various appropriate positions. We first propose a tri-band slot antenna consisting of three right angle slots. Then, a quad-band slot antenna is developed with four right angle slots which achieves slant ±45° linear polarization, omnidirectional pattern coverage, good antenna gain, and acceptable impedance bandwidths over all the operating frequency range. Moreover, an opencircuited tuning stub is introduced to achieve good impedance matching. Both proposed antennas are designed on a ground plane of RT/duroid 5880 substrate with a thickness of 1.575 mm. The real measurable results show that the desired frequencies used in wireless communication systems, namely, WLAN and WiMax, are efficiently achieved. Keywords: Tri-band antenna, quad-band antenna, multiple independent frequency bands, tuning stub, slant ± 45° linear polarization.
The steadily increasing popularity of Internet access and multimedia applications has driven a rapid development of wireless communication systems. It has been noted that a wireless communication device provides the ability to integrate multiband. Therefore, a multiband antenna is attractive in many commercial applications as it is designed to have a single radiator with a capability to transmit and receive multiple frequencies. Nevertheless, a multiband antenna may not sufficiently cover the required operating bands. Therefore, an antenna which is able to operate with multiple independent frequency bands is required. This antenna should also provide ease in controlling the desirable resonance frequencies, impedance bandwidths, radiation patterns, and polarizations. These are obviously becoming the most important factors for the applications of antennas in both contemporary and future wireless communication systems. Many researchers in academia and industry have introduced multiband antennas such as Sierpinski fractal antennas - and printed inverted-F antennas (PIFAs) -. However, these antennas are highly complex in their structures. Therefore, they are hard to design and manufacture, and they have difficulty in achieving good impedance matching over the entire operating frequency range. The printed monopole slot antenna in  proposed a widened bandwidth to support multiband operation, unlike the multiple independent frequency band antenna in our research, for which each bandwidth is sufficient for only one operating band. Many other papers have presented multiband microstrip antennas, such as the microstrip-fed slot antenna , the coplanarwaveguide-fed monopole antenna , and the planar antenna . These antennas are highly suitable for wireless
Manuscript received Nov. 23, 2008; revised Apr. 4, 2009; accepted Apr. 13, 2009. Paitoon Rakluea (phone: +66 2595 1763, email: email@example.com), Noppin Anantrasirichai (email: firstname.lastname@example.org), and Kanok Janchitrapongvej (email: email@example.com) are with the Department of Information Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand. Toshio Wakabayashi (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) is with the School of Information Science and Engineering, Tokai University, Japan.
ETRI Journal, Volume 31, Number 3, June 2009
Paitoon Rakluea et al.
RT/duroid substrate has a dielectric constant εr and a thickness h. such as WLAN and WiMax. y.#3 Ant. polarization. the microstrip line terminates in an open circuit . which are applied in many devices. The off-center feeding is proposed to improve impedance matching. To explain the evolution process of the tri-band antenna design . and thickness h = 1. a technique to improve the impedance matching for all bands of operating frequencies is introduced which uses a tuning stub.575 mm. Furthermore. the overall effective inner slot length (A1+B1) is designed to be λg/2. multiple independent frequency bands are not achieved by these antennas. In this study. 1. Tri-band Microstrip-Fed Right Angle Slot Antenna 1. light weight. The slot antenna with the short-ended configuration was designed for an individual operation band which can suppress the interference frequency from the nearest operating band. we propose a novel multiband microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna. A 50-ohm microstrip line is designed to excite the antenna. as shown in Fig. The rest of the paper is structured as follows. respectively. Ant. In the following. 1. Structure of the Proposed Antenna The two slot arrangements on a ground plane are short-ended and open-ended configurations. Based on the operating frequency. Here. #3. For efficient excitation of the slots. such as desktop computers. lack of soldering points. second resonant frequency (f2). The basic structure of the proposed tri-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna is shown in Fig.1575 mm. June 2009 . and ease of fabrication. it is of interest to investigate the behavior of the designed single-band and dual-band antennas to satisfy the required specifications. and then a quad-band slot antenna is developed with four right angle slots. The polarization of the antennas is also achieved in slant ±45o linear polarization for installation in various environments where the antennas are applied. Ant. #1) on the ground plane of the microstrip line. and in-building access points. The first.communication systems due to their attractive features in terms of planar conformal construction.2. #2. The exciting source is a baseband Gaussian pulse with a pulse width of 25 ps. The antenna consists of three different right angle slot sizes at various appropriate positions on the ground plane of the microstrip line. The microstrip line is designed with Wm = 5 mm on the substrate of dielectric constant εr = 2. #1. S1 denotes the width of the slot in which the impedance bandwidth can be affected by changing the slot width. The proposed antennas were analyzed by using the finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) method. The FDTD method . The total size of the FDTD grid is 400dx × 450dy × 20dz. Simulation results were compared with measurements performed on the antenna prototypes. a triband slot antenna consisting of three right angle slots is described. Lengths A1 and B1 are equalized with λg/4 length. The conclusion is given in section IV. to generate first resonant frequency (f1). In this paper. Single-Band and Dual-Band Antennas Figure 2 shows the geometry of a single-band antenna which consists of a single right angle slot (Ant. and radiation pattern. The length Lm1 of the microstrip line 272 Paitoon Rakluea et al. where λg is the guided wavelength in the slot. second. 1.  was used in the simulation. Sections II and III describe the designs and measurement of the tri-band and quad-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antennas. The Yee cell sizes along the x. This antenna is simple to design using various right angle slot sizes at appropriate positions to achieve multiple independent frequency bands which can control the desirable resonance frequency. The antennas were developed to be used for wireless communication systems. and z directions are defined as follows: dx=dy=0. The width of the microstrip line is Wm and the dimension of the ground plane is Lg×Wg. impedance bandwidth.#1 Ground plane Wg h Microstrip line Substrate y z x Fig. while the bandwidth of the short-ended configuration is sufficient for only one operation band. Number 3. laptop computers. and Ant. The prototypes of the antennas were realized and measured. First. II. low cost. However. The 2. Volume 31. we begin with the single-band and dual-band antennas.#2 Lg Ant. good antenna gain and omnidirectional pattern coverage over the operating bands have been observed. ETRI Journal. and third slots of antenna are denoted by Ant.1 mm and dz=0. The open-ended configuration in  was successfully designed to widen the bandwidth for a multi-operation band. This technique reduces the size of the antenna by approximately 20% compared to the conventional microstrip-fed slot antenna . and third resonant frequency (f3). Structure of the tri-band antenna.
5 GHz and 3. and 4 (n=slot number) Fig.4835 2. r2. Fig.0 5.5–2. Fig. The parameters of the second right angle slot consist of A2. Optimized parameters of multiband microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna for various operating bands.1. the second right angle slot (Ant. 5. and Lm2 for which the optimized values are given in Table 1.008–0.5 GHz. S2.5 5.4 GHz to 3.005–0.45 GHz with the return loss of -37 dB. Simulated return loss for the single-band antenna: A1+B1=50.0 2.5 6.45 GHz and 3. Simulated return loss for the dual-band antenna: A1+B1=50.02–0. A2+B2=34.9 Frequency (GHz) Width of slot Sn (λg) 0.45 3.8.0 3.025–0. The parameters Lm1 and r1 are adjusted to satisfy the desired impedance matching. Number 3.0 6. The -10 dB bandwidth ranges between 2. The simulated resonant frequencies for the dual band antenna are 2. r1=2.025 0.7 3.5–2.5 1.01–0. B2. S1=0.0 Frequency (GHz) 5.025 Off-set dist.8.005–0.6 4. 0 -5 -10 Return loss (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 1.2–0.025 0. 3. 273 . respectively.35 0.45 3.5–2.5 6. as shown in Fig. 2. 3. 3. Geometry of the dual-band right angle slot antenna.5 Table 1.5 4.9–5.5 2. #2) is added to generate the second resonant frequency f2 at 3.4–2.4.1 5.6 GHz.8.5 4.8.0 4.5 1–4 Lmn (λg) 0. r1=2.1 n = 1.03 0.4.1–0.0 4. Volume 31.05–0.2 0.0 2. S2=1. June 2009 Paitoon Rakluea et al.5 1. Tri-band Antenna Figure 6 illustrates the geometry of a tri-band microstrip-fed ETRI Journal.7–5.4–3.47–5.02 0. The simulated return loss of the single-band antenna is shown in Fig.5 5.15–5.012 0.5 2–3 0.1.0 3. Lm1=17 (mm). respectively. and r1 is the off-set distance from the center axis of the microstrip line. 2. A1=B1=25. 0 -5 -10 Return loss (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 1.5 GHz with the return losses of -36 dB and -31 dB.4 GHz to 2.35 5. 3. Lm1=17.4 GHz to 2. A1=B1=25. An+ Bn = λg/2 Frequency range (GHz) 2. A2=B2=17. 4.5–3. r2=2. By using the same design concept.725 5.1. Geometry of the single-band right angle slot antenna. 5.S1 S1 B1 Lm1 A1 r1 Wm y x Lm2 r2 Lm1 A2 B2 A1 r1 B1 x S2 y Wm z z Fig.5 GHz.2–0. The impedance bandwidths range between 2. Lm2=7 (mm). rn (mm) 2–3 2–4.0 6.5 2.5. S1=0. The resonant frequency which was obtained from the simulation is 2.4 0.5 terminates in an open-circuit stub beyond the edge of the slot. Figure 4 illustrates the geometry of a dual-band microstripfed right angle slot antenna.
8.4 GHz to 3.45 GHz.9. r3.9.5 2.0 6. #3) is added to get the third resonant frequency f3 at 5. Lm3=2 (mm). 0 -5 -10 Obviously. Here. ETRI Journal.0 GHz). Those impedance bandwidths are approximately 100 MHz (2.0 4. 7.8 GHz with parameters A3.5 mm.8. A2+B2=34. A2=B2=17. Lm1=17.8 GHz. 9.4. The effect on the return loss of using the single tuning stub is shown in Fig. 10. A single open-circuit tuning stub is connected by a shunt with the microstrip line. Number 3. Equivalent Circuit of Tri-band Antenna A diagram of the tri-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna is shown in Fig.5 4. which is defined as a return loss level less than -30 dB for all bands of operating frequencies as shown in Fig. and from -23 dB to -37 dB at 5.0 3.1. r3=1. Table 1 shows the optimized parameters of the multiband microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna for some of the most commonly used operating frequencies in wireless communication systems. and Lm3. B3.5 4. respectively.4 GHz WLAN band for the first resonant frequency. the simulated resonant frequencies for the tri-band antenna are 2.6 GHz). A3=B3=9. Using these parameters. A1=B1=25.1.6 GHz to 6. and the distance from the end edge of the microstrip line to the center of dstub.0 2. S3= 0. S3. Return loss (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 1.86. Simulated return loss for the tri-band antenna: A1+B1=50.8 GHz with the return losses of -38 dB. 200 MHz (3. After intensive simulations.5 GHz. r1=2. lstub =1 mm. the tri-band antenna with the tuning stub based on these parameters was fabricated and measured. the third right angle slot (Ant.5 GHz. Thus. Tri-band Antenna with Tuning Stub The tri-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna with tuning stub can be introduced to achieve good impedance matching.S3 r3 Lm3 S1 B3 A3 Lm2 Lm1 B1 dstub W stub lstub A2 B2 r2 A1 r1 S2 Wm x x y z y z Fig.5. 7. the obtained simulated impedance bandwidths can cover the 2.4 GHz to 2. Geometry of the tri-band right angle slot antenna. as shown in Fig. June 2009 . S1=0.5 5. Geometry of the tri-band right angle slot antenna with tuning stub. The values were selected after several simulations.0 5.5 GHz). and -23 dB. Lm2=7. the 3. Frequency (GHz) Fig. S2=1. from -36 dB to -45 dB at 3.8. 6. 3. right angle slot antenna. the width (Wstub). Total input impedance (Zin) of the antenna is summarized as Z in = Zstub + Z slotf1 + Z slotf2 + Z slotf 3 .45 GHz. the optimized parameters of the single tuning stub were found to be dstub = 11. and 400 MHz (5. Volume 31.5 GHz WiMax band for the second resonant frequency. and 5. Fig. -36 dB.8 GHz WLAN and WiMax bands for the third resonant frequency. and both the 5. To further verify the validity of the proposed designs.45 3. 5. A3+B3=19. The return loss decreases from -38 dB to -40 dB at 2.5 5. The optimized parameters of the tri-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna are given in Table 1. The parameters of the single tuning stub consist of the length (lstub). (1) 274 Paitoon Rakluea et al.8. r2=2. and Wstub = 3 mm. 8. the impedance matching can be improved by using a short tuning stub connected by a shunt with the feed line without much change in the resonant frequencies and bandwidths.5.
0 3. Number 3. 11. respectively. Equivalent circuit of the tri-band right angle slot antenna with tuning stub. as given in .5 Tri-band antenna with single tuning stub Tri-band antenna without single tuning stub Gm Bm Zm Zmcλm Zstub Zslotf1 6. is shown in Fig. 275 . Zm2 Zmc0λm0 (4) ZstubT Zin ZslotT where. The input impedance Zin is summarized as Coupling between the microstrip line and the right angle slots Z in = Z stubT + Z slotT . Gs and Bs can be approximately determined by GS = 2 PS V02 . The impedances of the slot radiators of resonant frequency f1.5 n:1 Zsc1λs1 Bsf1 Zsf1 Gsf1 2. By using the transmission line theory. 10. determined by ETRI Journal. Also. and the input impedance of the open-ended microstrip line. as given by .0 2. (8) by an ideal transformer with a turn-ratio n:1 is considered.0 Frequency (GHz) Fig.5 5. and Zslotf3. (2) Gm1 Bm1 Zm1 Zmc1λm1 Zmc2λm2 Bm2 Gm2 where λm. the effective length. V0. Zstub1 Zstub2 (3) The input impedance of the slot radiator (Zs) is Z S = 1 YS = 1 (GS + jBS ) . Equivalent circuit of the tri-band right angle slot antenna.5 5. respectively. kS. and the characteristic impedance of the slot. L'S. and f3 are Zslotf1. Simulated return loss of the tri-band antenna with tuning stub and without tuning stub. (5) Fig. (7) where PS. the impedance of the slot radiator at the input of the transformer is Z slotf = n 2 Z s . 9.0 4.8 6. f2. Z SC (6) n≅ Z mc Z sc . BS = − 2 ′ cot(k S LS / 2). respectively. Zmc.0 -5 -10 Return loss (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 -55 1.45 3. the characteristic impedance of the microstrip line. Zin Zslotf2 Zsc2λs2 Bsf2 Zsf2 Gsf2 where Zstub is the input impedance of the microstrip open stub. the input impedance of the microstrip open stub can be obtained by ⎧ Z + jZ mc tan( βλm ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ Z stub = Z mc ⎨ m ⎬. as where ZstubT is the input impedance of the microstrip open stub given in . Zslotf2. and Zm are the length of the microstrip line. and Zsc are the radiated power from the slot. Volume 31. June 2009 Paitoon Rakluea et al. A diagram of the tri-band antenna with the single tuning stub the voltage of the slot radiator.5 4. 11. ⎪ Z mc + jZ m tan( βλm ) ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Zslotf3 Zsc3λs3 Bsf3 Zsf3 Gsf3 Fig.0 5. the wave number.
In this case. One of the ways to achieve slant ± 45o linear polarization is to use a right angle slot with equal horizontal and vertical axes (An=Bn).4. the 276 Paitoon Rakluea et al.0 GHz) with the minimum return losses of -33 dB. and 5. the Eθ component levels are still high but the radiation of the Eφ component features are at low levels.6 GHz).5 Frequency (GHz) 5.79 GHz.79 GHz. and -32 dB at resonant frequencies of 2. 14. S3=0.5 4.5. (c) f3 = 5. Figure 14 plots the measured radiation patterns in the azimuthal plane (x-y plane) and the elevation planes (x-z and y-z planes). It is necessary for the various environments in which the antenna would be installed for it to exhibit slant ± 45o linear polarization.5.52 GHz to 6.43 GHz. and Wstub=3 (mm). Measured and simulated return loss of the tri-band right angle slot antenna with single tuning stub. Measurement Results The proposed antenna was fabricated on an RT/duroid 5880 substrate with a dielectric constant of 2. 3. Volume 31.0 Simulated Measured x-y plane z (c) x-z plane y-z plane Eθ Eφ 5. S1=0.8. ETRI Journal. 3.43 GHz.0 4. r2=2.43 GHz. x (d) (9) Fig. 270° -30 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 120° (b) 330° 0° 30° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 60° 90° -30 120° 150° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 120° 0 -5 -10 Return loss (dB) 300° 270° -30 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 90° 270° -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 1. The reasonable agreement between the measured and the simulated return loss was confirmed as shown in Fig. and (d) polar coordinates.5 2. A3=B3=9.8. S2=1. The radiation patterns are normalized by the maximum of the Eθ and Eφ components at 2.3 GHz to 3. (Zstub1) in parallel with the single tuning stub (Zstub2).9. 6.0 3. and 5. A3+B3=19. the measurements show that the radiation levels of the Eθ component are nearly as high as those of the Eφ component.1. In the x-y plane.43 GHz.0 2. f2. 14. 300 MHz (3. It is clearly seen that three operating bandwidths are obtained.0 6.9. A1=B1=25. In the x-z and y-z planes. dstub=11. Lm1=17. Lm2=7.2 and a ground plane size (Wg × Lg) of 8 cm × 9 cm as shown in Fig. and f3 as Z slotT = Z slotf1 + Z slotf2 + Z slotf3 .43 GHz. The return loss of the antenna was measured using an HP8720-C Network Analyzer.5 5. The measured -10 dB impedance bandwidths were about 140 MHz (2.8 6.5 θ y φ Fig. 13. In all planes of interest in Fig. 13. r1=2.45 3. lstub=1. The ZslotT can be obtained from the sum of the impedance of the slot radiation at resonant frequencies f1. r3=1. respectively.79 GHz. (b) f2 = 3.5.1. Photographs of the tri-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna with single tuning stub: A1+B1=50. Lm3=2. Measured radiation patterns for tri-band antenna: (a) f1 = 2. A2+B2=34.36 GHz to 2. 12. and 480 MHz (5.5 GHz). Number 3. June 2009 .43 GHz. -37 dB. A2=B2=17. 12.330° 300° 0° 30° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 60° 90° 270° -30 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 120° (a) (a) Top view (b) Bottom view 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 60° 90° Fig. the bandwidths cover WLAN and WiMax operation.8.
The antenna consists of four right angle slots at various appropriate positions on a ground plane. 200 MHz (3. A3+ B3=23.0 5. 3. 5. June 2009 Paitoon Rakluea et al. 16. 3. The radiation pattern at 2.2.5 GHz WiMax band. and 5. Figure 18 plots the crosstalk in the fourth band of spacing between the third slot and the fourth slot at 1 mm (0. 3. Obviously. respectively. and 5. which is slant -45o linear polarization. r4. It is evident that the crosstalk in the fourth band is strongly influenced by the narrow space which refers to the guide wavelength calculated at the fourth resonant frequency.7.79 GHz.43 GHz.8. respectively.51 dBi. Number 3.5 5.132λg4) as a function of the frequency.43 GHz and 5. The maximum gains of the antenna are 2. The radiation patterns of the tri-band are nearly omnidirectional. r2=1. Quad-Band Microstrip-Fed Right Angle Slot Antenna 1. of the multiband microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna. Moreover.9.73 GHz) which can cover the WiMax band and the WLAN band.7 (mm). The resonant frequencies obtained by the simulation are 2. each slot operates in the dominant mode for the operating frequencies of the tri-band antenna.36 GHz). and 5. Quad-Band Antenna and Its Characteristics Figure 15 shows the geometry of a quad-band antenna.45 GHz to 5.0 6.4 GHz to 3. as shown in Fig.6 GHz). -28 dB.79 GHz is mainly the result of the crosstalk between the second and third slots.3.7 GHz with the return losses of -39 dB. and 280 MHz (5.8 6. which is slant +45o linear polarization. and -20 dB. and 5. as required -40 1. B4.7 GHz).7 GHz to 5. A4= B4=10. The asymmetry of the radiation patterns at 3. Lm3=4. and 5.5 GHz with the return losses of -24 dB.6. A4+ B4=20.4. which is related to the spacing between slots.5 GHz).25 GHz. 5 GHz WLAN band.9. Geometry of the quad-band right angle slot antenna. As seen in Fig. 360 MHz (5 GHz to 5.066λg4).4 GHz to 3. A2+B2=34.132λg4). 200 MHz (3.3 dBi.5 GHz to 2. S 4. Lm3=1.5 mm (0. 15. S4 B4 A4 r4 x Lm4 y z Fig. the third resonant frequency in the x-y plane exhibits the maximum radiation between angles of 330o to 350o and 150o to 170o. -23 dB. r1=2.5.5 5. -25 dB. respectively.2 GHz). and 5 mm (0. the effectiveness of the polarization properties depends on the shapes of the right angle slots.48 dBi at 2. Effects of Crosstalk and Ground Plane Size The fourth band is affected by the problem of crosstalk at high frequencies. 277 .5 4. The parameters of the fourth right angle slot are A4. 17. Simulated return loss for the quad-band antenna: A1+B1=50. however.6 GHz.09 GHz. S2=1.45 GHz. 2.4 GHz to 2.62 GHz to 5.0 4. Furthermore.43 GHz is symmetrical over the bandwidth.45 3. and -25 dB. A1=B1=25. Lm1=17.026λg4). Volume 31.9. which can cover the 2.5 GHz. 3. The multiband microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna with dimensions Wg × Lg = 8 cm × 9 cm is used to approximate the infinite ground plane in order to achieve good impedance ETRI Journal. S4= 0.5 GHz. The impedance bandwidths are approximately 100 MHz (2.0 2.6 GHz). and Lm4.4 GHz WLAN band.1. Lm2=7.5 Frequency (GHz) Fig.8. The impedance bandwidths are approximately 200 MHz (2. 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 III.Return loss (dB) radiation patterns for the Eθ and Eφ components are found to be relatively close to slant ± 45o linear polarization. 3. and 310 MHz (5. A2=B2=17. the simulated resonant frequencies are 2.2. S3=0.5 2.8 GHz WLAN and WiMax bands. It follows the design concept of the tri-band antenna. r3=2. The first and second resonant frequencies in the x-y plane show the maximum radiation between angles of 20o to 40o and 200o to 220o. r4=2. -22 dB. 5.1. A3=B3=11. 2. The crosstalk is reduced to an acceptable value of -20 dB for the spacing between slots at 5 mm (0.43 GHz.0 3. S1=0. 500 MHz (4. These results demonstrate that multiple independent frequency bands can be attained using various appropriate positions and sizes of right angle slots.93 GHz).3. 16. the additional fourth right angle slot is added to generate the fourth resonant frequency (f4).
respectively. 20. 4. Lm4=2. Lm1=14.3 6. 19.8 6. The single and double tuning stubs are set as shown in Fig. A3=B3=11.6 5. r4=3.5 4. The first design is created by using the single tuning stub with the dimensions dstub1. respectively.9 6. 3. 5.0 4.07 GHz. The simulated return loss for the quad-band with tuning stubs is shown in Fig.5 5.5 dstub1 lstub1 W stub1 y x dstub1 lstub1 W stub1 lstub2 W stub2 y dstub2 x Return loss (dB) z z Fig.8 5.3 mm.8 mm. Quad-Band Antenna with Tuning Stubs The proposed geometries of the quad-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna with tuning stubs are shown in Fig.5 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 1. r1=1. A4+B4=20.0 6. The plot reveals that the obtained simulated resonant frequencies of the quad-band antenna with the single stub are 2.5 0 -5 -10 Return loss (dB) Fig.5 4. 20. Tuning stubs can be introduced to achieve good impedance matching for all the bands of operating frequencies. -29 dB. and Wstub2 of 14. A3+ B3=22. decreasing the ground plane size has an impact on the impedance matching and the radiation pattern. Geometry of the quad-band right angle slot antenna with (a) single tuning stub and (b) double tuning stub.5 mm.0 2. r2=1. The minimum dimensions of the ground plane are 7 cm × 8 cm.5 2.0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 1.5 Fig. 3.5. Lm2=7.5 mm 5 mm 6. ETRI Journal. Number 3.45 GHz.5 mm. A4=B4=10. A1=B1=23. lstub1.1 Frequency (GHz) 6.45 GHz.8 mm.0 5.0 W g×Lg = 8 cm × 9 cm W g×Lg = 7 cm × 8 cm 3. and 0.0 4. 20.0 3. and 5.6. S3=0.2 1 mm 2. S1=3.6 6. 21.0 Quad-band antenna with double tuning stub Quad-band antenna with single tuning stub Quad-band antenna without tuning stub 3.5 2.0 4.5 GHz.0 6.5 6. matching and the radiation pattern. 21. 0 -5 Return loss (dB) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 1.5 Frequency (GHz) 5.7 5. Effect of crosstalk in the fourth band with varying spacing between the third and fourth slots.4. The dimensions of the antenna without a tuning stub are chosen with the simulation resonant frequencies at 2. -29 dB.5 GHz.5 Frequency (GHz) 5. 18. 278 Paitoon Rakluea et al.5 3.9. Effect of varying the ground plane size.7.9. 3. 19.9. lstub2. Volume 31.6 mm.0 2. and 0. Simulated return loss of the quad-band antenna: A1+B1=47. Nevertheless.8. A2=B2=17.5 5.45 3.5 5. The effect of varying the ground plane size is shown in Fig. June 2009 .0 Frequency (GHz) 5. and Wstub1 of 15.3 (mm). 4.0 6.5. 5 GHz. 2. 0 -5 Crosstalk (dB) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 5. S2=1. Lm3=4.5. 17.7 GHz as previously shown in Fig 16.4 6.5 Fig.0 2. r3=2. respectively. the double tuning stub is introduced with an additional second tuning stub with the dimensions dstub2. and 5.25 5. The specification dictates that a return loss level lower than -30 dB is required. and -26 dB.8 GHz with the return losses of -47 dB. S4=0. The simulated resonant frequencies of the quad Fig. A2+B2=34.0 6. Comparison of simulated return loss of the quad-band antenna with tuning stub and without tuning stub.5 4. In the second design.6 3.
A2+B2=34. Measurement Results Figure 22 shows photos of a fabricated quad-band microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna with the double tuning stub. Still.5 GHz).4. In this antenna. and 5. The tri-band and quad-band antennas are designed by appropriately positioning different right angle slots. Simulations demonstrated that the operating frequency bands were achieved independent of each other. the spacing of the third and fourth slots is approximately 2. 380 MHz (3. which cover the WLAN and WiMax bands.6 (mm). S4=0. A2=B2=17.5.4 GHz to 2. 4. 4.8. 279 . dstub2=14. IV.2. In the x-y plane. band antenna with the double tuning stub are 2. 630 MHz (4.9.0 3. However. 3.1 dB. but the double tuning stub performs better than the desired level at all of the resonant frequencies.6 GHz to 5.3 GHz to 3.5 mm (0. Photos of the quad-band right angle slot antenna with double tuning stub: A1+B1=50. r4=2. It was used for size reduction of the quad-band antenna. the gain at the fourth frequency band is sufficient for most wireless applications. x-z plane.2. and 440 MHz (5. Multiple independent frequency bands are achieved with a simple structure. June 2009 Paitoon Rakluea et al. 5.4 GHz to 2. The polarizations at the third and the fourth resonant frequencies are slant +45o linear.4 dBi. A3+B3=23. Number 3. Lm2=7. dstub1=15. -32 dB. The measured and simulated return losses of the quad-band antenna with the double tuning stub are shown in Fig.8.17 GHz).9.68 GHz). Wstub1=0.64 GHz to 6. A1= B1=25.9 GHz.5 GHz to 6 GHz). respectively. and they exhibited insignificant crosstalk effects between the ETRI Journal. Measured and simulated return loss of the quad-band right angle slot antenna with double tuning stub.5 GHz.8. respectively. 630 MHz (4.5.1. 2. 4.4 GHz to 3. r1=2. The measured results of the resonant frequencies correlate well with the simulated results.4 dB. Lm1=17. The tuning stubs affect the return losses of the first and second resonant frequencies without changing the impedance bandwidth. A4+B4=20.6.066λg4). S3=0. the lower gain values at the fourth frequency band are due to the effect of crosstalk between the third and fourth slots. The measured resonant frequencies are 2.8 dB.45 3.0 2. the radiation patterns are found to have a relative slant ± 45o linear polarization.08 GHz). 23.3 dBi. From these results. Conclusion A novel microstrip-fed right angle slot antenna design technique was proposed.0 5. Also. and 5. Figure 24 shows the measured radiation patterns for both Eθ and Eφ components in the x-y plane. whereas the tuning stubs can improve the antenna impedance bandwidth at the third and the fourth resonant frequencies. The fourth resonant frequency shifts to a slightly higher frequency. 5.26 GHz. and y-z plane.7. the Eθ components levels are still high.5 Fig.07 GHz.1. Furthermore.5 5. -32. and -37.1 dB.3. The ground plane size (Wg × Lg) is 8 cm × 9 cm. it is found that the desired level of the return loss is not satisfied with the single tuning stub. Volume 31. A4=B4=10.6 GHz).45 GHz.88 GHz with the minimum return losses of -35 dB.5 Simulated Measured (a) Top view (b) Bottom view Fig. Each slot operates in the dominant mode for the operating frequencies of the quad-band antenna. and 500 MHz (5.5 GHz).8 6. lstub1=4.7.5 4.3. respectively. The antenna with the double tuning stub achieves the impedance bandwidth of 100 MHz (2. Lm3=4. 3. r2=1.9.5 Frequency (GHz) 5. 3. their levels are lower than -30 dB. The measured impedance bandwidths are 100 MHz (2.9 GHz. Lm4=1. 200 MHz (3. The polarizations at the first and the second resonant frequencies are slant -45o linear. r3=2. and -31 dB.54 GHz to 5.5.88 GHz with the return losses of -46. the maximum gains of the antenna are 2.88 GHz. -39. lstub2=4.9 dBi at 2. A3=B3=11. S1=0. 22.5 GHz. S2=1. but the radiation of the Eφ components exhibits low levels.0 4.46 GHz. 23.0 6. Figure 24 demonstrates that the radiation patterns of the quad-band antenna are nearly omnidirectional and can achieve good antenna gain over the operating bands.8 dBi. and 5.23 GHz).0 -5 -10 Return loss (dB) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 1. -30 dB. Wstub2=0. Although the measured results of the return losses at the resonant frequencies are not as good as the simulated results.2.8. 3. and 3. It is clear from the measured results that the radiation levels of the Eθ components are nearly as high as those of the Eφ components in the x-z plane and y-z plane.5 GHz.
on Microwave Theory and Techniques. June 2009 . no. pp. pp.5 GHz.. no. From the measured radiation patterns..S.” IEEE Trans. “Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Designs for Wireless Communication Devices. 865-872..11. Feb. 54. Shiraz. Vázquez et al. Aug. 2002. Measured radiation patterns for the quad-band antenna: (a) f1=2.  S. “Perturbed: Sierpinski Multiband Fractal Antenna with Improved Feeding Technique. From the measured and simulated return loss. vol. Jacob. vol. vol. “Integrated Planar Multiband Antennas for Personal Communication Handsets. “Broad-Band Triple-Frequency Microstrip Patch Radiator Combining a Dual-Band Modified Sierpinski Fractal and a Monoband Antenna.9 GHz. Antennas Propag. 1299-1308.” IEEE Trans.. 2005. no. 51. Antennas Propag. ETRI Journal. Nov. Antennas Propag.” IEEE Trans. Dec.  A.88 GHz. Mar. “Investigation of WideBand Microstrip Slot Antenna.. 53. 53.  S.C. 3.” IEEE Trans. Patnaik et al. “Modified T-Shape Planar Monopole Antennas for Multiband Operation. Antennas Propag. “Neurocomputational Analysis of a Multiband Reconfigurable Planar Antenna. 2006..  D... 5.M. pp. July 2007. no. it was confirmed that the proposed antennas provide desirable resonant frequencies and impedance bandwidths.” IEEE Trans. Volume 31. 54. no. 11.L. Antennas Propag. The proposed antennas are certainly advantageous for wireless communication and can make a significant contribution to the next generations of mobile communication systems.J. 24. and H. pp. 3273-3279. vol. vol.P. 3690-3697. pp. 3267-3270. July 2007. 2004.  A. pp. “Design of a Multiband CPW-fed Monopole Antenna Using a Particle Swarm Optimization Approach.. Liu. Number 3. no. pp. 3367-3373. Anguera et al. 270° -30 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 90° 270° (b) 330° 300° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 90° -30 120° 150° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 120° 270° -30 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 90° 270° (c) 330° 300° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 90° -30 120° 150° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 120° 270° -30 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 90° 270° (d) x-y plane z x-z plane y-z plane Eθ Eφ θ y φ x (e) Fig. “Quad-Band Internal Mobile Phone Antenna. 2006.G. 2631. vol.. 2097-2103. Antennas Propag. Tehrani and K.” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. References  C. Sept. 50. with reasonable gain 280 Paitoon Rakluea et al. Aug.330° 300° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 90° 270° -30 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 90° 270° -30 120° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 120° (a) 330° 300° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 90° -30 120° 150° 240° 210° -20 -10 0 180° 150° 120° and slant ± 45° linear polarization.  M. H.2635. no. vol.K. no. L.A..” IEEE Trans. Shafai. vol. 3453-3458. Antennas Propag.. pp. 52.  W. vol. Song. and H. 54. and N. (c) f3=4. 2005. 2007. “Printed Monopole Slot Antenna for Internal Multiband Mobile Phone Antenna. 55. Langley. Hall.” IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans. no. vol.. 7.B.. The proposed antenna design technique can be further developed to support five (or more) frequency bands and provide flexibility of design for both linear and circular polarizations.  M. P.” IEEE Trans. 2005. Antennas Propag. M.” IEEE Trans. 2006. Tzortzakakis and R. (b) f2=3. 2. 7.. 8. pp.” IEEE Trans. no.T. Ghali.C. pp. no. no. 9. Oct.K. 55. and (e) polar coordinates adjacent slots. pp. Nashaat. Lin and K. Antennas Propag. “Multifrequency Operation of Microstrip-Fed Slot-Ring Antennas on Thin Low-Dielectric Permittivity Substrates. Mak et al. The tri-band antenna with a single tuning stub and the quad-band antenna with a double tuning stub achieved good impedance matching for all bands of operation. 384-391. Wong. Nov. Antennas Propag. 53.  C. 1919-1928.  H. May 2003.  J. it was also observed that the radiation patterns of the proposed antennas were almost omnidirectional. 1011-1017. 10. 55.-I. 12. pp. Chang.46 GHz.. Chen et al. (d) f4=5. vol. 8. Elsadek. “Single Feed Compact Quad-Band PIFA Antenna for Wireless Communication Applications. vol. Sharma.
Dr.. Apr. respectively. 2000. Akhavan and D. he was the director of the research center for communication technology at KMITL. Kanok Janchitrapongvej received the BEng in telecommunication engineering from King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL). pp. He is a professor of the Department of Communication Network Engineering.” Proc. FDTD Analysis and Design of Microwave Circuits and Antennas. He received the DE degree from the same university in 1985. 265-268. Wakabayashi is a member of the IEICE. in 1968 and 1970. as a faculty member. 9th Int. in 2000 and 2003. His research interests include audio and video equalizers. 14. Caloz et al. 2809-2817. he joined the Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering. vol. antenna measurement systems.M. Tokyo: Realize. “A Simple Technique for Evaluation of Input Impedance of Microstrip-Fed Slot Antennas.  H. “A Simple and Accurate Model for Microstrip Structures with Slot Ground Plane. She is currently an associate professor. she joined the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) where she has been involved in the development of curriculum and instruction media for schools. vol. 21-24. Bangkok. From 1997 to 2008. He is currently an associate professor with KMITL. the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE) and the Japanese Cancer Association.” TENCON.G. Yoon. Volume 31. Rakluea et al. June 2009 Paitoon Rakluea et al. Artech House. Toshio Wakabayashi received the BE and ME degrees from Tokai University..” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Lett. no. He obtained his MEng and DEng from Tokai University. 2001. as an instructor. Sullivan.. Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook. Australia. 1995. Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi (RMUTT). including computational electromagnetic fields. 1. Syahkal. In 1970. 9. Tokai University. From 2006 to 2008.” IEEE Trans.. In 2009. Japan. and the general area of signal processing. He has been with the Department of Information Engineering since 1977. vol. respectively. “Analysis of Right Angle Microstrip Slot Antenna. Conf. Paitoon Rakluea received the BIndTech (2nd Class Honors) and MEng degrees from King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL). Thailand. 1999. pp. and wireless networks.J.  H. Thailand.  P. Qain and T. respectively. microwave circuits and devices. Electromagnetic Simulation Using the FD-TD Method. respectively. Antennas Propag.  D. no. Melbourne. Thailand. Kim and Y.  C. she was with King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) where she was involved in antenna design research. 133-135. Apr. In 2003. and the MEng from Chulalongkorn University in 1977 and 1985. he joined the Faculty of Engineering. and since then. 4.. Garg et al. New York: IEEE. and her current research interest is in design and analysis of microstrip slot antennas. filter design. he has engaged in research in the field of electromagnetic waves. ETRI Journal. Noppin Anantrasirichai received the BIndTech from King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang.. M. 2005. His current research interests include printed antennas design for wireless communication systems. 2005. 2004. Sept. He is currently involved in research on broadband planar antennas for mobile communications.  Y. Nov. “Microstrip-Fed Slot Antennas with Suppressed Harmonics. Antennas Propag. 53. 281 . R. Itoh. Number 3. in 1977 and 1986. pp. Tokai University.
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