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Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz
Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio
Magdi Ragheb
1
and Adam M. Ragheb
2
1
Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering
2
Department of Aerospace Engineering
University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory,
USA
1. Introduction
The fundamental theory of design and operation of wind turbines is derived based on a first
principles approach using conservation of mass and conservation of energy in a wind
stream. A detailed derivation of the “Betz Equation” and the “Betz Criterion” or “Betz
Limit” is presented, and its subtleties, insights as well as the pitfalls in its derivation and
application are discussed. This fundamental equation was first introduced by the German
engineer Albert Betz in 1919 and published in his book “Wind Energie und ihre Ausnutzung
durch Windmühlen,” or “Wind Energy and its Extraction through Wind Mills” in 1926. The
theory that is developed applies to both horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines.
The power coefficient of a wind turbine is defined and is related to the Betz Limit. A
description of the optimal rotor tip speed ratio of a wind turbine is also presented. This is
compared with a description based on Schmitz whirlpool ratios accounting for the different
losses and efficiencies encountered in the operation of wind energy conversion systems.
The theoretical and a corrected graph of the different wind turbine operational regimes and
configurations, relating the power coefficient to the rotor tip speed ratio are shown. The
general common principles underlying wind, hydroelectric and thermal energy conversion
are discussed.
2. Betz equation and criterion, performance coefficient C
p
The Betz Equation is analogous to the Carnot cycle efficiency in thermodynamics suggesting
that a heat engine cannot extract all the energy from a given source of energy and must
reject part of its heat input back to the environment. Whereas the Carnot cycle efficiency can
be expressed in terms of the Kelvin isothermal heat input temperature T
1
and the Kelvin
isothermal heat rejection temperature T
2
:
1 2 2
1 1
1
Carnot
T T T
T T
q
÷
= = ÷ , (1)
the Betz Equation deals with the wind speed upstream of the turbine V
1
and the
downstream wind speed V
2
.
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 20
The limited efficiency of a heat engine is caused by heat rejection to the environment. The
limited efficiency of a wind turbine is caused by braking of the wind from its upstream
speed V
1
to its downstream speed V
2
, while allowing a continuation of the flow regime. The
additional losses in efficiency for a practical wind turbine are caused by the viscous and
pressure drag on the rotor blades, the swirl imparted to the air flow by the rotor, and the
power losses in the transmission and electrical system.
Betz developed the global theory of wind machines at the Göttingen Institute in Germany
(Le Gouriérès Désiré, 1982). The wind rotor is assumed to be an ideal energy converter,
meaning that:
1. It does not possess a hub,
2. It possesses an infinite number of rotor blades which do not result in any drag
resistance to the wind flowing through them.
In addition, uniformity is assumed over the whole area swept by the rotor, and the speed of
the air beyond the rotor is considered to be axial. The ideal wind rotor is taken at rest and is
placed in a moving fluid atmosphere. Considering the ideal model shown in Fig. 1, the
cross sectional area swept by the turbine blade is designated as S, with the air crosssection
upwind from the rotor designated as S
1
, and downwind as S
2
.
The wind speed passing through the turbine rotor is considered uniform as V, with its value
as V
1
upwind, and as V
2
downwind at a distance from the rotor. Extraction of mechanical
energy by the rotor occurs by reducing the kinetic energy of the air stream from upwind to
downwind, or simply applying a braking action on the wind. This implies that:
2 1
V V < .
Consequently the air stream cross sectional area increases from upstream of the turbine to
the downstream location, and:
2 1
S S > .
If the air stream is considered as a case of incompressible flow, the conservation of mass or
continuity equation can be written as:
1 1 2 2
constant m SV SV S V µ µ µ = = = = (2)
This expresses the fact that the mass flow rate is a constant along the wind stream.
Continuing with the derivation, Euler’s Theorem gives the force exerted by the wind on the
rotor as:
1 2
.( )
F ma
dV
m
dt
m V
SV V V µ
=
=
= A
= ÷
(3)
The incremental energy or the incremental work done in the wind stream is given by:
dE Fdx = (4)
From which the power content of the wind stream is:
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 21
dE dx
P F FV
dt dt
= = = (5)
Substituting for the force F from Eqn. 3, we get for the extractable power from the wind:
Fig. 1. Pressure and speed variation in an ideal model of a wind turbine.
Pressure
P2
P1
P3
Speed
V
2/3 V1
1/3 V1
V
S
V1
S1
V2
S2
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 22
2
1 2
.( ) P SV V V µ = ÷
(6)
The power as the rate of change in kinetic energy from upstream to downstream is given by:
( )
2 2
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 1
2 2
1
2
E
P
t
mV mV
t
m V V
A
A
÷
A
= ÷
(7)
Using the continuity equation (Eqn. 2), we can write:
( )
2 2
1 2
1
2
P SV V V µ = ÷
(8)
Equating the two expressions for the power P in Eqns. 6 and 8, we get:
( )
( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1
2
P SV V V SV V V µ µ = ÷ = ÷
The last expression implies that:
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2
1 1
2 2
0
( ) ( )( )
( ), , ,
V V V V V V
V V V V S µ
÷ = ÷ +
= ÷ ¬ =
or:
1 2 1 2 1 2
1
0
2
( ), ( ) V V V V V or V V = + ¬ ÷ = =
(9)
This in turn suggests that the wind velocity at the rotor may be taken as the average of the
upstream and downstream wind velocities. It also implies that the turbine must act as a
brake, reducing the wind speed from V
1
to V
2
, but not totally reducing it to V = 0, at which
point the equation is no longer valid. To extract energy from the wind stream, its flow must
be maintained and not totally stopped.
The last result allows us to write new expressions for the force F and power P in terms of the
upstream and downstream velocities by substituting for the value of V as:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
2
( )
( )
F SV V V
S V V
µ
µ
= ÷
= ÷
(10)
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1 2
2
1 2 1 2
2 2
1 2 1 2
1
4
1
4
P SV V V
S V V V V
S V V V V
µ
µ
µ
= ÷
= + ÷
= ÷ +
(11)
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 23
We can introduce the “downstream velocity factor,” or “interference factor,” b as the ratio of
the downstream speed V
2
to the upstream speed V
1
as:
2
1
V
b
V
= (12)
From Eqn. 10 the force F can be expressed as:
2 2
1
1
1
2
. ( ) F SV b µ = ÷ (13)
The extractable power P in terms of the interference factor b can be expressed as:
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
3 2
1
1
4
1
1 1
4
P S V V V V
SV b b
µ
µ
= ÷ +
= ÷ +
(14)
The most important observation pertaining to wind power production is that the extractable
power from the wind is proportional to the cube of the upstream wind speed V
1
3
and is a
function of the interference factor b.
The “power flux” or rate of energy flow per unit area, sometimes referred to as “power
density” is defined using Eqn. 6 as:
3
3
2 2
1
2
1
2
'
,[ ],[ ]
.
P
P
S
SV
S
Joules Watts
V
m s m
µ
µ
=
=
=
(15)
The kinetic power content of the undisturbed upstream wind stream with V = V
1
and over a
cross sectional area S becomes:
3 2
1
2
1
2
,[ ],[ ]
.
Joules
W SV m Watts
m s
µ = (16)
The performance coefficient or efficiency is the dimensionless ratio of the extractable power
P to the kinetic power W available in the undisturbed stream:
p
P
C
W
= (17)
The performance coefficient is a dimensionless measure of the efficiency of a wind turbine in
extracting the energy content of a wind stream. Substituting the expressions for P from Eqn.
14 and for W from Eqn. 16 we have:
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 24
( )
( )
( )
( )
3 2
1
3
1
2
1
1 1
4
1
2
1
1 1
2
p
P
C
W
SV b b
SV
b b
µ
µ
=
÷ +
=
= ÷ +
(18)
b 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 1/3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Cp 0.500 0.545 0.576 0.592 0.593 0.588 0.563 0.512 0.434 0.324 0.181 0.00
Fig. 2. The performance coefficient C
p
as a function of the interference factor b.
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
C
p
Interference parameter, b
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 25
When b = 1, V
1
= V
2
and the wind stream is undisturbed, leading to a performance
coefficient of zero. When b = 0, V
1
= 0, the turbine stops all the air flow and the performance
coefficient is equal to 0.5. It can be noticed from the graph that the performance coefficient
reaches a maximum around b = 1/3.
A condition for maximum performance can be obtained by differentiation of Eq. 18 with
respect to the interference factor b. Applying the chain rule of differentiation (shown below)
and setting the derivative equal to zero yields Eq. 19:
( )
d dv du
uv u v
dx dx dx
= +
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
2
1
1 2 1
2
1
1 2 2
2
1
1 3 2
2
1
1 3 1
2
0
[ ]
[ ]
( )
( )
( )( )
p
dC
d
b b
db db
b b b
b b b
b b
b b
= ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ +
=
(19)
Equation 19 has two solutions. The first is the trivial solution:
2
2 1
1
1 0
1
( )
,
b
V
b V V
V
+ =
= = ÷ ¬ = ÷
The second solution is the practical physical solution:
2
2 1
1
1 3 0
1 1
3 3
( )
,
b
V
b V V
V
÷ =
= = ¬ =
(20)
Equation 20 shows that for optimal operation, the downstream velocity V
2
should be equal
to one third of the upstream velocity V
1
. Using Eqn. 18, the maximum or optimal value of
the performance coefficient C
p
becomes:
( )
( )
2
2
1
1 1
2
1 1 1
1 1
2 3 3
16
27
0 59259
59 26
,
( )
.
.
p opt
C b b
percent
= ÷ +
  
= ÷ +
 
\ .\ .
=
=
=
(21)
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 26
This is referred to as the Betz Criterion or the Betz Limit. It was first formulated in 1919, and
applies to all wind turbine designs. It is the theoretical power fraction that can be extracted
from an ideal wind stream. Modern wind machines operate at a slightly lower practical
nonideal performance coefficient. It is generally reported to be in the range of:
2
40
5
, . p prac
C percent ~ =
(22)
Result I
From Eqns. 9 and 20, there results that:
1 2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2 3
2
3
( )
( )
V V V
V
V
V
= +
= +
=
(23)
Result II
From the continuity Eqn. 2:
1 1 2 2
1
1 1
1
2 1 1
2
3
2
3
constant
S=S
S =S
m SV SV S V
V
S
V
V
S
V
µ µ µ = = = =
=
=
(24)
This implies that the cross sectional area of the airstream downwind of the turbine expands
to 3 times the area upwind of it.
Some pitfalls in the derivation of the previous equations could inadvertently occur and are
worth pointing out. One can for instance try to define the power extraction from the wind
in two different ways. In the first approach, one can define the power extraction by an ideal
turbine from Eqns. 23, 24 as:
1
3 3
1 1 2 2
3 3
1 1 1 1
3
1 1
3
1 1
1 1
2 2
1 1 1
3
2 2 3
1 8
2 9
8 1
9 2
( )
( )
ideal upwind downwind
P P P
SV S V
SV S V
SV
SV
µ µ
µ µ
µ
µ
= ÷
= ÷
= ÷
=
=
This suggests that fully 8/9 of the energy available in the upwind stream can be extracted by
the turbine. That is a confusing result since the upwind wind stream has a cross sectional
area that is smaller than the turbine intercepted area.
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 27
The second approach yields the correct result by redefining the power extraction at the wind
turbine using the area of the turbine as S = 3/2 S
1
:
3
1 1
3
1
3
1
3
1
1 8
2 9
1 8 2
2 9 3
1 16
2 27
16 1
27 2
( )
( )
( )
ideal
P SV
SV
SV
SV
µ
µ
µ
µ
=
=
=
=
(25)
The value of the Betz coefficient suggests that a wind turbine can extract at most 59.3
percent of the energy in an undisturbed wind stream.
16
0 592593 59 26
27
. . Betzcoefficient percent = = =
(26)
Considering the frictional losses, blade surface roughness, and mechanical imperfections,
between 35 to 40 percent of the power available in the wind is extractable under practical
conditions.
Another important perspective can be obtained by estimating the maximum power content
in a wind stream. For a constant upstream velocity, we can deduce an expression for the
maximum power content for a constant upstream velocity V
1
of the wind stream by
differentiating the expression for the power P with respect to the downstream wind speed
V
2
, applying the chain rule of differentiation and equating the result to zero as:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2
1 2 1 2
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2
2
2 2
1 2 2 1 2
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2
1
4
1
4
1
2
4
1
2 2
4
1
3 2
4
0
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
( )
( )
V
dP d
S V V V V
dV dV
d
S V V V V
dV
S V V V V V
S V V VV V
S V V VV
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
= + ÷
= ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
=
(27)
Solving the resulting equation by factoring it yield Eqn. 28.
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
3 2 0
3 0
( )
( )( )
V V VV
V V V V
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
(28)
Equation 28 once again has two solutions. The trivial solution is shown in Eqn. 29.
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 28
1 2
2 1
0 ( ) V V
V V
+ =
=÷
(29)
The second physically practical solution is shown in Eqn 30.
1 2
2 1
3 0
1
3
( ) V V
V V
÷ =
=
(30)
This implies the simple result that that the most efficient operation of a wind turbine occurs
when the downstream speed V
2
is one third of the upstream speed V
1
. Adopting the second
solution and substituting it in the expression for the power in Eqn. 16 we get the expression
for the maximum power that could be extracted from a wind stream as:
( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
2
2 1 1
1 1
3
1
3
1
1
4
1
4 9 3
1 1 1
1 1
4 9 3
16
27 2
max
[ ]
P S V V V V
V V
S V V
SV
V S Watt
µ
µ
µ
µ
= ÷ +
 
 
= ÷ +



\ .
\ .
  
= ÷ +
 
\ .\ .
=
(31)
This expression constitutes the formula originally derived by Betz where the swept rotor
area S is:
2
4
D
S
t
= (32)
and the Betz Equation results as:
2
3
1
16
27 2 4
max
[ ]
D
P V Watt
µ t
= (33)
The most important implication from the Betz Equation is that there must be a wind speed
change from the upstream to the downstream in order to extract energy from the wind; in
fact by braking it using a wind turbine.
If no change in the wind speed occurs, energy cannot be efficiently extracted from the wind.
Realistically, no wind machine can totally bring the air to a total rest, and for a rotating
machine, there will always be some air flowing around it. Thus a wind machine can only
extract a fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind. The wind speed on the rotors at which
energy extraction is maximal has a magnitude lying between the upstream and downstream
wind velocities.
The Betz Criterion reminds us of the Carnot cycle efficiency in Thermodynamics suggesting
that a heat engine cannot extract all the energy from a given heat reservoir and must reject
part of its heat input back to the environment.
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 29
Fig. 3. Maximum power as a function of the rotor diameter and the wind speed. The power
increases as the square of the rotor diameter and more significantly as the cube of the wind
speed (Ragheb, M., 2011).
3. Rotor optimal Tip Speed Ratio, TSR
Another important concept relating to the power of wind turbines is the optimal tip speed
ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the speed of the rotor tip to the free stream wind speed.
If a rotor rotates too slowly, it allows too much wind to pass through undisturbed, and thus
does not extract as much as energy as it could, within the limits of the Betz Criterion, of
course.
On the other hand, if the rotor rotates too quickly, it appears to the wind as a large flat disc,
which creates a large amount of drag. The rotor Tip Speed Ratio, TSR depends on the blade
airfoil profile used, the number of blades, and the type of wind turbine. In general, three
bladed wind turbines operate at a TSR of between 6 and 8, with 7 being the most widely
reported value.
In addition to the factors mentioned above, other concerns dictate the TSR to which a wind
turbine is designed. In general, a high TSR is desirable, since it results in a high shaft
rotational speed that allows for efficient operation of an electrical generator. Disadvantages
however of a high TSR include:
a. Blade tips operating at 80 m/s of greater are subject to leading edge erosion from dust
and sand particles, and would require special leading edge treatments like helicopter
blades to mitigate such damage,
b. Noise, both audible and inaudible, is generated,
c. Vibration, especially in 2 or 1 blade rotors,
0
15
30
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
Wind Speed
[m/s]
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
P
o
w
e
r
[
M
W
]
Rotor Diameter [m]
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 30
d. Reduced rotor efficiency due to drag and tip losses,
e. Higher speed rotors require much larger braking systems to prevent the rotor from
reaching a runaway condition that can cause disintegration of the turbine rotor blades.
The Tip Speed Ratio, TSR, is dimensionless factor defined in Eqn. 34
speed of rotor tip
TSR= =
wind speed
v r
V V
e
ì = = (34)
where:
1
wind speed [m/sec]
r rotor tip speed [m/sec]
r rotor radius [m]
=2 angular velocity [rad/sec]
rotational frequency [Hz], [sec ]
V
v
f
f
e
e t
=
= =
=
=
=
Example 1
At a wind speed of 15 m/sec, for a rotor blade radius of 10 m, rotating at 1 rotation per second:
1
2 2
2 10 20
20 62 83
4
15 15
rotation
[ ],
sec
radian
[ ]
sec
m
. [ ]
sec
.
f
f
v r
r
V
e t t
e t t
e t
ì
=
= =
= = =
= = = =
Example 2
The Suzlon S.66/1250, 1.25 MW rated power at 12 m/s rated wind speed wind turbine
design has a rotor diameter of 66 meters and a rotational speed of 13.920.8 rpm.
Its angular speed range is:
2
13 9 20 8
2
60
1 46 2 18
. . revolutions minute
[radian. . ]
minute second
radian
. . [ ]
sec
f e t
t
=
÷
=
= ÷
The range of its rotor’s tip speed can be estimated as:
66
1 46 2 18
2
48 18 71 94
( . . )
m
. . [ ]
sec
v r e =
= ÷
= ÷
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 31
The range of its tip speed ratio is thus:
48 18 71 94
12
4 6
. .
r
V
e
ì =
÷
=
÷
The optimal TSR for maximum power extraction is inferred by relating the time taken for
the disturbed wind to reestablish itself to the time required for the next blade to move into
the location of the preceding blade. These times are t
w
and t
b
, respectively, and are shown
below in Eqns. 35 and 36. In Eqns. 35 and 36, n is the number of blades, ω is the rotational
frequency of the rotor, s is the length of the disturbed wind stream, and V is the wind
speed.
2
[sec]
s
t
n
t
e
= (35)
[sec]
w
s
t
V
= (36)
If t
s
> t
w
, some wind is unaffected. If t
w
> t
s
, some wind is not allowed to flow through the
rotor. The maximum power extraction occurs when the two times are approximately equal.
Setting t
w
equal to t
s
yields Eqn. 37 below, which is rearranged as:
2 2
s w
t t
s n
n V V s
t e t
e
~
~ ¬ ~
(37)
Equation 37 may then be used to define the optimal rotational frequency as shown in Eqn. 38:
2
optimal
V
ns
t
e ~ (38)
Consequently, for optimal power extraction, the rotor blade must rotate at a rotational
frequency that is related to the speed of the oncoming wind. This rotor rotational frequency
decreases as the radius of the rotor increases and can be characterized by calculating the
optimal TSR, λ
optimal
as shown in Eqn. 39.
2 optimal
optimal
r
r
V n s
e
t
ì
 
~ ~

\ .
(39)
4. Effect of the number of rotor blades on the Tip Speed Ratio, TSR
The optimal TSR depends on the number of rotor blades, n, of the wind turbine. The
smaller the number of rotor blades, the faster the wind turbine must rotate to extract the
maximum power from the wind. For an nbladed rotor, it has empirically been observed
that s is approximately equal to 50 percent of the rotor radius. Thus by setting:
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 32
1
2
s
r
~
,
Eqn. 39 is modified into Eqn. 40:
2 4
optimal
r
n s n
t t
ì
 
~ ~

\ .
(40)
For n = 2, the optimal TSR is calculated to be 6.28, while it is 4.19 for threebladed rotor, and
it reduces to 3.14 for a fourbladed rotor. With proper airfoil design, the optimal TSR values
may be approximately 25 – 30 percent above these values. These highlyefficient rotor blade
airfoils increase the rotational speed of the blade, and thus generate more power. Using this
assumption, the optimal TSR for a threebladed rotor would be in the range of 5.24 – 5.45.
Poorly designed rotor blades that yield too low of a TSR would cause the wind turbine to
exhibit a tendency to slow and stall. On the other hand, if the TSR is too high, the turbine
will rotate very rapidly, and will experience larger stresses, which may lead to catastrophic
failure in highlyturbulent wind conditions.
5. Power coefficient, C
p
The power generated by the kinetic energy of a free flowing wind stream is shown in Eqn.
41.
3
1
2
[ ] P SV Watt µ = (41)
Defining the cross sectional area, S, of the wind turbine, in terms of the blade radius, r, Eqn.
41 becomes Eqn. 42.
2 3
1
2
P R V µt = (42)
The power coefficient (Jones, B., 1950), Eqn. 43, is defined as the ratio of the power extracted
by the wind turbine relative to the energy available in the wind stream.
2 3
1
2
t t
p
P P
C
P
R V µt
= = (43)
As derived earlier in this chapter, the maximum achievable power coefficient is 59.26
percent, the Betz Limit. In practice however, obtainable values of the power coefficient
center around 45 percent. This value below the theoretical limit is caused by the
inefficiencies and losses attributed to different configurations, rotor blades profiles, finite
wings, friction, and turbine designs. Figure 4 depicts the Betz, ideal constant, and actual
wind turbine power coefficient as a function of the TSR.
As shown in Fig. 4, maximum power extraction occurs at the optimal TSR, where the
difference between the actual TSR (blue curve) and the line defined by a constant TSR is the
lowest. This difference represents the power in the wind that is not captured by the wind
turbine. Frictional losses, finite wing size, and turbine design losses account for part of the
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 33
Fig. 4. Power coefficient as a function of TSR for a twobladed rotor.
uncaptured wind power, and are supplemented by the fact that a wind turbine does not
operate at the optimal TSR across its operating range of wind speeds.
6. Inefficiencies and losses, Schmitz power coefficient
The inefficiencies and losses encountered in the operation of wind turbines include the
blade number losses, whirlpool losses, end losses and the airfoil profile losses (Çetin, N. S.
et. al. 2005).
Airfoil profile losses
The slip or slide number s is the ratio of the uplift force coefficient of the airfoil profile used
C
L
to the drag force coefficient C
D
is:
L
D
C
s
C
=
L
D
C
s
C
= (44)
Accounting for the drag force can be achieved by using the profile efficiency that is a
function of the slip number s and the tip speed ratio λ as:
1
profile
s
s s
ì ì
q
÷
= = ÷ 1
profile
s
s s
ì ì
q
÷
= = ÷ (45)
Rotor tip end losses
At the tip of the rotor blade an air flow occurs from the lower side of the airfoil profile to the
upper side. This air flow couples with the incoming air flow to the blade. The combined air
flow results in a rotor tip end efficiency, η
tip end
.
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 34
Whirlpool Losses
In the idealized derivation of the Betz Equation, the wind does not change its direction after
it encounters the turbine rotor blades. In fact, it does change its direction after the
encounter.
This is accountedfor by a modified form of the power coefficient known as the Schmitz
power coefficient C
pSchmitz
if the same airfoil design is used throughout the rotor blade.
Tip speed ratio
TSR
λ
Whirpool Schmitz
Power Coefficient
C
pSchmitz
0.0 0.000
0.5 0.238
1.0 0.400
1.5 0.475
2.0 0.515
2.5 0.531
3.0 0.537
3.5 0.538
4.0 0.541
4.5 0.544
5.0 0.547
5.5 0.550
6.0 0.553
6.5 0.556
7.0 0.559
7.5 0.562
8.0 0.565
8.5 0.568
9.0 0.570
9.5 0.572
10.0 0.574
Table 1. Whirlpool losses Schmitz power coefficient as a function of the tip speed ratio.
Rotor blade number losses
A theory developed by Schmitz and Glauert applies to wind turbines with four or less rotor
blades. In a turbine with more than four blades, the air movement becomes too complex for
a strict theoretical treatment and an empirical approach is adopted. This can be accounted
for by a rotor blades number efficiency η
blades
.
In view of the associated losses and inefficiencies, the power coefficient can be expressed as:
p pSchmitz profile tip end blades
C C q q q ~ (46)
There are still even more efficiencies involved:
1. Frictional losses in the bearings and gears: η
friction
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 35
Fig. 5. Schmitz power coefficient as a function of the tip speed ratio, TSR.
2. Magnetic drag and electrical resistance losses in the generator or alternator: η
electrical
.
'
p pSchmitz profile tip end blades friction electrical
C C q q q q q ~ (47)
In the end, the Betz Limit is an idealization and a design goal that designers try to reach in a
real world turbine. A C
p
value of between 0.35 – 0.40 is a realistic design goal for a workable
wind turbine. This is still reduced by a capacity factor accounting for the periods of wind
flow as the intermittency factor.
7. Power coefficient and tip speed ratio of different wind converters designs
The theoretical maximum efficiency of a wind turbine is given by the Betz Limit, and is
around 59 percent. Practically, wind turbines operate below the Betz Limit. In Fig. 4 for a
twobladed turbine, if it is operated at the optimal tip speed ratio of 6, its power coefficient
would be around 0.45. At the cutin wind speed, the power coefficient is just 0.10, and at the
cutout wind speed it is 0.22. This suggests that for maximum power extraction a wind
turbine should be operated around its optimal wind tip ratio.
Modern horizontal axis wind turbine rotors consist of two or three thin blades and are
designated as low solidity rotors. This implies a low fraction of the area swept by the rotors
being solid. Its configuration results in an optimum match to the frequency requirements of
modern electricity generators and also minimizes the size and weight of the gearbox or
transmission required, as well as increases efficiency.
Such an arrangement results in a relatively high tip speed ratio in comparison with rotors
with a high number of blades such as the highly successful American wind mill used for
water pumping in the American West and all over the world. The latter required a high
starting torque.
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
0 2 4 6 8 10
S
c
h
m
i
t
z
p
o
w
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Tip Speed ratio, TSR λ
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 36
The relationship between the rotor power coefficient C
p
and the tip speed ratio is shown for
different types of wind machines. It can be noticed that it reaches a maximum at different
positions for different machine designs.
Fig. 6. The power coefficient C
p
as a function of the tip speed ratio for different wind
machines designs. Note that the efficiency curves of the Savonius and the American
multiblade designs were inadvertently switched (Eldridge, F. R., 1980) in some previous
publications, discouraging the study of the Savonius design.
The maximum efficiencies of the two bladed design, the Darrieus concept and the Savonius
reach levels above 30 percent but below the Betz Limit of 59 percent.
The American multiblade design and the historical Dutch four bladed designs peak at 15
percent. These are not suited for electrical generation but are ideal for water pumping.
8. Discussion and conclusions
Wind turbines must be designed to operate at their optimal wind tip speed ratio in order to
extract as much power as possible from the wind stream. When a rotor blade passes through
the air stream it leaves a turbulent wake in its path. If the next blade in the rotating rotor
arrives at the wake when the air is still turbulent, it will not be able to extract power from
the wind efficiently, and will be subjected to high vibration stresses. If the rotor rotated
slower, the air hitting each rotor blade would no longer be turbulent. This is another reason
Wind Turbines Theory  The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 37
for the tip speed ratio to be selected so that the rotor blades do not pass through turbulent
air.
Wind power conversion is analogous to other methods of energy conversion such as
hydroelectric generators and heat engines. Some common underlying basic principles can
guide the design and operation of wind energy conversion systems in particular, and of
other forms of energy conversion in general. A basic principle can be enunciated as:
“Energy can be extracted or converted only from a flow system.”
In hydraulics, the potential energy of water blocked behind a dam cannot be extracted
unless it is allowed to flow. In this case only a part of it can be extracted by a water turbine.
In a heat engine, the heat energy cannot be extracted from a totally insulated reservoir.
Only when it is allowed to flow from the high temperature reservoir, to a low temperature
one where it is rejected to the environment; can a fraction of this energy be extracted by a
heat engine.
Totally blocking a wind stream does not allow any energy extraction. Only by allowing the
wind stream to flow from a high speed region to a low speed region can energy be extracted
by a wind turbine.
A second principle of energy conversion can be elucidated as:
“Natural or artificial asymmetries in an aerodynamic, hydraulic, or thermodynamic system allow the
extraction of only a fraction of the available energy at a specified efficiency.”
Ingenious minds conceptualized devices that take advantage of existing natural
asymmetries, or created configurations or situations favoring the creation of these
asymmetries, to extract energy from the environment.
A corollary ensues that the existence of a flow system necessitates that only a fraction of the
available energy can be extracted at an efficiency characteristic of the energy extraction
process with the rest returned back to the environment to maintain the flow process.
In thermodynamics, the ideal heat cycle efficiency is expressed by the Carnot cycle
efficiency. In a wind stream, the ideal aerodynamic cycle efficiency is expressed by the Betz
Equation.
9. References
Ragheb, M., “Wind Power Systems. Harvesting the Wind.”
https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www, 2011.
Thomas Ackerman, Ed. “Wind Power in Power Systems,” John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 2005.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), “A Collection of the 2004 ASME Wind Energy
Symposium Technical Papers,” 42
nd
AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and
Exhibit, Reno Nevada, 58 January, 2004.
Le Gouriérès Désiré, “Wind Power Plants, Theory and Design,” Pergamon Press, 1982.
Brown, J. E., Brown, A. E., “Harness the Wind, The Story of Windmills,” Dodd, Mead and
Company, New York, 1977.
Eldridge, F. R., “Wind Machines,” 2
nd
Ed., The MITRE Energy Resources and Environmental
Series, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1980.
Calvert, N. G., “Windpower Principles: Their Application on the Small Scale,” John Wiley
and Sons, 1979.
Torrey, V., “WindCatchers, American Windmills of Yesterday and Tomorrow,” The
Stephen Greene Press, Brattleboro, Vermont, 1976.
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power 38
Walker, J. F., Jenkins, N., “Wind Energy Technology,” John Wiley and Sons, 1997.
Schmidt, J., Palz, W., “European Wind Energy Technology, State of the Art Wind Energy
Converters in the European Community,” D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1986.
Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Division of Solar Energy,
“Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors, Wind Energy Conversion,”
ERDA 7747/6, UC11, 59, 62, 63A, March 1977.
Çetin, N. S., M. A Yurdusev, R. Ata and A. Özdemir, “Assessment of Optimum Tip Speed
Ratio of Wind Turbines,” Mathematical and Computational Applications, Vol. 10,
No.1, pp.147154, 2005.
Hau, E.,“Windkraftanlangen,” Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 110113, 1996.
Jones, B., “Elements of Aerodynamics,” John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, pp. 73158,
1950.
20
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power
The limited efficiency of a heat engine is caused by heat rejection to the environment. The limited efficiency of a wind turbine is caused by braking of the wind from its upstream speed V1 to its downstream speed V2, while allowing a continuation of the flow regime. The additional losses in efficiency for a practical wind turbine are caused by the viscous and pressure drag on the rotor blades, the swirl imparted to the air flow by the rotor, and the power losses in the transmission and electrical system. Betz developed the global theory of wind machines at the Göttingen Institute in Germany (Le Gouriérès Désiré, 1982). The wind rotor is assumed to be an ideal energy converter, meaning that: 1. It does not possess a hub, 2. It possesses an infinite number of rotor blades which do not result in any drag resistance to the wind flowing through them. In addition, uniformity is assumed over the whole area swept by the rotor, and the speed of the air beyond the rotor is considered to be axial. The ideal wind rotor is taken at rest and is placed in a moving fluid atmosphere. Considering the ideal model shown in Fig. 1, the cross sectional area swept by the turbine blade is designated as S, with the air crosssection upwind from the rotor designated as S1, and downwind as S2. The wind speed passing through the turbine rotor is considered uniform as V, with its value as V1 upwind, and as V2 downwind at a distance from the rotor. Extraction of mechanical energy by the rotor occurs by reducing the kinetic energy of the air stream from upwind to downwind, or simply applying a braking action on the wind. This implies that:
V2 V1 .
Consequently the air stream cross sectional area increases from upstream of the turbine to the downstream location, and:
S2 S1 .
If the air stream is considered as a case of incompressible flow, the conservation of mass or continuity equation can be written as:
m S1V1 SV S2V2 constant
(2)
This expresses the fact that the mass flow rate is a constant along the wind stream. Continuing with the derivation, Euler’s Theorem gives the force exerted by the wind on the rotor as:
F ma dV dt mV m SV .(V1 V2 )
The incremental energy or the incremental work done in the wind stream is given by: dE Fdx From which the power content of the wind stream is: (4) (3)
we get for the extractable power from the wind: V1 S1 V S V2 S2 Pressure P2 P1 P3 Speed V 2/3 V1 1/3 V1 Fig. 1. . Pressure and speed variation in an ideal model of a wind turbine. 3.Wind Turbines Theory .The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 21 (5) P dE dx F FV dt dt Substituting for the force F from Eqn.
To extract energy from the wind stream. S . 0 or: 1 V (V1 V2 ). but not totally reducing it to V = 0. we can write: P 1 SV V12 V22 2 (8) Equating the two expressions for the power P in Eqns. we get: P The last expression implies that: 1 SV V12 V22 SV 2 V1 V2 2 1 2 1 (V1 V22 ) (V1 V2 )(V1 V2 ) 2 2 V (V1 V2 ). The last result allows us to write new expressions for the force F and power P in terms of the upstream and downstream velocities by substituting for the value of V as: F SV (V1 V2 ) 1 S(V12 V22 ) 2 P SV 2 V1 V2 1 2 S V1 V2 V1 V2 4 1 S V12 V22 V1 V2 4 (10) (11) . (V1 V2 ) 0 or V1 V2 2 (9) This in turn suggests that the wind velocity at the rotor may be taken as the average of the upstream and downstream wind velocities. 2). at which point the equation is no longer valid.22 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power P SV 2 . its flow must be maintained and not totally stopped. 6 and 8. It also implies that the turbine must act as a brake.(V1 V2 ) (6) The power as the rate of change in kinetic energy from upstream to downstream is given by: P E t 1 1 mV12 mV22 2 2 t 1 m V12 V22 2 (7) Using the continuity equation (Eqn. reducing the wind speed from V1 to V2. V .
[ 2 m2 ].[ 2 m . 14 and for W from Eqn.V12 (1 b 2 ) 2 (13) The extractable power P in terms of the interference factor b can be expressed as: P 1 S V12 V22 V1 V2 4 1 SV13 1 b 2 1 b 4 (14) The most important observation pertaining to wind power production is that the extractable power from the wind is proportional to the cube of the upstream wind speed V13 and is a function of the interference factor b.[ 2 ]. sometimes referred to as “power density” is defined using Eqn. 10 the force F can be expressed as: V2 V1 (12) F 1 S.s (16) The performance coefficient or efficiency is the dimensionless ratio of the extractable power P to the kinetic power W available in the undisturbed stream: Cp P W (17) The performance coefficient is a dimensionless measure of the efficiency of a wind turbine in extracting the energy content of a wind stream. 16 we have: .” or “interference factor.[ Watts] 2 m .Wind Turbines Theory . The “power flux” or rate of energy flow per unit area.The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 23 We can introduce the “downstream velocity factor.s m2 (15) The kinetic power content of the undisturbed upstream wind stream with V = V1 and over a cross sectional area S becomes: W 1 Joules SV13 .” b as the ratio of the downstream speed V2 to the upstream speed V1 as: b From Eqn. Substituting the expressions for P from Eqn. 6 as: P' P S 1 SV 3 2 S Joules Watts 1 ] V 3 .
3 0.500 0.592 1/3 0.15 0.4 0.434 0.1 0.7 0.563 0.05 0 0 0.545 0.5 0.576 0.7 0.55 0. . The performance coefficient Cp as a function of the interference factor b.3 0. 2.25 0.6 0.4 0.588 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.593 0.45 Performance coefficient Cp 0.3 0.2 0. b b Cp 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.324 0.00 Fig.512 0.1 0.24 Cp Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power P W 1 SV13 1 b 2 1 b 4 1 SV13 2 1 1 b 2 1 b 2 (18) 0.35 0.181 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.9 1 Interference parameter.
A condition for maximum performance can be obtained by differentiation of Eq. 19: d dv du (uv) u v dx dx dx dC p db 1 d [ 1 b 2 1 b ] 2 db 1 [ 1 b 2 2b 1 b ] 2 1 (1 b 2 2b 2b 2 ) 2 1 (1 3b 2 2b ) 2 1 (1 3b )(1 b ) 2 0 (19) Equation 19 has two solutions. The first is the trivial solution: (1 b ) 0 V b 2 1. the downstream velocity V2 should be equal to one third of the upstream velocity V1.Wind Turbines Theory . opt 1 1 b 2 1 b 2 1 1 1 1 ( )2 1 2 3 3 16 27 0. V2 V1 V1 The second solution is the practical physical solution: (1 3b ) 0 1 1 V b 2 .The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 25 When b = 1. 18 with respect to the interference factor b. 18. V1 = V2 and the wind stream is undisturbed. Applying the chain rule of differentiation (shown below) and setting the derivative equal to zero yields Eq. V1 = 0.5. leading to a performance coefficient of zero. Using Eqn. the maximum or optimal value of the performance coefficient Cp becomes: C p .26 percent (21) .59259 59. It can be noticed from the graph that the performance coefficient reaches a maximum around b = 1/3. the turbine stops all the air flow and the performance coefficient is equal to 0. When b = 0. V2 V1 V1 3 3 (20) Equation 20 shows that for optimal operation.
one can define the power extraction by an ideal turbine from Eqns. prac. One can for instance try to define the power extraction from the wind in two different ways.26 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power This is referred to as the Betz Criterion or the Betz Limit. . there results that: 1 V (V1 V2 ) 2 V 1 (V1 1 ) 2 3 2 V1 3 Result II (23) From the continuity Eqn. 23. 24 as: 1 Pideal Pupwind Pdownwind 1 1 S1V13 S2V23 2 2 1 1 1 3 S1V1 3S1( V1 )3 2 2 3 1 8 3 ( S1V1 ) 2 9 81 S1V13 92 This suggests that fully 8/9 of the energy available in the upwind stream can be extracted by the turbine. It is generally reported to be in the range of: C p . It is the theoretical power fraction that can be extracted from an ideal wind stream. It was first formulated in 1919. and applies to all wind turbine designs. 2: m S1V1 SV S2V2 constant V 3 S=S1 1 S1 V 2 V S 2 =S1 1 3S1 V2 (24) This implies that the cross sectional area of the airstream downwind of the turbine expands to 3 times the area upwind of it. Some pitfalls in the derivation of the previous equations could inadvertently occur and are worth pointing out. Result I 2 40 percent 5 (22) From Eqns. That is a confusing result since the upwind wind stream has a cross sectional area that is smaller than the turbine intercepted area. 9 and 20. In the first approach. Modern wind machines operate at a slightly lower practical nonideal performance coefficient.
The trivial solution is shown in Eqn. Another important perspective can be obtained by estimating the maximum power content in a wind stream. applying the chain rule of differentiation and equating the result to zero as: dP dV2 V1 1 d 2 [V1 V2 V1 V2 ] S dV2 4 d 1 [ V12 V2 2 V1 V2 ] S dV2 4 1 S[ V12 V2 2 2V2 V1 V2 ] 4 1 S(V12 V22 2V1V2 2V2 2 ) 4 1 S(V12 3V2 2 2VV2 ) 1 4 0 (27) Solving the resulting equation by factoring it yield Eqn.3 percent of the energy in an undisturbed wind stream.592593 59. 29. (V12 3V22 2V1V2 ) 0 (V1 V2 )(V1 3V2 ) 0 Equation 28 once again has two solutions. blade surface roughness.26 percent 27 (26) Considering the frictional losses. between 35 to 40 percent of the power available in the wind is extractable under practical conditions.Wind Turbines Theory .The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 27 The second approach yields the correct result by redefining the power extraction at the wind turbine using the area of the turbine as S = 3/2 S1: Pideal 1 8 ( S1V13 ) 2 9 1 82 ( SV13 ) 2 93 1 16 ( SV13 ) 2 27 16 1 SV13 27 2 (25) The value of the Betz coefficient suggests that a wind turbine can extract at most 59. we can deduce an expression for the maximum power content for a constant upstream velocity V1 of the wind stream by differentiating the expression for the power P with respect to the downstream wind speed V2. and mechanical imperfections. Betzcoefficient 16 0. For a constant upstream velocity. 28. (28) .
(V1 3V2 ) 0 1 V2 V1 3 (30) This implies the simple result that that the most efficient operation of a wind turbine occurs when the downstream speed V2 is one third of the upstream speed V1. Adopting the second solution and substituting it in the expression for the power in Eqn. in fact by braking it using a wind turbine. The Betz Criterion reminds us of the Carnot cycle efficiency in Thermodynamics suggesting that a heat engine cannot extract all the energy from a given heat reservoir and must reject part of its heat input back to the environment. and for a rotating machine. there will always be some air flowing around it. Thus a wind machine can only extract a fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind. 16 we get the expression for the maximum power that could be extracted from a wind stream as: Pmax 1 S V12 V22 V1 V2 4 1 V 2 V S V12 1 V1 1 4 9 3 1 1 1 SV13 1 1 4 9 3 16 3 V1 S [ Watt ] 27 2 (31) This expression constitutes the formula originally derived by Betz where the swept rotor area S is: S and the Betz Equation results as: Pmax 16 3 D2 V1 [ Watt ] 27 2 4 (33) D2 4 (32) The most important implication from the Betz Equation is that there must be a wind speed change from the upstream to the downstream in order to extract energy from the wind. energy cannot be efficiently extracted from the wind. If no change in the wind speed occurs.28 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power (V1 V2 ) 0 V2 V1 (29) The second physically practical solution is shown in Eqn 30. . The wind speed on the rotors at which energy extraction is maximal has a magnitude lying between the upstream and downstream wind velocities. Realistically. no wind machine can totally bring the air to a total rest.
with 7 being the most widelyreported value. and thus does not extract as much as energy as it could. and would require special leading edge treatments like helicopter blades to mitigate such damage.Wind Turbines Theory . b. Maximum power as a function of the rotor diameter and the wind speed. In general. Vibration. both audible and inaudible. Disadvantages however of a high TSR include: a. Rotor optimal Tip Speed Ratio. is generated. The rotor Tip Speed Ratio. of course. it allows too much wind to pass through undisturbed. 3. within the limits of the Betz Criterion. which is defined as the ratio of the speed of the rotor tip to the free stream wind speed. other concerns dictate the TSR to which a wind turbine is designed. which creates a large amount of drag. . In addition to the factors mentioned above. a high TSR is desirable. especially in 2 or 1 blade rotors. TSR depends on the blade airfoil profile used. On the other hand. If a rotor rotates too slowly. threebladed wind turbines operate at a TSR of between 6 and 8. since it results in a high shaft rotational speed that allows for efficient operation of an electrical generator. 3. The power increases as the square of the rotor diameter and more significantly as the cube of the wind speed (Ragheb. TSR Another important concept relating to the power of wind turbines is the optimal tip speed ratio. In general.. if the rotor rotates too quickly.The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 29 700 Maximum Power [MW] 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 0 210 240 270 300 Rotor Diameter [m] 30 15 Wind Speed [m/s] Fig. and the type of wind turbine. c. Noise. 2011). M. Blade tips operating at 80 m/s of greater are subject to leading edge erosion from dust and sand particles. it appears to the wind as a large flat disc. the number of blades.
18) .94[ sec (1.46 2. 1. Its angular speed range is: 2 f 13. e.8 revolutions minute [radian. 34 TSR= = where: V v r r wind speed [m/sec] rotor tip speed [m/sec] rotor radius [m] angular velocity [rad/sec] rotational frequency [Hz]. is dimensionless factor defined in Eqn. .18[ sec 2 The range of its rotor’s tip speed can be estimated as: v r 66 2 m ] 48.9 20. ] 60 minute second radian ] 1.18 71.920. for a rotor blade radius of 10 m. Higher speed rotors require much larger braking systems to prevent the rotor from reaching a runaway condition that can cause disintegration of the turbine rotor blades.46 2.10 20 [ ] sec r 20 62. TSR.83 4 V 15 15 f 1[ Example 2 The Suzlon S.66/1250. sec radian ] 2 f 2 [ sec m v r 2 .8 rpm.25 MW rated power at 12 m/s rated wind speed wind turbine design has a rotor diameter of 66 meters and a rotational speed of 13.30 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power Reduced rotor efficiency due to drag and tip losses. rotating at 1 rotation per second: rotation ]. speed of rotor tip v r wind speed V V (34) = 2 f f Example 1 At a wind speed of 15 m/sec. [sec 1 ] d. The Tip Speed Ratio.
and are shown below in Eqns. 35 and 36. Effect of the number of rotor blades on the Tip Speed Ratio. 35 and 36. of the wind turbine. it has empirically been observed that s is approximately equal to 50 percent of the rotor radius. ts 2 [sec] n s [sec] V (35) tw (36) If ts > tw. n is the number of blades. Thus by setting: . s is the length of the disturbed wind stream. If tw > ts. for optimal power extraction. 39. n. In Eqns. The smaller the number of rotor blades.Wind Turbines Theory . TSR The optimal TSR depends on the number of rotor blades. 38: optimal 2 V ns (38) Consequently. Setting tw equal to ts yields Eqn. λoptimal as shown in Eqn.The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 31 The range of its tip speed ratio is thus: r V 48. which is rearranged as: ts t w 2 s n 2 n V V s (37) Equation 37 may then be used to define the optimal rotational frequency as shown in Eqn. optimal optimal r V 2 r n s (39) 4. respectively. 37 below. The maximum power extraction occurs when the two times are approximately equal. some wind is not allowed to flow through the rotor. For an nbladed rotor. the faster the wind turbine must rotate to extract the maximum power from the wind.94 12 46 The optimal TSR for maximum power extraction is inferred by relating the time taken for the disturbed wind to reestablish itself to the time required for the next blade to move into the location of the preceding blade. These times are tw and tb. and V is the wind speed. This rotor rotational frequency decreases as the radius of the rotor increases and can be characterized by calculating the optimal TSR.18 71. ω is the rotational frequency of the rotor. some wind is unaffected. the rotor blade must rotate at a rotational frequency that is related to the speed of the oncoming wind.
4. 40: optimal 2 r 4 n s n (40) For n = 2. This value below the theoretical limit is caused by the inefficiencies and losses attributed to different configurations. obtainable values of the power coefficient center around 45 percent. the maximum achievable power coefficient is 59. 5. 41 becomes Eqn. On the other hand. and turbine design losses account for part of the . Using this assumption. is defined as the ratio of the power extracted by the wind turbine relative to the energy available in the wind stream. and will experience larger stresses. if the TSR is too high. Power coefficient. rotor blades profiles.24 – 5. B. P 1 SV 3 [ Watt ] 2 (41) Defining the cross sectional area. ideal constant. Eqn. Cp Pt Pt P 1 R 2V 3 2 (43) As derived earlier in this chapter. 1950). In practice however. in terms of the blade radius. finite wing size. Cp The power generated by the kinetic energy of a free flowing wind stream is shown in Eqn. and it reduces to 3.14 for a fourbladed rotor. Figure 4 depicts the Betz. S. With proper airfoil design. friction. Eqn.19 for threebladed rotor. while it is 4. and actual wind turbine power coefficient as a function of the TSR. Frictional losses. the optimal TSR is calculated to be 6.28. 43. which may lead to catastrophic failure in highlyturbulent wind conditions. r.. the optimal TSR values may be approximately 25 – 30 percent above these values. As shown in Fig. Eqn. finite wings. where the difference between the actual TSR (blue curve) and the line defined by a constant TSR is the lowest. the turbine will rotate very rapidly.45. This difference represents the power in the wind that is not captured by the wind turbine. and thus generate more power. of the wind turbine.32 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power s 1 r 2. the optimal TSR for a threebladed rotor would be in the range of 5. 41. maximum power extraction occurs at the optimal TSR. the Betz Limit. 42. and turbine designs. Poorly designed rotor blades that yield too low of a TSR would cause the wind turbine to exhibit a tendency to slow and stall. These highlyefficient rotor blade airfoils increase the rotational speed of the blade.26 percent. P 1 R 2V 3 2 (42) The power coefficient (Jones. 39 is modified into Eqn.
and are supplemented by the fact that a wind turbine does not operate at the optimal TSR across its operating range of wind speeds. et. . uncaptured wind power. Airfoil profile losses The slip or slide number s is the ratio of the uplift force coefficient of the airfoil profile used CL to the drag force coefficient CD is: s CL CD s CL CD (44) Accounting for the drag force can be achieved by using the profile efficiency that is a function of the slip number s and the tip speed ratio λ as: profile Rotor tip end losses s 1 s s profile s 1 s s (45) At the tip of the rotor blade an air flow occurs from the lower side of the airfoil profile to the upper side. 4. S. end losses and the airfoil profile losses (Çetin.Wind Turbines Theory . whirlpool losses. N.The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 33 Fig. The combined air flow results in a rotor tip end efficiency. 6. Schmitz power coefficient The inefficiencies and losses encountered in the operation of wind turbines include the blade number losses. Power coefficient as a function of TSR for a twobladed rotor. ηtip end. al. This air flow couples with the incoming air flow to the blade. Inefficiencies and losses. 2005).
0 0.562 0. In view of the associated losses and inefficiencies.0 5.5 9.572 0.0 1. Tip speed ratio TSR λ 0.5 10.531 0.0 9.000 0.547 0.238 0.538 0.574 Table 1.5 1.0 2.541 0.5 7.570 0.5 4.0 Rotor blade number losses Whirpool Schmitz Power Coefficient CpSchmitz 0.0 8.5 5. it does change its direction after the encounter.553 0. Frictional losses in the bearings and gears: ηfriction .5 8. the power coefficient can be expressed as: C p C pSchmitz profiletip end blades (46) There are still even more efficiencies involved: 1.0 4. A theory developed by Schmitz and Glauert applies to wind turbines with four or less rotor blades.34 Whirlpool Losses Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power In the idealized derivation of the Betz Equation.559 0.5 2.556 0.0 7.544 0.0 6.537 0.0 3. the wind does not change its direction after it encounters the turbine rotor blades.5 6. This can be accounted for by a rotor blades number efficiency ηblades.565 0. This is accountedfor by a modified form of the power coefficient known as the Schmitz power coefficient CpSchmitz if the same airfoil design is used throughout the rotor blade.515 0. Whirlpool losses Schmitz power coefficient as a function of the tip speed ratio. In fact.550 0.568 0. the air movement becomes too complex for a strict theoretical treatment and an empirical approach is adopted.5 3.400 0.475 0. In a turbine with more than four blades.
the Betz Limit is an idealization and a design goal that designers try to reach in a real world turbine.3 0. Power coefficient and tip speed ratio of different wind converters designs The theoretical maximum efficiency of a wind turbine is given by the Betz Limit. Such an arrangement results in a relatively high tip speed ratio in comparison with rotors with a high number of blades such as the highly successful American wind mill used for water pumping in the American West and all over the world. its power coefficient would be around 0. In Fig. Modern horizontal axis wind turbine rotors consist of two or three thin blades and are designated as low solidity rotors. C 'p C pSchmitz profiletip end blades friction electrical (47) In the end. wind turbines operate below the Betz Limit. This suggests that for maximum power extraction a wind turbine should be operated around its optimal wind tip ratio. This implies a low fraction of the area swept by the rotors being solid.55 0. TSR λ Fig. as well as increases efficiency.Wind Turbines Theory . 7. and is around 59 percent. Its configuration results in an optimum match to the frequency requirements of modern electricity generators and also minimizes the size and weight of the gearbox or transmission required.4 0. 4 for a twobladed turbine.22.45 0.2 0. This is still reduced by a capacity factor accounting for the periods of wind flow as the intermittency factor. At the cutin wind speed. Magnetic drag and electrical resistance losses in the generator or alternator: ηelectrical .25 0.35 – 0. Practically.15 0. and at the cutout wind speed it is 0.1 0. 2. if it is operated at the optimal tip speed ratio of 6.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Schmitz power coefficient Tip Speed ratio.6 0. TSR.35 0. The latter required a high starting torque. A Cp value of between 0. 5.40 is a realistic design goal for a workable wind turbine. Schmitz power coefficient as a function of the tip speed ratio. .The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 35 0.45.10.5 0. the power coefficient is just 0.
If the rotor rotated slower. the Darrieus concept and the Savonius reach levels above 30 percent but below the Betz Limit of 59 percent. 1980) in some previous publications. it will not be able to extract power from the wind efficiently. 6.36 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power The relationship between the rotor power coefficient Cp and the tip speed ratio is shown for different types of wind machines. discouraging the study of the Savonius design. The American multiblade design and the historical Dutch four bladed designs peak at 15 percent. 8. These are not suited for electrical generation but are ideal for water pumping. The power coefficient Cp as a function of the tip speed ratio for different wind machines designs.. F. Note that the efficiency curves of the Savonius and the American multiblade designs were inadvertently switched (Eldridge. It can be noticed that it reaches a maximum at different positions for different machine designs. When a rotor blade passes through the air stream it leaves a turbulent wake in its path. Fig. R. The maximum efficiencies of the two bladed design. the air hitting each rotor blade would no longer be turbulent. Discussion and conclusions Wind turbines must be designed to operate at their optimal wind tip speed ratio in order to extract as much power as possible from the wind stream. This is another reason . If the next blade in the rotating rotor arrives at the wake when the air is still turbulent. and will be subjected to high vibration stresses.
“Wind Power in Power Systems. Brown. A basic principle can be enunciated as: “Energy can be extracted or converted only from a flow system.. Reno Nevada. In thermodynamics. “Wind Machines..The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio 37 for the tip speed ratio to be selected so that the rotor blades do not pass through turbulent air. 1979.uiuc. Wind power conversion is analogous to other methods of energy conversion such as hydroelectric generators and heat engines. 1977. Brattleboro. Theory and Design. M. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).” John Wiley and Sons. Only by allowing the wind stream to flow from a high speed region to a low speed region can energy be extracted by a wind turbine. 58 January. the potential energy of water blocked behind a dam cannot be extracted unless it is allowed to flow. 2005. to a low temperature one where it is rejected to the environment. “WindCatchers. Mead and Company. Totally blocking a wind stream does not allow any energy extraction. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. and of other forms of energy conversion in general. Calvert. 2004. 1976. R. 2011. or created configurations or situations favoring the creation of these asymmetries. References Ragheb. E.” 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. “A Collection of the 2004 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Technical Papers. In a wind stream. Le Gouriérès Désiré. Torrey. A second principle of energy conversion can be elucidated as: “Natural or artificial asymmetries in an aerodynamic.” Ingenious minds conceptualized devices that take advantage of existing natural asymmetries.” https://netfiles.” Pergamon Press. Ed. In a heat engine. G. In this case only a part of it can be extracted by a water turbine.” John Wiley and Sons. “Wind Power Plants. 1982. A corollary ensues that the existence of a flow system necessitates that only a fraction of the available energy can be extracted at an efficiency characteristic of the energy extraction process with the rest returned back to the environment to maintain the flow process.. 9. J. Thomas Ackerman. American Windmills of Yesterday and Tomorrow.edu/mragheb/www. hydraulic. Brown.” Dodd. The MITRE Energy Resources and Environmental Series. A. N. the ideal aerodynamic cycle efficiency is expressed by the Betz Equation. to extract energy from the environment. the heat energy cannot be extracted from a totally insulated reservoir. E. “Harness the Wind. New York. the ideal heat cycle efficiency is expressed by the Carnot cycle efficiency. 1980.” The Stephen Greene Press... Ltd..” 2nd Ed. . The Story of Windmills. V. Harvesting the Wind.. or thermodynamic system allow the extraction of only a fraction of the available energy at a specified efficiency.” In hydraulics.Wind Turbines Theory . Some common underlying basic principles can guide the design and operation of wind energy conversion systems in particular. “Windpower Principles: Their Application on the Small Scale. “Wind Power Systems. Eldridge. can a fraction of this energy be extracted by a heat engine.. F. Vermont. Only when it is allowed to flow from the high temperature reservoir.
” Springer Verlag. New York. Berlin. 10. 2005. B..” D. 110113. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). A Yurdusev. “Elements of Aerodynamics. 1997.147154. “European Wind Energy Technology. UC11. State of the Art Wind Energy Converters in the European Community. Palz. 63A. “Assessment of Optimum Tip Speed Ratio of Wind Turbines. Schmidt... W... 1950.38 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power Walker.” John Wiley and Sons. USA. Germany. Wind Energy Conversion. 1986.“Windkraftanlangen. Jenkins. 73158. Division of Solar Energy. “Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors. pp. J. N. Çetin. F. March 1977. Hau. 59. “Wind Energy Technology. pp. E. . pp. Reidel Publishing Company.1.. J.” John Wiley and Sons. Vol. S. N.” Mathematical and Computational Applications. No. 62.. Özdemir. Jones. Ata and A. M. R.” ERDA 7747/6. 1996.
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