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This is done to support decision making. Two challenges are faced to achieve this goal: * Poor system performance. A data warehouse contains a large volume of data. The data has be to retrieved from the data warehouse for analytical purpose. It is not a trivial task to retrieve data. For this reason a special technique is used, called a star schema. Difficulties in extracting, transferring, transforming, and loading (ETTL) data from various sources into a data warehouse. Data must be cleansed first before we can use it. ETTL is often the failure point for many data warehousing projects. It is difficult to clean SAP R/3 data without using SAP BW. SAP R/3 is ERP (Enterprise Resources Planning) software. Most large companies in the world use SAP R/3 to manage their business transactions. SAP BW was introduced in 1997. Before its introduction ETTL of SAP R/3 data into a data warehouse was an arduous task. SAP R/3 customers were weeking a reasonable data warehousing solution. SAP introduced SAP BW as a result.
Sales Analysis - An Example Imagine yourself a a sales manager. Your role is to plan and implement a sales strategy. Your tasks include: * Monitoring and forecasting sales demands and pricing trends * Managing sales objectives and coordinating the sales force and distributors * Reviewing the sales activities of each representative, office, and region You have the following data available about firm's materials, customers, and sales organization. In order to succeed in fierce market competition, you must have an up-to-date picture of your business. The challenge is how to make the best use of data in decision support. various analysis has to be be performed in decision support. Online analytical processing (OLAP) consumes heavy computer resources. Tihs is because the size of data is very large. This analysis cannot be carried out in an online transaction processing (OLTP) system. Sales management system is an example of an OLTP system. A dedicated system needs to be built instead. This dedicated system is called the data warehouse. Data Warehousing A data warehouse is a system with its own database. The data is drawn from various sources.
The data warehouse is designed to support query and analysis. A special database design technique called star schema is used in data warehouses. The star schema facilitate data retrieval for analytical processing. Star Schema The concept of a star schema has been in use for years. This concept is not new. For the data in the previous section, we can create a star schema like that shown below
We call it star schema because of its graphical representation. It looks like a star. The central fact table is usually large. It is large enough to be measured in gigabytes.
This is the table that contains interesting data. The dimension tables are only 1 to 5 percent the size of the fact table. Common dimensions are unit and time. Foreign keys connect the fact table to the dimension tables. In a data warehouse, the dimension tables are not required to be normalized. That means they can contain redundant data. The following steps explain how a star schema works to calculate the total quantity sold in the Midwest region: 1. From the sales rep dimension, select all sales rep IDs in the Midwest region. 2. From the fact table, select and summarize all quantity sold by the sales rep IDs of Step 1. Extracting, Transferring, Transforming, and Loading Data - ETTL Building a data warehouse involves a critical task: to extract, transfer, transform, and load (ETTL) data from diverse data sources into the data warehouse.
In data extraction, the data is moved out of source systems. Example of a source system is SAP R/3 system. To identify the right data is a challenge. A good knowledge of the source systems is a must. In data transfer, a large amount of data is moved regularly from different source systems to the data warehouse. To plan a realistic schedule and to have reliable and fast networks are main challenges. In data transformation, the data is formatted, so that it can be accepted in the data warehouse. For example, an entity with multiple names (such as AT&T, ATT, or Bell) must be converted into an entity with a single name (such as AT&T).
most data warehousing projects experience difficulties finishing on time or on budget. the data is loaded into the fact tables.000+ SAP R/3 systems are installed worldwide. It is also a time consuming task. SAP R/3 can be used to run your entire business. There are more than 10 million users. Or it might reside in different file formats in different file systems. SAP R/3 as an Example Let's take a look at SAP R/3 as an example. This has be to done correctly and quickly. Main ones are listed below: * SD (sales and distribution) . Some are not. In data loading. It includes several modules. SAP R/3 is a leading ERP (Enterprise Resources Planning) system. Some date might be case sensitive. To develop a robust error-handling procedure is the main challenge.The original data might be sitting in different databases using different data types. This directly affects business decision making. 30. Because of these challenges. Errors can jeopardize data quality. ETTL is a complex task.
. SAP R/3's offers a rich business functionality leads. We will look into how SAP BW implements the star schema and tackles the ETTL challenges. This system has approximately 10. BW has drawn great interest. SAP AG recognized this problem. The result is SAP Business Information Warehouse. According to SAP more than 1000 SAP BW systems were installed worldwide. Using the SAP R/3 data for business decision support had been a constant problem for years.* MM (materials management) * PP (production planning) * FI (financial accounting) * HR (human resources). or BW. It decided to develop a data warehousing solution. Tables and their columns sometimes don't even have explicit English descriptions.000 database tables. This leads to a complex database design. Since the announcement of SAP BW launch in June 1997.
It uses ALE (Application Link Enabling). BW is built on the Basis 3-tier architecture.SAP Data Warehousing Solution BW is an end-to-end data warehousing solution. It also uses BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) to link BW with SAP systems and non-SAP systems. BW Architecture . It is coded in the ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) language. It uses preexisting SAP technologies.
Third-party reporting tools connect with BW OLAP Processor through ODBO (OLE DB for OLAP).BW Architecture The architecture has three layers: * The top layer * The middle layer * The bottom layer Fig above The top layer is the reporting environment (in the above architecture pic). It can be BW Business Explorer (BEx) or a third-party reporting tool. BEx consists of two components: * BEx Analyzer * BEx Browser BEx Analyzer is Microsoft Excel with a BW add-in. It allows users to create queries without coding SQL statements. It allows users to organize and access all kinds of information. It carries out three tasks: * Administering the BW system . BEx Browser works like an information center. The middle layer is a BW Server. It offers easy-to-use graphical interface.
BW systems. and other objects that BW uses to extract data from the SAP systems.* Storing data * Retrieving data according to users' requests The bottom layer consists of source systems. database tables. it connects with non-SAP systems via BAPI. If the source systems are SAP systems. The middle-layer BW Server consists of the following components: * Administrator Workbench. flat files. An extractor is a set of ABAP programs. BW connects with SAP systems (R/3 or BW) and flat files via ALE. The Plug-In contains extractors. including BW Scheduler and BW Monitor * Metadata Repository and Metadata Manager * Staging Engine * PSA (Persistent Staging Area) * ODS (Operational Data Store) Objects * InfoCubes * Data Manager * OLAP Processor * BDS (Business Document Services) * User Roles . an SAP component called Plug-In needs to be installed in the source systems. The source system can be R/3 systems. and other systems.
such as ODS Objects or InfoCubes. They are not based on the star schema and are used primarily for detail reporting. Staging Engine implements data mapping and transformation. PSA (Persistent Staging Area) stores data in the original format while being imported from the source system. Meta-data comprise data about data. ODS (Operational Data Store) Objects allow us to build a multilayer structure for operational data reporting. It has two components: * BW Scheduler for scheduling jobs to load data * BW Monitor for monitoring the status of data loads Metadata Repository contains information about the data warehouse. Triggered by BW Scheduler. It sends requests to a source system for data loading. We use Metadata Manager to maintain Metadata Repository. PSA allows for quality check before the data are loaded into their destinations. structure and mapping rules used for data extraction and transformation).Administrator Workbench maintains meta-data and all BW objects. Metadata Repository contains two types of meta-data: * Business-related (for example. The source system then selects and transfers data into BW. definitions and descriptions used for reporting) * and technical (for example. rather than for dimensional analysis. .
the sales manager can benefit from the following standard reports: Quotation Processing * Quotation success rates per sales area * Quotation tracking per sales area * General quotation information per sales area . Only users assigned to a particular User Role can access the documents associated with that User Role. BW organizes BDS documents according to User Roles. BEx Analyzer saves query results. and it analyzes and presents those data according to users' requests. OLAP Processor is the analytical processing engine. as workbooks in the BDS. BW Business Content Business Content is one of the BW's strongest selling points. PowerPoint. and HTML. BDS (Business Document Services) stores documents. PDF. The documents can appear in various formats. User Roles are a concept used in SAP authorization management. It retrieves data from the database.InfoCubes are the fact tables and their associated dimension tables in a star schema. or MS Excel files. Business Content contains standard reports and other related objects. Excel. such as Microsoft Word. Data Manager maintains data in ODS Objects and InfoCubes and tells the OLAP Processor what data are available for reporting. For example.
delivery. and sales quantities * Fulfillment rates * Credit memos * Proportion of returns to incoming orders * Returns per customer * Quantity and values of returns * Product analysis * Product profitability analysis Delivery * Delivery delays per sales area * Average delivery processing times Analyses and Comparisons * Sales/cost analysis * Top customers * Distribution channel analysis * Product profitability analysis .Order Processing * Monthly incoming orders and revenue * Sales values * Billing documents * Order.
to extract R/3 data that cannot be extracted with the standard Business Content.com BW is a rapidly evolving product. . BW in mySAP. and networks * Order reports * WBS Element: plan/actual/variance * Cost center: plan/actual/variance * Cost center: hit list of actual variances * Cost center: actual costs per quarter * Cost center: capacity-related headcount We always have the option to use a function. You can better plan BW projects if you know its future. called Generic Data Extraction. projects.* Weekly deliveries * Monthly deliveries * Incoming orders analysis * Sales figures comparison * Returns per customer * Product analysis * Monthly incoming orders and revenue Administrative and Management Functions * Cost center: plan/actual/variance * Cost center: responsible for orders.
. It uses the Internet technology.mySAP. * a Web Application Server for providing Web services. * and an exchange infrastructure for process-centric collaboration.com is an SAP's e-business platform. It aims to achieve the collaboration among businesses. It consists of three components: * mySAP Technology * mySAP Services * mySAP Hosted Solutions mySAP Technology includes: * a portal infrastructure for user-centric collaboration.
The portal infrastructure has a component called mySAP Business Intelligence. * and mySAP Product Lifecycle Management (mySAP PLM).com/bw/ are good examples of mySAP Services.com platform. Using mySAP Technology. For example: * mySAP Supply Chain Management (mySAP SCM). SAP develops e-business solutions. With these solutions. mySAP Services are the services and support that SAP offers to its customers.sap. mySAP Hosted Solutions are the outsourcing services from SAP. * technology implementation. This component is the same BW but is located in the mySAP. The services and support available from http://service. They include: * business analysis. . * mySAP Customer Relationship Management (mySAP CRM). customers do not need to maintain physical machines and networks. * and training to system support.
If left unattended. Enteprise Resource Planning software is often referred to as the backbone for the entire business. when shipping dock clerk records the transaction that goods have shipped to a customer. The basic nature of the business needs to be determines first. The freshly implemented system is not very stable. That is why you cannot just install the ERP software and start using it immediately. . policies. billing. like your legacy system. New transactions for revenue recognition and cost of goods sold are started. ERP systems grow and evolve over time. ERP system communicates (as a nervous system) across business functions. processes. A transactions in one module could start coordinated transactions in other modules. it can get soft and flabby. ERP systems replicates the business structure. For example.ERP Overview ERP stands for Enteprise Resource Planning. muscle (business transactions). Each business is different. Using medical analogy an ERP system has brains (process logic). ERP software comes under the category of online transaction processing (OLTP) software. and inventory systems. and heart (business policy). and procedures. Users might not like your newly born ERP system until it matures. related changes are made in other modules: order management.
Comparison to the functionality of the software is then made. manufacturing. distribution. The ERP system is composed of many modules called applications. The financial applications. are General Ledger. such as financial. For all you know. and so forth. manage compensation and benefits. Accounts Payable. you may achieve a system that meets 90%–100% of your business requirements. Accounts Receivable. procure materials. The Oracle Applications and SAP supports recommendations of the American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) and Generally Accepted Accounting Practices (GAAP). . In order to configure your system properly. you may have to resolve the centralized/decentralized issues within each application. secure your data. The applications are integrated. and human resource transactions. manage inventories. You may license only the applications you need. By maticulously setting thousands of configuration parameters. and Fixed Assets. Many of the parameters interact with each other. fulfill customer orders. your company might be centralized for fulfillment of customer orders and decentralized for procurement and inventory management. For example. for example. The core applications support functions. your strategy for configuring your enterprise organization structure can have significant impact on the way you prepare financial statements. That makes the implementation tricky. Attributes of ERP Systems Leading ERP systems supports industry standards and best practices.
and others have configured applications to meet their specific business needs. Thousands of configuration parameters interact with each other and change the logic of the programs to fit your unique business situation. The database gives the ERP system the performance and scalability. Data could be stored for years. Manufacturing companies. This is called modularization approach. ERP systems are complex. It gives flexibility. A single manual transaction in one application can initiate transactions in other applications. Thousands of transactions per hour can be processed. Each of them is using EPR in their own special way. governments. Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is a famous database. .They work together to pass individual transactions through an entire business process. It could take months to set up and learn how the ERP operate. Oracle and SAP has thousands of customers in hundreds of industries. The more applications you use. They are all over the world. Although an ERP system is complex but the upside is flexibility. service companies. The modules interact by passing data through program interfaces and by sharing the commonly stored data. utilities. ERP systems use sophisticated databases at the back end. The ERP documentation is voluminous. the more complexity you have.
* Reduce processing costs per business transaction. Companies implement ERP systems for various reasons. * Reduce procurement costs. you can apply cash receipts to your Receivables modules by keying the data into a form. An ERP system could result in following benefits: * Reduce the amount invested in inventory. There is a feirce competition going on in ERP market. Due to these intangible and strategic benefits most companies do not even try to calculate a total return on investment from an ERP system. * Install systems with vendor-supported maintenance. * Improve the scalability of business systems to support future growth. intangible. * Improve worker productivity.Large ERP databases can go more than 300GB in size. ERP Advantages ERP advantages drive implementation projects. EPR systems are mixture of online and batch processes. * Reduce the time it takes to perform a financial close and prepare financial statements. or strategic. For example. or you can configure the system to use the AutoLockbox program to process a data file from your bank. The reasons could be tangible. Two big players are SAP AG and Oracle Corporation. .
Sometimes they are difficult to operate. * Improve fiscal controls. customer service. Everyone in your organization from the database administrator to the receiving clerk to the CEO needs new skills to work with the new technology and business processes. and install new or improved business processes. * Integrate and standardize processes among your business units and trading partners in your supply chain. * Get rid of troubles of old systems. and fault tolerance. and on-time delivery. odds of success have improved. Euro currency requirements). ERP Disadvantages ERP disadvantages must be overcome. * In the early 1990s. reliability. * Most companies must hire outside consultants to help accelerate and improve the implementation. Many of these early projects were either abandoned or were finished . almost half of the MRP/ERP implementation projects failed. * Improve system performance. ERP systems comes with their share of headaches. * Obtain better reporting and information about your business. In the past few years. They are usually difficult to implement.* Upgrade systems to support global accounting transactions (for example. * Improve order management. * Reduce the costs of Information Technology.
* Package software can force you to make certain choices about how your business will operate. and improvement. * Many companies are surprised to discover the ERP implementation wasn't just a software replacement project. An application service provider (ASP) is a company that offers individuals or enterprises access over the Internet to applications and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise computers. with a common file server . Early applications include: * remote access serving for the users of an enterprise * An off-premises local area network to which mobile users can be connected. * In the mid-1990s when customers Application Service Providers Recently the Application Service Providers (ASP) business model is becoming popular as a way to implement and operate your ERP applications. * Many implementation team members have discovered after the ERP project is over that their old jobs either no longer exist or are dull and insignificant.late and over budget. not only for smaller companies with low budgets for information technology. Sometimes referred to as "apps-on-tap. * Many large and costly implementation projects have produced little or no return on investment for their owners other than to solve the Y2K problem. and you might introduce some constraints on your traditional business processes. but the start of a continuous process of change. An industry of software implementation specialists was created to assist businesses with implementation projects. evolution." ASP services are expected to become an important alternative. but also for larger companies as a form of outsourcing and for many services for individuals as well. Several companies have actually observed a reduction in productivity in the first six to twelve months after starting their new systems.
Oracle is perhaps disappointed that BOL has not performed as expected. Oracle launched this service on October 1999. moving applications off personal computers and putting them on a special kind of application server that is designed to handle the stripped-down kind of thin client workstation. ERP Applications are hosted in a centralized data center over an Internet/intranet connection.* Specialized applications that would be expensive to install and maintain within your own company or on your own computer While ASPs are forecast to provide applications and services to small enterprises and individuals on a pay-per-use or yearly license basis. Microsoft's terminal server product and Citrix's WinFrame products are leading thin-client application server products. pay-asyou-use basis. They call it Business On-Line (BOL). but it still might become a viable alternative for several customers. They plan to make SAP's popular R/3 applications available at "cybercenters" that will serve the applications to other companies. SAP. Microsoft is allowing some companies to offer its BackOffice products. Exchange and Windows NT Server on a rental. including SQL Server. This allows an enterprise to reassert the central control over application cost and usage that corporations formerly had in the period prior to the advent of the PC. In Application Service Provider model. and Qwest have formed one of the first major alliances for providing ASP services. . Hewlett-Packard. Oracle Corporation offers ASP model. Probably BOL will never create billions of dollars in revenue for Oracle. Oracle expected it to become a significant part of its future growth. a service provider is establed to host ERP applications. larger corporations are essentially providing their own ASP service in-house. They business may improve in coming years though.
When the economics of the ASP model is evaluated.000+ for system administrator. However you pay by the month. Advantages of Business On-Line . you need to compare the monthly charge per user of the system to the initial investment in software. Compare that monthly charge with a $2 million up-front investment in hardware. and consulting.000/month and might grow or shrink proportionately as the business changes. and add annual direct operating costs of $300. * The support expertise of the service provider must exceed the expectations of the users. software. and data center costs. Usually you must sign a multiyear deal for the ASP services. * Costs of the service must be reasonable. Important considerations under this model are similar to the issues and concerns you would have with any outsourcing arrangement: * You want to make sure the application implementation meets the needs of your business. and the continuing costs of operating your own systems. implementation services.A monthly fee is charged. * Data center management must be better than your own data center. * The ASP must provide an acceptable level of security and performance. support. hardware. The ASP model costs might be $50. Consider the following advantages and disadvantages when you evaluate companies as an Application Service Provider. Lets say you have 100 users at a monthly subscription cost of $500/user. support.
Evaluate the following issues before considering the Business On-Line service: * The solution might proprietary. If it can't make its normal growth rate and profit margins. Consider the following benefits of ASP: * You know who is responsible with the single vendor solution for system operations. software. * You are locked into specific applications. too. up-front investment in hardware. * You don't have to find and retain talented technical staff to run these systems. If you want to rent the ERP and e-commerce applications. it might not sustain the business as you expect. It will be hard to switch vendors because you would have to switch applications. * You avoid the cost of support (which can be 20+% of the software costs). * This architecture moves complexity off the desktop and on to the managed server located in a professionally managed data center. * You avoid a large. administration. . * Hosting ERP applications is still a relatively new business for it.The advantages of the ASP model come from your relationship with the hosting company and your ability to avoid the initial costs of starting up the system. you must get them from specific vendor partners. Disadvantages of Business On-Line The disadvantages of the ASP model come from your relationship with the hosting company and the loss of control and flexibility you need to meet current and future business requirements. and implementation costs. configuration. and performance.
0 offers powerful configuration tools. (If it doesn't work out. Unique set of tools are used by each to manage their customers. * When you use an ASP. You must be sure your business data remains private and secure. so you had to keep repeating the same answers over and over again. Every single person asked you the same questions. * The ASP business model is unproven.0 Each businesses is different. . Need For CRM Few examples of bad customer service experiences are: * You called a customer service phone number and were transferred to five different people. * Application performance issues might be a concern. Microsoft Dynamics CRM 3. where are you in three years?) Microsoft Dynamics CRM 3. Are there additional pieces of software you need to run your business? * There will be little price competition or flexibility after you commit. Administrators can use these tools through easy-to-learn Web interface. Customers can modify and customize the software. * You will be locked in to a long-term contract with limited flexibility to change or terminate. security concerns must be resolved. Companies must make sure that their customer management software can easily adjust to their needs.* You will be restricted to the types of customizations and extensions available. * Consider the ASP capability to implement and administer the applications.
* A salesperson pulled together a proposal for you but forgot to include your preferred-customer pricing in the quote. A customer might interact with the business 50 to 100 times in the course of relationship. CRM Challenges Some of the factors that make a CRM strategy difficult to implement include: * Multiple customer management systems * Remote workers * Rapidly changing business processes * Multi-channel customer interactions * Difficult and rigid systems . A company could provide each customer a personalized experience. Today's business environment is competitive. even though you've had an account with that company for 10 years. The objective of customer relationship management (CRM) software is to enable businesses to manage each customers experience better. If a personalized experience is given to customers. CRM is a business strategy. they are more likely to value their relationship with the company. * A credit card company mailed you an application for a new account. CRM software system is a technology platform to help implement CRM strategy. Mistreated customers can easily find other vendors as replacements. CRM strategy recognizes the fact that customer experiences span over time.
Rapidly changing business processes challenge employees to adjust quickly. Remote workers Even if the company using a single system to track all of your customer interactions. phone. and instant messaging. Difficult and rigid systems A company has to select a technology system as its customer management platform before embracing CRM strategy. Most CRM systems cannot adjust as quickly as the business needs it to. For example. fax. Earlier CRM systems were difficult to use and complex to install. These customer communication channels might include Web sites. The customer management system must work with each of these technologies in order to track all of a customer's interactions. Data is not seamlessly shared among these systems. offsite workers might not have the ability to access data in the customer management system. Rapidly changing business processes business processes continuously change. Multi-channel customer interactions Customers expect to be able to work using any communication channel that they prefer. . e-mail.Multiple customer management systems Most companies use more than one system to run its business. salespeople using a sales tracking system might not know that a customer just opened an urgent customer service issue in customer service system. mail.
* Marketing managers could analyze and report on the effectiveness of their marketing lists and campaigns to determine how they should re-allocate future marketing investments. marketing. * A manager could view all of the interactions with a customer across various functional areas such as sales. * CRM could track customer interests and purchase history over time. * An analyst could use business intelligence tools to segment customers and prospects to identify trends and create predictive models for sales and customer service planning. CRM Benefits Following are the examples benefits that a company would get from successful implementation of CRM software. Reviewing a customer's service history might help the technician resolve a customer's new issue much more quickly. A service technician could easily view all of those requests when the customer called with a new issue. and customer service. It proactively generate new marketing initiatives for customers based on their unique histories.Companies had customized their CRM systems to their business needs. * CRM could log a history of a customer's service requests. People typically refer to this cross-functional history as a 360-degree view of the customer. . They had invested large sums of money and time in consultants who customized the software for them.
For example. and Transaction Date are called characteristics. We will learn how to create an InfoCube that implements the star schema. Creating an InfoArea InfoAreas are the branches and nodes of a tree structure. A key figure can be an attribute of a characteristic. . Customer Name and Customer Address are attributes of Customer ID. InfoObjects are comparable with bricks. Yet they are characteristics as well. We use these objects to build InfoCubes. In our examples. Per Unit Sales Price can be an attribute of Material Number. Characteristics and key figures are collectively called InfoObjects. and Sales Revenue are called key figures.Info Cube Customer ID. An InfoArea is comparable to a construction site. An InfoCube consists of the fact table and its associated dimension tables in a star schema. Per Unit Sales Price. such decisions are made during the data warehouse design phase. Material Number. Per Unit Sales Price is a fact table key figure. Quantity Sold. In the real world. Unit of Measure. on which InfoCubes are built. Sales Representative ID. We start from creating an InfoArea.
or double-click Administrator Workbench. click Data targets under Modelling in the left panel. run transaction RSA1. right-click InfoObjects and select Create InfoAreaâ€¦. In BW. After logging on to the BW system. InfoCubes and ODS Objects are collectively known as data targets. let's create an InfoArea first. Before constructing the InfoCube. The relationship of InfoAreas to InfoCubes is comparable to the relationship of directories to files in an operating system. In the right panel. Step 1. Step 2. . In the new window.InfoCubes are listed under the branches and nodes.
Step 3. Enter a name and a description for the InfoArea. and then click to continue. .
InfoObject Catalogs are listed under InfoAreas. InfoObjects cannot be created without first having InfoObject Catalogs. We will now create InfoObject Catalogs. Step 1.The InfoArea has been created as shown below. We organize them within their own separate folders. In the right panel. . Creating InfoObject Catalogs InfoCube cannot be created withou first having InfoObjects. and select Create InfoObject catalog…. Characteristics and key figures are different types of objects. Click InfoObjects under Modelling in the left panel. right-click InfoArea – demo. These separate folders are called InfoObject Catalogs. just like InfoCubes.
Step 2. select the option Char.. . Step 3. Enter a name and a description for the InfoObject Catalog. and then click to create the InfoObject Catalog.
the status message InfoObject catalog IOC_DEMO_CH activated appears at the bottom of the screen. click to check the Info Object Catalog. Result Click to return to the previous screen.In the new window. If it is valid. Once the activation process is finished. . as shown below. The newly created InfoObject Catalog will be displayed. click to activate the InfoObject Catalog.
make sure that the option Key figure is selected. we create an InfoObject Catalog to hold key figures. .Following the same procedure. This time.
Step 2.Creating InfoObjects Characteristics We are going to create characteristics now. Right-click InfoObject Catalog – demo: characteristics. and then select Create InfoObject…. Enter a name and a description. Step 1. and then click to continue. Step 3. .
Select CHAR as the DataType. enter 15 for the field Length. Enter an attribute name IO_MATNM. After IO_MATNM is created. Notice that IO_MATNM is underlined. Step 4. . when you click IO_MATNM. In BW. the underline works like a hyperlink. and then click to create the attribute. and then click the tab Attributes. the hyperlink will lead you to IO_MATNM's detail definition window.
Select the option Create attribute as characteristic.Step 5. and then click continue. to .
text tables. Selecting Exclusively attribute allows you to select Lowercase letters. If the option Lowercase letters is selected. no master data tables. . to If Exclusively attribute is selected. the attribute can accept lowercase letters in data to be loaded.Step 6. the attribute IO_MATNM can be used only as a display attribute. If the option Lowercase letters is selected. Notice that the option Exclusively attribute is selected by default. not as a navigational attribute. Click continue. Select CHAR as the DataType. or another level of attributes underneath are allowed. and then enter 30 for the field Length.
Click to activate IO_MAT and IO_MATNM. the dependent InfoObject is IO_MATNM. If it is valid. click Click characteristic.Step 7. A window is displayed asking whether you want to activate dependent InfoObjects. . In our example. to activate the Step 8. to check the characteristic.
The name of the master data table is /BIC/PIO_MAT. and the name of the text table is /BIC/TIO_MAT. The relevant database objects once you activate an InfoObject. Physical database objects. Saving an InfoObject means saving its properties. It prefixes /BIC/ to the names of database objects of customer-created BW objects. Notice the prefix /BIC/ in the database object names. . or meta-data. the names of the newly created master data table and text table are displayed under the Master data/texts tab. Once you do that.Result The characteristic IO_MAT and its attribute IO_MATNM has now been created. You will see a status message "All InfoObject(s) activated" at the bottom of Screen. such as tables have not been created. BW prefixes /BI0/ to the names of database objects of Business Content objects.
The column "Assigned to" specifies the characteristic to which an attribute is assigned.Repeat the preceding steps to create the other characteristics listed below. and then clicking InfoObject Catalog – demo: characteristics. we can verify that the characteristics have been created by clicking InfoArea – demo. IO_SREG and IO_SOFF are created as independent characteristics. From Administrator Workbench. IO_MATNM is an attribute of IO_MAT. For example. We do not need to create them. BW provides characteristics for units of measure and time. instead of IO_SREP's attributes. The Material Description will be treated as IO_MAT's text. .
and then select Create InfoObject. Right-click InfoObject Catalog – demo: key figures.Creating InfoObjects Key Figures Lets create key figures now. . Work Instructions Step 1.
and then click to continue. Step 3. .Step 2. Enter a name and a description.
. If it is valid. to check the key Result You have created the key figure IO_PRC. and then click figure. select USD as the Fixed currency in the block Currency/unit of measure. click to activate the key figure. A status message All InfoObject(s) activated will appear at the bottom of screen.Select Amount in the block Type/data type.
. We have created the necessary InfoObjects.Repeat the preceding steps to create other key figures listed below. KEY FIGURES Key Figure Name and Description Type/Data Type Currency/Unit of Measure IO_PRC Amount Fixed currency: USD Price of material IO_QUAN Quantity Unit/currency: 0UNIT Sales quantity IO_REV Amount Fixed currency: USD Sales revenue From Administrator Workbench. we can verify that the key figures have been created by clicking InfoArea – demo. Now we can create the InfoCube. and then clicking InfoObject Catalog – demo: key figures.
Enter a name and a description. and then click to create the InfoCube. select the option Basic Cube in block InfoCube type. right-click InfoArea – demo and then select Create InfoCube…. Select Data targets under Modelling in the left panel. Step 1. In the right panel.Creating an InfoCube The following steps demonstrate how to create an InfoCube. Step 2. .
Step 3. instead. A remote cube does not contain data. we need to select the option Gen. If the source system is an SAP system. Otherwise. A basic cube has a fact table and associated dimension tables. querying the data leads to poor performance. we need to select the option SAP RemoteCube. We are building a basic cube. A remote cube is analogous to a channel. an SAP remote cube. As a consequence. allowing users to access the data using BEx. or a general remote cube.An InfoCube can be a basic cube. and it contains data. A multi-cube is a union of multiple basic cubes and/or remote cubes to allow cross-subject analysis. a multi-cube. . the data reside in the source system. Remote Cube. It does not contain data.
and IO_SREP from the Template table. and move them to the Structure table by clicking . Click . . and then enter a description for the dimension. click the Dimensions… button to create dimensions and assign these characteristics to the dimensions. Next. IO_MAT. Step 4.Select IO_CUST.
. Fixed dimension <InfoCube name><P|T|U> is reserved for Data Packet.BW automatically assigns technical names to each dimension with the format <InfoCube name><Number starting from 1>. a table can have a maximum of 16 key columns. and Unit. Time. In most databases. A dimension uses a key column in the fact table.
After assigning all three characteristics to their dimensions. Next. select a dimension to which the characteristic will be assigned in the Dimensions block. click the Assign tab to assign the characteristics to the dimensions. Step 5. BW mandates that an InfoCube can have a maximum of 16 dimensions: three are reserved for Data Packet. Time.Therefore. and then click to the dimension. Select a characteristic in the Characteristics and assigned dimension block. click to continue. the remaining 13 are left for us to use. . Repeat the same procedure to create two other dimensions. and Unit. to assign the characteristic Step 6.
Select the Time characteristics tab. and move it to the Structure table by clicking . select 0CALDAY from the Template table.Step 7.
Step 8. If it is valid. to activate the . click InfoCube. click . Select the Key figures tab. select IO_PRC. to check the InfoCube. IO_QUAN. and IO_REV from the Template table and move them to the Structure table by clicking Next.
we must define a source system in BW. In order to maintain data integrity and fast performance. It also has to know how to extract the data.Result You have created the InfoCube IC_DEMOBC. the characteristic data is loaded before the transaction data. . Loading Data You will now learn how to load the data into an InfoCube. Usually data reside in a source system. In the examples you will go through. BW has to know where to find these files. the data would reside in Excel files. For this purpose. A status message InfoCube IC_DEMOBC activated will appear at the bottom of the screen.
Creating a Source System A BW system can accept data from various source systems. Select Source systems under Modelling in the left panel.We must also define a BW object called InfoPackage to schedule a load. We must define yet another BW object called InfoSource. right-click Source systems and select Create…. . after the data pass through the InfoSource. BW allows us to aggregate key figures if the destination is an InfoCube. We will now define a source system. Examples are: * R/3 systems * BW systems * Flat files * External systems through third-party ETTL tools Step 1. This is done so that InfoPackage knows the structure of the data's destination. In the right panel. This aggregation procedure is known an update rule. This will help BW know where to find the data.
Result You have created the source system. Step 3. data using file inte option.Step 2. manual meta data. Enter a name and a description for the source system. and then click to continue. . and then click to create the source system. Select the FileSystem. A status message Source system SS_DEMOFF creation successful finished will appear at the bottom of screen.
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