This article was downloaded by: [199.7.199.

137] On: 09 November 2011, At: 12:35 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Popular Music and Society
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:

The Musical Universe of Hermeto Pascoal
Luiz Costa-Lima Neto Available online: 12 Apr 2011

To cite this article: Luiz Costa-Lima Neto (2011): The Musical Universe of Hermeto Pascoal, Popular Music and Society, 34:02, 133-161 To link to this article:

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

Popular Music and Society Vol. 34, No. 2, May 2011, pp. 133–161

The Musical Universe of Hermeto Pascoal
Luiz Costa-Lima Neto Translators: Tom Moore and Geoffrey Gilbert
This article explores the social and musical impact of the Brazilian multi-instrumentalist, composer, and bandleader Hermeto Pascoal, as well as the historical, political, and economic conditions of his cultural production. The author focuses on the 1981 – 93 period when the composer led a quintet of musicians which formed a community revolving around his home in the neighborhood of Jabour, in the outer suburbs of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The professional career and “Universal” musical system of Hermeto Pascoal are related to various important artistic movements and musical genres and styles, demonstrating the innovative role played by Hermeto Pascoal in the history of popular music in Brazil.
It’s a real hotch-potch (panelada)1 what I call Universal Music . . . . It’s the world mixed together, but it’s Brazil that predominates. (Pascoal, “Hermeto Brasileiro Universal” 13)

Downloaded by [] at 12:35 09 November 2011

Introduction The present article on the life and work of Hermeto Pascoal will seek to define their singular importance in contemporary popular music in Brazil, demonstrating how his musical system establishes a continuum between tradition and contemporaneity, wiping out the differences between the local, the national, and the international as a ´ machine for the suppression of time-space (see Levi-Strauss 35). The Brazilian multiinstrumentalist, composer and bandleader was born on 22 June 1936 in the small town of Lagoa da Canoa, State of Alagoas, in the Northeast region of Brazil, and brought up in a rural environment. There he had his first musical experiences and lived in close contact with nature and animals until the age of 14. In 1950, Hermeto2 ran away from home to try his luck as an accordionist in the city of Recife, capital of the State of Pernambuco and an important cultural center in the Northeast. At the end of the 1950s, while he was teaching himself to play various instruments, the albino ˜ musician migrated to the two largest cities in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, in the Southeast region of the country. In 1970, he moved to the US, where he began working as a composer, returning to Brazil finally in 1980, after many international comings and goings. The following year he formed a fixed group of musicians which
ISSN 0300-7766 (print)/ISSN 1740-1712 (online) q 2011 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/03007760903214803


L. Costa-Lima Neto

lasted until 1993 when the band split up. The biographical and professional trajectory of Hermeto (Northeast-Southeast-US-Brazil) provides an aesthetic interface made up of four superimposed matrices: folk modal music and unconventional sounds of nature; domestic objects and human speech (Northeast); tonality of popular Brazilian music and jazz (Southeast): jazz fusion, free jazz, and experimentalism (USA); and, finally, the “Universal” mixture of these and other sonorities, music genres, and styles (back to Brazil). Elizabeth revealed the existence of two lines of force in Brazilian music: “the alternation between reproducing European models and the discovery of an independent path, on one hand, and the dichotomy between art music and popular, on the other” (Modernismo 7). Incorporating the paradoxical into his hybrid “musical panelada,” Hermeto defies any limiting labels and boundaries and resists both lines of force in “fusing regional, national, international and universal elements to create de-territorialized music which refuses to deny its roots” (Reily 8). His first instruments were handcrafted flutes with a pumpkin stem, the eight-bass diatonic ´ accordion, popularly called pe-de-bode (literally, goat’s hoof), besides the tambourine, which he used to play at wedding parties and popular balls in the Northeast of Brazil. Today, however, Hermeto combines these instruments with other instrumental formations including chamber orchestras, big bands, and symphony orchestras. The musician structures his work on the basis of improvised folkloric styles such as the ´ embolada and the forro, but his complex compositions require an excellent musicreading level from musicians. The popular Brazilian styles such as the choro, frevo, and ˜ baiao found in his music border on contemporary art music and free jazz in their use of dissonant harmonies, polyrhythms, atonal improvisations, and unconventional timbres (see Costa-Lima Neto, “Experimental . . . Conception” 4– 6). This article deals particularly with the 1981 – 93 period, when Hermeto was ˆ ´ accompanied by the musicians Itibere Zwarg, Jovino Santos Neto, Marcio Bahia, Carlos Malta, and Antonio Luis Santana, nick-named Pernambuco.3 The composer and the quintet of musicians constituted a community joined by neighborhood and kinship ties which revolved around the Alagoan musician’s house, situated in the neighborhood of Jabour, an outlying suburb of the city of Rio de Janeiro. For twelve consecutive years they rehearsed daily from 2 to 8 pm, recorded six discs, and gave shows in Brazil and abroad.4 ´ I will borrow from Muniz Sodre the concept of “biombo cultural” (or “cultural ´ dividers”) (Sodre 9 – 18), which he used originally to demonstrate how the spatial division—samba/backyard, choro/parlor—in the house of Tia Ciata5 symbolized the different positions of resistance of the black community of Rio de Janeiro toward the white elite after the abolition of slavery (1888). At the front of the house there was the instrumental music of choro and dances, while in the back was samba, with the “black elite of swing and dance,” and the batucada of the older people ´ “where the religious element was present” (Sodre 15). I will use “biombos culturais” to explore the spatial lay-out of Hermeto’s house in Jabour as a parallel between the social and class divisions in Brazil, as well as to exemplify the polarized clash between

Downloaded by [] at 12:35 09 November 2011

However.” besides throwing a new light on the hybrid. Cunha 10). an ethnographic description will be presented exploring the spatial lay-out of the house in Jabour to illustrate the creative process of Hermeto & Group. Entrenched in the house in Jabour. Ulhoa. “to sing in unison was preparing them to absorb the ˆ ´ qualities of the enemy in the rituals of anthropophagy” (Ulhoa. 4. and artistic movements which will be dealt in the course of the study. 2. the date of the arrival of the Portuguese colonizers.7. pop.Popular Music and Society 135 the strategies for ideological. the albino rural migrant Hermeto Pascoal and his group disputed a space in urban popular instrumental music. miscegenated. with some named and identified by the late eighteenth century (see Reily 6). and opposed: 1. the majors and global capitalism. The conclusion demonstrates how the musical production of Hermeto Pascoal. Wisnik). besides dealing with the different stages in the professional and aesthetic trajectory of the composer. choro. in which the encounter between Amerindians. the vanguard aesthetic. political.000 years ago (see M. which included jazz. musica sertaneja.6 The historiographies of both popular music and art music point to a formative stage which coincides approximately with the Colonial period (1500–1822). and rock and roll. the culture industry. see Attali. the modernist idea of “authenticity. “Nova Historia”. Downloaded by [199. 6. ´ 3. Africans. Brief Historical and Social Panorama of Popular Music in Brazil The traditional estimates as to the earliest human settlement of Brazil put the date at 12. At the beginning of the colonization of Brazil the Jesuits taught medieval Gregorian chant to the Amerindians with the aim of instilling a “magic” element in the native culture. industrialized and massively marketed urban popular music. allied to the social. the copying of imported genres and styles such as discomusic. . The main characteristics of his musical system are identified and the marketing processes and resistance to marketing his music are also presented. and frevo.199. ´ 5. whose model in Brazilian popular music was tropicalia. and MPB ´ (Musica Popular Brasileira or Brazilian popular music). bossa nova. For the Indians. however. problematizes the categories “people” and “nation.” centered on Northeastern folk music. “Nova Historia” 83).137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 The first part of the article will provide a panorama of popular music in Brazil with the purpose of familiarizing the reader with the genres. and economic domination on one hand and the contesting socio-musical discourse of Hermeto on the other (on resistance ˆ ´ and the politics of music. In the second part. music historians in Brazil usually ignore the millennia of indigenous pre-history and choose as the starting point of their canonic narratives 22 April 1500. Street. the big record labels. economic. and mutant character of Brazilian cultural identity. musical styles. Middleton. the popular-national tradition organized around the samba. and Europeans gave rise to an infinite number of hybrid forms. and political processes involved which complement it.

7. where the Portuguese ´ colonization began. the Bandas de Musica. see Costa-Lima Neto. bombardon (bombardon or bombardino is a brass instrument. who once lived in Palmeira dos ´ Indios (see Ricardo and Ricardo 541 –66). quadrilhas. They featured instruments such as the flute.7 In the early decades of the nineteenth century another instrumental group became ´ the most widespread popular musical manifestation in Brazil. related to the tuba.” to create the important concept of cultural anthropophagy. Portuguese colonization. polkas. . common in Brazilian brass bands). cultural cannabilism is not a theoretical concept. however. he used to make handcrafted flutes imitating ´ the pıfanos played by the Xucuru-Kariri Indians. Dom Pero Fernandes ´ Sardinha. Costa-Lima Neto Cannibalism served as an inspiration for the modernist poet Oswald de Andrade. Veloso). the death of the first Catholic bishop of Brazil. near Lagoa da Canoa. very common in the Northeast region of Brazil. Favaretto. such as the tropicalistas Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. clarinet. When Hermeto was approximately 7 years old. trumpet. Cunha 53). tuba. Very briefly. galopes. one must realize that the court in Rio de Janeiro brought together “the largest Downloaded by [199. ´ To understand the social function performed by the Bandas de Musica in Brazil. Cazes 29– 46. Cultural anthropophagy acquired special importance on being used conceptually by Brazilian artists. “Experimental .137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 .199. The initial historical landmark of cultural anthropophagy appears to have been. ´ in his “Manifesto Antropofagico. at the end of the 1960s (see Calado. absorbs the “Other” and makes it the flesh of its flesh. culturally. Oswald de Andrade rediscovered Brazil in making the Indian the center of his anthropophagic theory. The origin of these bands goes back to the military cadres which disembarked in the city of Rio de Janeiro together with the Portuguese royal family in 1808 (on music in Imperial Rio de Janeiro. and even ´ pieces adapted from opera. and percussion. ritually devoured by the Caete Indians on the Alagoas coast—the native state of Hermeto Pascoal—on 16 July 1556. still according to Oswald. Ulhoa. Dunn. The bands normally have around seven members playing pıfanos (flutes made of bamboo or. and bandstands of Brazilian towns during civic and ˆ ˜ religious festivities (see Cassoli. piccolo. polyvinyl chloride) and percussion instruments. Conception” 41–43). today. Probably the oldest popular instrumental groups in Brazil—whose references go back to the beginning of the eighteenth century (see Cajazeira 25)—are the Bandas de ´ pıfano. Falcao. around 1943. waltzes. . (For more on Hermeto’s childhood. schottische. maxixes. To the sound of marches and military dobrados. The three versions for the origin of this group illustrate the cultural and ethnic miscegenation that characterizes Brazilian music and society from the very early times: the totemic rituals of the Brazilian Indians. Instead of “consummating the colonial act of eliminating the Indian as a component of culture and Brazilian identity” (E. symbolized by the indigenous. of PVC. tangos. mazurkas.136 L. For Hermeto Pascoal. see Magaldi). the small home town of the musician. his theory affirms that Brazil. trombone. the dozens of members of the Bandas de Musica would perform in the streets. cannibalizing it. that is to say. “Inventando Moda” 7 – 20). and Aguiar 46. but a practice deeply rooted in the unconscious. squares. and traditional African festivities (Cajazeira 23).

the choro became more improvised. “cry” or “little cry”) was initially more a way of playing than a precise musical genre. being incorporated into the ´ work of composers such as Chiquinha Gonzaga. 190 –91). a fetish object that served as a “paradigm of civility for the tropical and slave-owning society of the Empire” (Alencastro 42) and. such as the Northeast.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . This social function makes itself felt even today in the poorest regions of Brazil. but also the waltz. It is interesting to note that one of the favorite pastimes of Hermeto in his childhood was to attend the performances ´ of the Bandas de Musica in the town of Arapiraca. ´ Influenced by the Bandas de Musica.7. the Bandas also represented one of the few opportunities for rising ˜ professionally for the new urban classes (see Cazes 30 –31. Franceschi 137– 39. Alexandre Levy. At the same time the groups operated as “popular music conservatories.199. This middle class provided the human resources and the consumer public for the incipient popular instrumental music. but later other instruments. four-coursed instrument similar to a ukelele). cavaquinho (small. Ernesto Nazare. with the official abolition of the slave trade (1850) and with new anti-slavery laws. mazurka. The choro crossed the barriers between popular and art music.000 inhabitants” (Alencastro 25). 404).” to boil. boosting the ´ great popularity of the Bandas de Musica. such as the clarinet. Heitor Villa-Lobos—and Hermeto Pascoal. O Calendario do som 288. rhythmically free and virtuosic. the black instrumentalists would Brazilianize European dances—particularly the polka. pandeiro (hand-held percussion instrument). Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the piano had become a symbol of distinction for the Frenchified Brazilian elites. consolidating itself as a genre with its own musical characteristics in the first decades of the twentieth century (see Cazes 53– 64. Through the composer and flautist Alfredo da Rocha Viana Filho. However. the choro first appeared in Rio de Janeiro. were added (see Reily 6). “An urban middle class emerged composed of civil servants and small traders. for example (see Cajazeira 18). nicknamed Pixinguinha.” Out ´ of the fusion of musical genres and styles played by the Bandas de Musica there emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century another instrumental genre that ´ also would have an important role in the Musica Universal of Hermeto: the frevo (a corruption of the first person of the verb “ferver. bandolim (mandolin-type instrument with four double courses). and guitar.” made up in the main “by the AfroBrazilian population” (Cazes 17). the choro or chorinho (literally. eu “fervo”). In the 1870s.Popular Music and Society 137 concentration of slaves found in the world since the end of the Roman Empire: 110. a little before the abolition of slavery (1888) and the Proclamation of the Republic (1889). an important commercial center in ´ the State of Alagoas (Pascoal. Tinhorao).000 slaves for 226.” in which the conductor or band leader acted as a teacher. the social and economic landscape of the city changed markedly. that is to say. and schottische—mixing them with Afro-Brazilian syncopated rhythms. and saxophone. Rio de Janeiro was known as the city of pianos or “pianopolis. a mix of dance Downloaded by [199. at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the ´ twentieth century. In its initial phase it was played on the ebony flute.

199. exemplifying racial prejudice and the marginalization of the Negro and his culture by the white elite. whose rapid tempo animates the carnival revelers in the city of Recife. for its part.138 L. frequented the festivities (or pagodes) and feijoadas8 of Tia Ciata. However. excellent songwriters such as Noel Rosa—a lower-middle-class white—and the first Escolas de samba (samba schools) all played their part in gradually popularizing the samba. where the producer and the consumer were at a distance. see Sandroni 19– 37). ´ 1916). ˆ ˜ Sinho. and the musical genres cultivated there: in the parlor next to the street—close to the eyes of the white elite—choro and the more “respectable” dances with partners (polkas.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . ˜ capital of the State of Pernambuco (see Cassoli. Falcao. is considered one of the most important symbols of the popular tradition in the historiography of Brazilian music and exemplifies very well the context of racial oppression in the post-abolition period. was strongly discriminated against and samba musicians were continually hassled by the police. Donga. lundus. Choro and samba musicians. Muniz Sodre (see also Wisnik 151 –62) identifies particular “cultural dividers” (biombos culturais) in Tia Ciata’s house separating the rooms. Downloaded by [199. where producer and consumer were in close ´ ´ proximity. & Aguiar 56). Donga. Oral and community musical traditions.).7. a genre linked to the black communities of recently freed slaves. mentioned in the introduction. ´ If the European musical influences found in the Bandas de Musica and in the choro ensured the relative tolerance of the white elites of the city of Rio de Janeiro. and at one of these events one of the first sambas recorded in Brazil was composed (entitled “Pelo telefone” (“Over the Phone”). and. started to be called “musica folclorica” (folk music). The polarized separation of the “cultural dividers” at the house of the respected Tia Ciata. intellectuals. while the term “popular music” started to be used to distinguish the musical practices aired by the media. accompanied by considerable technological and industrial development and the progressive consolidation of mass-media communiˆ cation. as well as to African religiosity and the rhythms ´ found in Candomble (on rhythmic patterns and time-lines of African and AfroBrazilian music. This change is marked musically by the appearance of the urban samba. gramophone recordings of company Casa Edison (see Franceschi). symbolized “the strategy of musical resistence to the curtain of marginalization raised against the Negro following Abolition” ´ ´ (Sodre 15). During the twentieth century an intense population migration from the country to the city took place in Brazil. and Heitor dos Prazeres. one finds then a complete change in the musical scene and ´ in the very concept of “popular music” (“Nova Historia” 80 –81). press. the spaces of the house. etc. in the backyard at the rear of the house—hidden from the authorities and the police—partido-alto samba or samba-raiado and the ´ rhythmic patterns of Candomble. During the 1920s and 1930s popular festivities. The house of Tia Ciata is considered by Sodre to be a metaphor and a microcosm of the Brazilian society of the time. Costa-Lima Neto and music. waltzes. the samba. but even so the latter was still a phenomenon largely restricted to the city of Rio de Janeiro. Joao da Bahiana. The house of Tia Ciata. as well as the resistance strategies of black artists. As Ulhoa clarifies. such as Pixinguinha.

The baiao would later become one of the most important popular genres of ´ sica Universal. its festive association with carnival made it a symbol of “racial democracy” and “mestizo cordiality. At the time the baiao was released. the cultural capital of the ˜ Northeast. ˜ In 1946 the first baiao was recorded by the Pernambuco accordionist Luiz Gonzaga. While it was aired nationwide through the ´ broadcasts of the state-owned Radio Nacional. as the new international musical symbol of Brazilian-ness. The choro. Vianna.9 With the bossa nova the guitar becomes more percussive. changed places with the samba and was relegated to the backyard.199. the samba moved out of Tia Ciata’s backyard and into the parlor of every Brazilian home. passing from the “agricultural phase to the industrial phase” (Tom Jobim. “Da Casa de Tia Ciata”). Ari Barroso). The musical genre was co-opted with populist objectives by Vargas to integrate the new urban classes of black workers into the new “civilized” and white social order (on populism and music. The samba was then remodeled by the Press and Propaganda Department (DIP) of the Estado Novo and stripped of its Dionysian elements—such as its apology for bohemianism and romanticization of the figure of the idle loafer (malandro)—and used to promote order and the work ethic (see Wisnik 190). Sandroni. Hermeto’s Mu In the 1950s. becoming practically invisible to the general public at large. but influenced by jazz. quite different from the operatic mannerisms of the popular singers of the previous generations (see Saroldi and Moreira). The huge success it enjoyed on the radio finally put the Northeast region on the ˜ popular music map in Brazil (see Dreyfus 109 –48). as well as the Bandas de Musica.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . which used more dissonant harmonies than those of the traditional samba.” 1962. Hermeto Pascoal was just 10 years old and he used to hear the discs of Luiz Gonzaga through the megaphones in the street markets of his native town (see Campos 140). Reily. Wisnik). see also Street 3 –23).” thus turning it into one of the musical symbols of national identity (for more on history of samba.Popular Music and Society 139 ´ under the dictatorship of the Estado Novo (1937– 45). see ´ Naves.” ¸˜ 1939. in dialogue with sophisticated orchestral arrangements and a new vocal rendition which was whispered and cool. Antonio Carlos Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes) replaced the samba-exaltacao “Aquarela do Brasil” (“Aquarelle of Brazil. The bossa nova became internationalized and the song “Garota ˆ de Ipanema” (“Girl from Ipanema. a rhythm descended from the samba. Although Hermeto had accompanied singers of bossa Downloaded by [199. instituted by President Getulio Vargas. to play the accordion and percussion on the radios of Recife. the frevo orchestras and the pianeiros (popular pianists) for their part. nostalgically recalled as the “golden years” of the Juscelino Kubitschek government (1956–61). the bossa nova appeared. ˜ Gonzaga was the boy’s idol and the success of the baiao singer in the major cities of ´ Brazil prompted Hermeto to run away from home with his brother. qtd in Napolitano 69). Jose Neto. Bossa nova was the fruit of the desire of the artists from the middle class artistically and technologically to “modernize” popular music in Brazil.7. This inversion marked the start of mass culture in Brazil and it is an important historical antecedent for us to understand the somewhat isolated position of the multi-instrumentalist Hermeto Pascoal on the popular music scene in contemporary Brazil (see Costa-Lima Neto.

an inverse proportion to that of the 1950s. television. and cinema with sambas. multi-instrumentalist and bandleader Hermeto Pascoal. the jovem guarda was the vanguard for mass music in contemporary Brazil. the district of Jabour and Hermeto Pascoal’s home.199. and also added musical input from the avant-garde music and the concrete poets from ˜ Sao Paulo. directed mass-consumption genres at ´ ´ ˆ ´ the low-income population. and the record industry targeted the public from the universities.10 ´ In 1967. ˜ cantos de macumba. This migratory flow from the country to the city produced the mass public necessary to consolidate the culture industry. Sao Paulo.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . should be viewed. Stroud). baiao. such as musica sertaneja. together with other families of low-income workers. “Nova ´ Historia” 86). albeit temporarily (see Napolitano. led by the singers Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. and. musical programs on television. Downloaded by [199. and Elis Regina to connect aesthetics. finally. and rock and roll (see Favaretto 106). It is in this unfavorable context for instrumental music that the resistance coming from the composer. with an eye on the new demands of the market. The western zone of Rio de Janeiro. reaching its climax in the 1990s—coinciding with the return of civilian rule in 1985—the big multinational recording companies. Costa-Lima Neto ˜ nova on the piano on a daily basis in the nightclubs of Recife. ideology. targeted the middle-class teenage public with rock and roll and pop in the 1980s. the genre did not have a great influence on his musical system. enjoying great success among lower middle-class youth. From the mid-1970s. “when the setting up of industrial parks (a process that had already begun in the 1930s in the Estado Novo) ˆ began to stimulate the intense migration of the rural population” (Ulhoa. and pagode. presaging the musica sertaneja and musica romantica of the following two decades. musica romantica. rumbas.7. which made it possible for middle-class artists such as Chico Buarque de Holanda. In the 1980s after Hermeto returned from the USA. In this sense. Edu Lobo. axe. the theater. made up of blacks and mulattos in the main. In the 1960s when the military dictatorship (1964– 85) ruled the country. and Rio de Janeiro during the 1950s and 1960s. they created fads such as discoteca and lambada. which had started to establish itself in Brazil in the 1960s. outsold MPB in 1965 (with the homonymous disc by ´ ´ ˆ Roberto Carlos). Thus MPB appeared. Influencing the whole Brazilian culture industry. where he had recorded his first authorial disc (1972). blending songs disseminated by radio. the majors. Milton Nascimento. has experienced the greatest population growth in the city in recent decades. the urban population had climbed to 70% of the Brazilian population. when a market structure had not yet to come into being. launched products and artists directed at the children’s market. However. The tropicalists invoked the anthropophagic cannibalism of Oswald de Andrade. The migrants settled in the shanty towns ( favelas) and suburbs of Rio de Janeiro. bolero. tropicalia made its debut. song festivals. were busily consolidating their position.140 L. and the market. the ˆ ˆ ˆ commercial explosion of the jovem guarda (ie-ie-ie).

His aesthetic openness contrasts with the defensive and xenophobic attitude practiced by the nationalist intelligentsia made up of urban musicians. a neighborhood in the West Zone of the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro. keyboards. North American jazz and art music. particularly from the Northeast. Travassos. as new ingredients in his hybrid “Universal panelada. already expanded due to the ethnic and cultural mixtures of Amerindians. Antonio Luis ´ Santana/Pernambuco—percussion. Hermeto would compose silently on the first floor. a typical dish from Northeastern cuisine and part of the heritage of Portuguese ´ colonization. To the miscegenated mixture of Brazilian music Hermeto Pascoal adds other peoples. With the Modern Art Week of 1922 as its initial historical landmark. Imperial. of Brazilian music. 62– 98. were closer to the genuine roots. Brazilian modernists defended the thesis that rural folklore traditions.Popular Music and Society 141 Downloaded by [199. All the musicians came to live close by so as not to waste time traveling daily from their homes to the distant neighborhood of Jabour. 1928). In the epigraph at the beginning of this article ´ Hermeto Pascoal compares his Musica Universal to a panelada (a hotch-potch).199. Hermeto’s home in Jabour. and Europeans which occurred in Colonial. while at the same time casting aspersions on urban popular-commercial music (see Reily 1 – 10. he goes beyond the strict frontiers defined by the nationalist credo in following the continuum that encompasses folk. Marcio Bahia—drums and percussion. frevo. and sonorities. an expansion of the territory of Brazilian music. as well as big bands. was enlarged after an international tour with the Group. Jovino ˆ Santos Neto—electric piano. Africans. while the other musicians in the ˆ Group (Itibere Zwarg—contrabass. the local and the global. Musica Universal is. choro. clavinet and flute.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 ´ Hermeto descends from the Northeastern folk traditions of the Bandas de pıfano ´ and forro. Modernismo 51–56. Vargas 35– 53.11 A visitor unfamiliar with the streets of the West Zone and constantly having to ask the neighbors how to get to Hermeto’s house could only be certain that he had finally . countries. 185– 231. his music also incorporates the urban popular groups and genres ´ ˜ of the Bandas de Musica. samba. baritone horn and tuba. according to Hermeto Pascoal. when Hermeto began the construction of the second floor. artists. and world music. Wisnik 129– 91). electric piano. and intellectuals. ´ Drawing from the ideas of folklorist Mario de Andrade in his celebrated Ensaio sobre a ´ Musica Brasileira (Essay on Brazilian Music. the modernist movement sought eminently national characteristics for Brazilian art in contrast with the Europeanizing academicism. that is to say. however. without instruments.” An Open House in Jabour 1981 –93 Originally a one-story house. popular. Hermeto ´ Pascoal shares with Mario de Andrade and his followers an appreciation of Northeastern folklore (on the politics and sociology of folk music. and Republican Brazil. art music.7. and baiao. see Middleton 127– 46). the pure roots. and ethnic. and Carlos Malta—wind instruments) would rehearse on the second floor. however. seated on the sofa of a room hidden from the eyes of visitors.

Floriano the parrot. more often than not.13 Reaching the second floor. a collection of birds in their cages.199. The windows serve as the medium of exchange: the music played by the Group leaked out into the neighborhood. the producer and general factotum Mauro ˜ Brandao Wermelinger. wind instruments. occupied by the musicians during their daily rehearsals. Other examples. The architecture of the little house is made up of two principal “cultural dividers:” the private space on the first floor of the house. Floriano the parrot. percussion. which features a modulating etude for bombardino (bombardon). more accessible. keyboards. The different areas of the house and the characters mentioned above appear in particular songs included in the six LPs recorded by Hermeto & Group in the period 1981 to 1993. the visitor views the neighbors’ houses. and. as well as a glimpse of a small swimming pool. or the home-made recordings which ended up on the records. finally. guided by the strains of the ever-loudening music. and a large room with the instruments of the Group: piano. draws its melody from the dialogue between Hermeto’s daughter ´ Fabıola and a swimming teacher with the sounds of children in the pool. and possibly the dogs running back and forth. the visitor finds two rooms: a little rest area with a refrigerator. which features ˜ a baiao in phrygian church mode and the voices of the members of the Group and the sound of laughter from Dona Ilza. in chronological order.12 After identifying himself over the intercom to the lady of the house. In order to provide sound proofing. the couple’s sons and daughters.142 L. filled in turn by the houses of the neighborhood with the sky above. Bolao. “Aula de natacao” (“Swimming Lesson”). and “Ilza na feijoada” (“Ilza at the Feijoada”). and piles and piles of musical scores. Consider compositions like “Briguinha de ´ musicos malucos no coreto” (“Crazy Musicians Quarreling on the Bandstand”).14 Finally. and ˜ the dogs Spock. whether in the titles.7. and above them. in an area next to the outside gate. The household included the owners Hermeto Pascoal and Dona Ilza. the sound references. which includes the Downloaded by [199. Before entering the kitchen he sees on the right. dogs. straw mats bought cheaply at Umbanda stores were glued to the walls of the rehearsal room. etc. and a nearby bathroom. through the windows. other objects used for percussion. while the sounds of the landscape—birds. external to the house. cicadas. Costa-Lima Neto come to the right address when he heard the sound of the music. the visitor enters through the service entrance leading to the kitchen. the visitor passes through the kitchen of Dona Ilza da Silva and a small ante-room (the L-shaped floor plan which hid the “den” where Hermeto composes) and then upstairs to the second floor. the birds in their cages. parrot. Continuing into the main house. an atonal ¸˜ piece of music. are “Cores” (“Colors”). a typical instrument in the ´ Bandas de Musica genre. The second “biombo” allows a glimpse of the third space. “the boys in the Group” (as Hermeto paternally called the young musicians who accompanied him). chairs.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 .—invaded the house and came to inhabit some of the music recorded during this period. electric bass. a clear blue sky with the sun beating down relentlessly. giving the appearance of a rustic hut. and Princesa. and the second floor. where Hermeto would compose “secretly” without being seen or heard by anyone.

but. The creative process functioned according to these stages. they would play them on their instruments. it’s not G with a major seventh. Music Is Born”). when he finished writing the score with the melodic-harmonic sketch of a new composition. textures. and “Quando as aves se encontram nasce o som” (“When the Birds Meet. which includes the syncopated barks of Hermeto’s dog. would listen and correct their transcriptions from down below: “Jovino. As Hermeto’s compositions were doubly difficult: dissonant chords were not easy to analyze in terms of traditional harmony and the writing of the score itself left doubts over the exact placement of the fingers on the staff—which resulted from Hermeto’s visual deficiency caused by albinism17—generally the musicians of the Group would re-write the manuscript parts left by the composer. preceded by daily practice sessions in the mornings.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . a dissonant polytonal song. 163– 90. blessed with a perfect sense of pitch. The daily rehearsals of the Group. “Experimental . made it possible to achieve something unheard of in Brazilian instrumental music: a repertoire of hundreds of songs to which more compositions were constantly added. A dense description16 of the special layout of the house in Jabour will reveal the process of composition.15 Other examples of the musical ´ use of animal sounds (not recorded at the house in Jabour) include “Arapua. during the opening of a jazz nightclub. it’s minor!” (Wermelinger personal interview). and. in which Floriano the parrot is the soloist. the atonal sonorities of the human voice and animal sounds (see Costa-Lima Neto. when the musicians rehearsed the more difficult passages of their individual parts. Before the end of the performance all the paying customers had Downloaded by [199.7. and “Papagaio alegre” (“Merry Parrot”). when Hermeto and the Group played for five and a half hours. “Experimental . Hermeto could easily hear the other musicians. . Their record was in Pendotiba (in Niteroi. From the room where he composed. since the live versions grew in length with improvisations and were usually much longer than in rehearsals. . “Spock na escada” (“Spock on the Stairs”). When it came to the show itself. After the musicians finished making clean copies of the manuscript parts. . an etude with harmonic modulations. I draw the reader’s attention to the hybrid heterogeneity of the above-mentioned ´ ˜ compositions: a modal baiao and forro. depending on the venue. the composer would once more go upstairs to resolve technical details and work out the arrangement. Immediately afterwards. 139– 54.199. could last for ´ three or four hours or even longer. and sometimes a song was completed in just a few hours. arrangement. Thus. Conception” 126– 30. finally. each show lasted for at least two hours. and return to his den. a forro. Musical” 119– 42). put the score under the door. . RJ). Thus. they played only a small portion of this repertoire.Popular Music and Society 143 high-pitched song of a cicada in the tree in front of Hermeto’s house and tuned to the ´ instruments of the Group. and dissonant harmonies simulate the low buzzing ´ sound of the Arapua bee. another experimental etude. from 2 to 8 pm. Hermeto would go upstairs. while Hermeto. and rehearsal for Hermeto and the Group. a track with various bird songs used as rhythmic-melodic phrases and harmonized and arranged by Hermeto for the instruments of the Group.” in which the instrumental timbres. from Monday to Friday.

Hermeto’s style of leadership did not confine his collaborators to the role of mere replicators of prepared musical texts. ´ ´ “Experimental . and universal elements. . in addition to the habits of the visitors and occupants of the house. “Mestre Radames” (“Master Radames”). . in a similar way to the old masters of the Bandas de Musica during the Imperial times of Brazil. which interpenetrate each other like conceptual “dividers. and the context in which it is inserted. independent of their title. “De bandeja e tudo” (“Tray and All”. the drummer in the Group. we find Hermeto the man. . with rural folk roots from the Northeast of Brazil. Mauro Wermelinger reported that Hermeto worked his musicians to the bone: “Mauro. his music. see Costa-Lima Neto.199. Precisely because of this vast repertoire every show was different from the next. In reality. In fact. Conception” 155 –62). “Serie de Arco” (“Hoop Series”. are complementary spaces. these songs—incidentally. while producing music of considerable complexity (see Costa-Lima Neto. a small village near the town of Lagoa da Canoa. “Intocavel” (“Unplayable”). among others. In the heart of the fertile tobacco-growing interior Downloaded by [199.” ´ ´ ´ ˜ 1980). with only the sleepy waiters remaining behind to listen. The First Floor (1936 –50): Rural Brazil On the first floor of the house. Costa-Lima Neto already left. Conception” 69–83). . see Costa-Lima Neto. mas nao impossıvel” (“Difficult. in the municipality of Arapiraca. ˜ “Irmaos Latinos” (“Latin Brothers”). Frank Zappa also had a repertoire which he called humanly impossible—are sometimes identified as such by their own titles: “Correu tanto que sumiu” (“He Ran So Much That He Disappeared. “Experimen´ tal . Alagoas. As well as the dynamic of exchange between Hermeto and the Group. today they are going to die. . arrangers. But Not Impossible. Although Hermeto refused out of hand the titles “professor” or “master. today I am going to get there and they will be stretched out on the floor.7.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . by tracking the stages of his professional career and his personal cosmology. various songs by Hermeto can be viewed as etudes: “Chorinho para ele” (“Chorinho for Him. the “cultural dividers” of Hermeto’s house also illustrate how his biography and career are related to his musical system. Conception” 116 –25).” he made each composition an opportunity for leading the members of the Group to a progressively higher musical ´ level. .” unreleased). international.” allowing the observer to glimpse unsuspected details of a “symbolic architecture. told me that sometimes during the individual morning rehearsals at the house he would suffer from migraines and would have to lie down to rest after agonizing over the extremely difficult parts written by Hermeto. blends regional. In this way Hermeto & Group operated collectively as performers. . Marcio Bahia. where he was born in 1936 and lived until 1950 in ´ Olho D’Agua. rather he encouraged them to create new roles for themselves.” 1977). creatively subverting established hierarchical systems. Thus.144 L. and composers. “Difıcil. . Hermeto’s personality. Brazilian. . They are not going to be able to play this because I don’t think that even I can play what I wrote!” Hermeto would say. a system which. Corroborating what ´ Mauro reported. a composer. and “Aluxan” (2002). “Experimental .

and “O tocador quer beber” (“The Musician Wants a Drink”). As mentioned above. Cego Oliveira.199. from Pernambuco. Unable to play in the sun with the other children and following in the Northeastern tradition of musicians with impaired vision (Cego Aderaldo. since his experimentation uses the rural traditions of his childhood as a point of departure. exemplify the modal repertoire that Hermeto would play at dancing parties in his childhood in the rural Northeast. Lagoa da Canoa gave Hermeto the basis for his experimental musical idiom. “Experimental . producing a totally atonal melody with an asymmetric rhythm which afterwards is harmonized dissonantly (for more on “music of aura. the albino Hermeto made music his favorite pastime. something of a labyrinth. The compositions “Forro em Santo ´ ´ ´ Andre. The presence of birds. or making improvised flute duets with birds and frogs. an adept of Afro-Brazilian religions who. is a sign that Hermeto has retained part of the sonorous landscape and geography of his childhood. The “cultural divider” will be useful to us once again. which certainly contributed to his public image as a shaman (bruxo). Conception” 88– 109). whose Saturday feijoadas would bring together all those living in the house—as well as invited guests and neighbors—was. i. of Floriano the parrot and the dogs by the pool.” see Costa-Lima Neto. with “conventional” musical styles and pitched sounds from ´ ´ instruments such as the pe-de-bode accordion and the pıfano. . generally an electronic keyboard. or magician of sound. related to his religiosity and spirituality. from the kitchen. after that.” “Forro Brasil” (1979). from the time he was a boy. a fundamental musical model. among others. Dona Ilza da Silva. The “music of aura.18 Continuing through the first floor of the house in Jabour—the space which would ´ correspond to the terreiro for Candomble at the house of Tia Ciata—we can notice another important aspect of Hermeto: his cosmology or personal vision of the cosmos. In it. or playing tambourine and the eight-bass accordion together with his brother ´ and father at local dances and wedding parties. Since Lagoa da Canoa Hermeto has followed a paradigm. even before entering the house. 204 –08). .137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . blended and improvised sounds from nature and the animal world.e. at the house in Jabour.Popular Music and Society 145 of Northeastern Brazil. . whether composing little tunes created by striking pieces of iron stolen from his grandfather’s smithy. Hermeto. Luiz Gonzaga. Sivuca. .7. among others). over the intercom. constitutes a fundamental reference in Hermeto’s musical system. Apparently Hermeto and Ilza Downloaded by [199. Conception” 185 –90. The room where Hermeto composed was reached only after the visitor had passed through Dona Ilza’s kitchen and. Following this precociously experimental paradigm.” as well as the sounds of animals and sonorous objects. wizard. she was the first person that the visitor encountered. from unconventional sound sources (such as the pieces of iron mentioned above) and the melodies of speech (“music of aura”). I believe that this trajectory is symbolic as well. “Experimental . the musician transposes the notes and rhythms of the spoken voice to a conventional instrument. “Arrasta pe alagoano” (1980). like Tia Ciata. which he would broaden over the course of his career (see Costa-Lima Neto. guarded the entrance to the house and the rooms where Hermeto composed and the Group rehearsed.

1977). the studio technician Ze Luiz invented. according to information gleaned from interviews with members of the Group. “O cantor Hermeto Pascoal”). After alternating measures with seven and five beats. while during the instrumental breaks the musicians spoke disconnected words. repeating the same cycle of fourteen beats. and for free improvisation on bamboo flutes ( pıfanos). The barking of the dogs Spock. “Experimental . Conception” 131 –38) refers to the name of a Caboclo. and ocarinas. but in many cases this limit has not been respected and “land [has become] an explosive issue throughout the country” (Seeger 147).146 L. an indigenous entity whom the adepts of Umbanda hold in high spiritual esteem. bass ´ flute. words which sounded like an indigenous language ˆ (“oire. and cavaquinho.21 This music is quite varied in rhythm.20 The two tracks refer to Northeastern folk music and to popular festivities that are part of the Catholic liturgical ˆ calendar. Indians on the other. to whom the two compositions are dedicated. On ˆ ´ ˜ the LP Zabumbe-bum-a (1979). Costa-Lima Neto shared a number of common religious beliefs and.” recorded on the disc of the same name (Slaves Mass. As the music was being recorded. ´ piccolo. blew whistles and shouted.800 remaining members of the Xucuru-Kariri tribe try to survive (Ricardo and Ricardo 16). while the tempo accelerated to the freely improvised finale.19 Other discographic. where today around 2. Hermeto uses the drum set as a melodic instrument. “Missa dos Escravos” comes to a climax. The sung phrase “Chama Zabele pra ˆ poder te conhecer” (“Call Zabele so I can know you”) is hypnotically intoned in Downloaded by [199. constructing seven rhythmic-melodic phrases which. Another musical example which alludes to the religious world of popular syncretism is the “Missa dos Escravos. ˜ Bolao and Princesa thickened the texture. I remind the reader that during the colonization of Brazil the Jesuit missionaries used Gregorian chant to catechize the Indians. begins and ends with Hermeto’s mother’s voice describing the procession for this saint’s day (13 June). with a strong Afro-Brazilian influence. the songs “Sao Jorge” (“Saint George”) and “Santo ˆ nio” (“Saint Anthony”) are named after Christian saints and include the Anto ´ ´ participation of Hermeto’s parents: Vergelina Eulalia de Oliveira and Pascoal Jose da Costa. In this music. tanajura”).199.” for example. . an old indigenous redoubt. assymetrically divided ˆ into groups of 3 þ 3 þ 2 þ 2 þ 2 þ 2 pulses. at Hermeto’s request. The modal scales brought by the missionaries still survive in Northeastern folk music. that is to say. “Magimani Sagei” suggests a tribal dance. ogorecotara. “Santo Antonio. ranchers on one side. serve as a base for the theme played by the flute. musical and bibliographic references will help to broaden the picture with additional aspects concerning the spirituality and religion of Hermeto. the title of the song “Magimani Sagei” (see Costa-Lima Neto. accompanied by modal religious ˆ chants from the Northeast. and by Zabele and Pernambuco imitating the voices of children asking for alms for the church-sponsored festival in honor of Saint Anthony (see Costa-Lima Neto. rhythm predominates. near the town of ´ Palmeira dos Indios. It is important to note that the 1988 Constitution established a five-year deadline for the demarcation of all Indigenous Lands. accompanied by the electric bass. and has deep roots in the imagination of Hermeto and his childhood in Lagoa da Canoa. .137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 .7.

as well as the forest-cat ´ ´ maracaja. aspects of Hermeto’s religiosity and spirituality reveal his particular cosmological vision. In this sense. crying and shouting by Flora Purim. to other human beings and spiritual hierarchies. the melody sung by Hermeto is heard in slow tempo. “O Master. Through musical ritual.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 .” capable of overcoming the opposition between tangible and intelligible and leading those who listen to it to a temporary condition of immortality. with the indigenous instrument known as maraca. over the span of more than a century. glissandos. In a similar way. while the chorus exploring unconventional vocal techniques is at another. ´ ´´ ´ ´ “Maraca-maracatu-maracaja-Mara!” In the lyrics for “Mestre Mara” (“Master ´ Mara.Popular Music and Society 147 a crescendo. In fact. on a single continuous low note. quicker tempo. and. in the form of music. spiritual experience and aesthetic experience are ´ interconnected in an inseparable way. Levi-Strauss (33 –38) compares music to a “time-supression machine. superimposed over a slow melody played on the transverse flute in unison with the singing voice. Hermeto reveals in this music another facet of his spirituality in singing. one for each day of the year. hissing. music is a ritual.” The “master” in question seems to be related to another figure which Hermeto labeled “The gift.7. the name of the master “Mara. for Hermeto the wizard. a duo of grunting pigs dialogs with the vocal solo of laughter. going up and down the stairs that unite the two floors of the house. as in a recitative (recto tono) from a medieval Catholic mass. coughing. Hermeto constructs and simultaneously participates in the harmonious order of the sacred. and musical traditions related to the popular Catholicism of the Northeast. The unusual superimposition of two tempi in ´ “Mestre Mara” indicates the presence of two simultaneous dimensions. glottal attacks. with the dancing rhythms of the tom drums providing the underlying beat.22 in order to associate the Afro-Brazilian rhythm of ´ maracatu. which he offers with devotion to all human beings.—Hermeto uses words with similar sonorities (alliterations). shouting. Music is a transcendental vehicle which unites him to nature and animals. The Quilombo dos Palmares was located in the Serra da Barriga. led by Ganga Zumba and his nephew Zumbi. I received your message. such as whispering. the various attempts made by the Portuguese Crown to capture and return them to the sugar plantations. “Missa dos Escravos” is connected with the Quilombo dos Palmares (1580– 1710). “O Calendario do som”).199. etc. or a ritual indigenous chant. finally. accompanied by a dissonant flute section. including ´ leap years (see Costa-Lima Neto.000 quilombolas (fugitive ex-slaves) resisted.” In this song. a technique very commonly found in the Northeastern embolada. it was with great joy that I set your image to music. in addition to Umbanda. spiritualism. At the end. It contains 366 scores. Taken together.” which in 1996 gave him the “devotional” task of composing one piece of music per day throughout an entire year. a region now belonging to the State of Alagoas—the native state of Hermeto Pascoal—where approximately 20.” 1979)—a song rich in non-conventional vocal resources. paying ´ homage to all those celebrating birthdays on the planet with a Calendario do som (Calendar of sound). the roots of which are strongly based on popular syncretism. Downloaded by [199.

as well as the piano. Costa-Lima Neto Downloaded by [199. the intense instrumental work in a varied repertoire and his observation of singers. Rio de Janeiro (1958). the animal sounds. On the other hand. the arranger and performer in contact with the Group and with the urban and international popular music of his adolescence and youth on the ˜ radio and in the clubs in Recife. drums. saxophone. to the Indians. etc. Caruaru. and seresta in Regional groups on the radio (on the interrelations between Regionais and Choro groups. The Second Floor (1950 –70): Urban Brazil Continuing our tour. the drum sessions held by the slaves in their quarters during ´ colonial times. and moving up to the second floor of the house in Jabour. one low-pitched and the other high. and playing.23 frevo. bass. before that. to an outdoor area where the feijoada took place. The feijoada—a traditional dish made with black beans and pork—is related symbolically to the duo of solo pigs and to the “pagan liturgy” of the “Missa dos Escravos” (“Slaves Mass”). Over the course of fifteen years. Cazes 85– 89). see Campos 67 –70. winds. would come together to fraternize and restore the energy expended during the week. He also played in dance bands or in ˜ night-clubs in Recife. drinking.199. the percussion. . in which the female vocalist Flora Purim forms part of a somewhat unconventional trio with two soloist pigs. we find Hermeto in society. cities where he lived between 1950 and 1970. and there Hermeto and the musicians of the Group would alternate eating.148 L. Radio Tamandare. when the Pascoal family and the families of the musicians. play the 32 and 80 bass accordion. the alliterations and experimental vocal resources of the tunes ´ “Magimani Sagei” and “Mestre Mara” allude. a self-taught musician. Hermeto played on a ´ ´ ´ ´ local radio station. The instruments (Fender Rhodes piano. bringing them back from the collective unconscious and making them come alive in the mythical space-time of music. playing choro. and Sao Paulo. The compositions analyzed in this section demonstrate the presence of an archaic Brazil in the mind’s eye of Hermeto and reveal how the composer incorporates various figures marginalized in the history of Brazil. at the beginning of the twentieth century and. The “Missa dos Escravos” of the Hermeto Pascoal family divided the same menu as the festivities and feijoadas of the black samba and choro musicians at the house of Tia Ciata. ˜ He began his professional career as a musician. as well as other guests. and later. With his brother. Jose Neto. the Pascoal family followed ´ Hermeto to Recife (PE) in 1950. Rio de Janeiro. or any other instrument that might earn him a fee on radio or in night-clubs. percussion.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 I also believe that a certain profane celebration was an important part of the calendar of the house in Jabour: Dona Ilza’s feijoada on Saturdays. on Radio Jornal do Comercio. Hermeto. baiao. in turn. and Sao Paulo (1961). guitar. learned to read and write music. surrounded by a large number of family members and guests.7.) were moved from the second floor to the first. Leaving Lagoa da Canoa. and jazz trios and 24 quartets (SambrasaTrio and SomQuatro). the bamboo flutes ( pıfanos). flute. His broadened perception.

“Suite Paulistana” (1979). and guitar). harmonies.” and had come from the less economically advantaged classes of the Northeast. timbres.7. Sul.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 ´ instrumentalists. and avoiding any form of external influence. people would be critical: “You can’t play jazz chords. (Pascoal.Popular Music and Society 149 Downloaded by [199. especially the ˜ interior of the State of Sao Paulo). At a time in which popular instrumental music in ˜ the Rio-Sao Paulo corridor was dominated by bands that combined jazz with the harmonies of the bossa nova and the rhythms of the samba—and the improvised solos were strongly influenced by American bebop—it was up to the pioneering Quarteto Novo to change the “accent” and use Northeastern scales. the group split up in 1969. and artists of the urban left.199. and composers of art music is clearly demonstrated by the orchestral arrangements of. Hermeto. however. arrangers. and Airto Moreira (drums and percussion). arrangers. In addition to Hermeto Pascoal (flute. Wanting Brazilian music to be only from Brazil is like trying to put the wind in a bag. it was what my head wanted. Leste. and no one can put sound in a bag. “Suite Mundo Grande” (“Big Wide World Suite”). Oeste” (“North. electric guitars. “below. marking his transition from instrumentalist hired by local radio stations and nightspots to internationally renowned arranger and composer. the ie-ie-ie of the jovem guarda. for example. while at the same time allowing him to develop as an arranger. based on rural folklore. Hermeto joined the Trio Novo. During the years of the military dictatorship (1964– 85) anything that might serve as an icon of the culture of the ˆ ˆ ˆ colonizing power—such as jazz. and rhythms in their music. “Carinhoso” (1973). 1999) ´ ´ Inspired by the nationalist modernism of Mario de Andrade. which changed its name to the Quarteto Novo. After having recorded a disc for Odeon in 1967. “Suite Pixitotinha” (not released commercially).” “pure” Brazilian music. folk culture did not have the same . South. The song festivals in which he participated as an instrumentalist and arranger between 1967 and 1970 consolidated his music reading and writing skills. as his “songs for the barricades” show (Napolitano 125). Theo de Barros (guitar and bass). ´ students. Music belongs to the world. rock and roll. piano. and conductors working in radio—such as Clovis Pereira ´ ´ dos Santos. His contact with conductors. and Radames Gnatalli—enabled Hermeto gradually to learn the art of instrumentation and arrangement. and tropicalismo—would be furiously bombarded by the intellectuals. East and West Suite”). Personal Interview 6 Mar. “Suite Norte. This group represented the mid-point of Hermeto’s career. came from the first floor. the Quarteto Novo included Heraldo do Monte (electric guitar and viola caipira—a type of viola common in Southeastern Brazil.” But they weren’t jazz chords. of which Vandre was an ardent militant (see Calado 106– 13). For him. besides the compositions: “Sinfonia em quadrinhos”. Hermeto told me in an interview that one of the reasons for the short duration of the ´ Quarteto Novo was the nationalist mission of Geraldo Vandre: When I used to play a very modern chord.25 In 1966. Cesar Guerra Peixe. Geraldo Vandre proposed the creation of an “authentic.

television ˜ and cinema with samba. and was always battling with every kind of institution. demonstrating the group’s disdain for ie-ie-ie ´ and rock and roll. rumba. The project was ˆ ˆ ˆ vehemently rejected by the Quarteto. says that the avant-garde. . and also added musical input from the avant-garde music and the concrete poets ˜ from Sao Paulo (Favaretto 106). I went to the USA with my own way of working and the desire to change the habit that obliged Brazilians to go there to learn from American musicians . Hermeto’s conflict with the urban ´ intelligentsia represented by Geraldo Vandre. ´ Hermeto not only rejected the nationalist “purism” of Vandre but also the other ´ alternative path which opened up during the time of the song festivals. such as the carnivalized celebration of modernity and commercial popular music. on the one hand. . nor samba. Becker. baiao. I wanted to show something that isn’t jazz. led by Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. You can take that any way you like. than the use of foreign musical elements. the Quarteto Novo was invited by Gilberto Gil to accompany him in the song “Domingo no parque. “Experimental .199. nor tropicalia. ´ Neither nationalist modernism. As Treece (207 – 13) so aptly observed. I make music and I am Brazilian. such a project meant confinement and repetition: folk music was not something that needed to be discovered. . or artificially produced. in his landmark study (9– 25).7. Hermeto’s objections to tropicalia. . with the Northeastern sound of the Quarteto. including the transnational record companies and the conventional communications media. the experimental popular musical production of Hermeto Pascoal should serve as an alert to researchers in demonstrating that the tropicalist vanguard did not have a monopoly on innovation in Brazilian music. Costa-Lima Neto ´ “authentically nationalist” associations that it had for Vandre.” and sometimes never finding a space at all. reinvented. The tropicalists invoked the anthropophagic cannibalism of Oswald de Andrade. Interview with Lena Zwarg 5) Downloaded by [199. were more to do with the characteristics of the movement. I preferred to state elsewhere that Hermeto was an experimental popular musician. For this reason. a capoeira afoxe. Inspired by the recent model of the Beatles’ Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967).” which was competing in the song festival on TV Record (see Calado 121– 22). Conception” 1 –3). If. Howard S. . tropicalia. (Pascoal. This is not the case for Hermeto. nor bossa nova. bolero.150 L. for the artists of the urban middle class. because I am tired of all that! . and rock and roll.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . the search for “national” identity signified the discovery and preservation of “distant” rural culture. even though the composer himself does not include himself in any existing current artistic movement or label (Costa-Lima Neto. together with an orchestra and an electric guitar. staked out the personal path which Hermeto would choose to follow. Gil wanted to combine the ´ basic rhythm of the song. In 1967. and with the avantgarde of popular music represented by Gilberto Gil on the other. for Hermeto. . however. is generally absorbed by tradition and its conventional channels. a self-taught musician. blending songs disseminated by radio. . Yes. who came from a rural environment. rhythms from Umbanda. in spite of “facing serious difficulties in seeing its work performed.

Chick Corea. Hermeto’s appearance became very much “pop.26 It was his heterogeneous mixture of jazz and free jazz with the folk music of Northeastern Brazil. and saxophone. became a type of instrumental anthem of Brazilian musicians. while they were working on the harvest. I am Brazilian and very proud of it. Gil Evans. moves freely between the backyard and the concert hall. rapidly gaining a place for himself in American and European jazz circles through his virtuoso improvisations on the piano. among others). On the latter disc. However. Downloaded by [199.” Parts I and II) was considered to be one of the best songs of the year by English critics (Marcondes 606– 07). 1971). in order to arrange the songs on the LPs Natural Feelings and Seeds on the Ground (Buddah Records.Popular Music and Society 151 The Space Outside the House (1970–80): International In 1970. brought him fame and. on the one hand. hats. for example. Nevertheless. but the only label I will ever ´ accept for my music is Universal” (Pascoal.7. Shortly before his trip to the US. after his trip. 1970. the same irreverent musician who does improvised duets with pigs. Tudo e som 8). In this sense. chickens. white hair of the albino musician seem to point back to the counterculture and hippies of the 1960s at the peak of psychodelia. together with his virtuosity as a performer and the compositions and arrangements which combined viola caipira.” a beautiful ballad in G minor. and long. Hermeto records and arranges a song composed by his parents around 1941 in Alagoas. at the time of the Quarteto Novo and the ´ ideological correctness of the nationalist Geraldo Vandre. much more than mere “exoticism” or “eccentricity. and chamber ensembles in Brazil and abroad. birds and cicadas.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . as confirmed by the important statement: “I do not play Brazilian music. dogs. on the other. instrumental groups. The experimental “O Galho da roseira” (“The Rose Stem. His new look. which earned Hermeto a special place outside Brazil. since he gained international recognition in the US as an arranger for orchestras and big bands in his first disc under his own name in 1972 (Hermeto Pascoal: Brazilian Adventure) and got to know important jazzmen (Miles Davis. and experimental music (Berendt 36– 45). Herbie Hancock. in order to blur categories further and shock art music and popular purists. flute. Ron Carter. made him a permanent target of criticism from orthodox musicians. qtd in Santos Neto. The journey represented an important turning point for Hermeto. big band and an orchestra of tuned bottles. big bands. percussion. along with the couple Airto and Flora Purim. in the LP Montreux Jazz Festival (1979). as well as through his arrangements and original compositions. Joe Zawinul. recorded a year before Hermeto finally became established in Brazil.28 The title track “Montreux. Wayne Shorter. unkempt.27 This mixture is present. Hermeto went to the US. added to other unusual features—such as the musical use of animal sounds and unconventional sound sources—helped to form a somewhat “exotic” public image which.199.” Hermeto’s dress is a symbol of the composer’s break with musical nationalism. blending embolada with art music in compositions for symphony orchestras.” The multi-colored shirts. free jazz. Hermeto used to wear a suit and tie and keep his hair quite short.

which ended with a glass of beer being unceremoniously poured over the unfortunate instrument.000 keyboard from Hermeto’s relentless assault. Hermeto now had considerable national and international experience. Costa-Lima Neto Ritornello (1981– 93): Feast of the Gods Around them. that of music and power. producer and factotum Mauro Wermelinger could do little to protect the $3. (Attali 21) In 1980. irritated by the delay in loading cartridges with animal sounds and others. nor did the Group’s expectations. the autonomous activity of artisans. The recording company delayed the delivery of the CD. “I am not going to advertise a sampler manufacturer!” bellowed Hermeto at a show in Rio de Janeiro during the 1980s—which I attended—while he was whacking his Ensonic keyboard with his shoe. as well as his constant rebellion against owners of radio stations. . Hermeto refuses to be exploited by the culture industry. his dream for a traveling ensemble did not materialize. In the same way. Hermeto saw an opportunity for him and the “boys in the Group” to get some financial return after a long drought by recording once again for Polygram. 1973). .7. at the age of 44. year after year. and retaining the autonomy of the accordionist and farmer who does not see himself as a musical hack. However. Try as he may. As yet another proof of their lack of interest in promoting their new artist. setting himself apart from the anonymous labor force used by the music industry and forming a community built on family and neighborhood ties with the musicians of the Group at his house in Jabour (Travassos Letter). Downloaded by [199. he continues the tradition of making music in the family. by recording the LP Cerebro Magnetico (Magnetic Mind. and after recording five discs for the independent label Som da Gente. Conception” 41–83). . His dream was to use the proceeds from the new CD to buy a bus which could take him and the Group all over Brazil presenting shows. With his experimentation based on the popular rural traditions of the Northeast. Almost twenty years after having recorded his first disc in ´ Brazil of his own compositions. based on family units. twelve years after having terminated his contract ´ ´ with Warner Bros. the LP A musica livre de Hermeto Pascoal (The Free Music of Hermeto Pascoal. synthesizers. seems to partially explain Hermeto’s suspicious attitude toward the technology of samplers. Hermeto returned to Brazil and finally formed a fixed group of musicians who accompanied him for twelve years from the end of 1981 to 1993. and as a consequence when the European tour to launch the disc took place (between September and November of 1992) the product was not available for sale. .199. and the like. on a daily basis. and recording companies. a strange round dance .137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . the day-to-day labors of men. 1992) exemplifies the struggle between Hermeto and the majors. after various international trips. Hermeto was able to reinvent the socio-economic rural traditions of his childhood (see Costa-Lima Neto. The CD Festa dos deuses (Feast of the Gods. 1980). With them. “Experimental . The popular tradition of the Northeast.152 L. nightspots. but it was the first time in his career that he had the same group of musicians at his disposal.

producing a wide variety of mixtures. among them the samba “Pelo telefone” (“Over the Phone. do not prevent the various dwellers in the house from exploring their common endowment of musical Brazilian-ness or. and experimentalism. in the case of Hermeto. in turn. thus creating new hybrid species. and with little prospect of financial reward. popular musicians have been negotiating their place in twentieth. This was the last straw for Hermeto. or make the CD available for sale during the event. . the colony to the metropolis. the city to the farm. produced at the sambistas sessions at the house of Tia Ciata. choro. and ethnic identities. the music of the Americas blended with the music of Africa. and the local to the international. the musicians created variations for the daily ritual which they had become accustomed to during the 1981 – 93 period. and.29 After the break-up of the Group.7.199. the feast of the Gods had finally come to an end. shared over the internet. continued to develop and broaden the same soundmusic paradigm from his childhood in Lagoa da Canoa. somewhat rare in popular music in Brazil. but also something which is the hallmark of Hermeto Pascoal: the balance between tradition and contemporaneity. and shortly afterwards broke his contract with this powerful transnational recording company (Santos Neto. tropicalia. ´ ´ musica sertaneja. Hermeto went beyond the barriers between Northeastern modalism. frevo. These differences. to the sound files of Hermeto Pascoal & Group. by combining the instruments which he learned to play and blending the musical styles which he got to know over the course of his career. class. Europe. he couldn’t restrain his irritation during the show. and the Musica Universal of Hermeto Pascoal constitute different musical expressions of distinct regional. Feeling that he had been boycotted. bossa nova. ´ ´ Bandas de Musica. arrangement. several months after these events. noise as music.” 1916). The bassist ˆ Itibere Zwarg told me in an interview that while coming back home from a rehearsal the musicians of the Group tried to improvise rhythms and melodies in odd meters of five and seven pulses. however.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 ´ PolyGram also failed to publicize the official show launching the CD at the Sala Cecılia Meireles. Crossing the “cultural dividers” which link the rooms of a house. Symbolically traversing the “biombos culturais” in his house. In this urban house with open windows. RJ. I believe that this musical game demonstrates how the “Jabour School” had taught them not only interpretation. and Asia (see Hosokawa). popular artists interchange heterogeneous musical genres. and composition. samba.and twenty-firstcentury Brazilian society. the Group broke up. jovem guarda. 2008).Popular Music and Society 153 Downloaded by [199.30 Conclusion: Brasil Universo From the first phonograph recordings in Brazil. Thus. finally. After twelve years of working together and producing a considerable output of music. MPB. the tonality of popular music. the universal dimension contained in this endowment of Brazilian-ness. in the same way that they link the house to the street. E-mail 25 Feb. Hermeto Pascoal. contemporary atonality.

199. For this reason. and critics as being the principal tradition of popular music in ´ Brazil. resistance. In reality. in theory. the inclusion of few artists and the exclusion of many. internet). only in 1888 (see Alencastro 93). and avant-garde music.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . In fact. rock and roll. The example of the samba demonstrates how the phenomenon of musical nationalization and/or popularization in modern and contemporary Brazil is related to three factors. the broadcasts smothering the sounds of the choro groups.” The gesture of insubordination from the Northeastern migrant Hermeto Pascoal exposes the other side of the carnivalized image associated with the country. the frevo orchestras. Costa-Lima Neto In spite of the musical diversity of Brazil. However. This occurred. and clashes. nor allow himself to be transformed into merchandise for the consumer society. and hip hop. there exist various other popular musical traditions. independent of national musical traditions. and c) massification promoted by ´ the culture industry.” to the extent that industry promotes a sort of generalized musical de-territorialization. accepted canonically by artists. furthermore.154 L. bossa nova. producers. The processes of musical media-ization in Brazil had as an effect. tends toward contemporary globalization. only three genres—samba. TV. as the musician was not co-opted by the State. Tropicalia is attributed the role of the rupturer of this tradition by introducing musical elements from pop. such as rock and roll. besides the black racial problem. the richest in the country. and the urban pianeiros. ´ “Nova Historia” 85). His contestational discourse goes against the national myths of “racial democracy” ´ and “mestizo cordiality” used politically since the government of Getulio Vargas with the aim of integrating the contingents of black workers and rural migrants into the new urban and white “civilized order. and in addition to these there are the Brazilian musicians who play non-Brazilian musical genres. punk. For this reason Hermeto’s “universalizing” aesthetic project is loaded with tension. The Musica Universal of Hermeto does not fit into any of the vectors. did not become associated with any nationalist or vanguardist ideologies of the urban intelligentsia. the Bandas de ´ Musica. funk. Brazil was the last country in the world to abolish slavery. metal. they are “transplanted and freed from the frontiers of time and space” through “interaction with the system of mass communications” (discs. which may or may not be combined: a) political co-option of the artist by the State. audience. The huge influence of the Indian Downloaded by [199. paradoxically.” that is to say. qtd by Ulhoa. both in the political-ideological sphere and in the economic sphere. for example. b) ideological legitimatization. and. when the samba was media-ized by ´ ´ Radio Nacional during the dictatorship of the Estado Novo instituted by Getulio Vargas. radio. jovem guarda. the industrial era problematizes the categories of “people” and “nation. Modern transnationalization. weaving a critical parody of “traditional” Brazilian music. at the margin of the official historiography constructed around only three or four musical genres from the Southeastern region of Brazil. any style or genre can be massified ˆ by the communications media and become “popular music” (see Malm. dance. and MPB—are included in the same developmental line.7. since the days of radio and records. there is the indigenous question. through which national popular music traditions are “media-ized. with TV and internet.

Candomble. embolada. choro.7. in ´ the Northeastern Bandas de pıfano. but a different Indian. Hermeto rejects the “real world. the indigenous caboclos. Going to Jabour to attend the rehearsals of Hermeto & Group meant re-entering Brazil through the back door. art music. etc). Competing for a space on the popular instrumental music scene. To conclude.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . besides the fact that there are 225 Indigenous peoples. frevo. but a fusion of the two: “For me nature is everything you see in front of you. and in this way. forro. etc. on the other. atonal and inharmonic sonorities found in nature (animal sounds. the most important co-ordinates of the syncretic cosmological system of Hermeto. which also includes choro. regional (rural folk music: Banda de pıfano. bossa nova. However.Popular Music and Society 155 population on the spoken language. In combining the “conventional” with the “natural. which cohabit and blend in his singular musical system. and jazz. wooden shoes. in which archaic and modern Brazil clash. The uniqueness of Hermeto’s music lies in the uncommon capacity of the composer to establish a dialogue between. adaptation to the environment. totalling 734.” In his utopia. food. probably the oldest instrumental group in Brazil. human speech) and in unconventional everyday sound objects (pieces of iron. ´ “Vivendo musica” 48). world music). the indigenous contribution from being looked down on or even annulled by the modern Brazilian nation-state (see Bastos). where music loses its artistic “aura” and becomes merchandise. different from the “real world. Although practically forgotten by musical historiography Amerindian musical-ritual elements underlie countless folk manifestations found in vast regions of the country as.” the composer creates a third hybrid substance. on recalling his childhood in the Northeast and the flutes that he used to make by hand. that is to say. “I was just like an Indian. domestic habits. the vocabulary and instruments of “conventional” ethnic (indigenous and Afro´ ´ Brazilian).000 Indians that speak around 180 languages (see Ricardo 7).” The word “utopia” itself can be defined as a “non-place” or a “place that does not exist” and is normally used in the sense of a search for an “idealized” and “fantasy” world. Hermeto Pascoal is something quite unique in the popular music of Brazil. samba) and international styles (jazz. for example. black and white. does not prevent. It is daily life” (Pascoal. Downloaded by [199.” says Hermeto (Pascoal “Enfim”). Hermeto’s professional trajectory in the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries can be defined as “utopian. frevo. The multi-colored clothing of the albino musician reveals his anthropophagic cultural identity as a “second skin. on the one hand. flasks for oral hygiene. as well as the tropicalist avant-garde and comercial music for the masses. and removed from the national traditions built around folk music. and MPB.” and ´ struggles to keep intact the singular authenticity of his “sacred” Musica Universal. which is no longer either one or the other. Umbanda. the popular Catholicism of the Northeast and spiritism.” Indian. pans. free. to have access to all that which seemed to be repressed by the ethnic and cultural inferiority complex of Brazilian society: ´ popular cooking. Brazilian ´ urban popular music (Bandas de Musica. black slaves. religion.199.” the “profane world. samba. even in the commercial world of the contemporary culture industry.). unfortunately. and.

and thereby consolidates his position as a pioneer in the history of popular music in Brazil. Hermeto’s son. Acknowledgements I would like to thank the anonymous reviewers of Popular Music and Society for their helpful comments and criticisms. he appears to be more at home than ever before. Fabio Pascoal. or beef. Costa-Lima Neto Downloaded by [199. conflict. neocolonialism and the economic oppression practiced by the big transnational record companies (see Bishop). Through his Musica Universal.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 considering the recent site.” passed through the ritual of renovation and re-encountered his public in “another world. goat. As a reaction to global capitalism. defensive and xenophobic nationalistic posturing. for his generosity. . 1985. The sixth and last disc was recorded at PolyGram in 1992. Pianist and composer Jovino Santos Neto for the important information sent through the mail and finally. projected in the transnational and transpopular media-ized dimension. a “different kind of Indian. the musician has gone beyond the frontiers between the “cultural dividers” of town and country. and mixture of cultures. the albino musician Hermeto Pascoal. ˜ and producer Mauro Brandao Wermelinger for the interviews he kindly gave me. at times in a highly radical way. Warner. and class relations of Brazilian society. the colonized reproduction of European and North American models and.199. Notes [1] “Panelada” is a typical dish from the Northeast region of Brazil. Tom Moore and Geoffrey Gilbert for the translation. racial. to be referred to by their Christian names. A similar procedure to ´ this is used in the Musica Universal. besides the complexity of ´ political. the rural Northeastern emigre superimposed modernity on the past and begins to exercise experimentation and innovation through tradition and everyday life.” makes use of modern internet technology to try to achieve his pre-capitalist religious utopia. Accordingly. band leader and multi-instrumentalist Hermeto Pascoal overcomes.” in the virtual space of the internet. musician. and EMI) through a surprising strategy of cultural resistance. mixed with vegetables and rice. on the one hand. Sean Stroud. In a long saga that took him to countless Brazilian ´ ´ and foreign cities. friend and colleague. such as Hermeto Pascoal. Universal/Vivendi.156 L. 1987. joined the Group. Teacher. This practice will be followed in this article. “universalizing” himself in an act of cultural cannabilism.7. 1984. the “wizard of sound” has ploted his “time-suppression machine. economic. [3] In 1988. [4] Five of these six discs were recorded at a small independent record label Som da Gente (Sound of Our People) in 1982.31 Dribbling the Big 5 Labels (BMG. the Brazilian composer. 1989. podcasts and virtual communities on the internet. Sony. [2] It is common practice in Brazilian academic writing for well-known public figures. It is made with the offal of mutton. Violence and harmony: his “BrazilianUniversal” cultural identity reveals the hybrid nature that characterizes countries formed from the shock. resulting from Portuguese colonial influence. on the other.

” Listen also to Hermeto performing the “music of aura” of the French actor Yves Montand on Hermeto Pascoal’s Aura of Sound of Yves Montand. Hilaria Batista de Almeida. [17] It is interesting to note that. In 1998 – 99. because of his visual deficiency. is a dish linked directly to the presence of blacks in Brazil. was born in Salvador.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . 1943). see Caracterizacao Terra Indigena Xukuru – Kariri. including ´ other religions such as Catholicism. yeah’” (Ulhoa. in addition to non-conventional sound objects. see Hermeto Pascoal Sinfonia do Alto Ribeira. [16] “Dense description” is a type of ethnographic description which seeks not only to narrate the facts as they present themselves superficially to the eyes of an observer. during my Master’s course. Friends. Musica sertaneja in the 1980s became the most widely consumed mass musical genre in Brazil. See Guidon. [10] “The ‘young guard’ emerged in opposition to the ‘old guard’ (velha guarda).” “Tres coisas. Hermeto was not accepted by teachers of musical theory. See Geertz (13 – 41). ˆ [11] The drummer Marcio Bahia married one of Hermeto’s daughters and the bassist Itibere Zwarg chose Hermeto and his wife. I note that in popular Afro-Brazilian ´ syncretism Saint George corresponds to the warrior Orixa Ogum and Saint Anthony to the ´ ´ hunter Orixa Oxossi. ´ [19] On the location of Indigenous Lands near to Palmeira dos Indios and Lagoa da Canoa. [15] Listen also to “Caminho do sol. ´ [9] The samba-exaltacao “Aquarela do Brasil”—the musical symbol of the Estado Novo of Getulio ¸˜ Vargas—acquired international projection when it formed part of the soundtrack of Walt ˆ Disney’s film “Alo amigos” (Hello. a ´ ´ ´ ´ French Calvinist pastor: “Pira-uassu a ueh” (“Tasty Fish”) and “Canide-iune” (“Yellow Bird”). See Napolitano (18). Hugo Fatoruso. in which the Orixas (divinities) are worshipped. The movement is also known as ‘ie. one of the symbols of Brazilian cuisine. in accordance with codes socially established by the natives of a specific cultural group. pork. a religion brought to Brazil ´ ´ by the Africans. on 23 April 1854. Flora Purim. strings.” 1999). arriving in Rio de Janeiro in 1876. For prehistoric rock paintings in Brazil. Bahia. the Group which accompanied Hermeto was made up of ˆ ˆ ˆ Nene. to be the godparents of his children.” and “Pensamento Positivo. among keyboard. [8] Feijoada. See Santos Neto (Tudo ´ som 8). simulating a Northeastern Banda de pıfanos. Kardec spiritualism. the Beatles song ‘She loves you yeah. e [14] Umbanda is a religion marked by the fusion and syncretism of various elements. State of Sao Paulo. It is made with black beans. I went to four rehearsals in Jabour between 1987 and 1992. and Itibere. see Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano. [12] The Friday rehearsals were open to the public. See Desenho Aquarela do Brasil. wind. I went twice to the house to interview Hermeto. David Amaro. Tributo ao papagaio Floriano” (“Path of the Sun. Pernambuco. ˆ ´ ˆ ´ yeah. They lived together for forty-eight years and had six children before her death several years ago. and jerky. Tia Ciata. but to interpret what these facts signify in a particular context. transcribed in 1558 by Jean de Lery. Zabele. Airto Moreira. and is the result of the mixture of European culinary customs with the creativity of the African slave. a term used to ˆ ˆ ˆ refer to traditional samba composers. [13] Hermeto married Dona Ilza in Pernambuco in 1954.7.” “Vai mais Garotinho. In this solo disc released in 1999 (“Eu e eles”). and Alphonso Johnson. which problably refers to its most likely source of inspiration. ie’.199. yeah. and Candomble. Hermeto plays forty sound sources. a Tribute to Floriano the Parrot. “Musica Romantica in Montes Claros” 13). [21] The Group formed by Hermeto at this time included Ron Carter. Raul de Souza. ie. Ilza. Downloaded by [199. Jovino. ´ ˜ [7] For Hermeto playing the pıfano accompanied by his Group. See Hermeto Pascoal: Eu e Eles Parte 3—Final. ˆ [18] Listen to “Tiruliruli. ¸˜ It is interesting to note that the first known descriptions of Amerindian music in Brazil are ´ ´ two ritual chants of the Tupinamba of Rio de Janeiro. in 1985.Popular Music and Society 157 ´ [5] Tios and Tias were the names given to the leaders of Candomble. ¸˜ [20] At the time of this excellent disc. ´ See Lery. sausage. For this reason he taught himself to read and write music. Pessis. the instrumentation of which includes a whistling section and ´ percussion. Chester Thompson. Cacau. [6] The oldest datings of prehistoric archeology in Brazil go back 50.000 years. and percussion instruments.

´ ´ Andrade. ˜ Berendt. ´ ´ Andrade. 1928. including “Chorinho para ele” (“Chorinho ´ for Him. “O aviao brasileiro” 91). O Jazz: do rag ao rock. 2007. in addition to this song. “Who Are the Pirates? The Politics of Piracy. Rafael Jose de Menezes. Vanguarda europeia e modernismo ´ brasileiro: apresentacao e crıtica dos principais manifestos vanguardistas. Regina. see Jovino Santos’s website. Available at Miscelanea Vanguardiosa. ˜ in 1916 – 17. Luiz Felipe de. cuida de la” (“Kids. Cacau. ´ Cajazeira. NM: U of Minnesota P. Sao Paulo: Editora Perspectiva. a kind of “Universal-Brazilian Suite” with four parts ´ (Banda de Musica—samba—jazz—samba). Print. finally. with lyrics by Joao de Barro. 2. See “Choro arabe” (“Arab Choro”) at Hermeto Pascoal e Big Band. ¸ ˆ ˆ [28] The Group in Montreux was made up of the musicians Nene.” ˆ (“Curdled Milk”) on the 1965 LP. Tropicalia: a historia de uma revolucao musical. Tradicao e Modernidade: o perfil das Bandas de Pıfano de Marechal ¸˜ Deodoro—Alagoas. See Hermeto and Group live in Montreux on Hermeto Pascoal: Live at Montreux Jazz Festival. Belo Horizonte: Editora Itatiaia. Jack. Rosangela Pereira de Tugny. Gilberto Velho. Listen to a excerpt of “Suite Pixototinha”. 115– 27. Howard S. Print. Brasılia: INL. Mario de. corresponding to the four stages of Hermeto’s career (rural Brazil—urban Brazil—international—urban Brazil/Ritornello) at Hermeto Pascoal e Grupo: Live in Spain 1985. in which Hermeto alternates between playing the flugelhorn section and the acoustic piano. Hermeto dedicated to Miles Davis the composition “Capelinha e lembrancas” (“Little Chapel and Memories”) ¸ (1999). ´ ´ ˜ Calado.1 (2004): 101– 06.” 1977). Joachim E. Sao Paulo: Editora 34. Oswald de. and.” Popular Music and Society 27. 9 – 25. Zabele and Nivaldo Ornellas. and Greed in a Globalized Music Market. [23] Hermeto has various choros in his repertoire. See “Little Chapel and Memories” at Hermeto Pascoal: Eu e Eles Parte 2. ¸ Attali. “O Manifesto Antropofagico. Print. Minneapolis. Fernando Novais A. Ed. Gilberto ¸˜ ´ ´ Mendonca Teles. 1997. Works Cited ´ ´ Alencastro. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Jorge Zahar. Ed. [30] See “Luz e som” (“Light and Sound”). “Vida Privada e ordem privada no Imperio. [24] With whom he had one of his first recorded compositions. ¸˜ . Ensaio sobre a musica brasileira. Orkut. 1976. 1977. Costa-Lima Neto Downloaded by [199. Carlos.” 1928. Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG. “O ındio na musica brasileira: recordando quinhentos anos de ´ ´ ˆ esquecimento. Petropolis: Vozes. ´ Becker. ´ [27] On the track “Velorio” (“Mourning”) (1972). 2006. 21. respectively.” Arte e sociedade. Pernambuco. Alagoas: EDUFAL. Itibere Zwarg. Marcio Bahia. at Hermeto Pascoal and Orchestra. “Mundos artısticos e tipos sociais. as well as singing in a pan of water. ´ and Fabio Pascoal continue to play with Hermeto. 1985. ˆ [31] See Hermeto Pascoal’s official website. “Salve Copinha. Bishop.” and “Chorinho MEC” (1999). For more on the Group. 1997. Print. Miscelanea Vanguardiosa. Itibere Zwarg. 2006. Watch Yourself ”). 13 – 93. Editora da Universidade Federal de Alagoas. while pursuing solo activities. Print.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 [22] Embolada is a poetic-musical genre in which the “difficulties of diction transform the singing into a game of vocal dexterity which distracts the listener’s attention from the semantic ˜ content to the ‘sonorous value’ of the words” (Travassos.158 L. Hermeto uses fifty-two ´ tuned bottles in “Criancas.199. Ed. Print. Live Evil. Poverty.” Musicas africanas e indıgenas no Brasil. Print. ´ ´ ´ Bastos. Ed.7. 1987. the soundtrack “Coalhada. Print. for orchestra. Jacques. Noise: The Political Economy of Music. Jovino ˆ Santos. on Miles Davis. Sao Paulo: Companhia das Letras. [25] “Carinhoso” was originally composed by the choro composer and instrumentalist Pixinguinha. [26] Listen to “Little Church” and “Nem um talvez”. ´ [29] Jovino Santos and Carlos Malta left the Group for solo careers and were replaced by Andre ˆ ´ Marques (keyboard) and Vinicius Dorin (wind). Print.” Historia da vida privada no ´ ˜ Brasil: Imperio. Print.

˜ Cassoli. Sao ´ ´ ´ ˜ Marcondes. Hosokawa.ufba. Ed. MD: Scarecrow.” 2006. modernismo e musica popular.” Interview with Mario Adnet. Print. 2004.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 91 (2000): 119– 42.pdf.http://teses. do quintal ao Municipal. um homem comum. Ed. Viagem a terra do Brasil. ¸˜ ˜ Cazes.. Sao Paulo: Cia. Mitologicas. Vol. Print.1 (2000): 95– 118. “A 1. Print. Marcos. ´ ` Lery. 2004. 2008.http://teses.” Revista Usp. Buckingham: Open UP. 11 June 2009 . Print. “Da Casa de Tia Ciata a Casa da Famılia Hermeto Pascoal no bairro do ´ ´ Jabour: Tradicao e pos-modernidade na vida e na musica de um compositor popular ¸˜ ´ experimental no Brasil. O violao azul. 1998. Master’s Diss. Sao Paulo: Cosac & Naif.” Oswald Plural.” Interview with Inacio Franca. 1578. Hermeto. folclorica e popular. Chapell Hill. Antes e Depois de Oswald. Recife: Timbro Comunicacao. 9 April 2009 .Popular Music and Society 159 ´ ´ Campos. ¸˜ ´ ´ ´ Guidon. 1998. Sao Paulo. Rio de Janeiro: EdUERJ. Ed. Vida do viajante: A saga de Luiz Gonzaga. O Globo.” Historia dos ´ndios no Brasil. ´ ———. Print. ´ ´ ˜ Levi-Strauss. Revista Continente Aug.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 . 1989. Web. alegria. Luiz Augusto Falcao. ———.http://www. Claude. Lucia Pompeu de Freitas. Cliford. Music in Imperial Rio de Janeiro: European Culture in a Tropical Milieu. 15 Oct. Trans. Print. Rio de Janeiro: Editora da ´ Fundacao Getulio Vargas. “Hermeto Brasileiro Universal. Christopher. Marcos Anto Paulo: PubliFolha. 1992. “Enfim. Luiz. ¸˜ ´ ˜ Naves. ˜ polifonias e fusoes paradoxais.. Universidade do Rio de Janeiro. “As ocupacoes pre-historicas do Brasil.musicodobrasil. Fausto Borem. Sao ¸˜ Paulo: Editora Fundacao Perseu Abramo. 82. Musicos do Brasil: Uma Enciclopedia Instrumental. ˜ Dreyfus. ´ ˆ ˜ Favaretto. Middleton. Lanham. Brutality Garden: Tropicalia and the Emergence of a Brazilian Counterculture. ¸ Print. Sao Paulo: Cia. Belo Horizonte: Editora Itatiaia. Gilberto Mendonca Teles. das Letras. A interpretacao das culturas. Manuela Carneiro da. Cunha. ¸˜ Pascoal.. Sao Paulo: Atelie Editorial. Jean de. Dominique. 109– 48. 1 July 2009 . ´ ———. Print. Shuhei. 1990.pdf. Frevo: 100 anos de folia. “The Experimental Music of Hermeto Pascoal and Grupo (1981 –1993): A Musical System in the Making. Print. UNIRIO. ´ ´ ´ ˜ ˜ Napolitano. Geertz. Historia dos ´ndios no 1995. into English. 2008. Richard. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.PDF.” 1999. Print. Print. Web. Cristina. Print. ˆnio. Niede. In press. “O Calendario do som e a estetica sociomusical inclusiva de Hermeto Pascoal: emboladas. 2002. Magaldi. no. ´ ˜ Cunha. Downloaded by [199. Humberto M. Print. Ed. 2007. 2001. Sao Paulo: Editora 34. “Singing Contests in the Ethnic Enclosure of the Postwar Japanese-Brazilian Community.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology Sao Paulo: Editora 34. Henrique. Celso. Print. Musicos do Brasil: Uma Enciclopedia Instrumental. I Print. Rio de Janeiro: LTC. 5 April 2009 .199. Print. “The Experimental Music of Hermeto Pascoal and Group (1981– 1993): Conception and ´ ´ Language. ¸ (2004): 13.http:// www.pdf. Ed. UFMG. o forro e as bandas ´ ´ ´ ´ de pıfano na musica de Hermeto Pascoal. Print. 2009. 1992. Print.” Revista Per Musi. O cru e o cozido. 37– 52. Tropicalia. ´ Dunn. Rio de Janeiro: Sarapuı. Ed. ———. Cambraia Santuza. Eneida Leal. “O cantor Hermeto Pascoal: a voz como instrumento. A sıncope das ideias: a questao da tradicao na musica popular brasileira. ´ ` Costa-Lima Neto. ———. 1996. Francisco Costa. ´ Franceschi. Print. 2008. alegoria. and Rodrigo Aguiar. A Casa Edison e seu tempo. musicodobrasil. 2007. das Letras. Print. Print. Studying Popular Music.” Revista Musica & Cultura 3. Manuela ¸˜ I ˜ Carneiro da Cunha. “Tudo isso junto de uma vez so: o choro. NC: U of North Carolina P. Enciclopedia da musica Brasileira. erudita. Choro. (1998): 1. 1980. Master’s Diss. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Print. 1996. 1 – 33. 1998..7.

Rio de Janeiro: UNIRIO. ˆ Zwarg. Pascoal. 25 Feb. Aldershot. Sao Paulo: Hedra. Modernismo e musica brasileira. Mauro Brandao. Ed. Personal interviews. Print.” Ictus ¸˜ ´ (Periodico do PPGMUS/UFBA) 8. ¸˜ 2007. New York: Universal Edition. 1967. 2006. Muniz. Luiz Carlos and Sonia Virgınia Moreira. “Musica Romantica in Montes Claros: Inter-Gender Relations in Brazilian Popular Song. ´ ´ ———. Eu e eles.137] at 12:35 09 November 2011 Discography Beatles. O misterio do samba. Hants: Ashgate. E-mails to the author. ´ ———. ´ ———. 2001. ˜ Wermelinger. 10 Nov. The Defense of Tradition in Brazilian Popular Music.php/ictus/article/viewFile/118/136. PA: Temple UP. Hermano. Sao Paulo: Itau Cultural/Editora Senac. Treece. Print. Print. Reily. Brasil: ´ Fundham/Petrobras. Rio de Janeiro: ¸ ¸˜ Editora Jorge Zahar. ´ Seeger. Som da Gente. 2007. 1998. Hermeto. 80– 100. Sao Paulo: Cia. Jose Miguel. Letter to the author. Print.” O Nacional e o ˜ popular na cultura brasileira.http://www.199. Verdade Tropical. 2 (2007): 7 – 20. 2008. Miles. Web. 2001. 17 Feb. ———. ´ Viana. 11 April 2009 . 2003. Rio de Janeiro: 7 Letras. Print. 1982. 1987. Povos Indıgenas no Brasil: 2001 – 2005. 1998. Print.ictus. 1998): 46 – 59. 17 Feb. 1987. Politics and Popular Culture. ˆ ´ ´ Ulhoa. Mar. das Letras. 1999.. 1997. ´ ´ ˜ ———. 2001. Costa-Lima Neto ———. Travassos. Revista Backstage. Personal interview. Print. ufba. “Nova historia. Downloaded by [199. “Introduction. CD Selo Radio MEC. Analise de uma embolada. Print. Stroud. 1995. 10 June 1997. John. Itibere.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9. ———. Personal interviews. Print. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Parlophone. e ´ ´ Saroldi.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9. ´ Sodre.“Vivendo musica. Carlos.160 L. Cerebro magnetico. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor.” Debates: ´ ´ Cadernos do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em musica. “O aviao brasileiro. ´ Claudia Neiva de Matos. 2004. 24 Jan. Hibridismos musicais de Chico Science & Nacao Zumbi. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor. Elizabeth Travassos and Fernanda Teixeira de Medeiros. Brasil Universo. Sgt. Print. 2005. Print. Print. ´ ˆ ———. 2000. 1997. Sao Paulo: Editora Brasiliense. Print. Anne-Marie. Print. Herom. Jose Ramos. Print. 1997. 1999. 29 Apr. 2001. 2000. ´ ˜ ———. 2008. velhos sons: Notas para ouvir e pensar a musica brasileira popular. Samba. 129– 91. 1979. Print. . Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band. Tudo ´ som: The Music of Hermeto Pascoal.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35 (2003): 207– 13. Live Evil. Radio Nacional: O Brasil em sintonia. ´ ´ ˜ Wisnik. “Review. Mu ´ ´ Pessis. David. 4 Oct. 5. Suzel Ana. 1997. Print. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Jorge Zahar. Caetano.” Interview with Gustavo Souza Leao. Elizabeth.1 (2000): 11 – 40. ¸˜ Print. Why Suya Sing: A Musical Anthropology of an Amazonian People. Sao Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental. Anthony. 1999. 2008. ´ ˆ ˜ ˜ Tinhorao. O Feitico decente: transformacoes do samba no Rio de Janeiro. ´ ´ ———. Print. Philadelphia. Beto and Fany Ricardo. 18 Aug. ———. Imagens da pre-historia: Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara. ´ ˜ Ricardo. Print. Sean James. 2008. Personal interviews. Jovino. 2000. 6 Mar. ˆ ˜ Vargas. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Mauad. 1985. Santos Neto. 1980. Sao Paulo: Atelie Editorial. Street. Print. EMI. Sandroni. “Getulio da Paixao Cearense (Villa-Lobos e o Estado Novo). SONY.1 (2000): 1– 10.7. Ed. O Calendario do som. 2008. 1984. Warner Brasil.” In Ao encontro da palavra cantada. Martha Tupinamba de. Davis. ´ ´ ———. Audio/ ´ sica/Instrumentos 39 (Feb. o dono do corpo. “Inventando moda: a construcao da musica brasileira. ˜ Veloso. The. 1972. A imprensa carnavalesca no Brasil: um panorama da linguagem comica. 2000. Interview with Lena Zwarg.

29 Apr. Sambrasa. 4 May 2009 .asp. 1977. Quarteto Novo. 30 Apr. Hermeto Pascoal and Orchestra. A Musica Livre de Hermeto Pascoal. 2009 .. Festa dos Deuses. 2009 . and Communities Caracterizacao Terra Indigena Xukuru – Kariri. ¸˜ Hermeto Pascoal.http://www. EMI. Airto. Seeds on the Ground. Mundo Verde Esperanca. 2009 . 1967..http://www. ´ ———.org/ ¸˜ Buddha. 2009 . ———.Popular Music and Society ———.http://www. Warner ———. Som da Gente. 2009 . Buddha.http://www. 21 watch?v¼IGFmFywxIa0&feature¼PlayList&p¼2BD67EC9AF590C2B&index¼¼ XTgGc0YMTX4.. 2009 .youtube.. Hermeto Pascoal’s Aura Sound of Yves orquestra/audio. 29 Apr. Moreira. ——— Podcasts. PolyGram.jovisan.http://www. 1988. 29 Apr.hermetopascoal. PolyGram. 2001. 1984. So nao toca quem nao quer. Hermeto Pascoal Grupo. One Way Records. Hermeto Pascoal: Eu e Eles Parte 3—Final. Zabumbe-bum-a. ———. Som da Gente. Slaves Mass. 2002.php?uf¼UF&id_arp¼4001. Hermeto Pascoal: Live at Montreux Jazz Festival. ˆ ´ ———.http://www. 1987.http://www. Som da Gente. ———.hermetopascoal. . Videos. ———. Desenho Aquarela do Brasil. 1979. 7 Apr. 2009 . 29 Apr. 1979. Natural Feelings.199. ¸ ´ ———.miscelaneavanguardiosa. 1992.http://pib. Buddah. ´ ˜ ˜ ———.¼ pnHs057-aqQ&feature¼related. 21 watch?v¼W821bgUU_mY.hermetopascoal. Selo Radio MEC.. 1982. ¸ ´ ———. Hermeto Pascoal ao vivo em Montreux.http://www.http://www. 7 2009 .com.http://www. 1992. 29 watch?v¼SrgveUpwCnM. Trio. Hermeto Pascoal e Grupo: Live in Spain 1985 (Part 5). 2009 . ˆ Miscelanea Vanguardiosa. 2009 .. 29 Apr. Sambrasa Trio em Som Maior. Jovino Santos Neto. 1965.aspx?cmm¼10980. 2009 . Mundo Verde Esperanca. Warner. ———.com/watch?v¼ NQ_BiscK9ZE&feature¼related. Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano. Hermeto Pascoal Sinfonia do Alto Ribeira. Lagoa da Canoa—Municıpio de Arapiraca.. Home page. Som Livre. Warner Brasil. 161 Downloaded by [199. 1971. 16 Apr. Orkut. Muse. One Way Records..7. 22 June 2009 . 7 Apr. asp. 1970. Hermeto Pascoal: Eu e Eles Parte 2.http://www. 2009 . Hermeto Pascoal: Brazilian Adventure. 1979.. Hemerto Pascoal e Big Band. Som da¼] at 12:35 09 November 2011 Websites..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful