2000 RIZAL DAY 104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal December 30, 2000
oday, December 30, 2000, we mark the 104th death anniversary of our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal. For more than a century now, we have religiously done our task to enrich the memory of the martyrdom of this Filipino patriot who offered his life to safeguard the dignity of our country and people against foreign oppression. Rizal was a living testament to what our race was capable of doing - denouncing injustices in our society and offering non-violent means to attain peace, equality, and freedom for our people. Through the mighty power of his pen, he served as a role model for all generations, inspiring and motivating people to stand up for their rights, and to excel in their chosen fields of endeavor towards the advancement of our country’s interest. On this momentous day, I challenge once again every Filipino, especially the youth, to be the country’s new breed of heroes - daring, caring, dynamic, and patriotic. Itaguyod natin ang ating bansa bilang isang lipunang malaya na pinakikilos ng katarungan at demokrasya. Kung magagawa natin ito, nakatitiyak tayo ng isang magandang bukas para sa ating Inang Bayan. Patuloy nawang maging inspirasyon sa ating lahat, lalong higit sa mga kabataan, ang aral na iniwan niya sa atin na ang kabataan ang pag-asa ng ating bayan. Sa paggunita natin sa araw ng kamatayan ni Gat Jose Rizal, alalahanin at isabuhay natin ang kanyang magagandang halimbawa. Mabuhay ang lahing Pilipino at isang Masaganang Bagong Taon sa inyong lahat!
Joseph Ejercito Estrada President Republic of the Philippines
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal
Greetings! congratulate the National Historical Institute and the Philippine Information Agency for coming up with this souvenir program that gives us memorable highlights of the 2000 Rizal Day celebration. This brochure will not only stand to benefit students, teachers, and history buffs but also the wider public in general. As a nation coming to terms with the rapid changes brought about by globalization, it is but fitting that our institutions provide avenues that will strengthen our collective memory of our rich history. Rizal, who was one of the brightest persons of his generation carved a very important niche in our past. As such, his life and works and how we pay tribute to them over the years, must forever remain in our hearts and minds as Filipinos. As a great admirer of the national hero, I can see how this publication will be a welcome addition to the wide collection of materials that we have about him. May this outstanding collaboration bear more fruits in the years to come. Best wishes and God bless!
Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. President Senate of the Philippines
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal
he martyrdom of our national hero, the late Dr. Jose P. Rizal, has, for more than a century, continued to be the symbol of patriotism to the elders and youth of the land. His life has become a constant reminder to all of us to fulfill our duties to our country, and to lead in making a better tomorrow for the generations to come. The rough times call for unity once again among all of us Filipinos. Today, Rizal’s message for love of country echoes as loud as during the Revolution of 1898. We must heed his call for patriotism, for only a nation can only depend on its citizens to achieve its goals for the common good. It is heartening to note that the National Historical Institute has consistently taken the lead in remembering our beloved Dr. Jose P. Rizal. For this, I extend my warmest compliments to the National Historical Institute for another job well done. Again, congratulations to the National Historical Institute for a successful and productive year. May you continue to serve our beloved country by being guardians of our heritage, unfailing in keeping the light of patriotism burning over our country.
Arnulfo P. Fuentebella Speaker House of Representatives
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal
Jose Rizal). Sa paglipas ng maraming taon.Message
alulugod ang Pambansang Komisyon para sa Kultura at mga Sining na naging bahagi ng Rizal: Tanglaw-Gabay ng Bayan (104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Isang malaking karangalan ang maging instrumento sa pagpapakalat ng kaalaman tungkol sa ating pambansang bayani gayundin sa mga aral na pinagsumikapan niyang ipaabot. Jose Rizal
. Ngunit dahil sa pagpupunyagi ng ating mga kababayan at sa mga aral na itinuro ng ating pambansang bayani sa kalayaan at pagmamahal sa sariling bayan. Nawa ay manatili siyang tanglaw at gabay sa atin upang maging mapagmatyag sa mga maaaring maging hadlang sa pagtatamasa ng kalayaan ng ating bansa. Mabuhay tayong lahat!
Jaime C. Laya Tagapangulo Pambansang Komisyon para sa Kultura at mga Sining
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. muling nasakop ng mga dayuhan ang ating bansa. muli tayong nakabangon.
to redeem the “ghost of the civilization of our ancestors”. as sons and daughters of the Motherland. a comparatively minor piece in his body of nationalist work. it is an inherent Filipino value. on the contrary. Sometimes. the young learning from their seniors. The idea of brotherhood is not alien to us. He set aside his second novel to annotate Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Rizal averred that “common misfortune” and “common abasement” have awakened the national spirit and united Filipinos for a common purpose -. Rizal himself had urged Filipinos to always be guided by their innate sense of brotherhood. So we need to be reminded periodically that we share so much -.Message
ur present economic. history. we have to set our affairs in order or suffer the storm. (Proof that it was not completely lost could be gleaned from the code of ethics written by our revolutionary heroes who advocated a society based on brotherly love. social. This task can only be done in the spirit of kapatiran. Rizal’s marginal notes reminded Filipinos of their rich precolonial past. He felt it was important. the people needed a shared sense of identity. culture. Jose Rizal
. everyone working together for common purposes. and hope for our nation.
Pablo S. free men which colonization had momentarily undermined. circumstances beyond our control or our own human frailty cause us to slide back. He called this process of redemption “moral progress”. But we can only cross it as a united people.a common ethnicity. “moral progress” is the need of the hour. however. of the rich helping the poor.) In another work. the sequel to Noli Me Tangere. Filipinas Dentro de Cien Años. If a Filipino nation was to emerge. It is our only bridge to socio-political peace. Trillana III Chairman National Historical Institute
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. and political climate leaves much to be desired. Big as the idea is. Some of us wonder why Rizal waited several years to write El Filibusterismo. of their ancestors’ spiritual society of honest.
MMDA Chairman Jejomar C. Jose Rizal: A Light and Sound Presentation”. and 5257695. Knights of Rizal Supreme Commander Rogelio M. Luisa P. Senate President Aquilino M. DECS Secretary Andrew B. Dr. NHI Chairman and Executive Director Dr.. Manila with Dr. Jose Rizal are: Metro Manila Singing Competition on December 19. Jose Rizal
. NPDC Executive Director Antonio S. Dec. Arroyo. Laguna. 5258661. Rizal Park at 7 p. FSC. House Speaker Arnulfo P. Manila Mayor Jose L. Lagoon Area. entitled “The Martyrdom of Dr. Invited to join the First Couple are Vice President Gloria M. DOT Secretary Gemma Cruz Araneta. Manila.m. from Fort Santiago to Luneta Park at 5 a. Zamboanga del Norte and Fort Santiago. call Dr. De La Salle University-Manila. AFP Chief of Staff Angelo T.m. Dapitan City. Dr. “Para sa Mahal na Bayan” Rizal Day Eve Concert.
For more information. 30 at the Rizal Shrines in Calamba. Jose Rizal.m. Davide Jr. opening of exhibit on “Hats and History” at the Baluarte de Sta. Manila. Fr. Binay. Rey Paular at the National Historical Institute. entitled “Kanser” (Noli Me Tangere). Trillana III said the annual celebration starts with a “Millennium Walk” led by the Order of the Knights of Rizal to retrace the last footsteps of the national hero. Luis C. Fuentebella. 5239043. and members of the 2000 Rizal Day National Committee. Gonzalez. Pimentel Jr. NHI Chairman Pablo S. Reyes. and Rizal Day Annual Lecture on Dec. a Light and Sound Tableau at the Rizal Park at 6 p. Pablo S.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. UPDiliman. Laya. tel. and Rev. Dr. Quiambao. Trillana III.NHI lines up activities to mark Rizal Day
he National Historical Institute is spearheading the activities for the Rizal Day celebration on December 30. 29. nos. Rolando V.. Dery.. Maria Luisa T Camagay. NCCA Chairman Jaime C. This will be followed by flag-raising and wreathlaying ceremonies led by President Joseph Ejercito Estrada and the First Lady.
Other activities to commemorate the death anniversary of Dr. Rizal Park. de la Rosa. Intramuros. and a production of Gantimpala Theatre Foundation at the Open Air Auditorium. respectively. Ejercito Estrada. Atienza Jr. Chief Justice Hilario G. 2000 at the Rizal Park. Barbara. Fort Santiago. as speakers. Mercado. Capping the day’s activities are patriotic tours to Rizal Shrines in Fort Santiago and Calamba and the National Museum.
Luisa Camagay. Ma. national defense. Laya said the flag-raising and wreath-laying ceremonies will be led by President Joseph Estrada. This was according to Dr. and Order of the Knights of Rizal Supreme Commander Rogelio M. At the Rizal Shrine in Fort Santiago. Luis C. the Rizal Day lecture will be given by Rev. Laya. This year’s Rizal Day Committee is jointly headed by the NCCA Chair.
104th Rizal Martyrdom Rites. Manila. and the Supreme Commander of the Knights of Rizal. Rolando V. Quiambao. Rogelio M.m. Trillana III (left).. Jaime C. A tour of the Rizal Shrines in Fort Santiago. who were Rizal’s close friends.
Three grandsons of Dr. a similar lecture will be given by Dr. Fr. Manila. Dery (second from right) of De La Salle University. the Metro Manila Development Authority and the mayors of Calamba. with pianist Lawrence Albert Calderon. and the National Museum will be taken by 500 students from Rizal High School. and Rizal Shrine Curator Tess Pagulayan during a meeting at the Rizal Shrine at Fort Santiago. budget. At the Rizal Shrine in Dapitan City. tourism. Zamboanga del Norte. as well as a light and sound show. Rizal scheduled on Dec. KGCR (second from left). Laguna. Jose Rizal
. other government officials and the diplomatic corps. Supreme Commander of the Knights of Rizal. “The Martyrdom of Dr. discuss the preparations for the nationwide rites of the 104th martyrdom of national hero Dr. Luis Dery of De La Salle University.
10 104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. as well as relatives and friends of Rizal. A Rizal Day eve concert by the lagoon entitled “Para sa Mahal na Bayan” has been arranged by the National Parks Development Committee and the 2000 Rizal Day National Committee. public works.Rizal death anniversary rites set
he activities marking the 104th death anniversary of national hero Jose Rizal on December 30 have been finalized. chair of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts and chair of this year’s national executive committee for the celebration. Ferdinand Blumentritt and Pastor Karl Ullma. Laguna. Pablo S. a Rizal Day lecture will be given by UP Prof. the Presidential Management Staff. The featured artists are Angelina and Alma Climaco. de la Rosa. Quiambao. The vice chair is the National Historical Institute Chairman and Executive Director and the members include the heads of the departments of the interior. the Office of the Press Secretary-Philippine Information Agency. A millennium walk to trace Rizal’s footsteps from Fort Santiago to Rizal Park will be made by the Knights of Rizal led by Hon. the Education Secretary. Jose P. Jose Rizal”. the Presidential Protocol Office. and foreign affairs. The National Parks Development Committee will stage the play “Noli Me Tangere” at 6 p. Intramuros. 30 with historian Dr. Calamba. In Rizal’s birthplace in Calamba. and Dapitan City. will participate in the wreath-laying ceremony. National Historical Institute Chairman Dr. the Armed Forces Chief of Staff. former UST Rector.
Kinatuwaan siya ng kanyang mga kapatid na babae sa pamamagitan ng mga kantiyaw hinggil sa kanyang mga linililok ngunit sinagot ni Rizal ng “Sige pagtawanan ninyo ako ngayon. mayroon siyang limang naunang kapatid na babae at apat na sumunod na kapatid na babae.Ang Kadakilaan ni Rizal sa Hanay ng Kanyang mga Kapatid na Babae
ni Ma. Luisa T. Ngunit sa oras na ako’y mamatay ay makikita ninyo ang dami ng mga rebultong itatayo para sa akin”. Sa hanay ng magkakapatid. ngunit ngayong umaga ay ibig kong idako ang ating tingin sa kadakilaang ipinamalas ni Rizal sa kanyang mga kapatid na babae. Camagay
Introduksyon Isang malaking karangalan na maanyayahan ako bilang panauhing tagapagsalita sa araw ng pagkamatay ng ating dakilang bayani na si Jose P. Masaya ang mga alaala ni Rizal ng kaniyang kabataan sa piling ng kanyang mga kapatid na babae. Jose Rizal
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Hayaan ninyong ibahagi ko sa inyo ang naging ugnayan niya sa kanyang mga kapatid na babae. Rizal. Madalas nating talakayin ang kadakilaan ni Rizal sa buhay ng ating bayan.
Si Rizal at ang mga kapatid niyang babae noong kabataan nila Batid natin na si Jose ay pampito sa labingisang anak ng mag-asawang Francisco Mercado at Teodora Alonzo.
ama ni Leonor Rivera ang nakaaalam sa pag-alis ni Rizal. Sabi ni Rizal sa isang liham niya: . Hiling ni Neneng (palayaw ni Saturnina) na kunin ni Jose ang kanyang dedal. suporta. Sinundan ang sulat na ito ng sulat ni Saturnina na nagbabanggit na tuwing hahawak siya ng pluma ay siya’y naiiyak. patibay ng kahiligan ni Rizal kumain. ala-ala sa iyo’y naguin caculangan sa canilang pamumuhay. Sinasalamin ng isang liham ni Rizal na bagaman nagpapasalamat siya sa mga padalang pera ng kanyang mga kapatid na babae. nilinaw niya sa kanila na ayaw niyang maging ugat ito ng sama ng loob sa mga kapatid na hindi maaaring magpadala bunga ng kanilang kalagayan sa buhay. . . Jose Rizal
Narcisa and Maria
Madalas utusan ng mga matatandang kapatid na babae si Jose at ginampanan nito ng walang pag-aatubili. tamarindo. ni Sisa (palayaw ni Narcisa) ang kanyang libro. Sulatan ni Rizal at mga kapatid na babae noong si Rizal ay nasa Europa Batid natin na umalis si Rizal na walang paalam sa kanyang magulang at kapatid na babae noong tumulak siya patungong Europa noong Mayo 3. 1882. yaong iba cong capatid na hindi macapagpadala sa aquin ay nagdadamdam sa canilang loob dahilan sa canilang calagayan. Lumiham si Narcisa at Antonio Lopez na kung sakaling kailangan niya ng pera ay huwag mag-atubiling ipaalam sa kanila. Tanging si Paciano lamang at ang kanyang Tio Antonio.Doña Josefa and Doña Maria (right). Ngunit ang lahat ng ito ay salamin ng malaking pagmamahal nila kay Jose. Cung sacali nama’t pagdadala at tumulad. Sa kalaunan. Ito’y unang ipinamalas nila noong tumigil si Rizal sa Europa upang mag-aral. Simula’t sapul ay kinilala ng mga kapatid na babae ang di-karaniwang talino ng kanilang kapatid na lalaki at hindi nila ipinagkait ang kanilang tulong. at kalinga. at ni Maria ang isang basong tubig at gagawin ito lahat ni Jose ng hindi nagmamaktol. Nagpadala rin si Saturnina ng “sapatillang abaloryo na may
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Dagdag ng mag-asawang Lopez na kung nahihiyang humingi si Rizal sa kaniyang
magulang ay bukal sa kanilang loob ang tulungan siya “bunga ng magandang pagsasamahan”. (Seated) Doña Teodora Alonzo. Kundi man salapi ang ipinadala ng kanyang mga kapatid ay mga bagay at pagkain naman ang ipinaabot kay Rizal. at halayang mangga. ang pagmamahal na ito ang nagbigkis sa mga magkakapatid hanggang sa huling sandali ng kani-kanilang buhay. Ipinadala naman ng kapatid na Maria ay mga bilin ni Rizal na halayang bayabas. Ibig ni Saturnina na padalhan siya ng singsing na brilyante upang maisanla sa panahon ng kagipitan. ay hindi co matatanggap cung di may casamang pait.
o di kaya ang hinggil sa kanyang pagaaral ng medisina. si Saturnina noong Setyembre 15. ang aquin lamang pinaglilibangan ay ang taenga ni Jose. dalawang bote ng bagoong. Si Olimpia ang may pinakakaunting anak: dalawa. miki. kaalaman.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. 1882 ng sanggol na babae na pinangalanang Maria Consolacion. at payo. Sa hanay naman ng kanyang mga kapatid na babae. Italyano. Soledad. at Maria. Si Jose na hangad ni Lucia na maging tulad ng kanyang amain ay sumakabilang-buhay. si Narcisa noong Hunyo 14. 1882 ng sanggol na lalaki na pinangalanang Jose. 1882 ng sanggol na lalaki na pinangalanang Alfredo. Aleman. . Halimbawa isinusulat niya na higit na kaayaaya ang lungsod ng Paris kaysa sa Madrid. at Ingles. Ibinalita ni Rizal ang mga lugar na kanyang binibisita. . si Lucia ng isang sanggol na babae at ganoon din si Saturnina. sinundan siya ni Lucia (walong anak). ang sotanghon. ang mga liham ay hitik sa mga balita. Kung ang pagluwal ng bagong sanggol ay sinalubong ng kasiyahan. Kasalukuyan noong lumalaki ang angkan sa pagdating ng mga dagdag na pamangkin. o kaya ang pagaaral niya ng wikang Pranses. Sa ilang pagkakataon ay pinapangalan rin na Jose gaya ng anak ni Lucia. ang may pinakamaraming anak ay si Narcisa (siyam ang naging anak). taon 1882 sa madaling sabi. Bagaman malaki ang pagitan ng mga sulat ng mga kapatid ni Rizal sa kanya dahil sa 45 araw bago makarating ang liham mula sa Pilipinas patungong Europa. Ipinamalita kay Rizal ang pagyaon ng mga pamangkin.Saturnina
calunkutan ang kulay” at susunod ang mga panyo na habi sa Lipa. laman ng kanilang mga liham ang lumalaking pamilya dahil sa pag-aasawa ng mga kapatid at pagkakaroon ng mga bagong pamangkin. ang bote ng mangga. lungkot naman ang bumalot sa dibdib ng mag-anak na Rizal sa tuwinang may namamatay na bata. at bihon. Sa walong kapatid na babae ni Rizal na nag-asawa. Sa isang liham ipinaabot ni Rizal na natanggap niya ang mga padalang halayang bayabas. Jose Rizal
. nanganak si Lucia noong Hunyo 6. na caparis ng taenga mo at aquing ibinabalita sayo na totoong caparis at harinangang huwag lamang ang matularan
cundi pati ang iyong ugali at iyong cabaitan at casipagan sa manga gauang magagaling. Si Olimpia ay namatay kasama ang kanyang pangatlong anak na sanggol noong 1887. Sulat ni Lucia kay Rizal ang ganito: . Noong sumunod na taon si Olimpia naman ang nagluwal ng kanyang pangalawang anak na si Aristeo. at kapwa nagkaroon ng limang anak sina Saturnina. Noon lamang taon ng pag-alis ni Rizal patungong Europa.
Naipamalas ito ng liham ng pamangkin ni Rizal na si Angelica Lopez. Payo niya kay Trining: Kung gayon kapatid ko: Ipinapayo ko sa iyong magsikap ng mabuti.
naman pinakamabuti ang paglalaro sa mga silid-tulugan o paninirang puri o pagkagalit sa mabababa sa atin at pagwiwika ng mga salitang masasakit at nakaruruhap. kayo’y hindi na mga batang babae. ang sintas na luntian. Sa bahagi ni Lucia ay hinikayat niya si Rizal na umuwi at mag-aral tungkol sa mga sakit ng babae. sakaling ito’y itinuturo diyan. Ibinalita naman ni Narcisa na nag-asawa na si Choleng ngunit wala sa kanilang angkan ang dumalo sa kasal dahil hindi sila inanyayahan. at Soledad. Josefa. sa halip ng mga lihim na tipanan at pagniniig na walang ibinubunga kundi pababain ang halaga ng isang babae sa mata ng isang lalaki.sina Josefa. mag-aral ng Kastila. ni hindi kayo mangmang. Sabi niya na hindi na siya nagsasadya sa bahay ni Tiya Choleng dahil “ang lahat ng nasa bahay ay ayaw na ako’y lumapit sa kanya. gaya ng nararapat ipalagay. hindi siya nagkulang ng pangaral sa kanyang mga nakababatang kapatid . Dinagdagan ni Trining ito sa pamamagitan ng pagbalita na si Choleng ay mag-aasawa na ngunit hindi gusto ang kanilang magiging manugang na lalaki. Trinidad. hindi rin
ang uri nito. Bunga ng pangyayaring ito ay nagliham si Rizal na siyam na taon ang tanda kay Choleng ng ganito: Sakaling kayo’y may kasintahan. salamat sa ating mga magulang. Hinikayat niya sila na mag-aral at magsulat. hindi na maghihirap na caparis nang aming paghihirap”. magsabi ng totoo at umiwas sa lahat ng pagmamalabis maging anuman
Ang pagpapakasal ng bunsong si Soledad o Choleng kay Pantaleon Quintero na taga Calamba ay mukhang nagdulot ng sama ng loob sa mag-anak na Rizal. at Soledad. Hindi magiging masama kung bukod pa sa mga ito’y gumawa ng mabuti. during the International Fair
ganoon din ang anak ni Narcisa na si Isabel. Ni hindi rin siyang pinakamahalagang kabaitan ang humalik ng kamay ng mga mongha at pari. Sa daigdig na ito. pagbilang. pagsulat at higit sa lahat ng magandang asal at mabuting pag-uugali. pakitunguhan ninyo sila nang marangal at karapat-dapat. Jose Rizal
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr.In Paris. Mga payong kapatid Kung pangaral lamang ang pag-uusapan ay marami ang natanggap ng kanyang mga kapatid na Trining. ang pinakamahalagang bagay ay hindi ang sintas na bughaw. at maging marangal at karapat-dapat naman sila at ipakilala nilang isang lalaki at hindi parang magnanakaw o mapagsamantalang nagkukubli’t nagtatago. Binigyang katuwiran na lamang ng kanyang bayaw na si Mariano Herbosa ang pagpanaw ng kanyang anak sa pamamagitan ng mga katagang “salamat at namatay na si Jose. Dagdag ni Rizal kay Choleng: Ikaw ay hindi na isang batang babae. Ibinalita ni Josefa o “Panggoy” na hindi siya ipinabalik ng kanilang ina sa Maynila dahil sa epidemiko ng kolera na dumaan sa bayan noong 1882. Dahil sa namulat si Rizal hinggil sa katayuan ng mga babae sa Europa.
Hindi mabuti sa iyong mamuhay nang hiwalay sa ating mga magulang at dapat mong sikaping magtiis-tiis. pinayuhan siya ng mga kapatid na huwag bumalik dahil mainit ang mata ng mga Kastila sa kanya. Ang pag-aaral ng Ingles na ayon kay Rizal ay hindi isang bagay na walang kabuluhan. Mukha namang sinunod ni Trining ang kanyang kuya at sa isang liham ay binanggit ni Trining ang dahilan ng kanyang hindi pagaasawa. Mindoro. o sumunod sa puno ng mag-aanak at sakaling hindi siya makasang-ayon sa gayon ay wala siyang ibang paraang magagawa kundi mamuhay ng bukod. Antonino. .” Ganoon pa man nagpasiya si Rizal na umuwi. . . Payo ni Saturnina: “Huag ka munang paririto hanggang ualang cahusayan. Kinakausap ko kayo bilang mga kapatid kong babae at inuulit ko sa inyo: isaalang-alang ninyo ang katandaan ng mga magulang natin. Payo ng mga kapatid ni Rizal sa kanya Noong si Rizal ay nagpasiya na bumalik sa Pilipinas pagkatapos nailimbag ang pangalawa niyang nobela. Dandoy. ang lalong pinakamapalad na babae ay nararapat magtiis sa kanyang asawa at masuong sa panganib ng kamatayan sa panganganak”. Noon ibig ni Trining na magbukod. bigyan ninyo sila ng magandang halimbawa at maging karapat-dapat kayo sa inyo na ring sarili.” Inulit ni Narcisa ang babala: “. Binanggit ni Rizal sa kanyang liham na ang pag-uwi sa Pilipinas ay “putungan ang aking ginawa at saksihan ng aking halimbawa ang lagi kong ipinapangaral. Nataon pa na pumutok ang problemang agraryo sa Calamba. Nagkaroon rin ng pagkakataon na sinikap impluwensiyahan ng mga kapatid na babae ang mga desisyon ni Rizal. ang inyong karangalan at ang karangalan natin lahat. Ang hindi bumalik sa Pilipinas ay payo rin ng kanyang bayaw na si Manuel Hidalgo bitiw ang mga salitang “Huwag kang paririto. Marami kayong mga pamangkin babae. . Hinangad ni Rizal na maging mulat ang kanyang mga kapatid. sa aming palagay ay hindi magiging isang gawaing matino ang ikaw ay umuwi sa mga panahong ito. Iginalang ni Rizal ang pananaw sa pamamagitan ng mga sumusunod na salita: “Inaakala kong may katwiran ka sa hindi pagaasawa. sakaling ninanais mong magkaroon ng bahay na sarili ay tutulungan kita nang buong makakaya ko sa upa at iba pang gugol. El Filibusterismo. . Mabuti nga na ang bawa’t isa’y magkaroon ng sariling bahay. Ang isang babaeng namumuhay sa sinapupunan ng isang mag-anak ay nararapat magtiis ng mga kakulangan nito. bagay na hindi karaniwan noong panahon na iyon at pinayuhan siya ni Rizal ng ganito: Tayong mga Rizal ay may katangiang mabuhay nang sama-sama o magkakasama mabuti. Dagdag in Rizal:
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. sa dahilang masusuong ka sa malaking panganib . . sumang-ayon at magbata sapagkat ang mga katangiang ito’y ipinagkakapuri ng isang dalaga . Ipinaliwanag ni Rizal na “Ang lahat ng kaalaman ay maaaring pakinabangan”. Kinakailangang ikaw ay maging mapaghawak sa matuwid at sumang-
ayon sa mga pangangailangan ng mga kaanak. Jose Rizal
.may pinag-aralan at pagkatuto kayo. Hinikayat niya ang dalawang walang asawang kapatid na sa oras na matuto sila ng Ingles ay mababasa na nila ang kaniyang mga aklat at nobelang Ingles. iniwanan niya si Josefa at Trining na mag-aral ng Ingles doon at natuwa siya na sumusulat si Josefa sa kanya sa wikang Ingles. . Hindi rin kalabisan ayon kay Rizal kung matuto sila ng Insik at Portugues. Noon siya ay nasa Hongkong. Silvestre. Sinulat ito ni Saturnina noong araw na pinatapon sina Paciano. totoong perseguido tayo ngayon”. at Teong sa Calapan. . kami’y lubhang pinag-uusig .
paglingkuran. inaruga. higit sa rito’y upang maihanap ko kayo ng katarungan at katahimikan. Naglihim siya sa kanyang mga kapatid na babae noong tumulak siya papuntang Cuba bilang isang doktor. na si Paciano. Mahalin ninyo sila nang taimtim. minahal at ipinagmalaki siya ng mga kapatid na babae. ang magkasundu-sundo ang mga magkakapatid. Pakisamahan ninyo ang ating matatandang magulang nang gaya ng ninanais ninyong kayo’y pakisamahan ng inyong mga anak. ito’y dahil sa matulungin at matatag na pamilya na pinagmulan niya. at magpatawaran ang isa’t isa ng mga kagulangan ng ugali at maliit na kapintasan ito’y mga tinik na katutubo ng buhay. Patunay ito ng kanyang kadakilaan. Patuloy na makabuluhan ang mga pangaral pampamilya ni Rizal sa atin.
(Papel na binasa noong Disyembre 30.dahilang isasama ng loob ng mga magulang ang mamalas na ang mga anak nila ay hindi nagkakasundu-sundo. Liban sa kaisa-isa niyang kapatid na lalaki. Jose Rizal
. sa Itinatagubilin ko sa inyong kayo’y magpatawaran sana ng maliliit na bagay sa buhay at sikaping mabuhay nang nagkakaisa sa kapayapaan at mabuting pagkakasundo. Kung nagtagumpay si Rizal sa kanyang mithiin para sa ating bayan. sa paggunita sa akin. Sana’y patuloy nating sariwain at kapulutan ng mga gintong aral ang buhay ng bayaning si Jose Rizal. at mahalin ang ating mga magulang gaya ng nanaisin ninyong kayo’y alagaan. Paninindigan ko ang lahat ng mga kaisipang ipinahayag ko hinggil sa katayuan at sa hinaharap ng aking bayan. Sinuklian ito ni Rizal ng pagmamahal at kalinga at humingi siya ng tawad sa dalamhating idinulot niya sa kanila. Namaalam si Rizal sa kanyang mga kapatid na babae at muling idiniin ang mga binanggit sa itaas. Ang huling paalam sa mga kapatid na babae Sa pamilya at bayan siya nagpaalam noong huling sandali ng kanyang buhay. at mahalin pagkatapos ng mga anak ninyo kapag kayo’y matanda na. paglingkuran.)
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Konklusyon Sa paggunita natin ngayon ng araw ng kamatayan ni Jose Rizal. Ang mga payo ni Rizal na alagaan ang mga magulang. at dahil sa kanya’y nasisiyahan akong mamatay. Ganito ang isinaad niya sa kanyang kapatid na babae: Itinatagubilin ko sa inyong alagaan. pagkatapos. Sa pamamagitan ng mga pangungusaaap na ito ay handang harapin ni Rizal ang bunga ng kanyang mga ginawa at handang bigyan ng katarungan at katahimikan ang bunga ng kanyang mga ginawa at handang bigyan ng katarungan at katahimikan ang kanyang pamilya. Mamuhay kayong nagkakaisa. 2000 sa Calamba. Laguna. Sabi ni Rizal: Nararapat humandang mamatay ang tao alang-alang sa kanyang tungkulin at mga pananalig. sariwain din natin ang kadakilaan niya sa hanay ng kanyang pamilya. Magandang umaga po. at ang pagpapasensiya sa mga kakulangan ng mga kapatid ay muli niyang inulit sa kanyang huling liham.
worst. Allegedly. especially Dr. There have been sustained efforts to belittle our heroes. “mail-order brides”. to our revered national heroes. “Filipinos and dogs” are not allowed to use the elevator in one high-rise apartment there. Ph. del Pilar “retracted”. “Japayukis”. Jose Rizal
. According to a news report from Hongkong.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. suspected of carrying forged documents. Jose P. It appears that the Filipinos have accepted these injuries and insults without vigorously protesting them. Malicious rumors circulate against them. The most malignant writings are directed against Dr. Department of History De La Salle University Manila Introduction Various reports about the many indignities and insults done against Filipinos abroad should give us many ideas to think about. Jose P Rizal: . we do the same things to ourselves and. Marcelo H.D. Those carrying Philippine passports were singled out abroad.1 Not a protest was registered against the perpetrator of this blatant fallacy slandering the honor and the memory of no less than the national hero of the Philippines.The relevance of
Dr. Mabini’s paralysis was due to “venereal disease”. Bonifacio is an “invented hero”. too. Foremost of these writings is the one alleging that the Americans “created” him as the national hero of the Filipino people.D. and President Emilio Aguinaldo is a “murderer”. 2000
by Luis Camara Dery. “GROs”.
Beyond A. Here at home. and “OCWs” are the other deprecating identities to our women. Rizal. Rizal. “Domestic helper” is given the meaning “Filipino” in one foreign dictionary.
he is inextricably intertwined with the past and the future of the Filipino people. foremost Spanish writer on Rizal described him as “El Verbo de la Revolucion” (the Messiah of the Philippine Revolution) for it was him who articulated and concretized the Filipinos desire to be free leading to their awakening and the end of Spanish dominance over the country. especially their writings. In so doing. 2000 So many misleading ideas exist in our history textbooks. His life and his writings have cast a giant shadow over our country and its inhabitants.2 Wenceslao Retana.D. such corrections would uplift the sense of dignity and pride of our being Filipinos. their greatness and the loftiness of their deeds for our country are highlighted thus contradicting and correcting such misleading ideas. the Noli Me Tangere and the El Filibusterismo were taught and are being taught as nothing but about the ill-fated love story of Ibarra-Simoun and Maria Clara. no history” aptly applies to Dr. many of his works are not
available to many Filipinos particularly those in the provinces. Rizal’s struggles for and in behalf of his countrymen made him the concrete symbol for the Filipino people’s libertarian aspirations. Rizal and not the one pre-digested for them by biased writers.Rizal’s nationalism and his relevance beyond A. It is easy to expose these wrong ideas . human values. the dignity of
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. In the process. Many young Filipino males continue to believe that Maria Clara is the ideal Filipina. Rizal. Thus.by going to the basic sources. Being a major Philippine figure. Unfortunately. The historical rule “No document. There is a pressing need to correct them and expose their falsity in order to end the ongoing damages they have wrought against the Filipino people and their sense of national pride and identity. their incomparable patriotism. one critic wrote that many venerate Rizal without really understanding him and his works. the ideas that they have about Rizal are largely second-hand. the documents left behind by these great Filipinos. This denies them the opportunity to truly understand and appreciate the real Dr. His ideas on human rights. Jose P. For example. Jose Rizal
“interests me greatly”. one of Rizal’s former friar-professors. . His letter to Blumentritt on March 21. The centuries of Spanish rule in the Philippines had radically transformed the Filipino people. the mercenariness of the ignorant. Jose Rizal
. refuting my arguments. .6
A profound student of history. the indolence of family-heads . . . The government and the friars will probably attack the work.3
Rather than enjoy a life of ease and wealth in a foreign land. but I trust in the God of Truth and in the persons who have seen our sufferings at close range. I hope you will note how different are my descriptions from those of other writers. I have done my duty. I envy no one. as Father Faura. del Pilar succinctly stated Rizal’s message:
[Rizal] satirizes the social evils among the people as well as in the institutions.
In his defense of this book. “To foretell the destiny of a nation it is necessary to open the book that tells of her past”. their passion for cockfighting.is unparalleled. . you have described the sad condition of our time . awaken them from their centuries of lethargy and degradation. among the common people. why did you not combat the evil and injustice when you saw them?5
His Noli Me Tangere fired the first salvo. A once proud. to awaken in them of their lost identity and pride as a people. “Everything referring to my country”.7
Indeed.4 It was his love for his people and country that drove Rizal to embark on a perilous journey that ended at Bagumbayan. He reproaches. . Thus. . . ambition . Rizal saw the sad plight of his countrymen. and love of country made him the ideal model for the Filipino people. he emphasized this again:
I shall devote my strength to the Motherland. Thus Rizal sought to correct these evils through his writings. it was the duty of everyone. . If I were now in the beginning of my life. On his last return to the Philippines. told Rizal: “You have not written a novel. Marcelo H.” His dedication to the Filipino people in his annotated version of Antonio de Morga’s 1606
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. the theocratic-clerical tutelage imposed on the Filipino government. His nationalism or love of one’s country . I would do the same that I have done.man. . and backward people. and God would ask me. superior and industrious people had become apathetic. It does not matter what they may say about me. The Motherland preoccupied his thoughts throughout his life. My country lures me . I trust in God and in the fate of my country . because I am sure that I ought to do it. . he preferred to sacrifice his life for his people and country. . the venality of the officials. he upbraids the simony and oppression of the religious. He sought to reinvigorate his countrymen. egoism. and more . lazy.. vigorous. submissive. Here I answer all the false concepts which have been formed against us and all the insults which have been intended to belittle us . inferior. The word “indio” became a degrading label and “Juan Tamad” synonymous with the native inhabitants. 1887 explained why he wrote it:
The Filipinos will find in it the history of the last ten years. and uplift their dignity and advancement as a people. fanaticism. in Capitan Tiago. . thus Rizal prefaced his endeavors to cure his countrymen from their many “ills of the Filipino soul”. the abuses of the army. . he wrote Ferdinand Blumentritt. He was convinced that it was his duty to do so:
I am not repenting for having undertaken this campaign.
. abuses. his mainspring. man’s is his selfrespect. he demonstrated that a combination of factors compelled the Filipinos to become lazy and unproductive. take it away from him and he becomes a corpse. etc. The alleged laziness of the Filipinos was the next fallacy that Rizal demolished. . Born and reared in the ignorance of our Yesterday.” Rizal was deeply
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. The effect that my attempt produced pointed out to me. It is then the shadow of the civilization of our ancestors which the author is now evoking before you . . Rizal conclusively proved that the precolonial Filipinos were very active participants in the dynamics of the socio-politico-economic activities then ongoing in Asia and elsewhere. and he who demands activity from a corpse will find only worms. Through documentary evidences. He showed that Spanish conquest. wrote many friar-chroniclers who recorded the early years of Spanish conquest of Bikolandia. like almost all of you. then I have not worked in vain. . Independent accounts corroborated Rizal’s findings. the necessity of first making known to you the past in order that you may be able to judge better the present and to measure the road traversed during three centuries. “hence they blind them. Rizal cited the case of the peoples of Lumban. I considered it necessary to invoke the testimony of an illustrious Spaniard who governed the destinies of the Philippines in the beginning of her new era and witnessed the last moments of our ancient nationality. . . however small it may be. and with this as a basis. Every being in creation has his spur. Jose Rizal
. The Bikol datus. Liliw.8
with diamonds and jewels of pure gold that weighed three arrobas (75 pounds) and whose jewels and diamonds belonged to the towns of Mahayhay. chain them. owned as much as four quintals (one quintal equals 101 lbs. . weaken their spirit. Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas and his introduction to his Noli Me Tangere reveal the reasons that motivated him to write such works:
In the Noli Me Tangere I began the sketch of the present state of our Native Land. Liliw. all her children can be enslaved also.book. Spain’s foreign wars. and to rectify what has been falsified and slandered. They made a rattan lamp covered
Rizal believed that the women of the Philippines are the wellsprings of the nation. exploitative colonial policies. Rizal concluded in this essay:
Deprive a man of his dignity. all covered with jewels of extreme value!9
The brilliance reflected by these precious stones was sufficient to light the way for the people during the procession. misrule. already effaced from your memory. This is the reason of the enslavement of Asia. Rizal showed that the precolonial Filipinos had had centuries of trade and other ties with many countries.10
In annotating Antonio de Morga’s 1606 book. without voice or authority to speak about what we did not see or studied. the women in Asia are ignorant and oppressed . and you not only deprive him of his moral stamina but also you render him useless even to those who want to make use of him.) of gold dust. To demonstrate the wealth of our forefathers. and Nagkarlang of Laguna province:
An evidence of this quality and the ancient wealth of the Filipinos was the religious feast that the town of Lumbang (Laguna) celebrated in 1600. and the rebellions that such policies and maltreatments provoke curtailed the native inhabitant’s industries and killed their initiative to be productive. “Everybody knows the power and the prudence of the women in the Philippines”. Rizal wrote. And a triumphal chariot of such magnitude that it moved on 26 wheels. politically advanced. feared and respected by the inhabitants of their neighboring countries. and Nagkarlang. The litters (andas) also were of rattan whose decorations of gold and precious stones weighed four arrobas. In his essay On the Indolence of the Filipinos. If the book succeeds to awaken your consciousness of our past. hundreds of thriving industries. so sure are they that so long as the mother is a slave. before proceeding to unfold the other successive pictures before your eyes. we shall be able to study the future. . Mahayhay.
the God who is not avaricious. . Though I searched my memory diligently. though I recalled one by one all the young women I have known since childhood. That she may be a young woman of whom the country can be proud of. noble action. the God who does not fatten on the blood of the poor. But news of what the women of Malolos did when they successfully overcame the town-curate’s opposition to their plan to establish a school for the children of Malolos roused his sagging spirit. encourage him. fortify their character against any difficulty. who does not rejoice at the plaint of the afflicted. obeys what is reasonable and just. Good conduct. Jose Rizal
. clear mind. and
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. the God who is the father of all. The country should not expect honor and prosperity so long as the education of the child is defective. Raise your children close to the image of the true God the God who cannot be bribed. a young woman who inspires respect . and does not obfuscate the intelligent mind.aware of the crucial roles that women play in the well being and advancement of a nation. In his now famous Message to the Women of Malolos. and distinguishes what is right and what is wrong are only some of the characteristics he mentioned that should be possessed by his ideal Filipina. only a few conformed to the ideal I longed for”. sincere and firm in character. share with him all perils. clean conscience. he despaired. let the young man love her not only for her beauty or the sweetness of her disposition but also for the firmness of her character. Rizal described and enumerated the qualities of his ideal Filipina qualities that would enable her to fulfill her crucial role in uplifting the nation and its people. Awaken and prepare the mind of the child for every good and desirable idea . clear conduct. Describing further his ideal Filipina. . respect for God . console him. . When she becomes a wife.love for honor. so long as the women who raise the children are enslaved and ignorant . upright thinking. If she is a young woman. she should help her husband in every difficulty. he wrote:
Consider that a good mother is different from the one created by the friars. strengthen their hearts against any danger. thus Rizal lamented the downfall of the Filipina. “When I wrote the Noli Me Tangere I pondered long on whether or not courage was a common virtue of the young women of our country..teach this to your children. her lofty ideas that invigorate and encourage the weak and timorous man or arouse brilliant ideas. And because life is full of sorrows and perils. He believed that womanhood is the foundation of nationhood! Seeing what happened to many women in his country. love for one’s fellowmen. who is not partial.
. In his novel Noli Me Tangere. Sister Bali brought the death of the hapless Juli
Before such descriptions. They became blind imitators.drive away his woes. and addiction to gambling and holidays. the Filipinos during the Spanish era . Doña Victorina exemplifies the massive colonial mentality that has captured the minds of many Filipinos who slavishly adore all things foreign and despise their native land. Tell them repeatedly to prefer death with honor to life with dishonor .to the detriment of generations upon generations of our women. She is a hopeless clone of the Spanish model she desperately want to be and is “a social climber” whose “sole purpose is to gain entrance to the exclusive company of the [colonial masters].14 Don Custodio and Señor Pasta are vivid examples of public officials who are spineless. to love their fellowmen. Juana. Rizal vigorously censured the rottenness of Philippine society.12 Debased and degraded. and to perform their duties. a figurative phrase to mean “prostitute”.and thereafter . As a result. corrupt. Maria Clara is a pallid example. and Bali) gossipers. they imitated the vices and not the virtues of their colonial masters . Sepa. Worse. selfish. she goes about exhibiting herself and her sick colonial mentality” through her use of rice powder to whiten her skin resulting only in her appearing horribly grotesque. “brute”. and unprincipled. one who is identified as the “Muse of the soldiers”. How could she be the role model for our women when she is the offspring of an adulterous relations between a married woman and a priest? Unfortunately.mañana habit. “chonggo” (ape). the dancer Pepay exemplifies the mistresses of these officials. many Filipinos emulated her . belief in chance. the native inhabitants were derisively called “indio”. and hypocrites. . tools of the friars. They felt inferior before the foreigners and idolized them until now. Rizal reproduced them in the characters of the Tertiary Sisters (Manang Rufa. Pute. they forgot their identity. their capacities to be creative.13 Doña Consolacion is a human debris of her former self. their native land. Teach your children to guard and love their honor. always bearing in mind that a heroic heart can endure any suffering and no legacy is as bitter as the legacy of infamy and slavery. Rizal bitingly exposed them all.11
sage to the downtrodden Filipinos by preaching and writing against it “to the extent of promising eighty days’ indulgence” to whoever would obey their counsel.lost their belief in their own capabilities. innovative. . To demonstrate the devastating effects of religious fanaticism and hypocrisy on the inhabitants. slavish adoration of anything foreign. The friars sought to stifle the book’s devastating mes-
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Capitan Tiago “is such a dedicated collaborationist that his finer sensibilities have been dulled to the point of indifference to being cuckolded”. and original in ideas. Of course. Thus the writer Carmen Guerrero Nakpil commented that “the greatest misfortune that has befallen Filipino women in the last one hundred years is Maria Clara”. This inferiority complex proved fatal to them. And speaking bad Spanish.
mild. with distinct usages and customs.who. but never anymore from any Government!18
Distinct in Rizal’s campaign to uplift his enslaved countrymen was his frequent emphasis on their
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. . with adverse or divergent ideals . Jose Rizal
. who belong to different races. in his June 19 letter to Blumentritt that year. . 1888 letter to Blumentritt he wrote:
. But if the government drives us to them.15 His essay The Philippines A Century Hence embodied his vision of a future Philippines. Uprisings and revolutions have always taken place in countries under tyrannical governments. mutual protection in every want and necessity. Embedded in his two novels. to preserve her womanhood from the lustful Fray Camorra. By exposing the massive social cancer that had eroded the native society and by highlighting the physical and intellectual stagnation of the Filipinos in their own country. . the majority of the Filipinos have lost already the hope they have pinned on Spain. then I will also become a partisan of violent means. vigorous. either will remain under Spain but with more rights and freedom. defense against all violence and injustice. Now we await our fate from God and from ourselves. and study and application of reforms. What is significant in this essay is that he issued dire warning to the Spanish colonial authorities both in Manila and Madrid that a revolution in the Philippines was inevitable if Spain shall remain deaf to the Filipino people’s clamor for reforms. under those
where the mind and the human heart are compelled to keep silent . In his June 23. excessively patient and peaceful. Rizal’s sentiments were graver and desperate. . when no other hope remains to us but seek our destruction in war. chose death by jumping from the convent’s window. unfeeling. . . encouragement of instruction. I assure you that I have no desire to take part in conspiracies which seem to me too premature and risky. agriculture. Specifically.16
As early as 1887. . are remedies which he suggested and elucidated in the aims of the La Liga Filipina: unity of the people into one compact. . and commerce. when the Filipinos would prefer to die rather than endure longer their misery. that is to say. and homogenous body. etc. The choice of peace or destruction is in the hands of Spain. however. Rizal expressed such warning:
The Philippines . . Rizal stressed the idea that there is no future for an enslaved people. or will declare herself independent after staining herself and the Mother Country with her own blood . History does not record in its annals any enduring rule of one people over another.17
A year later. . because it is a clear fact. he already made such chillingly accurate forecast:
I thank you for your pious thoughts and I will leave for my native country consoled. known to all. that we are patient.
of the myth that he “retracted”. he stressed the idea that “universal suffrage is dangerous in a country where the masses are little educated”.20 Reviewing Rizal’s life and works. Summing Up Our elders have a saying: “Ang mabungang puno ay laging binabato”. Jose Rizal
. That they failed could be seen from the recurrence. “is my supreme aspiration”. 1896 the Spanish civil and religious authorities vainly strived to make Rizal give up his ideas and “his ardent love of his country”. he wrote. el Verbo de la Revolucion”. In fact.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. In so doing . Rizal is a very good
Up to the last moments on that fateful December 30.the colonial authorities only created a lasting symbol for the Filipino people
to strive more to cut off the colonial yoke. year after year. one is led to conclude that his martyrdom was inevitable. “The education of the people”. His “Last Farewell” is the solid testament that he remained firm and unshakeable in his conviction and sentiments for his Motherland.educational advancement. the colonial authorities had to execute him in the mistaken belief that it will abort the germination and proliferation of his ideas and ideals among his shackled countrymen. The Spanish scholar Wenceslao Retana aptly described the impact of Rizal on his countrymen: “Rizal. the ideas and ideals he espoused for his country and people were diametrically opposed to those of the Spaniards who desired the continued rule of Spain over the Philippines. 1896 the Spanish civil and religious authorities vainly strived to make Rizal give up his ideas and “his ardent love of his country”. education is the prerequisite for an enslaved people to attain freedom.that of killing Rizal .19 To him.21 Up to the last moments on that fateful December 30. His exemplary nationalism. Indeed.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Doña Victorina. This is the relevance of Dr. Thank you. bravery and integrity are imitated”. On August 5. Through his proposal. Dr. Rizal”. preserve Rizal as our national model and you foster the unity and sense of pride of the Filipino people. . “domestic helper”. Jose Rizal
. etc. These are the malicious hidden agenda of those who persist in discrediting Rizal. buildings. Rizal for us today and for the many years to come. Jose P. “GRO”. the Malaysian government sponsored an international conference on Rizal and no less than its Deputy Prime Minister. On the other hand. Capitan Tiago. National pride and selfrespect endure when national heroes are honored and their sacrifices. the Katipunan Supreme Council made Rizal the honorary president of the Katipunan. Rizal. Doña Consolacion. is a shining example who was proud that he is a Filipino.25 The “First Filipino”. There are thousands of streets. No less than the Filipino heroes put up by Rizal’s detractors to replace the latter themselves idolize Rizal. There have been many attempts to discredit him . claimed Rizal as his model. Debase
the national model and you debase the people and deprive them of someone to look up to. continue to exist among us today. He issued a decree on December 20.example of this adage. Monuments were erected to honor him -. “grow and are sustained by living memories of the nation’s struggle for independence and the sacrifices of a generation to break the chains of colonialism . places. New Zealand and Chicago. etc. wrote an expatriate in the Philippines. “will never be cured until the Filipinos take pride in being Filipino”.mostly coming from his own countrymen! It is very ironic because many foreign nations have idolized him. There are many documentary evidences that expose the falsity of the allegation that the Americans “created” Rizal as the national hero of the Filipino people and that Andres Bonifacio should replace Rizal. Belittling Rizal and the other Filipino heroes means belittling the Filipino people. During the revolution. as one expatriate pointed out. It is sad to note that these identities will persist in the years to come and that they show that many of our countrymen have failed to understand and imbibe the ideals that Rizal and the rest of our heroes fought and died for . .the upholding of the dignity of the Filipino people and pride in themselves as Filipinos. These “ills of the Filipino soul”. Bonifacio even used the name “Rizal” as the password of the Katipuneros and as the highest rank in the Katipunan hierarchy. Destroy the national model and you lead the people astray for they are deprive of an example to guide them.24 “Japayuki”. Anwar Ibrahim. etc. Even the illiterate and the downtrodden masses established cults venerating him as a saint. The Filipino people is an inferior people because their national model is a weakling. 1996. 1898 setting December 30 of every year as Memorial Day to honor Rizal and the other Filipinos who sacrificed their lives for the Motherland.the latest were those inaugurated in Auckland. Bonifacio exalted Rizal. Spain renamed a major thoroughfare in downtown Madrid into “Avenida de Dr.23 The city government of Madrid. schools and Filipinos named in honor of Rizal. Rizal repeatedly emphasized in all his writings that a people who is not proud of themselves and are ignorant of their past will never know their identity and is a people that could easily be dominated by other peoples and that they could never expect to be respected by other nations. these are some of the stereotype images of the Filipinos abroad. many towns petitioned President Aguinaldo to rename theirs to that of “Rizal”. “National dignity and patriotism”. Illinois. Jose P.22 Foreign admirations complement these local reverence. Aguinaldo equally esteemed Rizal. products. Let us preserve him as our National Hero.
. Jose Rizal
.. pp. pp. 14. Rizal to Blumentritt. Political and Historical Writings. 62.. Philippines Daily Inquirer (November 5. and Iglesia Sagrada Filipina. Ibid. Adarnista. in The Rizal-Blumentritt Correspondence (Manila: National Historical Institute. 373. Godofredo Rivera. Foronda. p. Historical Bulletin (December 1961). Sixto Y.. M. vii. “Message to the Women of Malolos”. Vol. Inc. Rizal to Blumentritt.. Jose Rizal. Wenceslao Retana. Rizal to Blumentritt. 19 June 1887. SSC. p. pp. 47-144. annotated by Jose Rizal (Manila: National Historical Institute. 1972). Marcelo H. 344. Vol. Rizal to Blumentritt. Rizal to Blumentritt. Blumentritt to Rizal. p. “The Erosion of National Pride”. p. Historical Bulletin (December 1961). “Rizal’s Tiago and Victorina”.Endnotes
Cited in Esteban de Ocampo. Jose Rizal (Manila: Philippine Booklovers Society. “A Defense of the Noli”. Carmen Guerrero Nakpil. 395. p. in Political and Historical Writings (Manila: National Historical Commission. 172. p. p. Jr. Vol. Watawat ng Lahi.
4 5 6 7 8
_____.. p. 21. 56-66. Vol.. 31 March 1890. 418. 1. Fr. 29 March 1891. 105. Historical Events of the Philippine Islands (Mexico: 1969). Orosa. 1977). 1990). Marcelino A. Ibid. Rizal to Blumentritt. 23 June 1888. p. Vol. Daroy and Dolores Feria. Antonio de Morga. ed. 11. 2000). “Kataastaasan Katipunan Nang Manga Anac Nang Bayan .
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. “An Interesting Expat’s Observation About the Philippines” (A. 1967). 22 December 1890. 130-163. 1996). “Cults Honoring Rizal”.. Renato Constantino. Ibid. p. 1967).D. 2. pp.. Shay Cullen. Inventing a Hero: The Posthumous Re-creation of Andres Bonifacio (Quezon City: New Day Publishers. Vol. Ferdinand Blumentritt. in Petronilo Bn.. “Veneration Without Understanding”. p. “Who Made Rizal Our Foremost National Hero.. Bathalismo Inang Mahiwaga. in Dr. 7. The Weekly Nation (June 19. Glenn Anthony May. 1. p. pp. Rizal: Contrary Essays (Quezon City: Guro Books. Ibid. 1994). Ibid. The Rizal-Blumentritt Correspondence. 2. Foronda mentioned the following cults that venerate Rizal: Sambahang Rizal. “Maria Clara”. 309-316.. Ibid. 388. p. 2. Ibid. 1969). “Critique of the Noli”. Barth Suretsky. Rajaretnam. Historical Bulletin (December 1961). 1992). The Greatness of Dr. 9 October 1891.Altisima Sociedad de los Hijos del Pueblo”. “The Indolence of the Filipinos”. 20 July 1890. ed. p. p. Rizal to Blumetritt. and Why?”. del Pilar. 44-45. Dissent and Counter-Consciousness (Quezon City: Malaya Books. 1. 85. 4. 21 March 1887. 257. pp. 1960). Ibid. 125-145. Ibid. Jose Rizal and the Asian Renaissance (Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House. p. La Politica de España en Filipinas (31 de Enero 1897).
Rizal and Psychology
by Dr. to evaluate whether or not Rizal’s concepts related to psychology and psychiatry fall under behavioral tenets or psychoanalytic principles. By contrast. very much below the 50th percentile. and to examine if some of the present Filipino behavioral pat-
terns continue to adhere to Rizal’s “diagnosis” and “prognosis’. Jose Rizal was a psychologist. Paular Chief. that reflect types of human behavior usually described in psychology textbooks. La Curación de los Hechizados (The Treatment of the Possessed). I will touch on the possessed individual as examined in Rizal’s essay. who has a weak personality. whose sad life drives her to madness. specifically. Regino P. her submissiveness almost reaches the 99th percentile. after sustaining heavy losses
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. in psychological parlance. to find out the historical roots of his knowledge in psychology. I have set four objectives: To discover in the aforementioned works by Rizal certain concepts that may have theoretical and pragmatic implications to modern psychology and psychiatry. Her gambler of a husband constantly takes out his anger over his hard luck on his family. Her case exemplifies a female Filipino adult. Historical Education Division National Historical Institute his paper does not propose that Dr. three colorful literary characters who exhibit classic psychological profiles in the real world. My discussion will revolve around the characters in Noli who reappear in Fili or haunt its pages. and Doña Victorina. My intention here is to search for concepts Rizal may have directly or indirectly dealt with in his two novels. Jose Rizal
. It is typical of him to come home. and a major essay. Pilosopong Tasyo. Rizal did not undergo professional training in psychology. Sisa. is one of two tragic heroines of Noli. Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Sisa. that is.
are wrongly accused of stealing money from the church. He chose the latter. he studied philosophy and was a bright student. when cornered and hurt. Frustration. therefore. Sisa’s misery is exacerbated by the loss of Crispin and the extreme humiliation she suffers at the hands of the Spanish militia. Her children. being an obedient son. The irony is. To pay for their “crime”. During the Spanish era. Doña Victorina is one of Rizal’s most colorful characters. the priest canes Crispin to death and Basilio. Through Sisa. limited and sheltered environment. When confronted by a severely threatening or frustrating experience she retreated. Outside of the church and the home. she had no function. she styles
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Rizal attempted to show us that reciprocal inhibition or sublimation or resorting to other activities to forget unpleasant experiences is the common refuge of intelligent people. An old man when we meet him in Noli. In Fili. Eventually. Outside her home. loses her grip on reality. forget God. Repressing his personal problems through reading was the only way Tasyo could preserve the appearance of sanity and blend in with the “normal” world. Jose Rizal
. Fearing that Tasyo might become too absorbed in his studies and. But while the people of San Diego make fun of his odd ideas. There was no room for her to develop into a mature and independent person in this rigid.at the cockfight. the East and the West. the farther he moved away from what is perceived to be sane. and to fully dedicate her life in the service of God and family. As a young man. or worse. she breaks down. A Filipino by blood. widowed and orphaned in less than a year. parish altar boys. in the cockpits. he is touched with benign lunacy. He got married but was. Sisa is resurrected as a disturbing memory. and also because he was in love. She is a monument to selfdeception. Sisa is also a victim. and perhaps disenchantment with the colonial establishment he previously embraced drove him to seek solace in his books.decoratively but extremely fragile. partly due to the hold of medieval Catholicism and the generally accepted idea of women’s inferiority to men. the more learned he was. is grazed by a guardia civil’s bullet. to never assert her own will. to physically abuse Sisa and their two children. and in a life of sheer idleness. submissive woman who. Rizal attempted to show how the psyche of the Filipino women of his time had been adversely affected by the colonial culture. loneliness. although born wealthy. who narrowly escapes the same fate. the Filipino woman was brought up to blindly obey the wishes of her parents (especially her father’s) or husband. unfortunately. Such is Sisa’s situation. Basilio and Crispin. such as his theories on the doctrine of Purgatory. Branded as a mother of thieves and forced to walk to the cuartel under the cruel stare of her neighbors. his mother told him to make a choice: be a priest or leave school. She could be likened to a piece of crystal -. In fact. there is method to his madness. broke down. his fortunes dwindled. too bright for his mother’s comfort.
Pilosopong Tasyo typifies the Filipino who is caught between two disparate cultures. A dutiful.
The subject. She alters her physical appearance through artificial means . wrinkles lined her face and “her teeth started to loosen”. “La Curación de los Hechizados. Her Spaniard. as a freshman medical student at the Universidad de Santo Tomas and. toothless. but rather the power of the mind. especially Hispanic. but it was incorporated into medical books. effects. His travels in France and Germany gave him the opportunity to observe new trends in the treatment of the disease. Doña Victorina’s self-delusion finds further explanation in Rizal’s essay. no Spaniard seemed interested. concepts relevant to insanity -. Jean-Marie Charcot (1825-1893) and Joseph Breuer (18421925). she is ill at ease in both her own and borrowed world. Rizal argues that if a person believes he is being subjected to kulam and then behaves as if possessed. However. or sorcery. however. Rejecting her own kind as inferior and admiring everything foreign. on the other hand. Jose Rizal
. was taught only as a part of philosophy. Rizal has drawn a picture of the Filipino woman who has a distorted view of herself. at the Universidad Central de Madrid. psychology/ psychiatry was not offered as a distinct branch of medicine. she covers her face with rice powder to hide her brown skin and her age.by using cosmetics that lighten the color of her skin and by hiding her Asian frame inside voluminous European dresses. he learned more about ailments that affect the mind. when her luxuriant hair has thinned out. a symbol of Spanish patriotism. Rizal’s medical training also exposed him to the European understanding of mental illness and its cure.
Rizal’s background in psychology
Rizal was introduced to the field of psychology when he was studying for his bachillerato or high school diploma at the Ateneo de Manila in the 1870s. Doña Victorina becomes entrapped in her own deception. His condition. is not a result of demonic possession. she reinvents herself. a psychiatrist. Not until Tiburcio de Espadaña shows up in her middle age. Charcot. Later. In the end.herself as European. and recommended therapy -. was a recog-
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. he must have read books on human behavior by two noted 19th century French doctors. which affects him both physically and mentally. Here he dwells on kulam. in the process she creates a misfit shunned by Europeans as a freak and derided by her own people as a caricature. Naturally. bald. her prime ambition is to marry the Spaniard. speaks with a stutter. and is of low birth. is lame. and the modern concept of auto-suggestion or self-hypnosis as the underlying cause of so-called posses-
sion.” written in 1895. Even then. however. In addition. later.were studied and discussed. he becomes a slave to his own thoughts. She wears overly accessorized gowns. This is a classic case of autosuggestion or selfhypnosis. Therefore. she is “more Spanish than Agustina de Zaragosa”. And although she speaks bad Spanish. In Doña Victorina.its causes. Theirs is a perfect marriage of compromise. However.
are manifestations of what the experimental psychologist B. Rizal’s academic background. In modern psychology/psychiatry. She learns to assume the role of a softspoken girl/lady.F. her ultimate defense is madness. could be molded by a reward system. Be that as it may. People endure her appearance and senseless talk out of politeness. are always met by social. Sisa’s weak personality stems from upbringing. Moreover. if not mediocre. Pilosopong Tasyo’s extreme retreat into books and new knowledge is a form of reciprocal inhibition. Tasyo’s sorrow over the death of his wife and mother could have destroyed him had he not found an alternate reality in books. her pretensions and meddling are ceaseless. he was a keen observer of people and their idiosyncracies. verbal or material reinforcements at home and in the community. whether normal or abnormal. Sisa continues to
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. As explained by Rizal.
Psychoanalytic or behavioral?
Rizal’s portrayal of Sisa. Psychoanalysis claims that human actions are influenced by hidden conflicts while behavioral psychology puts emphasis on the environment or reward system as a determinant of how an individual conducts himself. she is not prepared to cope with extreme frustrations or debilitating experiences. blocking negative behavior with positive behavior. a response she interprets as social approval.nized authority on mental disorders while Breuer was an advocate of the practice of mesmerism in the treatment of mental illness. Doña Victorina’s obnoxious behavior could be the result of a complicated respondent or operant conditioning. and the possessed individual could be interpreted either through psychoanalysis or behavioral psychology. Unable to mature psychologically.
conduct herself within the norms taught her as child. Doña Victorina. Jose Rizal
. such a person can be compared to an individual who. All told. Passing herself off as a European and intruding in other people’s business. I believe that Rizal’s exposition on the four personalities under discussion leans more toward behavioral rather than psychoanalysis. Even as an adult. a gift palpable in his works. because her actuations leading to this role. believes or does whatever is suggested to him. personal experiences and exposure to various social milieus gave him firsthand knowledge of the probable causes and effects of human behavior. Pilosopong Tasyo. that is. under hypnosis. though her ideas are askew. Behavior. the case of a person supposedly under the power a mangkukulam could be the result of auto-suggestion or selfhypnosis. Overpowered by an abusive husband and later by the death of a son. Sigmund Freud’s (1856-1939) association with the two doctors helped him develop his now famous psychoanalytic theories and treatment. Her actions go unrewarded because none of them is worth rewarding. Skinner calls “superstitious behavior”.
Some of them do. verbally. What are Sisa. his society. Jose Rizal
. Unlike in Rizal’s time. Her many incarnations include the patroness of the arts.
Past versus present
Praised for their timelessness. however. Rizal’s Sisa. But some end up with their dreams shattered by loneliness and a harsh work environment. Pilosopong Tasyo lives in contemporary Filipino intellectuals sequestered in ivory towers. Belief in sorcery could be explained in terms of auto-suggestion or self-hypnosis. preferring the safe world of ideas to the more challenging world of action. Her male counterparts. thereby changing his person and later. and Doña Victorina if not the products of Hispanooriental cultural cross-breeding? You can see in them the mingling or warring positive or negative traits. that is. by indulging in productive activities like reading. Rizal’s novels offer proof that Filipino society has not changed much since his day. Tasyo. or if they are allowed to thrive as “superstitious behaviors”. Pilosopong Tasyo. had given rise to conflicting values. the victims of self-hypnosis or auto-suggestion. are no less ugly and ignoble. not substance. More often than not. prostitutes. They know the world only in the abstract and regard it with disdain.
Today’s Doña Victorina moves around the elite’s social circle. or materially even if they are abnormal or maladaptive. especially if the subject has low self-esteem or a low level of endurance. Pilosopong Tasyo and Doña Victorina as symbols of the stagnation and deterioration of Filipino values will remain in our cultural mainstream until we retool our society into something more akin to the purer precolonial society. There are countless Sisas roaming our streets. Children of broken homes tell the same sad tales. In search of a better life.
Rizal’s contribution to psychology and psychiatry is both diagnostic and prognostic. Although Rizal was not formally trained as a psychologist. Rizal’s concepts. unfortunately. and Doña Victorina as well as from his article on sorcery. Newspapers and police blotters are filled with stories of women who are victims of domestic violence and neglect and who eventually end up as drug addicts. never participants. his portrayal of Filipino behavioral paterns and his analysis of their effects of the individual and society show that he had a firm grasp of the psychology of the human mind and the psychology of human nature. many Filipino men and women have mesmerized themselves into believing that they would strike gold as contract workers overseas. Bad behavior like gambling could be inhibited through environmental manipulation or reciprocal inhibition. thereby neglecting maladaptive or bad behavior. Physical or mental pretensions could persist if the behavioral idiosyncracies of a subject are rewarded socially. They are critical of government but refuse to do something to make it better. such as exercising their right to vote or running for public office. They are observers. His portrayal of colonial Filipinos has both historical and psychological bases. or suicides. their malady has spread to half of the present labor force.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. the champion of the poor. both indigenous and hispanic. her titles have been acquired through image. Much of these changes. the belle of the ball. abused women today can turn to NGOs who look after their well-being and rights. Hispanic influences diluted the Filipino’s indigenous oriental culture. Extreme frustration could drive a person to insanity. both implied and symbolic. the Don Victorinos. His observations may be summarized as follows. are relevant to the contemporary field of psychology or psychiatry.As can be gleaned from the characters of Sisa. As to Rizal’s possessed individuals.
This tendency is somehow worsened by the media’s reliance on surveys as the sole standard of right and wrong and modern psychology’s absolutization of choice. Perverts unite with other perverts to create the
What conscience is
Our catechism tells us that conscience is a judgment of reason whereby the human person recognizes the moral quality of an action that he will perform. Protagonists on both sides of the ongoing impeachment trial invoke their conscience as they testify in court. There is reason to fear. and credibility. I used to tell the groom: “Put your trust in her”. Kidnapers look for other kidnapers.
done. In the massmedia. “My conscience is clean”. All you have to do when you break a law or commit a sin is to look at the statistics to know how many are doing what you are doing. Now it is the name of a cigarette. or has already
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. honesty. it is almost synonymous with integrity. affirms him while he does it. conscience motivates him to do it. We live at a time when many words have been watered down to the point of meaninglessness. has somehow suffered a depreciation of meaning and value. A miracle is anything unusual. We tend to equate what we want with the urgings of conscience. OP
he word conscience has. disturbs him while he is doing it. conscience warns him to avoid it. But it is possible to mute its voice. Newman’s words remind us that we often underestimate our capacity to deceive ourselves. perhaps. or we may refuse to listen to it. that he is performing. Trust is now the name of a contraceptive. When words are devalued. Charity is invariably associated with sweepstakes. both the accuser and the accused would say. in our consciousness. like miracle rice and miracle drug. conscience has been superseded by a counterfeit: the right of self-will”. hope used to be a theological virtue. never been as popular as it is today in the Philippines. If an act is bad. thieves for other thieves. Conscience gives rise to a sense of responsibility. even if it is often invoked. that the word conscience. If an act is good. however. As John Henry Newman wrote: “Conscience has rights because it has duties. But in this age. the power and influence of the reality they symbolize are also diminished. Surveys condition our minds into believing that number determines what is good and bad. During weddings.Freedom of Conscience
An Important Legacy of Dr. and gives him the feeling of satisfaction or achievement after he has done it. Not anymore. de la Rosa. and gives him the feeling of guilt after he has done it. Jose Rizal
. For instance. Redemption is applied to centers where one claims a lottery prize. at least. Jose Rizal
by Rolando V.
When he embarked on the socio-political and cultural transformation of the Filipino people. What better words to describe the journey which Rizal took in search for truth? For him. by our prudent application of self-evident moral principles. Simply put. that everything that I have and everything that happens to me is his holy will. or from instruction by competent moral authority. Rizal rightly saw (even before Vatican II expressed it in no uncertain terms) that God’s grace extends beyond the visible manifestations of the Church. This somehow shifts responsibility from personal human decision to other exigencies. Someone would say it is the devil’s will. But before conscience can speak. this was in connection with his political and reformist pursuits. he found
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. on the other hand. and the other coinciding with his personal inclinations. As a result. the dangers posed by the rejection of Church’s authority. and because of their overwhelming number.
and God’s mercy. When moral education is lacking. very few would like to take personal and collective accountability when such a choice proves to be wrong. For Rizal. He had to see it that way. the teachings of competent authorities. So I am content and resigned”. a person will decide objectively. Jose Rizal
. As evident in his writings. Rizal did not swallow everything that the philosophes’ taught. In one of his letters to Pastells. eius religio which made it incumbent on the Church to insure religious unity within its territorial jurisdiction by promoting Catholic doctrine and discipline. If ever Rizal emphasized freedom of conscience. and persecuting its proponents. one requiring sacrifice. and discarding those which he found outrageous or unreasonable. It is often said that Rizal invoked this freedom to justify his break with the Catholic Church. for it has been my custom since I was a child to ask that his will be done. Only a person with a mature conscience can decide in difficult situations with integrity. wrong is wrong even if everybody is wrong. They failed to see in Rizal a human being sincerely searching for ways to affirm the dialectical unity of faith and reason.
Conscience needs to be educated
A well-formed conscience tells us that right is right even if nobody is right. and the damage caused by human pride. This belief tended to identify God’s salvific work with the visible Catholic Church. he seemed to have said: “I would rather follow my conscience. it was because he was impelled by his intellectual honesty to look beyond what the visible Catholic Church could offer him as ways to truth and salvation. He sifted through their ideas. because the Catholic Church that he grew up with did not seem to measure up with his conscientious search for truth. Also. It is unfortunate that his Spanish critics viewed his link with the philosophes from their peculiar idea of Catholic apologetics which seemed to be premised on the paranoid fear of the autonomy of reason. truth is a Person whose will he always tried to discern and obey. We have to recognize the fact that. if ever Rizal questioned and even parodied many Catholic beliefs and doctrines. it is naïve to assume that when faced with two options. it must have been informed by a moral conviction arising from our natural capacity to know right from wrong. appropriating those which he considered valid. and God’s inspiration. he wrote: “I believe that I am in the hands of God. grace and free will. it is the deep conviction that both faith and reason are at the service of a higher value. eradicating all errors. although there is a deafening clamor for respect for individual choice.illusion of strength. But the proper formation of conscience does not happen in a vacuum. Freedom of conscience is not the license to believe what one wants to believe. For Rizal. the object of his quest was not an idea. his Spanish critics still valued the postReformation belief in cuius regio. want us to believe that a sin or a crime is a mere mistake or deviancy owing to wrong choices occasioned by external forces. The proper education of conscience is therefore a must. through our reading of the signs of the times. they make people believe that it is the normal people who are abnormal. man’s misery
Freedom of Conscience
One controversial issue related to Rizal’s character and conviction is his idea of freedom of conscience. Psychologists. It develops through our experience. but I do not think so. which is truth. rather than the teachings of the Catholic Church”.
For me. the task of forming the whole archipelago into a compact body. one has to bear the responsibility for his own actions”. he somehow affirms what many theologians always taught. or a firm believer who never wavered in his faith. we see elements that are unmistakably Catholic: the primacy of conscience. The result is. our knowledge of Rizal is often a caricature: either he is a free thinker and a stubborn proponent of the absolute autonomy of reason. daily recourse to prayer. Our
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. most pure. But then. For Dr. conscience is consequent to his belief in God. boundless trust in divine providence. In his letter to his mother. The person may have recourse to the opinion or judgment of others. but in a manner befitting a philosopher: a lover of truth. aptly puts it: “Rizal’s incursions into religious questions were impelled by his preoccupation with the dignity of the individual. the progress and redemption of his people. the challenges he faced. I believe through reason because my conscience can admit only what is compatible with the principles of thought . Like other heroes. Dr.”
idea of Rizal and his work is either based on what the Spaniards wished to correct or destroy. Besides. Raul Bonoan.what he believed was a solid ideological basis in the ideas of the 19th century philosophes. A hero is a product of his circumstances. it is a mistake to look at heroes in this way. His person. the profound experience of God as loving father. They are not flawless characters. In other words. would life have any meaning at all?” This remark is significant. He knew that reformist sentiments. .
Rizal’s idea of conscience
It is unfortunate that Rizal’s character and belief have often been judged in terms of how the Spaniards and nationalists looked at him. I believe that the best way for me to honor him is to present myself before him making use of the best things that he has given me . Jose Rizal believed that God himself equipped each person with the “lamp” of intelligence as his moral guide. and I believe that I would fail in my duty as a rational being were I to prostitute my reason and accept an absurdity. I believe that God would not punish me if in approaching him. vigorous and homogeneous”. convictions. the need to foster the sentimiento nacional or the sense of nationhood. the philosophes’ ideas gave him sufficient intellectual basis for his fight for reforms and his own personal search for truth. Rizal. He is a creature of time. S. the decision rests on judgment made in the light of one’s own God-given conscience. sense of mission. which shuns all human adulterations. without any firm rational basis. would simply melt into sentimentality. Jose Rizal
. This made him fearless in fighting for his convictions. If we sift through what is often labeled as Rizal’s rationalist rhetoric. considering what many historians often call as Rizal’s “wreckage of faith”. of piece-meal intellectual and emotional progression. He wrote in one of his letters: “How can I doubt God’s existence when I am so convinced of my own? Whoever recognizes the effect recognizes the cause. He therefore studied and analyzed the philosophes’ ideas. to extrinsic authority. but. firm belief in God. . namely. As Fr. “It is up to my conscience afterwards to decide whether to follow it or not. and even his heroism. reason and faith need not be seen as contradictory: “What I believe now. for in this matter. in the end.J. . most sublime. religion is most sacred. Here we see a sublime feature of Rizal’s character: his intellectual honesty. Rizal firmly believed that fidelity to truth gives a person a certain invincibility. appear to have been presented to modern Filipinos in terms of such conflicting views. I were to use his most precious gift of reason and intelligence. strength of conviction. the principles and convictions that molded his unique response to such challenges. A hero does not cease to be a hero simply because he is not the saint we want him to be. . or what nationalists think are Rizal’s patriotic sentiments or views. Rizal does not possess a one-dimensional character. not in a manner by which politicians or ideologues shop for ideas to justify their crackpot policies. and an openness to dialogue. To doubt God’s existence would be to doubt one’s own conscience and consequently everything else.
dishonesty. reverence. Jose Rizal and the University of Santo Tomas. as St. Raul. to make a retraction. Philippine National Historical Society. Epistolario Rizalino. UST Press. or better yet. like that of Dr. In short. Rizal in Saga. In fairness to Pastells and those who share his position. far from being alienating. Jose Rizal.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Pablo) Pastells (S. on the closedness of Pastells. his retraction could perhaps be best understood the way Nick Joaquin did when he writes: “It seems clear now that he did retract. The fact is: he did not renounce them. scant attention to Rizal’s own testimonies of admirable inner disposition. Justice makes us aware of the necessary distance which we must not trespass lest we violate the rights of others. Bureau of Printing. only a renewal of the heart”. O. 5 vols.but our minds resist the picture of so principled a man as Rizal renouncing the liberal and libertarian ideas by which he lived. Brother. and Relatives. As Fr. with his firm belief that the truth of reason cannot contradict the truth of faith. . As Fr. we can say that just as Rizal’s thoughts on conscience cannot be divorced from his reformist’s stance. and deterioration of our moral and religious values. it was not to be seen as detrimental to development of his mature faith in God. The Rizal-Pastells Correspondence.. Fidel. and was married to Josephine.Conclusion
While Rizal might have reflected the Enlightenment’s boundless confidence in reason. Pastells could not appreciate the politics of this Jesuit alumnus. . He adds: “In lieu of Pastells’ society where repression was the rule. at most. For all his kindness and pastoral concern. to the legitimate aspiration of Rizal and his people”. Augustine puts it: “Love and do what you will”. Kalaw. he gave us a model of a man who lives according to his conscience.J. the unrelenting desire of Pastells to “convert” Rizal is inseparable from his pro-Spanish bias. Bonoan writes: “Distracted by Rizal’s unorthodox remarks. Rizal. Jose. love requires that we respect the other as one like us. Viewed in the light of Rizal’s idea of freedom of conscience and his unrelenting struggle to defend this. Or. who was now struggling to lay the foundations of the emergent nation. fidelity to conscience. It is ironic that the very people who wanted to make Rizal “listen to his conscience” seemed to be the very ones who deprived him the respect he deserved. Teodoro. 1994. It is often said that a just man is a law unto himself. heard mass. While justice demands that we respect the other as other. the Jesuits. and he did not have to renounce them. 1996. a retraction in no way demanded a surrender of the intellect. and in fact the Church. are basically founded on respect. Jose Rizal
. ultimately.) was blind to the basic catholicity of Rizal’s view on conscience and paid. the Church today urges the usages of freedom. Justice and love. S. Philippine National Centennial Commission. on the eve of his death . .
Bonoan. the basic virtues that regulate human relationship and society. contemporary Filipinos. In fact. that he went to confession.P. which ‘require that the freedom of man be respected as far as possible and curtailed only when and insofar as necessary’”. Ateneo de Manila University Press. and honest desire to do what was right in God’s eyes”. love or charity allows us to see such distance. Sisters. Bonoan himself admits: “Their strong belief. shared by the rest of the Spanish clergy was that the
good of the Philippine colony would best be served by the indefinite prolongation of Spanish rule in an alliance of throne and altar. 1930-1938. Joaquin. sees that the divine and moral law have one common element: respect.. 1959. (Fr. One Hundred Letters of Jose Rizal to his Parents.J. especially government leaders. A well-informed conscience. 1984. Nick. Villaroel. as creating the space which makes possible human communication and friendship. In our age of compromise. would do well to learn from Rizal’s sublime example of intellectual honesty and freedom of conscience. The failure of Pastells’ apologetics must be blamed. received communion.
as follows: The Chairman. two thousand.00) from the President’s Contingent Fund to defray expenses for the year 2000 activities commemorating the martyrdom of Dr. 2000. 2000 I. President of the Republic of the Philippines. Rizal. National Parks Development Committee The Mayor. National Historical Institute The Secretary. Jose Rizal
. JOSE P. This Administrative Order shall take effect immediately. Department of Public Works and Highways The Secretary. Department of Education. Jose P. by virtue of the powers vested in me by law. Municipality of Calamba. City of Dapitan. Department of the Interior and Local Government The Secretary. Kababaihang Rizalista Chairman Co-Chairman Co-Chairman Vice-Chairman Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member
To fittingly commemorate and properly disseminate nationwide the 104th anniversary of the death of Dr. Knights of Rizal The Chairman & Executive Director. Armed Forces of the Philippines The Director-General. Laguna The Mayor. Philippine National Police The Secretary.000. City of Manila The Mayor. Rizal on December 30. Done in the City of Manila this 4th day of October in the year of our Lord. Presidential Protocol Office The Head. Rizal. JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA. Zamora Executive Secretary
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose P. Department of Budget and Management The Secretary. Department of National Defense The Secretary.Malacañang Manila
By the President of the Philippines
ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. Metropolitan Manila Development Authority The Executive Director. Presidential Management Staff The Chairman. do hereby reconstitute the membership of the Rizal Day National Committee in connection with the observance of the 104th death anniversary of Dr. I do hereby authorize the Department of Budget and Management to release the amount of THREE MILLION PESOS (3.
By the President:
Ronaldo B. Department of Tourism The Secretary. National Commission for Culture and the Arts The Secretary. 138
RECONSTITUTING THE MEMBERSHIP OF THE RIZAL DAY NATIONAL COMMITTEE IN CONNECTION WITH THE OBSERVANCE OF THE 104th ANNIVERSARY OF THE MARTYRDOM OF DR. Office of the Press Secretary The Chief. Culture and Sports The Supreme Commander. Department of Foreign Affairs The Chief of Staff. RIZAL ON DECEMBER 30.000. Zamboanga del Norte The President.
House of Representatives Honorable HILARIO G. Rizal Park. President. LAYA Chairman.m.m. Assembly. Order of the Knights of Rizal Fort Santiago. Manila Millennium Walk to retrace the last footsteps of Dr. Republic of the Philippines Honorable AQUILINO Q. Manila Arrival Honors for His Excellency Joseph Ejercito Estrada President.m. Manila
Schedule of Activities
6:30 a. Chief Justice. Senate of the Philippines Honorable ARNULFO P. PIMENTEL JR. National Commission for Culture and the Arts and 2000 Rizal Day National Committee
5:30 a. Republic of the Philippines Flag-Raising and Wreath-Laying Ceremonies Led by: His Excellency JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA President.m. DAVIDE JR.m.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal
. Guests and the General Public Rizal National Monument. Jose Rizal from Fort Santiago to Luneta Order of the Knights of Rizal Assembly. LUISA P. Supreme Court of the Philippines Honorable JAIME C.
6:55 a. Republic of the Philippines and First Lady DR. FUENTEBELLA Speaker. Rizal National Monument Rizal Park.
7:00 a. EJERCITO ESTRADA Assisted by: Honorable GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO Vice-President.In commemoration of the 104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Intramuros. 2000. Jose Rizal “Rizal: Tanglaw-Gabay ng Bayan” December 30.
Rizal Park. National Parks Development Committee Member. Department of Tourism Member. Culture and Sports Co-Chairman. BINAY Chairman. City of Manila Member. ATIENZA JR. TRILLANA III Chairman. Jose Rizal
. Mayor. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee General ANGELO T. Armed Forces of the Philippines Member.Honorable ANDREW B. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Honorable JEJOMAR C. QUIAMBAO Supreme Commander.m.m. 2000 6:00 p. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Honorable ROGELIO M. Other Floral Offerings Other Rizal Day Activities December 19. National Historical Institute Vice-Chairman. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Members of the 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Departure Honors Traditional Rizal Day Breakfast (by invitation) 7:20 a. Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Member. Order of the Knights of Rizal Co-Chairman. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Honorable ANTONIO S. FSC Secretary. REYES Chief of Staff. 2000 Metro Manila Singing Competition December 29. Department of Education. “Para sa Mahal na Bayan” Rizal Day Eve Concert Lagoon Area. GONZALEZ. MERCADO Director. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Honorable JOSE L. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Honorable PABLO S. Manila
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Honorable GEMMA CRUZ-ARANETA Secretary.
Laguna Speaker: Dr. Zamboanga del Norte Speaker: Dr. Fort Santiago. Fort Santiago.Manila Patriotic Tour • Rizal Shrine. Calamba. Luis C. Jose Rizal: A Light and Sound Presentation” Light & Sound Tableau. Manila 6:00 p. Rizal Day Annual Lecture Venue: Rizal Shrine.
Sponsor: 2000 Rizal Day National Committee
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Dapitan City. Camagay University of the Philippines . Intramuros.m. St. Fort Santiago. “The Martyrdom of Dr. Rizal Park.December 30. Maria Luisa T. Fr. 2000 7:00 a. Manila
7:00 p. Rizal Day Annual Lecture Venue: Rizal Shrine. Manila Speaker: Rev. University of Santo Tomas Opening of Exhibit on “Hats and History” Baluarte de Sta. Intramuros.Diliman Rizal Day Annual Lecture Venue: Rizal Shrine. Thomas Aquinas Priory Former Rector.m. Dery De La Salle University . Manila • Rizal Shrine. Calamba • National Museum 4:00 p.m. Jose Rizal
. Manila “Kanser” (Noli Me Tangere) A production of Gantimpala Theatre Foundation Open Air Auditorium. Rizal Park. Rolando V.m. de la Rosa Prior. Barbara.
m.30 December 2000 . 30 December 2000. Manila
RSVP: 525-8661/523-9043 (NHI)
Attire: National Dress or as appropriate
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr.Guests are requested to be at the Rizal National Monument. Thomas Aquinas Priory and Former Rector.P. Jose Rizal National Hero of the Philippines Saturday . de la Rosa. Jose Rizal National Hero of the Philippines Saturday.4:00 p. Rolando V.m. 7:00 a. Manila by 6:30 a. Jose Rizal
. Prior. Rizal Park.m. Rizal Park. Fr. Manila
RSVP: 525-8661/523-9043 (National Historical Institute)
Attire: National or Formal
With Rev. Republic of the Philippines as Guest of Honor The 2000 Rizal Day National Committee requests the honor of your presence at the Flag Raising and Wreath-Laying Rites in commemoration of the 104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Fort Santiago Intramuros. St. With His Excellency Joseph Ejercito Estrada President. Rizal National Monument. O. University of Santo Tomas As Guest of Honor and Speaker The National Historical Institute requests the honor of your presence at the RIZAL DAY ANNUAL LECTURE in commemoration of the 104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Rizal Shrine.
6:00 a.m.Dapitan cordially invite you to the COMMEMORATIVE PROGRAM on the occasion of the 104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of DR. ETA of the Guest Lecturer (Dipolog Airport) Departure from Dipolog Airport of the Guest Lecturer and Welcoming Party for Dapitan ETA at the Dapitan City Resort Hotel Regular Meeting and Fraternas Dinner of the Dapitan Knights of Rizal
4:45 p. 30 December 2000.m. 7:30 p.m. both national and local
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. JOSE P. RIZAL Philippine National Hero with Dr.
December 30.m. Jose Rizal
. to be heard by all government officials and employees. Dapitan City
General Program of Activities
December 29. 7:30 a. James Church. 2000 5:00 a. 2000 4:20 p.m. Rizal Shrine.Order of the Knights of Rizal Dapitan City Chapter National Historical Institute City of Government of Dapitan and the Kababaihang Rizalista .m. Luis C. Dery Guest Lecturer Saturday.m. 4:30 p. “DAYA-NA” by the Executive Band The Holy Eucharist at the St.
Dr. 4:30 p. Jose P. Ecubanas.Dapitan Commander. KCR Deputy Commander Dapitan Knights of Rizal
Floral offering Sir Nemesio L.7:03 a.F. KCR Curator.m. 10:00 a. James Apostles Parish The Executive Band Mr. Dapitan Knights of Rizal
The Philippine National Anthem Dapitan Hymn
Contribution Number Introduction of the Guest Lecturer
Lecture “The Relevance of Dr. Jose Rizal
. Luis C.m.Oledan Leading with the Dapitan Executive Band Atty.. Rizal: Beyond A.m. St. December 30.m.m. Dapitan City Jose Rizal Memorial Institute Sir Gabriel M. KCR Master of Ceremonies
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. 7:30 a. Joseph Cederick O.m. Abad.Dapitan Departure of the Guest Lecturer and Send Off Party for the Dipolog Airport ETD of the Guest Lecturer for Manila
5:00 p.Manila Jose Rizal Memorial State College
Contribution Number Closing Remarks and Acknowledgement
Sir Manuel P. Dery De La Salle University .
Saturday. Carlito I. 2000 7:30 a.D. V.
Volley of Fire by the Dapitan PNP Commemorative Program Pilgrimage to the Rizal Shrine . NHI Rizal Shrine . Cad. Cadano. Ruiz Mayor. City Plaza. Parish Priest. Dapitan Invocation Monsignor Wilson P.
Prior.In Commemoration of the 104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. O. 4:00 p. Jose Rizal
. University of Santo Tomas Awarding of Prizes Bonifacio Art Competition for Fine Arts Students
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal the National Historical Institute requests the honor of your presence at the Rizal Day Annual Lecture to be delivered by Rev. Fr. St.m.4:30 p. Barbara Fort Santiago. Prior. de la Rosa. Manila
Part I 4:00 . Intramuros. Manila Opening of Exhibit “Hats and History” by Dr. Thomas Aquinas Priory and Former Rector. 30 December 2000. de la Rosa.P. Baluarte de Sta. Rolando V.P. Thomas Aquinas Priory and Former Rector. Trillana III Chairman and Executive Director National Historical Institute and Rev. O.m. Rolando V. Fort Santiago Intramuros. University of Santo Tomas Saturday. Fr. St. Rizal Shrine. Pablo S.
Trillana III Chairman and Executive Director National Historical Institute Ramon Magsaysay Cubao High School Quartet First Prize Winner NHI Paligsahan sa Makabayang Pag-awit 2000
National Anthem Welcome Remarks
Introduction of the Guest of Honor and Speaker
Dr. Pablo S. Coronel Rector. Fort Santiago Intramuros. Thomas Aquinas Priory and Former Rector. Prior. Rizal Shrine. Noemi A. O.P. Historical Education Division National Historical Institute
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Manila Cathedral Banda ng Maynila Dr.Part II 4:35 .5:00 p.m. University of Santo Tomas MMDA Chorale First Prize Winner MMDA Singing Contest 2000 Banda ng Maynila
Master of Ceremonies Dr. St. Manila Invocation Monsignor Hernando M. Paular Chief. Medina Chair. Department of Social Sciences Philippine Normal University
Lecture “Freedom of Conscience: Rizal’s Legacy”
Rev. Regino P. Fr. de la Roza. Jose Rizal
. Rolando V.
Pablo S. Regino P. Casal
Emelita V. Paular Reynaldo A. Adoracion B. Inovero Veronica A. Trillana III Chairman
Dir. Dizon Dr. Almosara Deputy Executive Director
Division Chiefs Julieta M. de Viana Administrative Historical Education Historic Preservation Monuments & Heraldry Research and Publications
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Augusto V. Dado Prof. Ocampo Fr.NATIONAL HISTORICAL INSTITUTE
Board Members Dr. Mendoza Dr. Jose Rizal
Prof. Gabriel S. Ambeth R. Serafin D.
Unang Bahagi – ika-7:00 n. JOSE RIZAL
Pambansang Bayani sa Sabado.u.Ang 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Pambansang Suriang Pangkasaysayan Order of the Knights of Rizal. Calamba Chapter at ang Bayan ng Calamba ay nag-aanyaya sa inyong pagdalo sa paggunita ng 104 na taong kabayanihan ni
DR.u. ika 30 ng Disyembre 2000 sa ganap na ikapito ng umaga sa Pambansang Dambana ni Rizal Calamba. Laguna
Oras ng Pagtitipon: 6:00 – 6:30 n. Patyo ng Pamahalaang Bayan
Paghihip ng Sirena
Kagawaran ng Pamatay-Sunog Sangay ng Calamba Kagawaran ng Pulisya Calamba Police Station SPO1 Juliet Magpantay SPO3 Monina Castillo SPO3 Hilda Magtagad
Pagtataas ng Watawat
Panalangin Pambansang Awit Panunumpa sa Watawat Pag-aalay ng bulaklak sa mga Bantayog at Dambana ni Gat Jose Rizal
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal
Joaquin M. Laguna Kgg. Hilberio. Puno. Lina. KGCR Order of the Knights of Rizal Maraming salamat po sa lahat ng mga nakiisa at tumulong. Calamba West District Kgg. Ma. Departamento ng Kasaysayan Unibersidad ng Pilipinas . Dennis R. Lanzanas Pangalawng Punong Bayan. Luisa T. Jr. Jose Rizal
. KOR Pursuivant. Javier. Laguna
Panayam “Si Rizal at ang mga Kapatid na Babae”
Dr. Jr. Calamba.Ikalawang Bahagi ika-8:00 n. Kapayapaan National High School Sir Steve T.u. Lina. Jr. Joaquin M. Chipeco. Lajara Punong Bayan. Camagay Propesor. Chipeco. Order of the Knights of Rizal Calamba West District Choir Kgg. Kinatawan.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Severino J. Ikalawang Distrito ng Laguna Kapayapaan National High School (Bagong Pinoy). KCR Deputy Chapter Commander Order of the Knights of Rizal Calamba West District
Pampasiglang Bilang Bating Pangwakas
Guro ng Palatuntunan Sir Demetrio L. Castillo. Jose D. Kgg. Severino J. Lalawigan ng Laguna
Pambansang Awit Pambungad na Pananalita
Mga Natatanging Bilang
Pagpapakilala sa Panauhing Pandangal
Kgg. Calamba. Jr.Diliman
Paggawad ng Plake sa Panauhing Pandangal Tutulungan nina
Kgg. Jose D. Pambansang Dambana ni Gat Jose Rizal
Sir Johnny M. Lajara Kgg.
. plutista Boy de Ocampo. Isang Lahi. mang-aawit Alona Climaco. piyanista Louie Kristi. Tayong Lahat. Magkakapatid Ako’y Isang Pinoy Kay Ganda ng ating Musika/ Magandang Gabi/Salamat Musika Dakilang Lahi . Ako.Isinaayos ni Paolo Tirol
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. mang-aawit Laurence Albert Calderon. Isang Musika Panunumpa Kapantay ay Langit Ikaw Ang Tangi kong Pag-ibig Dahil sa Iyo Maalala Mo Kaya Magkaisa Ako’y Pilipino Handog ng Pilipino sa Mundo Pilipinas kong Mahal Ikaw. bahista
Bayan Ko Isang Lahi Isang Dugo.Espesyal na Edisyon Paco Park Presents Para Sa Mahal Na Bayan (Sa paggunita ng ika-104 na anibersaryo ng pagpapakabayani ni Gat Jose Rizal) Isang espesyal na handog ng National Parks Development Committee at ng 2000 Rizal Day National Committee Tampok sina: Angelica Climaco.
Pilipino. umasa sa sariling lakas. naging isang Pilipinas. Pilipino taas noo mong pagmasdan Ang bandila ng lahi mo. Bisaya’t Mindanao. “Magiting ka. sa labanang malaganap. itaas mo dalawang kamay at kamao Buong lakas na isigaw. dugo’t buhay binuwisan. Magiting ang Lahi mo!”
Kilos na kabataan. Nagkaisa’t nagtulungan. bayani ang tagapayo. Kabataan. Jose Rizal
. magandang bukas likhain mo! Puhunan mo’y kalayaan. Magiting ang lahi mo!”
Mula sa “Ikarangal mo.Serge Custodio at Archie Organo
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Luzon.“Mga bala’y sinagupa. .
Kaya naman. kamatayan ay hinamak Pilipino’y nagbangon. . Sa angking talino mo’y tagumpay tiyak matatamo Ikarangal mo Pilipino.
. 2000.g. . Maynila Paco Park Presents ay ipinalalabas tuwing Martes 11:00 n. tenor
Paco Park Presents Isang paglilingkod bayan ng National Parks Development Committee 2000 Rizal Day National Committee National Historical Institute People’s Television Network (PTV-4) Philippine Tourism Authority
Antonio S.g. Rizal Park. Disyembre 29. Mercado Punong Tagapamahala Minette Padilla Taga-ulat
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Biyernes.12:00 m. sa likod ng Monumento. sa PTV-4
Susunod sa Paco Park Presents January 5 “Schumann’s Best” Nenen Espina.a. Central Lagoon. piano Eugene de los Santos. 6:00 n.Programa 1004. soprano Najib Ismail.
OP. Trillana III gives the welcome remarks. Rolando V. Trillana presents NHI publications to Rev. Santos looking on. Dr. de la Rosa. with PHA Executive Director Gloria M.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr.(Counterclockwise) NHI Chairman and Executive Director Dr. Jose Rizal
. Pablo S. the Ramon Magsaysay-Cubao High School Quartet delivers a patriotic song. and the MMDA Chorale. first prize winner in the 2000 MMDA singing competition gives a lilting rendition.
. Ms. AFP Chief of Staff Angelo Reyes. Trillana welcome Senator Blas Ople during the traditional breakfast at the Manila Hotel. (above). and Senator Blas Ople (right).NCCA Chairman Jaime C. a descendant of Rizal.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Yulo. Laya and Dr.
Guests include Senate President Aquilino Pimentel Jr.
Benjamin Defensor grace the occasion (above). Jose Rizal
Mayor Lito Atienza of Manila and Gen.Foreign dignitaries (above and below) are welcomed by NHI employees and by Dr.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Trillana.
Guests also included members of the diplomatic corps.
NHI ushers and usherettes give their all for posterity.NCCA Chairman Jaime C.
Visitors view the different kinds of hats that had evolved through the years.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Jose Rizal
. Laya discusses an important point with Education Secretary Andrew Gonzales.
Tourism Secretary Gemma Cruz Araneta flanked by members of the NHI (above).
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. Estrellita Muhi. Rosario Villar.Dr. Fe Hidalgo. Juanito Fernandez. Betty Lou Peñera. Jaime Laya (second from right) shares the table with (L to R) Lulay de Vera.
Members of the Philippine Historical Association (L to R) Dean Gloria Santos. and Protocol Office Undersecretary Daniel Victoria. Emelita Almosara. Prof. Jun delos Reyes. Jose Rizal
. Evelyn Songco. and Prof. Flaviano Maso. Prof.
104th Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Dr. and Knights of Rizal Supreme Commander Rogelio Quiambao wait for the arrival of President Joseph Ejercito Estrada.
Main activities include flag-raising and wreath-laying ceremonies at the Rizal monument with President Joseph Ejercito Estrada as main guest. Jose Rizal
. Pablo S.Tourism Secretary Gemma Cruz-Araneta. Trillana III. Dr.
.Rizal Day Celebration
2000 Rizal Day National Committee Philippine Information Agency