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, New York, mkrinker@aol.com Alexander Bolonkin C&R, 1310 Avenue R, #F-6, Brooklyn, NY 11229, USA (718) 339-4563, ABolonkin@juno.com, http://Bolonkin.narod.ru

**On Calculating a Net Force in Virtual Conductor Magnetic Systems
**

Earlier, the conception of a Virtual Wire Magnetic System was developed as a base of the physical conception of the Magnetic Propelling in uniform fields [1-3]. The experiments conducted to validate the rightness of this conception have revealed good matching between the proposed theory and the experiment within the total error of the measurements. Nevertheless, the finite accuracy of the experiment leaves a room for some uncertainty on a fundamental level and makes an obstacle for developing this technology. Further progress of this approach requires a strong theoretical validation. The purpose of present paper is to prove validation of the conception of Virtual Wire Magnetic System on a base of deducing well-known formula of physics from Virtual Wire Magnetic System paradigm. It seems to us that an acronym of VCMS, Virtual Conductor Magnetic System is more general and adequate and will be used further in this article

1. General Approach Let’s remind that the concept of VCMS is based on a paradigm of the effective current of the system, Ief, which is a portion of the total molecular current of the system composed of permanent magnets, producing mechanical action equivalent to that of some current Ief in a real wire. In turn, understanding origination of net force acting on a conductor with a current was developed by Michael Faraday and was supported later by James Maxwell. M. Faraday was the first who offered an intuitive model based on so called tensions and pressures of magnetic lines of force (which also were introduced to science by him).

Fig.1. M. Faraday’s concept of originating a net force acting on a powered conductor in magnetic field, B0–external field, F-net force A net force F origins as a result of breaking original geometric symmetry of density of 1 magnetic energy w = B2 . 2 µµ 0

Our approach to calculating the net force is based on this concept: proportionality of the net force to deformation of resulting magnetic field. Similarity of patterns of magnetic lines of force of a real powered wire and that of VWMS is achieved by means of special allocation of the magnets, Fig.2

**Fig.2 General concept of WCMS (from[ ])
**

Notations: 40 - bar magnet; 41 - bar magnet, having magnetic moment, which is anti-collinear to the magnetic moment of the magnet 40; 42 - magnetic field of the magnet 40; 43 - magnetic field of the magnet 41; 44 - left magnetic shunt for “absorbing” end magnetic field of the magnets 4041; 45 - right magnetic shunt for “absorbing” end magnetic field of the magnets 40-41; 46 = leftend magnetic field inside the shunt; 47 - right-end magnetic field inside the shunt; 48 - external magnetic field; 49 - net force.

**The net force for this system was derived then as Fn = ∫∫ ∆w( x, y ) d S = F =
**

S

kBE BM S

µ0µr

(1)

Here, ∆w is a difference of magnetic energies in immediate vicinity of the magnets along the net force direction, Be and Bm are inductions of external field and that of the magnets, respectively. Factor 1 ≤ k ≤ 2 , depending on proportion of the object.

The experimental verification of this formula has confirmed its true within the error of the experiment. Nevertheless, to finally justify validation of this approach, we have to derive well-known formula (2) employing the exactly same approach we employed as deriving (1).

r r r F = Il × B

**2. Interacting Field and Surface: Potential- vs. Non-Potential Field Approach
**

For further steps we have to clarify a vector nature of interaction of magnetic field and surface. For successful proof, the principal role of factor k has to be understood in an adequate way. Let’s remind that formula (2) was first experimentally developed in 19 century due to experiments of independent scientists and then analytically derived by J. Maxwell in [ Treatises]. In spite of non-potential nature of magnetic field, J. Maxwell’s approach to that was a potential field-based, which justified a popular then paradigm of Magnetostatics. He derived the force F=-dV/dx, where V is a potential of the field [4, pp.138-139].

**r r Speaking of the potential we don’t mean a vector-potential v = ∇ × A having different séance.
**

This potential field approach was practically justified in spite of the fact that magnetic field is solenoidal in its nature. Admitting potential-field approach to the magnetism born Magnetostatics. But this does not eliminate a question about limits of this approach. This is why here we make a stress on a non-potential field approach to derive (2) rather than traditional potential field one. Following this approach we have to note that it were a mistake to consider interaction of energy and the surface in a pressure-like manner. Indeed, following the formality of involved dimension, the force can be deduced from differences of energies, [ J / m 3 ] multiplied by the area, [ m 2 ], like calculating a force of pressure by means of multiplying a pressure [ N / m 2 ] and the area [ m 2 ]. But this is a wrong analogy: the pressure can be reduced to electrostatic, potential-nature forces of electrostatic repulsion at elastic collisions of molecules. On the other hand the net force is really proportional to deformation of energy ∆w and area S of interaction. But the interaction itself has a different nature. For its better understanding we have to apply to Stokes’ theorem. It states that if S is an oriented surface with a unit normal vector N, bounded by a piecewise smooth, simple closed curve C, then, if F is a vector field whose component functions have continuous partial derivatives on an open region containing S and C, then

r r r r ∫ F ⋅ dr = ∫∫ curlF ⋅ NdS

(

)

(3)

C

S

Let’s remind that Ampere’s theorem in physics is a direct consequence of the Stokes’ theorem.

r r H l ⋅ dl = ΣI ∫

l

(4)

It states that a circled integral of magnetic field H equals sum of all the currents inside the closed contour l.

For us it’s important that according to Stokes’ theorem, magnetic line of force passes over the element of interacting surface dS two times, that is the factor k=2.

This is a principal difference in paradigms of potential and solenoid fields-based approaches. Therefore,

dF = 2∆wdS

(5)

**3. Segment-Based Calculating Magnetic Net Force
**

Let’s consider a cross-section of a powered conductor having a radius R. The passing current I develops the magnetic induction Bm around the conductor. The conductor is placed in external uniform field Be, Fig.3. According to Fig.3, the fields in the upper portion of the picture are opposite and mutually subtracted, while they are added in the lower portion like it takes place on the Figs.1 and 2. Superposition of vectors Bm and Be results in origination of vectors B- and B+, Fig.3a.

Fig.3. On calculating the net force acting on a powered conductor. a) - superposition of magnetic field Bm of powered wire and external field Be. b) – element of the conductor of length l having elemental active surface dS and thickness dC c) - active surface S is a half of total side surface of the wire, The shaded area shows a half of the total active surface involved in calculation. Taking into consideration that

2 2 1 B− ( x ) − B+ ( x ) ∆w( x ) = 2 µµ0

while

(

)

(6),

**r r r r r r r π r2 r B 2 − = B 2 m + Be2 + 2 Bm Be cos α + = Bm + Be2 − 2 Bm Be sin α 2 r2 r2 r r r r r π r2 r B+ = Bm + Be2 − 2 Bm Be cos α + = Bm + Be2 + 2 Bm Be sin α 2
**

Then

(7)

∆w =

2

µµ 0

Bm Be sin α

(8)

In turn, the own field of the conductor on its surface is

Bm =

Then we can write down

µµ 0 I 2πR

,

(9)

∆w =

Taking into consideration that

IBe sin α πR

(10)

sin α =

We get

R2 − x2 R

(11)

IBe R 2 − x 2 ∆w = , πR 2

(12)

It has to be noted that the surface of the conductor formed by perimeter arc C can be reduced to a batch of infinite number of elemental plates having a length l and width dC=dx, Fig. 3b, so dS = ldx . Now we can write down

**dF = 2∆wdS = 2∆wldx = 2
**

Finally, the net force

IBe l R 2 − x 2 dx 2 πR

(13)

IB l F = 2∫ dF (x ) = 4 e2 πR 0

(14)

R

∫

0

R

R 2 − x 2 dx = 4

IBe l x R2 xR R2 − x2 + arcsin 0 = IBe l 2 πR 2 2 R

It’s easy now to come to a vector form of this expression: as it follows from Fig.3, the net force F is always normal to B-l plane yet depending in a sinus-like way on the angle between Be and l. The result can be shown generally as

r r r F = Il × B

(15)

After we have proved the validation of such the approach on a base of the powered wire, we can refine the basic formula for calculating the net force in Virtual Conductor Magnetic Systems.

Fn = 2 ∫ ∫ ∆w( x, y ) d S (16)

S

The factor 2 before the integrals corresponds to a solenoidal field paradigm in the calculations, that is a magnetic line of force passes over the element of interacting surface dS two times. For the special case of the systems like those shown in Fig.2, we have to write down 2kBe Bm S F= (17)

µ0µr

Factor k indicates now the efficiency of the magnetic shunts, k ≤ 1 . The ideal shunts (k=1) prevent end lines of force of opposite directions, making the VCMS absolutely identical to a powered wire. REFERENCE

1. A. Bolonkin, M. Krinker. Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field Levitation http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0807/0807.1948.pdf (July 12, 2008).

2. A. Bolonkin, M. Krinker. Magnetic Propeller. Article presented as a paper AIAA2008- 4610 to 44th Joint Propulsion Conference, 20-24 July, 2008, Hartford, CT, 3. A. Bolonkin, M. Krinker. Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field. (Ch.13 in the book “Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology”, NOVA, 2009) 4. J.C. Maxwell. A Treatise on Electricity And Magnetism, vol.2, Second Edition, Oxford, 1881.

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