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1400's - 1799 History of South Africa

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Contents
Articles
15th century in South Africa 16th century in South Africa Antnio de Saldanha 1600s in South Africa 1640s in South Africa 1650s in South Africa 1660s in South Africa 1670s in South Africa 1680s in South Africa 1690s in South Africa 1700s in South Africa 1710s in South Africa 1720s in South Africa 1730s in South Africa 1740s in South Africa 1750s in South Africa 1760s in South Africa 1770s in South Africa 1780s in South Africa 1790s in South Africa 1800 in South Africa 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 11 13 15 16 17 18 19 21 23 24 25 27 29 31

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 32 33

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15th century in South Africa

15th century in South Africa


15th century in South Africa 13th 14th 15th 16th century 1600s Timeline of South African history

Events
1480s
12 March 1488 - Bartholomew Diaz, a Portugal|Portuguese navigator, lands at what is to become Mossel Bay in the Western Cape Province and erects the first padro (stone cross) on the South African coast 6 June 1488 - Bartolomeu Diaz erects the second padro (stone cross), that's north-east of St. Philip, in Cape Maclear, south of Cape Point, on his return journey to Portugal

1490s
22 November 1497 - Vasco da Gama,who's a Portuguese navigator, discovers the sea route to India around the Cape of Good Hope 25 December 1497 - Vasco da Gama anchored at present day Durban and named it Rio De Natal

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

16th century in South Africa

16th century in South Africa


16th century in South Africa 14th 15th 16th century 1600s 1610s Timeline of South African history

Events
1500s
1503 - Antonio de Saldanha lands at Table Bay

1550s
8 June [1552] - The Portuguese galleon Sao Joo is wrecked near Port Edward. Only 25 out of the 480 survivors who undertook a 165 days march to the mouth of the Maputo River in what is now Mozambique arrived 1554 - The Portuguese ship Saint Benedict is shipwrecked on the coast of what is now called St. Lucia. The survivors named the estuary "Rio de la Medos do Ouro" (River of the dows of Gold)

1570s
13 December 1575 - on the feast of Saint Lucy, Manuel Peresterello renamed "Rio de la Medaos do Oura" to Santa Lucia

1580s
18 July 1580 - An English admiral, Sir Francis Drake, rounded the Cape on his voyage round the world. He called it "a most stately thing and the fairest cape we saw in the whole circumference of the earth"

1590s
1593 - A Portuguese ship, the Santo Alberto is lost off the coast of what is now known as the Wild Coast, Eastern Cape Province 1594 - 1601 - James Lancaster, an English navigator, explores the southern African coast and establishes trade relationships with the Khoikhoi

Deaths
29 May 1500 - Bartolomeu Dias drowns at sea 1 March 1510 - Francisco de Almeida, the Viceroy of Portuguese India, is killed by the Khoikhoi at the mouth of the Salt River in Table Bay on his way back to Portugal

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

Antnio de Saldanha

Antnio de Saldanha
Antnio de Saldanha was a Castilian-Portuguese 16th century captain. He was the first European to set anchor in what is now called Table Bay, South Africa, and made the first recorded ascent of Table Mountain.[1]

Background
Chroniclers Gaspar Correia (p.412) and Ferno Lopes de Castanheda (p.157) identify Antnio de Saldanha as a "Castilian nobleman" who arrived in Portugal around 1497, in the household service of the queen Maria of Aragon. His original Spanish name is unknown, 'Saldanha' being probably just a reference to the Castilian town of Saldaa, from where he might have been originally from.

Expedition of 1503
Being a man of "some nautical experience", Saldanha was appointed to head a squad of three vessels, part of Afonso de Albuquerque's fleet bound for India to reinforce the Portuguese settlement at Cochin.[2] Although accompanying the India fleet, Saldanha's squad was said to have been given separate instructions to patrol the mouth of the Red Sea, and prey on Arab shipping. Saldanha's three-ship squad (himself, Rui Loureno Ravasco and Diogo Fernandes Pereira) set out of Lisbon in early May 1503, intending to catch up with Albuquerque's main fleet, which had gone on ahead. Poor pilotage, however, led to numeous errors. The squad mistakenly sailed into the Gulf of Guinea, Saldanha and Loureno alighting near So Tom, with no idea where their third ship might be (Diogo Fernandes was actually on the proper track, sailing on alone). The remaining two began to make their way painfully south along the African coast, against the contrary winds and currents. Somewhere along the way, Saldanha and Loureno lost sight of each other as well. Again, by poor piloting, Saldanha miscalculated his Cape crossing, and ended up making landfall just north of the Cape of Good Hope. To check if the cape had been surpassed, Saldanha anchored in the hitherto unknown Table Bay, and went ashore.[3] Saldanha thus became the first European to set foot in what was to become modern Cape Town. Saldanha climbed the flat-topped mountain adjacent to the bay and identified the tip of the Cape (Cape Point) further to the south. He named the peak Table Mountain and carved a cross in the rock of a Cape Town: Table Bay (left), Cape Point nearby formation, traces of which can still be found on Lion's Head peninsula (right) and False Bay (behind) today.[4] Saldanha replenished his water supplies at a local watering hole (he also got into a brief skirmish with local Khoikhoi and was slightly wounded), before returning to his ship.[3] Table Bay was promptly named Aguada de Saldanha (Saldanha's watering stop) by Portuguese 16th C. cartographers. In 1601 a Dutch seafarer and cartographer, Joris van Spilbergen identified a bay further to the north of the Cape as Aguada de Saldanha. Henceforth this location became known as Saldanha Bay and the place where Saldanha anchored was renamed Table Bay.[1] Events from here are a bit obscure. It seems after multiple attempts, Saldanha finally doubled the cape, but his ship was in sufficiently poor shape to force him to put into Mossel Bay for repair. A note left at that watering hole says he was still there in October, 1503. During this interlude, Rui Loureno Ravasco was actually waiting for him in Mozambique Island. With no sign of Saldanha, Loureno entertained himself with some freelance piracy on the East African coast, capturing ships off Kilwa and reducing Zanzibar and Barawa to tribute, and battling against Mombassa (who were besieging the Portuguese-allied Malindi). Diogo Fernandes, with still no idea where the others were, was waiting patiently in the mouth of the Red Sea by himself.

Antnio de Saldanha Saldanha finally left South Africa and caught up with Loureno Ravasco at Malindi. They proceeded together to force a treaty on Mombassa, before heading up to the Red Sea. Saldanha and Loureno Ravasco spent the winter of 1503-04 around Cape Guardafui, capturing numerous Arab merchant ships. They were completely ignorant that Diogo Fernandes was just nearby, quietly wintering by himself at the island of Socotra. In the Spring of 1504, entrusting much of their stolen treasures to the safekeeping of the King of Malindi, Saldanha and Loureno Ravasco sailed across the Indian Ocean to India. But badly battered, they were forced to stop for a long period of repairs and rest at Anjediva island, apparently unaware that, at the very moment, a desperate battle was being fought at Cochin, between the small Portuguese garrison and the large army of the Zamorin of Calicut. In September, 1504, Saldanha and Loureno Ravasco were found by 6th India Armada, under the command of Lopo Soares de Albergaria, who helped them finish their repairs, annexed them into his fleet and proceeded down to Cochin. Saldanha participated in several actions in India in late 1504, notably the razing of Cranganore in October. In January, 1505, Saldanha joined the return fleet back to Lisbon. The fleet stopped by Malindi to pick up his deposited treasure and arrived in Lisbon in July.

Passenger in 1506
According to Joo de Barros, Antnio de Saldanha returned to the Indian Ocean in 1506, with the 8th Armada under Tristo da Cunha, albeit not as a captain of his own ship. He came principally as a navigator, to help guide the Red Sea-bound squad of Afonso de Albuquerque around Cape Guardafui.[5] In late 1506/early 1507, when the fleet was lingering in Mozambique Island waiting for favorable winds, the admiral Tristo da Cunha placed his own flagship, the Sant' Iago, under the temporary command of Saldanha, while he went off on some exploratory expeditions on the African coast in a smaller boat.[6] Cunha soon came across the Flor de la Mar, the ship of Joo da Nova, who, on the return from India the previous year, had sprung a bad leak and been forced to stop for repairs. The spice cargo was transferred to another ship (unnamed) and placed under the command of Antonio de Saldanha, with instructions to sail it safely back to Lisbon.[7] It is said that Saldanha did stop by Saldanha Bay (the modern one, not Table Bay) on the return journey.[8]

Captain of Sofala-Mozambique (1509)


In 1509, Antnio de Saldanha was appointed for a three-year term as captain-major of Sofala and Mozambique Island (East Africa), succeeding the late Vasco Gomes de Abreu. He set out in the Spring of 1509 as a passenger with the 11th Armada under D. Fernando Coutinho, and was deposited at Mozambique Island in August, and took .[9] During his tenure there, Saldanha helped oversee the dismantling of the Portuguese fort at Kilwa (Quiloa) in 1511. In 1512, his term in Sofala-Mozambique finished, Antnio de Saldanha was relieved by the new governor Simo de Miranda de Azevedo, who arrived in October. Saldanha took charge of Miranda's ship for the return to Lisbon.

Antnio de Saldanha

References
[1] Mary Gunn, L. e. Codd, L. E. W. Codd. Botanical Exploration of Southern Africa: An Illustrated History of Early Botanical Literature on the Cape Flora : Biographical Accounts of the Leading Plant Collectors and Their Activities in Southern Africa from the Days of the East India Company Until Modern Times. CRC Press, 1981. p5-7. ISBN 0-86961-129-1 [2] Wolfgang Haase, Meyer Reinhold. The Classical Tradition and the Americas: European Images of the Americas and the Classical Tradition, Part 1. Walter de Gruyter, 1994. p62. ISBN 3-11-011572-7 [3] Theal (1902: 163) [4] History of Cape Town (http:/ / www. cape-town. info/ cape-town-information/ history-of-cape-town/ ), www.Cape-town.info, retrieved August 16, 2008 [5] Barros, vol.3, p.2, p.17 [6] Barros, p.8 [7] Barros, p.18. Danvers (p.152) mistakenly says Saldanha brought back the Flor de la Mar back to Lisbon. But Barros (p., 18, p.392) clearly notes the Flor stayed with Nova; it was an unnamed cargo ship, carrying the Flor's cargo, that Saldanha returned. [8] Danvers, p.152 [9] Barros (Dec II, Lib 3, c.9; vol. 3, p.331); Theal,190: p.200

Sources
Joo de Barros (155259) Dcadas da sia: Dos feitos, que os Portuguezes fizeram no descubrimento, e conquista, dos mares, e terras do Oriente.. Vol. 3 (Dec. II, Lib.1-5) (http://books.google.com/ books?id=cZw2AAAAMAAJ&dq=editions:UOM39015057112644&lr&as_brr=1&pg=PP9#v=onepage&q& f=false) Gaspar Correia (c.1550s) Lendas da ndia, first pub. 1858-64, Lisbon: Academia Real de Sciencias Vol. 1 (http:// books.google.com/books?id=YmVKAAAAYAAJ&dq=editions:LCCN05022145&as_brr=1& pg=PA374#v=onepage&q&f=false); Ferno Lopes de Castanheda (15511560) Histria do descobrimento & conquista da ndia pelos portugueses [1833 edition] Lib 1, Ch. 55 (http://books.google.com/books?id=OzQbAAAAYAAJ&dq=inauthor:"Fern o Lopes de Castanheda"&as_brr=1&pg=PA157#v=onepage&q&f=false) Danvers, F.C. (1894) The Portuguese in India, being a history of the rise and decline of their eastern empire. 2 vols, London: Allen. Theal, G.M. (1902) The Beginning of South African History. London: Unwin.

1600s in South Africa

1600s in South Africa


1600s in South Africa 15th 16th century 1600s 1610s 1620s Timeline of South African history

Events
1594 - 1601 - James Lancaster, an English navigator, explores the southern African coast and establishes trade relationships with the Khoikhoi 20 March 1602 - the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) or better known as the Dutch East India Company is established in the Netherlands 1608 - The Portuguese ship, Santo Esperitu, is believed to have been shipwrecked off the eastern coast of South Africa African Cup 1648 Nelson Mandel arrested for gang fighting in 1750 First interaction with Western countries 1834

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1640s in South Africa

1640s in South Africa


1640s in South Africa 1620s 1630s 1640s 1650s 1660s Timeline of South African history

Events
1643 - The Portuguese ship, Santa Maria Madre de Deus is wrecked off the South African east coast 25 March 1647 - The Dutch ship, Nieuwe Haerlem is wrecked in Table Bay and survivors later build a small fort

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1650s in South Africa

1650s in South Africa


1650s in South Africa 1630s 1640s 1650s 1660s 1670s Timeline of South African history Jan van Riebeeck landed at the Cape on April 6, 1652. He set up a supply station and fortifications for the Dutch East India Company. Bernert Willemsz Wijlant, the first European baby, was born at the Cape on June 6. In 1654, Batavian convicts and political opponents were banished to the Cape bringing Islam, their faith, to South Africa. van Riebeeck sent Jan Wintervogel, a Dutch ensign, to scout the interior in 1655. Wintervogel went as far as Saldanha Bay. Van Riebeeck sent Willem Muller, a Dutch corporal, with the Khoikhoi interpreter, Autsumao, to explore the Hottentots Holland region. Maize and Grape vines were planted in the Cape that same year. In 1657, Abraham Gabbema was sent to scout the interior and explored as far as the Berg River and Paarl regions. Doman, the leader of the Goringhaiqua Khoikhoi, was sent to Batavia to be trained as an interpreter. Nine Dutch East India Company servants were freed to become free burghers (free citizens) on February 21. They settled along the Liesbeeck River (now Rondebosch area). The first wine was pressed from Cape grapes on February 2, 1659. Jan van Riebeeck established the Burgher Militia on May 1. The Khoikhoi protested against white encroachment on May 19, leading to the first anti-colonial Khoikhoi-Dutch War.

Slavery
The Dutch East India Company gave van Riebeeck authority to bring slaves to South Africa in 1654. The Roode Vos ship sailed to Mauritius and Anongil Bay, Madagascar in search of slaves, but brought back none. In 1658, the Amersfoort ship stole 250 slaves from a Portuguese slave trading trafficking slaves from Angola to Brazil. The ship arrived in South Africa on March 28 with 170 slaves. 80 died during the trip. The Hassalt ship brought 228 out of an initial 271 slaves from the Gulf of Guinea to South Africa on May 6. 43 died at sea. After these two shipments, the Dutch East and West companies agreed to stop enslaving natives from lands controlled by the other company. Slave traffickers brought 63,000 slaves to South Africa between 1658 and 1808, when the British abolished the slave trade.[1] [2] Catharina Anthonis, became the first slave to be freed to marry Jan Woutersz, a Dutch settler, in 1656. In 1658 a Portuguese slaver was captured and 174 slaves were taken. About 80 were shipped to Batavia.

References
[1] Mountain, Alan (2004). An Unsung Heritage. p.18. [2] Riebeeck, Jan van (1897). Riebeeck's Journal. p.118.

1660s in South Africa

1660s in South Africa


1660s in South Africa 1640s 1650s 1660s 1670s 1680s Timeline of South African history

Events
1660
The Dutch East India Company imports the first horses into the Cape from Batavia Jan Danaert leads a horseback expedition from the Cape settlement to the east and reaches what he names the Olifants River Pieter Everaert leads an unsuccessful horseback expedition from the Cape settlement to the north in an attempt to locate the land of the Namaqua

1661
Pieter Cruythoff is sent out from the Cape settlement to investigate the suitability of the interior for agriculture

1662
7 May - Jan van Riebeeck leaves the Cape on promotion to a position on the Council of Justice in Batavia 9 May - Zacharias Wagenaer succeeds Van Riebeeck as Commander of the Cape

1663
Settler outposts are established in the Hottentots Holland and Saldanha Bay areas

1664
26 August - Isbrand Goske arrives at the Cape as Commissioner, and was instructed to select a site for the Castle of Good Hope

1665
18 August - The first Dutch Reformed Church congregation is founded at the Cape and J. van Arkel is appointed the first minister

1666
Settlements in Saldanha Bay and Vishoek are established The first Calvinist church built in the Cape 2 January - Work commenced on a fortress, known as the Castle of Good Hope, which replaced the previous wooden fort built by Jan van Riebeeck and his men 24 October - Cornelis van Qualbergen is appointed Commander of the Cape

1660s in South Africa

10

1667
The first Malays arrive as slaves

1668
Hieronimus Cruse explores the southeast coast as far as Mossel Bay 16 June - Jakob Borghorst is appointed Commander of the Cape

Births
1660 - Lodewijk van Assenburgh, Governor of the Cape Colony, is born 1663 - Johannes Cornelis D'Ablaing, acting Governor of the Cape, is born 1664 - Willem Adriaan van der Stel, Governor of the Cape, is born

Deaths
1662 - Doman and Autsumao, leaders of the Khoikhoi and interpreters dies 1668 - Zacharias Wagenaer, Commander of the Cape, dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1670s in South Africa

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1670s in South Africa


1670s in South Africa 1650s 1660s 1670s 1680s 1690s Timeline of South African history

Events
1670
2 June - Pieter Hackius is appointed Governor of the Cape Colony

1671
Land is purchased from the Khoikhoi and the Cape Colony started 1 December- After the death of Pieter Hackius, Governor of the Cape, a political council is appointed to run the colony with Coenraad van Breitenbach as chairman

1672
Sugar cane is introduced Production of Brandy is started 23 March - Albert van Breugel is appointed acting Governor of the Cape 2 October - IJsbrand Goske is appointed Governor of the Cape

1673
1673 - When negotiations for trade of livestock fails, the Dutch East India Company sends in Hieronimus Cruse to attack the Cochoqua. This is the beginning of Second Dutch-Khoikhoi War in which the Dutch take approximately 1800 head of livestock

1676
2 January - Johan Bax van Herentals is appointed Governor of the Cape 18 February - Two young lions are dispatched from Cape Town to Ceylon as a gift to the king of Kandy

1678
The settlement of Hottentots-Holland is established 29 June Hendrik Crulax is appointed acting Governor of the Cape

1679
26 April The building of the Castle of Good Hope is completed 14 October Simon van der Stel is appointed Commander of the Cape 6 November - Stellenbosch is founded

1670s in South Africa

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Deaths
30 November 1671 - Pieter Hackius dies 18 January 1677 - Jan van Riebeeck dies at Batavia on Java 29 June 1678 - Johan Bax dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1680s in South Africa

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1680s in South Africa


1680s in South Africa 1660s 1670s 1680s 1690s 1700s Timeline of South African history

Events
1680
Land is given to Dutch farmers along the Eerste River in the Cape Colony

1681
March - Deported Islamic religious leaders arrive from Batavia, later to become the Cape Malay community

1682
8 June - The Johanna, a British East Indiaman sailing from Kent to Surat, India under the command of Captain Robert Brown is shipwrecked off Cape Agulhas

1683
24 October - Olof Bergh, a Swedish explorer, arrived back in Cape Town from his second expedition to Namaqualand

1684
The Dutch East India Company unilaterally establishes price controls over hides, skins, ivory and ostrich eggs in the Cape Colony

1685
The Cape Colonists send a commissioner to Europe to attract more settlers Copper is discovered by the settlers in Namaqualand Simon van der Stel, the Governor of the Cape Colony, is granted a 900-morgen property and is named Groot Constantia Simon van der Stel visits Namaqualand

1680s in South Africa

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1686
A Dutch Reformed Church is founded in Stellenbosch, Cape Colony

1687
Free burghers in the Cape Colony petition the Dutch East India Company to extend the slave trade to private enterprise The Paarl settlement is established in the Cape Colony

1688
April - French Huguenot refugees arrive after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes Simon van der Stel, the Governor of the Cape Colony settles the Huguenot refugees in the present day Drakenstein, Franschhoek and Wellington areas which were beyond the Cape Colony and belonged to the Khoikhoi people

1689
Serious friction develops between the Huguenots and the Dutch settlers 26 April - The French ship Normandie is captured by the Dutch in Table Bay

Births
1689 - Jan de la Fontaine, Governor of the Cape, is born

Deaths
1689 - IJsbrand Goske, Governor of the Cape Colony, dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1690s in South Africa

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1690s in South Africa


1690s in South Africa 1670s 1680s 1690s 1700s 1710s Timeline of South African history

Events
1690
Settlers started moving beyond the Cape Colony driving off the Khoikhoi from the land Slaves in Stellenbosch attempt unsuccessfully to revolt 16 January - Wreck of the Galiot Noord, 24 km west of Cape St. Francis after a survey voyage to Delagoa Bay and Natal

1691
1 June - Simon van der Stel is elevated to the rank of Governor of the Cape Colony Dutch Reformed Churches are founded in Drakenstein and Paarl

1693
The road to Hout Bay via Constantia Nek in the Cape Colony is completed

1695
2 November - A total of 3,000 oak trees are planted in Wynberg following an order by Simon van der Stel

1696
30 March - Simon van der Stel appointed a new chief of the Khoikhoi, naming him Hasdrubal and giving him a brass headed stick bearing the arms of the Dutch East India Company

1698
27 May - Many are killed following the grounding of the ship Gravenstein at Roodestrand near Camps Bay

1699
11 February- Willem Adriaan van der Stel, son of Simon van del Stel, is appointed Governor of the Cape Colony

Births
14 May 1699 - Ryk Tulbagh, Governor of the Cape, is born

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1700s in South Africa

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1700s in South Africa


1700s in South Africa 1680s 1690s 1700s 1710s 1720s Timeline of South African history

Events
1700
An ordinance is proclaimed by the Cape Colony's administration, restricting the importation of Asian slaves Dlamini chiefdoms move south and settle north of the Phongolo River; thereby forming the core of the future Swazi nation Free burghers are permitted to trade with the Khoikhoi chiefdoms The colony's administration scraps its policy of forbidding the inland trek of migrant stock farmers or trekboers. The boundaries are extend north and include Winterberg, Witzenberg and Roodezand, later called Tulbagh

1702
3 April - The Merenstejin, a Dutch merchant ship, sinks off Jutten Island on the west coast of the Cape Colony

1706
28 February - Adam Tas, a community leader in the Cape Colony, is jailed for drafting a petition accusing local VOC officials of corruption and money laundering

1707
17 January - Rev. E F Le Bourg, a parson of whom Batavia was glad to be rid, arrives in Cape Town. He enters politics and stirs up trouble 23 April - Willem Adriaan van der Stel, Governor of the Cape Colony, is recalled to the Netherlands as a direct result of Adam Tas's petition 3 June - Johannes Cornelis D'Ablaing is appointed acting Governor of the Cape

1708
17 January - The Cape Council of Policy resolves to deport Rev. E F Le Bourg 1 February - Lodewijk van Assenburgh is appointed Governor of the Cape

Births
1700 - Hendrik Swellengrebel, Governor of the Cape

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1710s in South Africa

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1710s in South Africa


1710s in South Africa 1690s 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s Timeline of South African history

Events
1711
28 December - Willem Helot is appointed acting Governor of the Cape Colony

1713
16 March - A Smallpox epidemic broke out at the Cape Colony

1714
28 March - Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes is appointed Governor of the Cape

1717
The system of freehold title to land in the Cape ends

Deaths
24 June 1712 - Simon van der Stel, Governor of the Cape, died at his estate in Constantia, Cape Colony December 1711 - Johannes Cornelis D'Ablaing, Governor of the Cape, dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1720s in South Africa

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1720s in South Africa


1720s in South Africa 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s Timeline of South African history

Events
1722
Groot Constantia was built 17 January - Sampson and Amstelveer, richly laden, are wrecked on the southern coast, beginning a disastrous year for Dutch ships in South Africa 17 June - A gale lasting several days drives away ten ships laying at anchor in Table Bay harbour. All the ships sank, and 660 people lost their lives

1724
14 February - An expedition leaves Cape Town to establish ports along the east coast. The members reach Delagoa Bay and build a fort, but are later raided by English pirates 8 September - Jan de la Fontaine provisionally becomes Governor of the Cape Colony

1727
25 February - Pieter Gijsbert van Noodt becomes Governor of the Cape

1728
28 April - Jan de la Fontaine is again appointed provisional Governor of the Cape 3 July - The ship Middenmark is driven on the rocks in Table Bay by a strong wind and 75 people are drowned

Deaths
1721 - Johannes Cornelis D'Ablaing, acting Governor of the Cape, dies 1724 - Olof Bergh, Swedish explorer to Namaqualand, dies in Cape Town, aged 81 23 April 1728 - Pieter Gysbert van Noodt, Governor of the Cape, dies of a sudden heart attack at the age of 48 during the hanging of four soldiers who had deserted 1727 - Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes, Governor of the Cape, dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1730s in South Africa

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1730s in South Africa


1730s in South Africa 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s 1750s Timeline of South African history

Events
1730
The Dutch East India Company imports slaves from Mozambique and Zanzibar The first trekboers reach the George area, trek inland into Langkloof 8 March - Jan de la Fontaine becomes Governor of the Cape Colony 8 April - The first Jewish congregation consecrates their synagogue

1732
The Trek Boers, the first Dutch farmers, settled along the Olifants River

1734
Jan de la Fontaine, Governor of the Cape, claims Mossel Bay for the Dutch East India Company and the Great Brak River is proclaimed the eastern boundary of Cape

1736
14 November Adriaan van Kervel is appointed Governor of the Cape

1737
21 May - Nine ships are wrecked in a gale in Table Bay with a loss of 208 lives 9 July - George Schmidt, the first Protestant missionary (Moravian Brethren) in southern Africa, arrives at the Cape 20 September - Daniel van den Henghel is appointed acting Governor of the Cape 18 December - The first Moravian mission station in South Africa is established in Genadendal near present-day Caledon by George Schmidt, "The Apostle of the Hottentots"

1730s in South Africa

20

1739
1 March - Etienne Barbier's insurrection at Paarl 1 April Hendrik Swellengrebel becomes the first South African born Governor when he is appointed Governor of the Cape

Deaths
1733 - Willem Adriaan van der Stel, Governor of the Cape, dies 1737 - Adriaan van Kervel, Governor of the Cape, dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1740s in South Africa

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1740s in South Africa


1740s in South Africa 1720s 1730s 1740s 1750s 1760s Timeline of South African history

Events
1741
Henri Guillaume Bossau, founder of the Boshoff family in South Africa and great-grandfather of Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff, 2nd state president of the Orange Free State, arrives in Cape Town from Bayonne, France as locksmith in the service of the Dutch East India Company.

1742
25 January Adriaan Valckenier, Governor-General of the Dutch East India Company, is arrested in Cape Town on sundry charges.
Flag of the Dutch East India Company.

1743
The Governor-General of the Dutch East India Company, Von Imhoff visits Cape Town. Simon's Bay is chosen to be used as a harbour between mid-May and mid-August because of the damage caused by the winter storms in Table Bay. A Dutch Reformed Church is established in Roodezand, today known as Tulbagh.

1744
5 March Georg Schmidt, the first Protestant missionary in South Africa, who worked with the Khoikhoi, returns to Europe.

1745
The Dutch East India Company established a magistracy at Swellendam. The Dutch Reformed Church establish a congregation in the Swartland, Malmesbury.

1747
22 February A day of prayer and fasting is held for the elimination of the locust plague from Table Valley. 26 October Swellendam is founded.

Births
1746 George Keith Elphinstone, Commissioner-general of the Cape. 1747 Simon Hendrik Frykenius. 1748 James Henry Craig, Commandant of the Cape.

1740s in South Africa 28 August 1748 Tjaart van der Walt, farmer and field commandant in the Third Cape Frontier War is born in the Roggeveld district of Sutherland, Cape Colony. 30 April 1749 Jacob Abraham Uitenhage de Mist, Commissioner-general of the Cape.

22

Deaths
1743 Jan de la Fontaine, Governor of the Cape Colony.

1750s in South Africa

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1750s in South Africa


1750s in South Africa 1730s 1740s 1750s 1760s 1770s Timeline of South African history

Events
1751
30 March - Ryk Tulbagh is appointed Governor of the Cape Colony

1754
A population count shows that there were 5,510 Europeans and 6,279 slaves in the Cape Colony

1755
The foundation stone of Old Town House in Cape Town is laid 1 May - A Smallpox epidemic breaks out at the Cape Colony. A total of 2,372 people die

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1760s in South Africa

24

1760s in South Africa


1760s in South Africa 1740s 1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s Timeline of South African history

Events
1760
Trekboers Jansz Coetse, Klaas Barends and others cross the Gariep River (now called the Orange River)

1763
11 September - The "La Fortune", a French man-of-war, is wrecked near Mossel Bay in the Cape Colony while on its way from Runion

1766
112 slaves from Madagascar arrive in Cape Town after a slave uprising on board the slaver ship Meermin.

Births
1 February 1761 - Christian Hendrik Persoon, mycologist, is born in the Cape Colony 1762 - Sebastian Cornelis Nederburgh, Commissioner-general of the Cape 25 June 1763 - Huybert Dirck Campagne, satirist and author, is born in Tiel, the Netherlands

Deaths
1760 - Hendrik Swellengrebel, Governor of the Cape Colony, dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1770s in South Africa

25

1770s in South Africa


1770s in South Africa 1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s Timeline of South African history

Events
1771
The Dutch East India Company institutes a policy in the Cape Colony which dictated that schools should teach exclusively in Dutch and strict laws of assembly Clashes between Trekboers and Xhosa begin as trekkers cross the Gamtoos River in the east 12 August Baron Joachim van Plettenberg, is appointed acting Governor of the Cape Colony after the death of Ryk Tulbagh

1774
A commando mounted against the San tribes kill 503 and capture 241 San 18 May Joachim Ammema, Baron van Plettenberg, is appointed to the full post of Governor of the Cape

1775
13 of England's American colonies erupt in revolt

1776
England's revolting colonies declare themselves the independent United States of America

1778
The Cape Colony boundary is extended to Buffels, Zak and Fish Rivers Hendrik Jacob Wikar and Robert Jacob Gordon meet Khoikhoi, Geisiqua and Tswana tribes along lower and middle Gariep which Gordon names Orange River in honour of the Netherlands Stadtholder 6 February - France formally recognises the United States as a nation by signing a treaty of Friendship and Trade. An undeclared war with Britain soon erupted 27 July - French and British navies clash just off the coast of France 30 December - Britain captures the port of St. Lucia in the Caribbean Sea British forces capture Pondicherry in the Bay of Bengal from the French, later recapured The Dutch port of St Eustatius in the West Indies became the world's busiest port handling the majority of supplies and arms bound for the United States

1770s in South Africa

26

1779
Xhosas moving south clash with the settlers at the Fish River starting the first of nine Cape Frontier Wars 12 April - Spain joins with France and America in the war against Britain

Births
1 May 1772 - Sir Gilbraith Lowry Cole, Governor of the Cape Colony, is born 14 April 1775 - John Philip, a London Missionary Society's missionary to South Africa, is born at Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland

Deaths
1771 - Ryk Tulbagh, Governor of the Cape dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1780s in South Africa

27

1780s in South Africa


1780s in South Africa 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s 1800 Timeline of South African history

Events
1780
The Fish River is made the eastern boundary of the Cape Colony July - The Sultan of Mysore, India declares war on the British 16 December - The Netherlands joins the League of Armed Neutrality that is formed by Catherine the Great of Russia to protest British interference with the shipping of neutral nations during the war. Russia, Sweden, Prussia, Denmark, Austria, Portugal and Italy all join 20 December - Britain declares war on the Netherlands French troops arrive at the Cape Colony to guard it against the English

1781
American and French soldiers and French naval forces force the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown 3 February - British forces captured St Eustatius and neutralises all other Dutch outlets in the West Indies and in Surinam. French and Spanish forces later recaputed the island for the Dutch August - The Dutch fleet is defeated at Dogger Bank in the English Channel

1782
April - Franois Le Vaillant, French explorer, collector and ornithologist, arrives in the Cape Colony and travels until 1785[1] 30 April - The paper rix dollars is issued for the first time in the Cape[1] British forces capture the French outpost of Cuddalore in the Indian Ocean, later recaputed back The Dutch port of Trincomalee on Ceylon is captured by the British, later recaptured back by the French

1783
3 September - The Treaty of Paris is signed ending the war. The Dutch have lost the most from the war

1784
The French troops departed the Cape

1785
14 February - Cornelis Jacob van de Graaff is appointed Governor of the Cape 3 May - The Dutch East India Company ship, the Brederode, carrying a cargo of porcelain, tin and spices, runs aground near Cape Agulhas

1780s in South Africa

28

1786
The Dutch East India Company established a magistracy at Graaff Reinet

1787
The Dutch East India Company passed a law subjecting the nomadic Khoikhoi in the colony to certain restrictions

1789
The start of the French Revolution The Dutch East India Company, filled with corruption, becomes financially unstable Merino sheep is imported from the Netherlands

Births
10 January 1780 - Martin Heinrich Carl Lichtenstein, physician, explorer and zoologist, is born in Hamburg, Germany 4 June 1787 - Leopold Marquard, educationist and missionary to Southern Africa, is born in Westphalia, Germany

Deaths
23 July 1781 - Martin Melck, the founder of the Lutheran church in Strand Street, Cape Town[1]

References
[1] Henry Hall, 1859. Manual of South African Geography: Forming a Companion to the Map of South Africa to 16 South Latitude. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=b8MNAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA161& as_brr=1& ei=lBSbR_6ANYG4zATGgqihCg) Cape Town: S. Solomon. p. 161-2.

See Timeline of South African history for list of more References

1790s in South Africa

29

1790s in South Africa


1790s in South Africa 1770s 1780s 1790s 1800 1801 Timeline of South African history

Events
1791
29 June - Johannes Isaac Rhenius is appointed acting Governor of the Cape Colony

1792
A Dutch Reformed Church is founded in Graaff Reinet A Moravian Mission is founded at Genadendal 3 July - Sebastian Cornelis Nederburgh is appointed Commissioner-general of the Cape

1793
Xhosas clash with the white settlers at the Fish River starting the 2nd Cape Frontier War War is declared by the victorious French revolutionaries against the Dutch Prince of Orange Britain goes to war against France 2 September - Abraham Josias Sluysken is appointed the Governor of the Cape. He is the last governor under Dutch East India Company rule

1795
The Dutch East India Company is in financial ruins 29 January - Farmers expelled the officials of the Dutch East India Company and established an independent government at Graaff Reinet 18 June Swellendam follows Graaff Reinet and declares a republic under Hermanus Steyn The Netherlands is invaded by the French under the leadership of Napolon Bonaparte A republic is declared by Dutch revolutionaires and the Prince of Orange flees to England 16 September - British forces under General Sir James Henry Craig seizes the Cape Colony for the Stadtholder Prince William V of Orange The republics of Graaff Reinet and Swellendam reject the British and the British army is sent in The start of free trade was announced

1790s in South Africa

30

1797
5 March - The Cape becomes a British colony 4 May - Sir John Barrow, author and explorer, arrives at the Cape Colony 23 May - The first British Governor of the Cape Colony, Lord Macartney, arrives.

1798
The first Post Office is established in the Cape Colony The Dutch East India Company is liquidated The first mosque in southern Africa is established in Dorp Street by Tuan Guru A Dutch Reformed Church is founded at Swellendam 22 November Dundas is appointed Governor of the Cape

1799
Farmers of Graaff Reinet revolt against the British The 3rd Cape Frontier War starts between white settlers and the Xhosas and only ends in 1801 The British build Fort Frederick in Algoa Bay The eastern cape Khoikhoi revolt The London Missionary Society set up their first station at Zak River 18 December - Sir G Young is appointed Governor of the Cape

Births
1 May 1791 - The Rev. John Brownlee, founder of King William's Town, is born in Scotland 21 December 1795 - Robert Moffat, Scottish Congregationalist missionary, is born in Ormiston, East Lothian, Scotland

Deaths
1793 - Baron Joachim van Plettenberg, Governor of the Cape Colony, dies

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

1800 in South Africa

31

1800 in South Africa


1800 in South Africa 1780s 1790s 1800 1801 1802

Timeline of South African history

Events
The Government Gazette started printing in the Cape Colony

References
See Timeline of South African history for list of References

Article Sources and Contributors

32

Article Sources and Contributors


15th century in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=454858205 Contributors: Fram, Hugo999, Jcw69, Llywrch, Onorem, Rjwilmsi, StephanNaro, Tim!, 8 anonymous edits 16th century in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434445531 Contributors: Anthony Appleyard, CanisRufus, Fram, Graham87, Hbent, Hugo999, JMK, Jcw69, Keefer4, Meno25, StephanNaro, Tim!, Zaian, 14 anonymous edits Antnio de Saldanha Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461428803 Contributors: Dantadd, Dostioffski, Fadesga, Jaraalbe, Llywrch, PeterHuntington, PhnomPencil, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Tugaworld, Walrasiad, XPTO, 2 anonymous edits 1600s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459437925 Contributors: Bluemoose, Fram, Graham87, Hugo999, Jake Wartenberg, Jcw69, Mairi, StephanNaro, Tim!, WikiDao, 10 anonymous edits 1640s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434464442 Contributors: Chris Capoccia, Commander Keane, Dmanning, Fram, Graham87, Hugo999, Jcw69, StephanNaro, Tim!, 1 anonymous edits 1650s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434464140 Contributors: Bobblehead, Chris Capoccia, Commander Keane, Fram, Hugo999, Jcw69, Sannse, StephanNaro, Tim!, Waide Piki, Zaian, 2 anonymous edits 1660s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434462707 Contributors: Caniago, Chris Capoccia, DanMS, Fram, Hugo999, Jcw69, LAAFan, Mike Hayes, StephanNaro, Tim!, VinculumMan, Zocky, 9 anonymous edits 1670s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434461480 Contributors: Chris the speller, Commander Keane, Fram, Hugo999, Jcw69, Jensbn, StephanNaro, Tim!, 5 anonymous edits 1680s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=439425053 Contributors: Bobblewik, Commander Keane, DabMachine, Fram, Hugo999, Jcw69, Jensbn, LiesbethLapp, Sannse, StephanNaro, Tim!, 6 anonymous edits 1690s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434456530 Contributors: DabMachine, Fram, Hugo999, Jcw69, SpookyMulder, StephanNaro, Tim!, VinculumMan, 3 anonymous edits 1700s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434416983 Contributors: Agent 86, Commander Keane, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DabMachine, Fram, Jan Tik, Jcw69, Shawnhath, StephanNaro, Tim!, Woohookitty, X96lee15, 13 anonymous edits 1710s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434415200 Contributors: Fram, Jcw69, StephanNaro, Tim!, 2 anonymous edits 1720s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434414814 Contributors: Fram, Jcw69, Rjwilmsi, StephanNaro, Tim!, 3 anonymous edits 1730s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434413389 Contributors: Colonies Chris, Fram, Jcw69, Mephiston999, Mick Knapton, StephanNaro, Tim!, 4 anonymous edits 1740s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434410538 Contributors: CarolGray, Doortmont, Fram, Jcw69, John of Reading, LouriePieterse, Rjwilmsi, StephanNaro, The Earwig, Tim!, 2 anonymous edits 1750s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434409555 Contributors: Bobblehead, Fram, Jcw69, Sannse, StephanNaro, Tim!, 4 anonymous edits 1760s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455506763 Contributors: China Crisis, Fram, Gautier lebon, Jcw69, Martey, Sannse, SteinbDJ, StephanNaro, Tim! 1770s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=465822912 Contributors: Commander Keane, Dysepsion, Fiftytwo thirty, Fram, Jcw69, M-le-mot-dit, Plettman, Rich Farmbrough, StephanNaro, Tim!, Woohookitty, 3 anonymous edits 1780s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462375536 Contributors: Benea, Colonies Chris, Commander Keane, Fram, Gaius Cornelius, Jcw69, Lord Cornwallis, Nakon, StephanNaro, Styath, Tim!, TinJack, 2 anonymous edits 1790s in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434284651 Contributors: Art LaPella, Commander Keane, Fram, Jcw69, LeeHunter, Mackensen, Mark83, Plettman, Qutezuce, Rich Farmbrough, Socrates2008, StephanNaro, Steve crowder, Tim!, Trusilver, Woohookitty, 2 anonymous edits 1800 in South Africa Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434281917 Contributors: Hugo999, Jcw69, StephanNaro, Tim!,

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

33

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Capetown.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Capetown.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Angela at en.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by Zaian, Funsho2 at en.wikipedia. Image:Flag of the Dutch East Indies Company.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Dutch_East_Indies_Company.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mangwanani Image:Cape Colony flag.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cape_Colony_flag.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Sakurambo Image:3by2white.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:3by2white.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Timeroot

License

34

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/