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The Panama Canal
A schematic of the Panama Canal, illustrating the sequence of locks and passages Original owner Principal engineer Date of first use Locks La Société internationale du Canal John Findlay Wallace, John Frank Stevens (1906–1908), George Washington Goethals August 15, 1914 3 locks up, 3 down per transit; all two lanes (2 lanes of locks; locks built in three sites) Status Open
Navigation authority Panama Canal Authority
The Panama Canal (Spanish: Canal de Panamá) is a 82-kilometre (51 mi) ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Started in 1880 it took till 1914, after the yellow fever threat was solved, to finish the canal. The canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships in 1914 to 14,702 vessels measuring a Location of Panama between Pacific (bottom) and Caribbean (top), with canal at total of 309.6 million Panama top center Canal/Universal Measurement System (PC/UMS) tons in 2008. In total, over 815,000 vessels have passed through the canal. It has been named one of the seven modern wonders of the world by the American Society of Civil Engineers. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the canal made possible fast and easy shipping between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, more than cutting in half the long Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America. Its major economic impact was in integrating the U.S. West Coast and Pacific countries more into the world economy. The first attempt to construct a sea level canal was begun in 1880 under the leadership of Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal, and heavy financing and support from Paris. The French seriously underestimated the medical dimension of working in a mosquito infested climate and the cost of building a sea level canal in the tropics with unstable mountains and up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) of rain per year. The French effort went bankrupt and was largely
Panama Canal abandoned by 1890 after about 22,000 workers had died from accidents and from mosquito spread diseases (particularly malaria and yellow fever). During the French effort there was no demonstrated connection between mosquitoes and the spread of Yellow Fever and Malaria. The United States launched a second effort in 1904 after they bought the French rights for $40,000,000 and signed a treaty with the new country of Panama granting the U.S. control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10,000,000 and a fee payable each year. In all, it was estimated that about 30000000 cu yd ( m3) of French excavation, primarily in Gaillard Cut, were of direct use to the U.S. construction effort, this was valued at about $1.00 per 1 cu yd (1 m3) or $30,000,000. The usable French equipment, engineering surveys, etc. were valued at about $10,000,000 more. A U.S. engineering panel was created to study building the canal and recommended to President Theodore Roosevelt that building a sea level canal (like the French had started) was best. However more extensive engineering studies showed a lock canal with a large reservoir 85 feet (26 m) above sea level was a much better design. Creating the 115 feet (35 m) high Gatun Dam, the largest in the world then, would make the world's largest (then) artificial lake, Gatun Lake (85 feet (26 m) above sea level). This lake connected with a canal through the mountains--the Gaillard Cut--that crossed into the Pacific drainage and would be the main trans-oceanic route. Building Gatun Dam and Lake would eliminate having to remove 85 feet (26 m) by about 13 miles (21 km) of the treacherous soil in the Gaillard Cut and allow a way to "tame" the often wildly fluctuating Chagres River. In addition more of the work would be converted from expensive steam shovel work to less expensive dredge work which could excavate channels, etc. at about $0.25-0.50/cuyd. A ship lock canal which boosted ships up and down to Lake Gatun on the Atlantic and Pacific end was recommended by Chief Engineer John Frank Stevens as both much cheaper, quicker and more feasible than an all sea level canal and was agreed to by President Theodore Roosevelt. The Army Medical Department (United States) had shown in about 1898 that mosquitos were the vector allowing the spread of yellow fever and malaria. The Canal Commission appointed Colonel William Crawford Gorgas of the U.S. Army Medical Corp in March 1904 as head of hospitals and sanitation cleanup in Panama. After an extensive mosquito abatement project that involved a large sanitation corps, millions of dollars for improvements in mosquito abatement and about two years of intense effort followed by eight years of continuing effort they were largely successful--yellow fever deaths were essentially eliminated in the Canal Zone. The main sanitation projects involved: identifying and isolating patients with yellow fever or malaria, fumigation of buildings by burning pans of sulfur or pyrethrum to kill the mosquitoes, spraying mosquito breeding areas with oil and larvicide, paving roads in towns to minimize stagnant water, mosquito netting, window screens, eliminating stagnant water in all containers and draining swamps or any other stagnant water when practical, etc. Despite all their effort about 5,600 deaths due to disease and accidents occurred during the U.S. building of the canal. In 1907, when Chief Engineer John Frank Stevens resigned, Roosevelt appointed U.S. Army Colonel George Washington Goethals of the United States Army Corps of Engineers as Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal construction project. Goethals was experienced with locks and canals and with thousands of workers and strong leadership succeeded in opening the canal in 1914. They minimized the mosquito transmitted disease threat; moved, rebuilt and extensively expanded the Panama Railroad; excavated over 200000000 cu yd ( m3) of material; built Gatun Dam to allow filling Lake Gatun; poured about 2000000 cu yd ( m3) of concrete, the largest concrete use in the world at that time to build Lake Gatun spillway and three sets of double 110 feet (34 m) by 1000 feet (300 m) ship locks to boost ships up to and down from Lake Gatun; built one of the world's earliest and most extensive electrical systems to power and control the flow of water into the locks and spillway and spent almost $375,000,000 to finish the project—by far the largest American engineering project of that era. Colonel Goethals was promoted to Major General after the successful completion of the project—one of his many honors. Colonel William Crawford Gorgas was promoted to Major General and made Surgeon General of the Army in 1914 for his work—one of his many honors. The U.S. controlled the canal and the canal defenses in the Panama Canal Zone surrounding it until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for the transition of control to Panama. From 1979 to 1999 the canal was under
an agency of the Panamanian government. The longest ship ever to transit was the San Juan Prospector. surveyed and issued a report on a route for a proposed Panama Canal.31 m). Also in 1855. The Bridge of the Americas (Spanish: Puente de las Américas) at the Pacific end is about a third of a degree of longitude east of the end near Colon on the Atlantic. the Panama Railway was built across the isthmus.–Panamanian administration. During his expedition of 1788–1793. Given the strategic location of Panama and its isthmus separating two great oceans. Alessandro Malaspina demonstrated the feasibility of a canal and outlined plans for its construction. other forms of trade links were attempted over the years. the 8. The maximum size of vessel that can use the canal is known as Panamax. A Panamax cargo ship typically has a DWT of 65. William Kennish. Dense jungles are visible in green. Early proposal The earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama dates to 1534. and abandoned in July 1699. greatly facilitating trade and largely determining the later canal route. Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain ordered a survey for a route through Panama that would ease the voyage for ships traveling to and from Spain and Peru. as well as give the Spanish a tactical military edge over the Portuguese. However. This is a result of the isthmus's "curving back on itself" in the region of the canal. . with a beam of 106 ft (32.57 m) long.to 10-hour journey through the canal from the Pacific to the Atlantic is one from southeast to northwest. when Charles V. the discovery of gold in California created a great deal of interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.000–80. The ill-fated Darien scheme was an attempt launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route. Finally. a Manx-born engineer in the employ of the United States government.S. opening in 1855. and from 31 December 1999 command of the waterway was assumed by the Panama Canal Authority.Panama Canal joint U. but its actual cargo is restricted to about 52. an ore-bulk-oil carrier that is 973 ft (296. His report was published in a book entitled The Practicality and Importance of a Ship Canal to Connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. While the Pacific Ocean is west of the isthmus and the Atlantic to the east. This overland link became a vital piece of infrastructure. but was defeated by the generally inhospitable conditions. 3 History Satellite image showing location of Panama canal.500 tonnes because of draft restrictions in the canal.000 tonnes. now Marcona Prospector.
on January 1. began construction on a sea-level canal (i. It was ratified by the United States Senate on March 14. Panama's ambassador to the United States. Philippe Bunau-Varilla. Actual conditions were hushed up in France to avoid recruitment problems. ranging from laborers to top directors of the French company. signed the Hay-Bunau Varilla . particularly malaria and yellow fever. with insufficient prior study of the geology and hydrology of the region. Beyond the hygienic and technical difficulties. Tomás Herrán of Colombia. after a great deal of work. Also. in June 1902. Public health measures were ineffective because the role of the mosquito as a disease vector was then unknown. without locks) through what was then Colombia's province of Panama. 1903. 1903. 1903 when the United States sent naval forces to encourage Colombia's surrender of the region. while dense jungles blocked land routes. The French. construction At this time. It would have granted the United States a renewable lease in perpetuity from Colombia on the land proposed for the canal. Senate voted in favor of pursuing the Panamanian option. The United States quickly recognized them. and the idea of a canal was enhanced by the French success of the Suez Canal (which took 10 years to build the 102 mile canal. Panama achieved independence on November 3. the French scheme was abandoned due to disease and the sheer difficulty of building a sea-level canal. with some favouring a route across Nicaragua (see Nicaragua Canal and Ecocanal) and others advocating the purchase of the French interests in Panama. (It is claimed that the vote was swayed by William Nelson Cromwell. President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt changed tactics. told Roosevelt and Hay of a possible revolt and hoped that the U. as well as lack of French field experience. sickened and killed vast numbers of employees. in some years.000 workers were estimated to have died during the main period of French construction (1881–1889). such as with downpours that caused steel equipment to rust. This Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907 is often misinterpreted as the "99-year lease" due to misleading wording included in article 22 of the agreement that refers to property within the land but does not pertain to the control of the canal and the right for the United States to renew the lease indefinitely.. Even the hospitals contributed to the problem. chief engineer of the French canal company. 1903. the Hay-Herran Treaty was signed by United States Secretary of State John M. promising support for the separation of Panama from Colombia. warships blocked sealanes for Colombian troops from coming to put down the revolt. In addition.S. disease. On November 2. Eventually.e. unwittingly providing breeding places for mosquitoes inside the unscreened wards. financial mismanagement and political corruption also contributed to the French failure. U. more than twice the length of the Panama Canal). 1880. The French began work in a rush. rain-induced landslides poured nearly as much material into the canal as had been removed.S. ) On January 22.S.S. Hay and Dr. as many as 22. In 1893. 1903. under Ferdinand de Lesseps. U. Phillipe Bunau-Varilla. Excavation was conducted at such a steep angle that. provided the necessary rights could be obtained. the U. These conditions made it impossible to maintain an experienced work force as fearful technical employees quickly returned to France. various interests in the United States were also expressing interest in building a canal across the isthmus.Panama Canal 4 French construction attempt An all-water route between the oceans was still seen as the ideal solution. The high toll from disease was one of the major factors in the failure. but the Senate of Colombia did not ratify the treaty. would support it with troops and money. on November 6.
S. He reported back on the “astonishing” progress that Army Corps of Engineers Colonel George Washington Goethals and his team were making excavating the “big ditch” and building dams and locks. for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama. Although Bunau-Varilla was serving as Panama's ambassador. Planning and construction begins John Frank Stevens. a weekly newspaper for the thousands of workers in Panama. 1904. except for month-long summer breaks.S. Opposition newspapers joined in the criticism. It would not be his first trip to Panama. But Bishop’s greatest achievement in Panama would be as founding editor of The Canal Record. under President Theodore Roosevelt. Bishop had gone ahead to advance Roosevelt’s historic inspection tour. Bishop’s promised $10. it was given control of the Panama Canal Zone over which the United States exercised sovereignty. William Gorgas. not sadly but cheerfully”. Implementing the recommendations of Walter Reed and Dr. successfully argued the case against the incredibly massive excavation required for a sea-level canal like the French had tried to build and convinced Theodore Roosevelt of the necessity and feasibility of a canal built with dams and locks. D. “I accept your decision without reluctance. Stevens also built proper housing with screens for canal workers and oversaw investment in extensive sanitation and mosquito-abatement programs that minimized the spread of the deadly mosquito-spread diseases—particularly malaria and yellow fever. Bishop was tasked with managing the Commission’s day-to-day matters but also with ensuring public support for the canal through public relations and by keeping the project’s official history. the following year. mostly because it was twice what each of them made. serving as his first line of defense against workers with complaints and grievances. “and shall go to the Isthmus. In the fall of the previous year. surely with Roosevelt’s quiet consent. Joseph Bucklin Bishop.Panama Canal Treaty. In the summer of 1907. This treaty would later become a contentious diplomatic issue between Panama and the U. His regular reports of cubic yards dug by rival work divisions. William Howard Taft. The United States. serving clandestinely at first as Theodore Roosevelt’s “eyes and ears”. ordered Bishop out of Washington to Panama where the partisan political heat would be less intense. The commission reported directly to Secretary of War William Taft.S. participation in the Canal project was appointed Executive Secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commission in Washington. Secretary of War. the first time a sitting President had journeyed outside the U. seven years after completion of the canal. when escalating allegations of cronyism surrounding Bishop’s appointment threatened appropriations for Panama Canal construction.S. Chief Engineer from 1905 to 1907. Joseph Bucklin Bishop would. granting rights to the United States to build and indefinitely administer the Panama Canal.C. and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty. and the competitive baseball games they played created a spirit of healthy competition that lifted worker morale and productivity. Established in 1904.000 per annum). The “good news” of The Canal Record also built vital public support on newspaper editorial pages back home and in the halls of the United States Congress where annual appropriations were required to keep the canal project moving forward. The United States paid Colombia $10 million in 1921 and (later $250. bought out the French equipment and excavations for US$40 million and began work on May 4. Before long.” Bishop informed Taft. remain on the isthmus for seven years. Bishop became Goethals’s trusted aide. One of Stevens' primary achievements in Panama was in building the infrastructure necessary to complete the canal. he was a French citizen and was not authorized to sign treaties on behalf of Panama without Panamanian review. Government created the Isthmian Canal Commission to oversee the construction of the Panama Canal in the early years of American involvement. He had the Panama Railway rebuilt and upgraded with modern heavy-duty equipment. 5 Isthmian Canal Commission The U.000 annual salary was relentlessly criticized by Roosevelt’s opponents in Congress. an associate of Theodore Roosevelt and a strong editorial advocate for U. The mosquito had been identified as the vector (disease spreading agent) by Cuban .
Army after the Spanish-American War (1898) (see also Health measures during the construction of the Panama Canal). steam shovels.S. Even the construction of the Panama Canal with locks still required the excavation of an enormous volume of material and was envisioned by John Frank Stevens as a massive earth-moving project using the Panama Railway as efficiently as possible. Nearly all this new equipment was built by new. The Panama Canal Railway. The plow scraped the dirt off the railroad cars. This allowed the tracks used by both the steam shovels and dirt trains to be quickly moved to wherever they needed to go. The railroad cars had only one side and steel aprons bridged the spaces between the cars. then plowed the dirt spoils away from the track. cement mixers. The winch. loaded by steam shovels mounted on one set of railroad tracks onto spoils cars on parallel tracks. Most of the cars carrying the dirt spoils were wooden flat cars lined with steel floors A Marion steam shovel excavating the Panama that used a crude but effective unloading device—the Lidgerwood Canal in 1908 system. The steam shovels. and hauled out by locomotives. When the steam shovels or dirt trains needed to move to a new section. mounted on a steam engine. Carlos Finlay in 1881. enormous steam-powered cranes. The steam shovels were some of the largest in the world in 1906 when they were introduced. Essentially all of the hundreds of millions of cubic yards of material removed from the required canal cuts were broken up by explosives. When the fill got large enough. and returned empty—one train about every one and a half minutes of the day. about 160 loaded dirt trains went out of the cut daily. moving on one set of tracks. and after significant work on preparing the infrastructure and railroad. There were about 102 of the new railroad-mounted steam shovels brought in from the United States and elsewhere.300 dirt spoils railroad cars. The railroad. extensive machine building technology developed and built in the United States by companies such as 6 . construction of an elevated canal with locks began in earnest. a three-ton steel plow was put on the last car (or a car carrying the plow was attached as the last car) and a huge winch with a braided steel cable stretching the length of all cars was attached to the engine.Panama Canal physician and scientist Dr. On arrival of the train at one of the approximately 60 different dumping grounds. The plow and winch were then detached for use on another train. starting in 1904. and pneumatic power drills used to drill holes for explosives (about 30000000 pounds (14000 t) were used) were some of the new (in 1906) pieces of construction equipment used to construct the canal. With the diseases under control. to pick up large sections of track and their attached ties by large steam-powered cranes and relocate them intact—without disassembling and rebuilding the track. rock crushers. picked up the loosened dirt and then piled it on the steel-floored flat cars traveling on a parallel set of tracks. techniques were developed by William Bierd. had to be comprehensively upgraded with heavy-duty double-tracked rails over most of the line to accommodate all the new rolling stock of about 115 heavy-duty locomotives and 2. Finlay's theory and investigative work had recently been confirmed by Dr. The rock and dirt was first blasted loose by explosives. While constructing the Gaillard Cut. dredges. A dozen men could move a mile of track a day—the work previously done by up to 600 men. The dirt was piled high up against the one closed side of the car. Another plow. Walter Reed while in Cuba with the U. all the millions of tons of equipment and supplies. besides hauling thousands of men. former head of the Panama Railroad. Two sets of tracks were then built or moved up to where the loosened material lay. did much more. allowing the entire train-load of dirt cars to be unloaded in about ten minutes or less. In many places the new Lake Gatun flooded over the original rail line and a new rail line had to be raised above the water by massive dirt fills and bridges. A typical train had twenty dirt cars arranged as essentially one long gondola car. The train moved forward as the cars were filled until all cars were filled. powered by the train’s steam engine. The railroads. The new railroad closely paralleled the canal where it could and was moved and reconstructed where it interfered with the canal work. the track was relocated on top of the old fill to allow almost continuous unloading of new fill with a minimum amount of effort. pulled the plow the length of the dirt-loaded train by winching up the steel cable.
large enough to carry the larger warships which the United States was building at the time and had planned to continue building.  . a 10000 hp (7500 kW). Ellicott Dredges.500. In 1941. Maryland. In addition. completed in 1935. This brought the total death toll for the construction of the canal to around 27. and significant excavation was carried out on the new approach channels. this was also the same month that fighting in World War I (the Great War) began in Europe. The canal was formally opened on August 15. Coincidentally. 20-inch dredge. The work proceeded for several years. two years ahead of the target date of June 1. the name of the recipient on one side. They built extensive electrical generation and distribution systems—one of the first wide-scale uses of large electrical motors and generators. but the project was canceled after World War II. when John Frank Stevens resigned. President Roosevelt had the former French machinery minted into medals for all workers who spent at least two years on the construction to commemorate their contribution to the building of the canal. created Madden Lake (later Alajuela Lake). Roosevelt appointed U. Electrical-powered donkey engines pulled the ships through the locks on railroad tracks laid parallel to the locks. as well as a picture of the Culebra Cut on the back. The dam. construction began on a further major improvement: a new set of locks for the canal. USA company formerly known as the Ellicott Machine Company.S. 1916. a Baltimore. still. 1914 with the passage of the cargo ship SS Ancon. Ellicott Dredges also built the dredge MINDI. and the worker's years of service. In 1939. about 5.Panama Canal the Joshua Hendy Iron Works. 1913 Later developments By the 1930s it was seen that water supply would be an issue for the canal. not available before. These medals featured Roosevelt's likeness on the front. 28-inch cutter suction dredge still operating in the Panama Canal. extensive large electrical motors to power the pumps and controls on the canal's locks and other new technology. 900 hp (670 kW). allowed massive earth cuts and fills to be used on the new railroad and canal that were many times larger than those done in the original 1851–1855 railroad construction. The advances in hygiene resulted in a relatively low death toll during the American construction. built the cutter dredges used in some of the construction of the Panama Canal after the cuts were deep enough to float them. The first machine delivered was a steam-driven. this prompted the building of the Madden Dam across the Chagres River above Gatun Lake.600 workers died during this period (1904–1914). The building of the canal was completed in 1914. which acts as additional water storage for the canal. the canal used large refrigeration systems for making ice. 7 SS Kroonland at the Culebra Cut while transiting the Panama Canal on 2 February 1915. The Americans replaced the old French equipment with machinery designed for a larger scale of work (such as the giant hydraulic crushers supplied by the Joshua Hendy Iron Works) to quicken the pace of construction. New technology. Construction of locks on the Panama Canal. Army Colonel George Washington Goethals as Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal. In 1907.
2 km (15. . control of the canal and the Canal Zone surrounding it became contentious as relations between Panama and the U.2 mi) long. An additional artificial lake.1 mi) long.2 mi) up the channel to the Miraflores locks.5 meters (54 ft) at mid-tide. became increasingly tense.0 mi) channel forms the approach to the locks from the Atlantic side. • A 3. The contract was not affiliated with the ACP or Panama Canal operations and was won by the firm Hutchison Whampoa. the government of Panama held an international bid to negotiate a 25-year contract for operation of the container shipping ports located at the canal’s Atlantic and Pacific outlets.3 mi).7 km (1. passing under the Bridge of the Americas.9 km (1. ships travel 13. 8 Layout The canal consists of artificial lakes. which is 1. this mobilized the process of granting the Panamanians free control of the canal so long as Panama signed a treaty guaranteeing the permanent neutrality of the canal.5 meters (54 ft) above sea level. • Gatun Lake. the total length of the canal is 77. student protests were met by the fencing in of the zone and an increased military presence. • The Gaillard (Culebra) Cut slices 12. including the approach wall.1 km (47. and passes under the Centennial Bridge. The layout of the canal as seen by a ship passing from the Pacific end to the Atlantic is as follows: • From the buoyed entrance channel in the Gulf of Panama (Pacific side). • The single-stage Pedro Miguel lock. and three sets of locks. several improved and artificial channels. USS Missouri passes through the canal in 1945 is the last part of the ascent with a lift of 9.7 km (5. Alajuela Lake (known during the American era as Madden Lake). acts as a reservoir for the canal. a natural waterway enhanced by the damming of Lake Gatún. drop ships back down to sea level.8 mi) through the continental divide at an altitude of 26 meters (85 ft). is 1.7 km (1. a Hong Kong-based shipping concern whose owner is Li Ka Shing. merging into Lake Gatun.9 mi).2 km (8. carries vessels 24.S.0 mi) across the isthmus. January 9. 1. a three-stage flight of locks 1. and resulted in the Torrijos-Carter Treaties. Many Panamanians felt that the Canal Zone rightfully belonged to Panama. 1999. runs west about 8. The treaty led to full Panamanian control effective at noon on December 31. • The artificial Miraflores Lake is the next stage. • Limón Bay (Bahía Limón).Panama Canal After the war. U. provides an anchorage for some ships awaiting passage. Thus. Signed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter and Omar Torrijos of Panama on September 7.S. The unrest culminated in riots in which approximately 20 Panamanians and 3–5 U.5 km (5.87 mi) long.1 mi) long. • The Chagres River (Río Chagres). and runs 8.6 km (7.5 meters (31 ft) up to the main level of the canal. and the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) assumed command of the waterway. Before this handover.4 mi) to the outer breakwater. 1977. an artificial lake formed by the building of the Gatun Dam. • The Gatún locks. a huge natural harbour. Negotiations toward a new settlement began in 1974. • The two-stage Miraflores lock system.S. and 16.4 km (0.2 km (2. with a total lift of 16. soldiers were killed on Martyr's Day. 1964.
Because of the importance of the canal to international trade. specifically the Pedro Miguel Locks. naval ships. The central wall between the parallel locks at Gatún is 18 meters (59 ft) thick and stands in excess of 24 meters (79 ft) high. These are known as Panamax vessels.53 meters (110. It is the size of the locks.Panama Canal 9 Point Coordinates (links to map & photo sources) 9°23′15″N 79°55′07″W 9°16′20″N 79°55′22″W 9°12′36″N 79°55′27″W 9°10′42″N 79°52′00″W 9°11′03″N 79°50′42″W 9°09′33″N 79°48′49″W 9°07′14″N 79°48′14″W 9°06′42″N 79°46′07″W 9°07′04″N 79°43′21″W 9°05′46″N 79°41′04″W Notes Atlantic Entrance Gatún Locks Trinidad Turn Bohío Turn Orchid Turn Frijoles Turn Barbacoa Turn Mamei Turn Gamboa Reach Bas Obispo Reach Las Cascadas Reach 9°04′36″N 79°40′30″W Empire Reach Culebra Reach Cucaracha Reach Paraiso Reach 9°03′40″N 79°39′47″W 9°02′51″N 79°39′01″W 9°02′01″N 79°38′14″W 9°01′33″N 79°37′30″W Pedro Miguel Locks 9°01′01″N 79°36′46″W Miraflores Lake Miraflores Locks Balboa Reach Pacific Entrance 9°00′27″N 79°36′09″W 8°59′48″N 79°35′31″W 8°58′22″N 79°34′40″W 8°53′18″N 79°31′17″W Lock size The size of the locks determines the maximum size of ships allowed passage.S.5 meters (94 ft) wide. 19. In 1908 the United States Navy requested that width be increased to at least 36 meters (118 ft) which would allow the passage of U. The steel lock gates measure an average of 2 meters (6. many ships are built to the maximum size allowed. Each lock is 320 meters (1050 ft) long with the walls ranging in thickness from 15 meters (49 ft) at the base to 3 meters (9. Initially the locks at Gatun had been designed to be 28.0 ft) wide. Miter lock gate at Gatún .5 meters (64 ft) wide and 20 meters (66 ft) high.6 ft) thick. Eventually a compromise was made and the locks were built 33.8 ft) at the top.
The 2006 Third lock lane project will create larger locks.000 tons.1 m) by 8 feet (2.048 fully loaded displacement tons. size.) As of fiscal year 2008. Most other types of vessel pay a toll per PC/UMS net ton. this charge has greatly increased tolls for such vessels.000 tons or with less than 33 tons per passenger are charged on the same "per-ton" schedule as freighters. The allowed dimensions of ships will increase by 25% in length. are assessed minimum tolls based upon their length overall. Started in 2007. a reduced toll is charged for freight ships "in ballast". Passenger vessels of less than 30. this toll is US$3. A Panamax container ship may carry up to 4. (The calculation of tonnage for commercial vessels is quite complex. allowing bigger ships to transit.19 per ton for the next 10. as defined by New Panamax. One TEU is the size of a container measuring 20 feet (6. according to the following table : . For container ships.400 TEU. such as this one at Miraflores locks. the toll is assessed per the ship's capacity expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units or TEUs. and US$3.76 per ton thereafter. Lock gate at Miraflores Tolls Tolls for the canal are decided by the Panama Canal Authority and are based on vessel type. are among the largest ships to use the canal Passenger vessels in excess of 30. this toll is US$72.82 per ton for the next 10. RORO carriers.5 feet (2. in which one "ton" is actually a volume of 100 cubic feet (2. The toll is calculated differently for passenger ships and for container ships carrying no cargo (“in ballast”).Panama Canal 10 along with the height of the Bridge of the Americas at Balboa. the number of passengers that can be accommodated in permanent beds. and deeper and wider channels. the ballast rate is US$57.000 tons (PC/UMS). US$3. 51% in beam. known popularly as cruise ships. 2009.000 tons.90 per ton for the first 10. that is. and 26% in draft. Effective May 1.6 m).83 m3).000 tons. that determine the Panamax metric and limit the size of ships that may use the Canal.44 m) by 8. pay a rate based on the number of berths. Small vessels up to 583 PC/UMS net tons when carrying passengers or cargo. The per-berth charge is currently $92 for unoccupied berths and $115 for occupied berths. and US$3. and the type of cargo carried. As of May 1.60 per TEU. As with container ships. or up to 1. 2009. or up to 735 PC/UMS net tons when in ballast.00 per TEU.
1 million tons in 2009. it continues to be a vital link in world trade.300.430. is a key measure of efficiency. according to the ACP. Ninety-seven years since its opening.300 US$1. Increasing volumes of imports from Asia which previously landed on the U. including waiting time.240 meters (50 ft) More than 15. falling to 12.233 in 2007. who swam the canal in 1928. Nevertheless.S. Efficiency and maintenance There were fears that efficiency and maintenance would suffer following the U.. Canal Waters Time (CWT).384 meters (80 ft) up to 30. thus avoiding a seven-day delay. This has been coupled with a steady rise in average ship size and in the numbers of Panamax vessels passing.g. carrying more cargo than ever before. paid on August 24. The total number of oceangoing transits increased from 11. the canal continues to enjoy great success. withdrawal.S. 2006 by the Panamax tanker Erikoussa.384 meters (80 ft) Toll US$1. bypassing a 90-ship queue waiting for the end of maintenance works on the Gatun locks. so that the total tonnage carried rose from 227.9 million tons in 2007. since 2000.000. with fewer overhead costs. (the Canal’s fiscal year runs from October to September).725 in 2003 to 13. this represents significant overall growth in canal capacity. west-coast ports are now passing through the canal to the American east coast.9 million PC/UMS tons in fiscal year 1999 to a record high of 312.Panama Canal 11 Length of vessel Up to 15. The highest fee for priority passage charged through the Transit Slot Auction System was US$220.240 meters (50 ft) up to 24. varying between 10 and 30 accidents each year across approximately 14. which paid US$331. Even though world shipping—and the size of ships themselves—has changed markedly since the canal was designed. Capitalizing on practices developed during the American administration. the canal faces a number of potential problems.200. this does not appear to have been the case.480 meters (100 ft) US$1. canal operations are improving under Panamanian control. Current issues Panorama of Pacific entrance of the canal.   Despite the reduction in total transits due to the negative impact of vessel size (e. Left: Pacific and Puente de las Americas (Pan American Highway). 2008 to the Disney Magic. The average toll is around US$54. the inability of large vessels to pass each other in the Gaillard Cut).500 More than 30. however.400 The most expensive regular toll for canal passage to date was charged on May 16. The accident rate has also not changed appreciably in the past decade.  The least expensive toll was 36 cents to American adventurer Richard Halliburton.855 in 2009. far right: Miraflores locks.400 More than 24.480 meters (100 ft) US$2. falling to 299. The normal fee would have been just US$13. the average time it takes a vessel to navigate the canal.000 total annual transits. it has oscillated between 20 and 30 hours.   An official accident is one in which a formal investigation is requested and conducted. .
• Construction of a new spillway in Gatun.4 to 11. Competition Despite having enjoyed a privileged position for many years. Gaillard Cut widening from 192 to 218 metres (630 to 715 ft). some critics have suggested that the Suez Canal may become a viable alternative for cargo en route from Asia to the U.    Capacity The canal is presently handling more vessel traffic than had ever been envisioned by its builders. Improvements to the tugboat fleet. This is supported by new equipment.3 metres (34 to 37 ft) PLD The water that is used to raise and lower vessels in the Canal is fed by gravity from Gatun Lake (pictured above) into each set of locks. The ACP cites a number of major improvements. Implementation of the carousel lockage system in Gatun locks.98 ft). continues to serve more than 144 of the world’s trade routes and the majority of canal traffic comes from the "All-Water Route" (the route from Asia to the U.'unknown operator: u'. the replacement of more than 16 km of locomotive track. • Modification of all locks structures to allow an additional draft of about 0. East and Gulf Coasts via the Panama Canal). however. for flood control. and an increase of the tug boat fleet by 20%. In December 2010. • Deepening of the Pacific and Atlantic entrances. Construction of two tie-up stations in Gaillard Cut.30 metres (0. improvements have been made to the operating machinery of the canal. such as a new drill barge A bucket dredge works to deepen and widen the and suction dredger. the deepening of the navigational channel in Gatun Lake to reduce draft restrictions and improve water supply.1 million tons of shipping. and new lock machinery controls. To improve capacity. These improvements will enlarge the capacity from 280–290 million PCUMS (2008) to 330–340 PCUMS (2012). east coast.Panama Canal 12 The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) has invested nearly US$1 billion in widening and modernising the canal.  Also. a number of improvements have been imposed on the current canal system. and the deepening of the Atlantic and Pacific entrances of the canal. this was the first closure since the American invasion in 1989. including an increased and improved tug locomotive fleet.' (unknown operator: u'strong'unknown operator: . These improvements aim to maximise the possible use of current locking system: • • • • • • • Implementation of an enhanced locks lighting system. including the widening and straightening of the Gaillard Cut to reduce restrictions on passing vessels. canal traffic in 2009 consisted of 299. In 1934 it was estimated that the maximum capacity of the canal would be around 80 million tons per year. Because canal tolls are expected to rise.S.'unknown operator: u'. record breaking rain totals caused a 17-hour closure of the canal. with the aim of increasing capacity by 20%.S. Improvements have been made to the traffic management system to allow more efficient control over ships in the canal. Development of an improved vessel scheduling system. the canal is increasingly facing competition from other quarters. an access road to the Centenario bridge collapsed. addition. Deepening of Gatun Lake navigational channels from 10. The Panama Canal. as noted above. In canal. This route would save unknown operator: u'. The increasing rate of melting of ice in the Arctic Ocean has led to speculation that the Northwest Passage or Arctic Bridge may become viable for commercial shipping at some point in the future.
Gatun locks showing the "mule" locomotives at work As a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact and a member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. possibly leading to a diversion of some traffic to that route. is estimated at between 330 and 340 million PC/UMS tons per year. imp gal) per lock-cycle going downwards. Close to 50% of transiting vessels are already using the full width of the locks. but the same waterflow cycle can be used for another ship passing in the opposite direction. which will protect the aquatic and terrestrial resources of the Canal Watershed. 37% of the world's container ships will be too large for the present canal. Since a ship will have to go upward to Lake Gatun first and then descend. The water is lost to the oceans at a rate of 101000 m3 ( US gal. has been approved by the government of Panama. it is anticipated that this capacity will be reached between 2009 and 2012. with completion expected in 2014. The future As demand is rising. changes in shipping patterns—particularly the increasing numbers of post-Panamax ships—will necessitate changes to the canal if it is to retain a significant market share. However.'mi) on the route from Asia to Europe compared with the Panama Canal. when there is less rainfall. expansion will guarantee the availability and quality of water resources by using unique water-saving basins at each new lock. These water-saving basins will diminish water loss and preserve freshwater resources along the waterway by reusing water from the basins into the locks. has been under consideration for some time. and hence a failure to expand would result in a significant loss of market share. 2006. there is also a shortfall of water in Gatun Lake. The Pacific side sea level is about 20 centimeters (8 inches) higher than that of the Atlantic side due to differences in ocean conditions such as water densities and weather conditions. Each lock chamber will have three water-saving basins.25 billion. After completion. the ACP has developed an environmentally and socially sustainable program for expansion. The maximum sustainable capacity of the present canal. to allow for a greater number of transits and the ability to handle larger ships. and is in progress. . 13 Water issues Gatun Lake is filled with rainwater. The ship's submerged volume is not relevant to the amount of water. the canal is positioned to be a significant feature of world shipping for the foreseeable future. However. and a total of 18 basins for the entire project. given some relatively minor improvement work. There are a total of nine basins for each of the two lock complexes. An enlargement scheme similar to the 1939 Third Lock Scheme. It is anticipated that by 2011. which will reuse 60 percent of the water in each transit. and the lake accumulates excess water during wet months. The cost is estimated at US$5. such a route is beset by unresolved territorial issues and would still hold significant problems owing to ice. and the project will double the canal's capacity and allow more traffic and the passage of longer and wider ships.Panama Canal u'. This proposal to expand the canal was approved in a national referendum by approximately 80% on October 22. a single passing will cost double the amount.  During the dry season.
The new locks are expected to open for traffic in 2015. and one south west of Miraflores locks. and a great deal of work for the company's construction division.200 ft) and a draft of up to 15 meters (50 ft).200 ft) on the bends. equivalent to a container ship carrying around 12.000 twenty-foot (6. an overall length of up to 366 meters (1. each supported by approach channels. On September 3.9 mi) channel at Miraflores from the locks to the Gaillard Cut. The project is designed to allow for an anticipated growth in traffic from 280 million PC/UMS tons in 2005 to nearly 510 million PC/UMS tons in 2025.1 m) long containers (TEU). 2007. and the raising of its maximum water level. removing 47 million cubic meters of earth and rock.7 meters (87.5 ft) to 27. this will allow the transit of vessels with a beam of up to 49 meters (160 ft). The deepening of Gatún Lake. each basin being approximately 70 meters (230 ft) wide. and operated in addition to. together with a consortium of contractors consisting of the Spanish Sacyr Vallehermoso. will then have greater access for maintenance. Each flight of locks will be accompanied by nine water reutilization basins (three per lock chamber). An article in the February 2007 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine describes the plans for the canal. There is also a follow-up article in the February 2010 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine. 430 meters (1410 ft) long and 5. which De Nul helped build. the expanded canal will have a maximum sustainable capacity of approximately 600 million PC/UMS tons per year. The new locks will be supported by new approach channels. These measures are intended to allow the expanded canal to operate without the construction of new reservoirs. the existing two-stage ascent at Miraflores / Pedro Miguel will not be replicated. thousands of Panamanians stood across from Paraíso Hill in Panama to witness a huge explosion and the launch of the Expansion Program. the company still has engineers and specialists who were part of that project. focusing on the engineering aspects of the expansion project. and are projected to continue operating indefinitely. The new lock chambers will feature sliding gates. doubled for safety. The first phase of the project will be dry excavations of the 218 meter (715 ft) wide trench connecting the Culebra Cut with the Pacific coast. . Each of these channels will be 218 meters (715 ft) wide. the old locks: one to the east of the existing Gatún locks. the Italian Impregilo and the Panamanian company Cusa. These gravity-fed basins will allow 60% of the water used in each transit to be reused. had been awarded the contract to build the six new locks. and will not depend on the locks used.25 billion. The present locks. including a 6. skirting around Miraflores Lake.2 km (3. The maximum level of Gatún Lake will be raised from reference height 26.400 ft) long.Panama Canal 14 Third set of locks project The current plan is for two new flights of locks to be built parallel to.3 meters (60 ft) deep. will also provide significant extra water storage capacity.50 meters (18 ft) deep.1 meters (89 ft). The Gaillard Cut and the channel through Gatún Lake will be widened to no less than 280 meters (918 ft) on the straight portions and no less than 366 meters (1. Each flight will ascend from ocean level direct to the Gatún Lake level. Tolls will continue to be calculated based on vessel tonnage. and will be 427 meters (1. the new locks will consequently use 7% less water per transit than each of the existing lock lanes. The contract will result in $100 million in dredging works over the next few years for the company. 55 meters (180 ft) wide. Building the new canal It was announced in July 2009 that the Belgian dredging company Jan De Nul. which will be 100 years old by that time. The design of the locks is a carbon copy of the Berendrecht lock which is 68m wide and 500m long. The estimated cost of the project is US$5. which will require post-Panamax vessels to navigate the channels in one direction at a time. Completed in 1989 by the Port of Antwerp. and 18. making it the largest lock in the world.
pancanal. pdf). net/ darien. Panama Canal Authority. html). Master Senior Grade.Panama Canal 15 Rival Colombia rail link China is looking into constructing a 220 km railway between Colombia's Pacific and Caribbean coasts. Today these areas have endured practically unscathed by human interference and are one of the few accessible areas on earth that various native Central American animal and plant species can be observed undisturbed in their natural habitat. Retrieved 2007-09-03. a vast tropical ecological zone part of the Atlantic Forest Corridor and Eco-tourism on Gatun Lake has become a worthwhile industry for Panamanians.. com/ manxnotebook/ fulltext/ worthies/ p118. aspx?id=2147487305). p. html). Adolph. who has traversed the Canal more than 50 times. References  "Panama Canal Traffic — Years 1914–2010" (http:/ / www.  "Manx Worthies" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=xmM-AAAAYAAJ& lpg=PA11& ots=_DioQP6G7S& dq=general electric westinghouse panama canal 1908& pg=PA11#v=onepage& q& f=false) Accessed 26 Dec 2011  "Panama Canal Traffic — Fiscal Years 2002–2004" (http:/ / www. World famous Barro Colorado Island. . Marion E. Gatun Lake also serves to provide the millions of gallons of water necessary to operate the Panama Canal locks each time a ship passes through and provides drinking water for Panama City and Colon. Rio Negro and Orinoco river basins of South America where they are called Tucanare or Pavon and are considered a premier game fish. Retrieved 2011-01-25. the Autoridad del Canal de Panamá has appointed a few "Panama Canal Honorary Pilots". com/ eng/ history/ history/ early. org/ content. pancanal. Lake Gatun encompasses approximately 180 square miles (470 km2). Many of the most important ground breaking scientific and biological discoveries of the tropical animal and plant kingdom originated here. . of the former Italian governmental navigation company known in the shipping world as the "Italian Line. At the time it was formed Gatun Lake was the largest man-made lake in the world. Since 1958 the Cichla Pleiozona species of Peacock Bass have flourished to become the dominant angling game fish in Gatun Lake. The most recent of these were Commodore Ronald Warwick. montclair.15 (http:/ / books. online at Google Books (http:/ / books. google. Gatun Lake is an essential part of the Panama Canal which forms a water passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. asce. Retrieved 2011-02-21. Panama Canal Authority. pancanal. com/ eng/ history/ history/ index. a former Master of the Cunard Line's RMS Queen Mary 2.    Canal Pilots During the last one hundred years. American Society of Civil Engineers. Col. Branden Books. html).  The Panama Canal Congressional Hearings 1909. Chapter 3. p. from Lloyd's register  Background of the Panama Canal (http:/ / rainforest. Locally called Sargento these peacock bass are not a native game fish of Panama but originate from the Amazon. htm). lr. com/ eng/ maritime/ routes. Retrieved 2007-09-03. The impassable rain-forest around Gatun Lake has been the best defense of the Panama Canal. Angling is one of the primary recreational pursuits on Gatun Lake. Some Early Canal Plans (http:/ / www. .  "Seven Wonders" (http:/ / www. Panama Canal Authority. . and Captain Raffaele Minotauro. html)  Caso. which was established for scientific study when the lake was formed and is today operated by the Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0828317143. edu/ pwebrf/ rainforest/ Region/ panama. Montclair State University  "A History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts" (http:/ / www. isle-of-man. Gatun Lake Created in 1913 by the damming of the Charges River. . google. They Too Made America Great. Retrieved 2007-09-03. pdf) (PDF). Goethals testimony. Welsh (1978). org/ Images/ 30 ship sizes_tcm155-173543. permitting ship transit in both directions.  Modern ship size definitions (http:/ / www. htm). com/ eng/ maritime/ reports/ table01. . 72. kinnaird.. com/ books?id=7q3WTS1IREkC)  "Darien Expedition" (http:/ / www. It is suspected that the Cichla Pleiozona species of Peacock Bass was introduced by accident to Gatun Lake by a renowned Panamanian aquarist and doctor in 1958. pancanal. is the largest island on Gatun Lake.
Construction Equipment Guide.  "New Panamax publication by ACP" (http:/ / www.  Panama Canal Toll Table http:/ / www. u-s-history. Retrieved 2010-07-09. . Retrieved 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2010-07-09.  "The Panama Canal" (http:/ / www. pancanal. IL: L. 2008-10-24. Mensual. Ediciones.  Rocco. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 1903-11-18. html). Retrieved 2007-09-03. CZ Brats (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2010-10-24. uk/ ~sl5763/ panama.  "Panama Canal: The Big Dig of Central America" (http:/ / www. . si. prensa. 25. co. czbrats. Retrieved 2009-08-08.prensa. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Ralph E.  Avery. pancanal. NOAA. czbrats. p. La Prensa. . htm).  "The Panama Canal. com/ mensual/ contenido/ 2008/ 06/ 24/ hoy/ negocios/ 1416962. com/ eng/ pr/ press-releases/ 2009/ 10/ 30/ pr366.com. html).  "''Récord en pago de peajes y reserva''. . noaa. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. ISBN 0006532357. Panama Canal Authority. 1903" (http:/ / avalon. . Retrieved 2007-09-03. com/ eng/ noticiero/ canal-faqs/ index. Stephen Kinzer. Edición 25 August 2006 in Spanish" (http:/ / mensual.  "''Cupo de subasta del Canal alcanza récord''. IEEE Global History Network. html). asp). IEEE.PanCanal. pancanal. com/ eng/ pr/ press-releases/ 2008/ 10/ 24/ pr300. .  "Read our history: American Canal Construction" (http:/ / www. 222  DuTemple. com/ mensual/ contenido/ 2007/ 04/ 24/ hoy/ negocios/ 960466. edu/ 20th_century/ pan001. Avalon. "The Panama Canal". .  "Panama Dam to Aid Canal Traffic. ieeeghn. The Miraculous Fever-Tree. org/ wiki/ index. Retrieved 2010-10-24. and represents a volume of about 100 cubic feet.edu. com/ Articles/ 3rdlocks/ 3rdlocks. edu/ smithsonian/ issues04/ mar04/ panama. . . pdf) (PDF). html).com. google. .  "News . La Prensa. gov/ historicals/ histmap.  "Read our history: The French Canal Construction" (http:/ / www. html). com/ noticias/ articulo/ html/ act1287447. com/ Jackson/ martyrs/ martyrs. America's Triumph in Panama.  "Avalon Project . constructionequipmentguide. "The French Failure" (http:/ / www. 2002. Terra Noticias. Panama Canal Authority.  "Hay-Herrán Treaty" (http:/ / www. pancanal. Edition 2007-04-24" (http:/ / ediciones. A Canal: Panama Rises" (http:/ / www. htm). Fiammetta (2003). A Plan. . 2006. Smithsonian Institution. html). Retrieved 29 July 2011.com. cfm?ID=195). . com/ )  Enlarging the Panama Canal for Bigger Battleships (http:/ / www. Hell's Gorge: The Battle to Build the Panama Canal. Retrieved 2010-07-09. smithsonianmag. com/ pages/ h930. eclipse. .  Overthrow.com. terra. html). com/ CZMemories/ thirdlocks/ tcindex.  "A Man. html  Almost all major cruise ships have more than 33 tons per passenger. prensa. pancanal. ISBN-978-0822500797  "Milestones:Panama Canal Electrical and Control Installations. 214  My Dear Bishop. com/ common/ general/ reports/ informe-anual-2005. html). 2005. notes from CZ Brats (http:/ / www. com/ mensual/ contenido/ 2006/ 08/ 25/ hoy/ negocios/ 714407. asp). pancanal. . czbrats. March 2004. November 2006. com/ eng/ maritime/ tolls. Sección Economía & Negocios.com. Panama Canal Authority. Lesley A. 192. htm). Panama Canal Authority.  "ACP 2005 Annual Report" (http:/ / www. com/ )  The Martyrs of 1964 (http:/ / www. Sección Economía & Negocios. 16 . Walter Company. si.W. com/ eng/ history/ history/ index. Retrieved 2009-08-08. Smithsonian Magazine. 2008-06-10. pancanal. National Museum of American History. html). Panama Canal Authority Announces Fiscal Year 2008 Metrics" (http:/ / www. 2009-10-30. prensa. Chicago. ncd. Retrieved 2008-06-05. Panama Canal Authority Announces Fiscal Year 2009 Metrics" (http:/ / www. the rule of thumb for cruiseline comfort is generally given as a minimum of 40 tons per passenger. Retrieved 2007-09-03. yale. com/ Panama-Canal-The-Big-Dig-of-Central-America/ 7868/ ). com/ books?id=2ikDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA25& dq=1930+ plane+ "Popular& hl=en& ei=ALyXTujZIsTC0AH14e3IBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=10& ved=0CFQQ6AEwCTgU#v=onepage& q=1930 plane "Popular& f=true) Popular Mechanics. Lerner Publishing Group. edu/ object." (http:/ / books. google. law. com/ common/ maritime/ advisories/ 2009/ a-02-2009. November 18. ._1914). Alden P. Note that a ton is not a unit of weight. U-s-history. pancanal. Canal FAQ" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=rAwsAAAAYAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=william+ kennish& source=bl& ots=lZpfP9ZKq9& sig=7AXnp--aBGqytMe2vcb9DIXvJPY& hl=en& ei=rDFvS7rSNqimtgeNlpiUBg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CBQQ6AEwBA). 1914" (http:/ / www. p. pp 50–55. by Eric Jackson  "Historical Map & Chart Project" (http:/ / historicals.  "Maritime Operations — Tolls" (http:/ / www. 2008-06-24.  "Crucero paga cifra récord en Canal de Panamá" (http:/ / noticias. January 1930. html). pdf) (PDF). ''La Prensa''. (1913).  "ACP rectifica récord en pago de peaje" (http:/ / mensual. Panama Canal Authority. pancanal. com/ Builders/ FRCanal/ failure. czbrats. html). com/ eng/ history/ history/ end.  "The Roosevelt Medal" (http:/ / historywired. com/ eng/ history/ history/ index. but displacement. Panama Canal Authority. . . htm).PanCanal. p.yale. p. com/ eng/ maritime/ tolls. Armagnac.  Matthew Parker.  "News . htm). Retrieved 2009-07-13. 2006-11-24. . Panama Canal Authority.prensa.Panama Canal  The Practicality and Importance of a Ship Canal to Connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (http:/ / books.law. html) (in Spanish). Smithsonian Institution. php/ Milestones:Panama_Canal_Electrical_and_Control_Installations. pancanal. HarperCollins.  Enlarging the Panama Canal (http:/ / www. . htm) (in Spanish). . Retrieved 2007-09-03.  "A History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts" (http:/ / www. czimages.Convention for the Construction of a Ship Canal (Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty). czbrats.
p. "The Panama Canal's Ultimate Upgrade" (http:/ / www.  "Entrance to Panama Canal Bridge Closed due to Rain Damage" (http:/ / english.  Reagan. 2010-12-13. html). colliers. thepanamanews. 2011-02-13. 17 . Reuters. com/ news/ national_world/ article. .  "De Nul dredging company to build locks in Panama Canal" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-14. . Shipping industry complains about PanCanal toll hikes (http:/ / www. digtriad. 2010-12-12. Panama Canal Authority. htm). htm). Retrieved 2010-10-24. google. bbc. "Conservative Leader Harper Asserts Canada's Arctic Claims" (http:/ / www. com/ technology/ transportation/ 4344444. New York Times. html). xinhuanet. defensenews. com/ eng/ projects/ overview. gob. cri. Business in Panama.  "Aftermath of Panama flooding hits transport and finances -.  Nettleton. com/ CZMemories/ thirdlocks/ tlpage3. uk/ news/ world-latin-america-11953800). pancanal.  "Panama Canal Traffic . com/ investing/ why_invest/ panama_canal. Andrew (February 2010). Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory. businesspanama. Panama Canal Authority. Retrieved 2010-07-09. Retrieved 2011-02-14. . Pancanal.  Proposal for the Expansion of the Panama Canal by the Panama Canal Authority (http:/ / www. 2010-12-12. 2009-07-17. pa/ mensual/ 2010/ 12/ 12/ contenido/ 18225705. Financial Times. MSNBC. Corredores serán gratis [Al Minuto (http:/ / laestrella.  "The Panama Canal . Retrieved 2010-12-12.  "Panama approves $5. "Each lock chamber requires 101000 m3 ( US gal.  "Work starts on biggest-ever Panama Canal overhaul" (http:/ / www. "New York Port Hums Again. html?page=1). uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 4876322. Popular Mechanics. html). aspx?storyid=151684& catid=175). Retrieved 2011-02-14. msn. Eric (2007). . com/ panama/ 2073-aftermath-of-panama-flooding-hits-transport-and-finances-rain-continues.  "ACP 2009 Annual Report" (http:/ / www. com/ id/ 10627208/ ). imp gal) of fresh water are used [in a single passing]. com/ eng/ general/ reporte-anual/ 2009/ pdf/ InformePDFingles.  Kaufman. . 2006-04-24. . "Colombia’s smart canal" (http:/ / blogs. bbc. canal/ stories/ operation/ ). . .  Monahan. Panama Canal Authority. 2010-03-12. The Land Divided . . com/ cms/ s/ 0/ 7e14756c-37a9-11e0-b91a-00144feabdc0. htm). acp. com/ beyond-brics/ 2011/ 02/ 14/ colombias-smart-canal/ ). php). Gerstle (1944). com/ eng/ pr/ press-releases/ 2010/ 03/ 12/ pr379.A History of the Panama Canal and other Isthmian Canal Projects (http:/ / www.PERIODICO LA ESTRELLA ONLINE: Gobierno abrirá parcialmente Puente Centenario.com (Agence France-Presse).com. Retrieved 2007-09-03. Xinhuanet. html). Brad (February 2007). . com/ eng/ maritime/ reports/ table01. . . 2010-12-13. . uk/ psmsl/ puscience/ ). 12 March 2010" (http:/ / www. pancanal. Retrieved 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2010-12-12. Eric (2004-11-22).  "China in talks over Panama Canal rival" (http:/ / www. en/ rss/ 22548040.rain continues" (http:/ / www. ft. Retrieved 2006-02-23. Jonathan (2011-02-14). . 2010-12-13. htm). html). The Washington Times. "Panama Canal set for $7. . pancanal. Panama Canal Authority. ft.  "China in talk with Columbia over transcontinental railway: Colombian president" (http:/ / news. Jane (2006-04-04). be/ flanderstoday.  Sevunts.  Mack. com/ Content/ Attachments/ Corporate/ Services/ NewYorkTimes112204. pancanal. 2010-12-13. com/ news/ 2005/ jun/ 12/ 20050612-123835-3711r/ ). czimages. stm). . com."  "Sea Level: Frequently asked questions and answers" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2006-04-25. . . mediargus. cn/ 6966/ 2010/ 12/ 11/ 2021s609648. pdf) (PDF). popularmechanics.  "NOTICIAS PANAMÁ . light on change" (http:/ / www. . com/ pn/ v_13/ issue_06/ business_03. Popular Mechanics.Panama Canal  Lipton. Retrieved 2010-12-13. php?F=1429085& C=america).  "Rain Causes Panama Canal Bridge To Collapsedigtriad.com. com/ english2010/ china/ 2011-02/ 14/ c_13731374. An average of 52000000 US gal ( L. com/ article/ newsOne/ idUSN0334522620070904). Michel (2005-12-22). pol. 2006-10-22. pa/ eng/ plan/ documentos/ propuesta/ acp-expansion-proposal. washingtontimes. pdf) (PDF). . . Levon (2005-06-12). . pdf).  "The Panama Canal" (http:/ / www. co. Retrieved 2009-04-20. html#axzz1DvyP1xhi). 45  Jackson. With Asian Trade" (http:/ / www. reuters. imp gal) of water. ac. cnn. asp)"]. 2009. "Transfer heavy on symbolism.  Wheatley. admin.Fiscal Years 2006 through 2008" (http:/ / www.5bn revamp" (http:/ / news.  "Modernisation & Improvements" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-01-08. .  "The Press Association: Panama flooding displaces thousands" (http:/ / www. . html?via=rss& language=en). 2011-02-14. com/ eng/ noticiero/ canal-faqs/ physical/ 14. "The Panama Canal Gets a New Lane" (http:/ / www. com/ SPECIALS/ 1999/ panama. Financial Times.25 billion canal expansion" (http:/ / msnbc. 2007-09-04. CNN Interactive. .  "Relevant Information on the Third Set of Locks Project" (http:/ / www. com/ story. com/ esp/ plan/ documentos/ propuesta/ acp-proposla-relevant-information. newsroompanama. BBC News. pancanal. . Steve (1999).Panama Canal reopens after temporary closure" (http:/ / www. "Northwest Passage redux" (http:/ / www. com/ technology/ transportation/ 4212183. .com" (http:/ / www. pdf). popularmechanics. com/ hostednews/ ukpress/ article/ ALeqM5izSSaRRPlqlKrEgImAAMgZtqhsdw?docId=N0087151292030740345A).  "Panama Canal Authority: Panama Canal Expansion is "2009 Project Finance Deal of the Year". See also: Comte publisher=DefenceNews. Retrieved 2010-12-13.Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / www. Flanders Today. . pancanal.  "BBC News . co. Retrieved 2010-12-13. . html).
pancanal. New York: Doubleday.com/) . and Carlos Yu.K. • Cullen. the Canal.10&CISOTHUMB=3.1.html&CISOVIEWTMP=/ site-templates/item_viewer.mil/html/books/panama/panamacanal/index. Williams. • Parker.0. co. 1096 pages. and Why America Invaded. Econometric analysis of costs ($9 billion in 2009 dollars) and benefits to US and Panama • Mellander.A. ISBN 9780821277546 • Mills.edu/cgi-bin/queryresults.subjec. Washington. (2007)..htm) from CZ Brats • Judicial Watch.si. OCLC 42970390.N. buckinghamcovers. Daville.lib.edu/Exhibitions/Make-the-Dirt-Fly/) Smithsonian Institution Libraries • Canalmuseum (http://www. Brodhead. "Conquering the Landscape (Gary Sherman explores the life of the great American trailblazer.0.0. Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. Río Piedras. The Panama Canal and Me: A Panamax Special.descri.. New York: Simon & Schuster. Glenn F. Panama Fever: The Epic Story of One of the Greatest Human Achievements of All Time . ISBN 0-671-22563-4 • Maurer. Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Noel. 70–115–1.czbrats.0. July 2008. Austin: University of Texas Press. William J. 14 February 2011.A.shtml) .:Interstate Publishers.html). ISBN 9962-607-32-9 (Obra completa) • Jorden. ISBN 978-0-691-14738-3. (2005).A." History Magazine. The Panama Canal: An Army's Enterprise (http://www. (1995). Saxon.0.  (http:/ / www. The Noriega Mess: The Drugs.0.A.Panama Canal  Branigan..0. OCLC 138568. and Ultimately Gave Away the Panama Canal (Princeton University Press.archive.descri. • Murillo. • Jaen.gutenberg.A. Berkeley: Video Books.N. guardian. Accessed: 14 February 2011.A. Byerly. Luis E. ISBN 978-0-385-51534-4 • Sherman. Panama Canal Commission case (http://web.canalmuseum. (1977).ongoing digital collection of images . (2010). Photographs and Stories • History of the Canal Zone (http://www. uk/ world/ 2011/ feb/ 14/ china-rail-rival-panama-canal) The Guardian. Gary. External links • Panama Canal Authority website (http://www. Matthew.0.title. Gustavo A.com/Menus/Builders_menu. Ben.A. 1870-1914. illustrated. David. 1970-1979 (Tomos 1 y 2).org/web/20040604011605/www. (1913). org/ebooks/34124) A Project Gutenberg free ebook.N.0. ISBN 0-923444-02-5.A history and description of the enterprise (http://www. Omar. John Frank Stevens). Carol R.archived • Freshwater and Marine Image Bank – Panama Canal (http://content.The Building of the Panama Canal.0. Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999).Ill.washington.5&CISOTITLE=10& CISOPARM=/fishimages:subjec:panama&x=29&y=0) University of Washington Libraries . 746 pages. judicialwatch.1.army.org/1241.200.: United States Army Center of Military History. Micheal J. v. The Panama Canal -. Las Negociaciones de los Tratados Torrijos-Carter. 420 pp. ISBN 0-292764-69-3 • McCullough. exe?CISOOP=adv&CISORESTMP=/site-templates/search_results-sub. illustrated.subjec. Panama Odyssey. China goes on the rails to rival Panama canal (http:/ / www.N.html&CISOMODE=thumb& CISOGRID=thumbnail. The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal. 2010). Ran.10& CISOBIB=title. Inc. • Mellander. The Big Ditch: How America Took.A. ISBN 1563281554. D. Documents. Building the Panama Canal (http://www.1. (1984).com/) — History.sil. Tania and Lin Yi. Jon T. Gustavo A. Panama: Autoridad del Canal de Panama.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years.C. J.Has a simulation showing how the canal works • Making the Dirt Fly. (2009).N.history. com/ shop/ signer. php?signer_id=458) 18 Further reading • Hoffman.
shtml) Photos of the building and early days of the Panama Canal digitised by GoZonian.Panama Canal • Early stereographic images of the construction (http://www.universityofcalifornia.google.lindahall. collected by Aurin B.itnsource. Nichols Panama Canal Collection at the Linda Hall Library (http://lhldigital.&CISOFIELD2=creato&CISOOP3=all&CISOBOX3=panama+ canal+(panama).com/shotlist//BHC_RTV/1917/ 11/05/BGT407051266/) 19 .htm) • Panama & the Canal Digital Collection (http://ufdc. and other documents. Originally from 8 x 10 glass plates • Gatun Lake Benefits (http://www.+a+b+(aurin+b). letters. blueprints.edu/browse/ azBrowse/Panama+Canal) University of California • A. National Archives and Records Administration.org (http://gozonian.calisphere. • 2700 digitised National Archives public domain images (http://gozonian.org/u?/ panama.edu/pcm) • New Plans For Panama.com/gatun.ufl. photographs. Nichols (http://contentdm. php?CISOOP1=all&CISOBOX1=nichols&CISOFIELD1=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOOP2=all& CISOBOX2=nichols.5315). an engineer who worked on the canal project through from 1899 until its completion. Freeman (http://books.org/cdm4/results.&CISOFIELD3=subjec&CISOROOT=all&t=s) Archival collection of maps.org/naramain.org/) from the U.panamafishingandcatching.lindahall.S. by Stephen L.B.com/books?id=jiQDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA66&dq=popular+science+1950+can+our+jets+support&hl=en&ei=xnK-TM-LK8j9nAe7htCJDg& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=popular science 1950 can our jets support&f=true) 1947 article about possible post World War II plans for the Panama Canal including first mention of a sea level canal to replace the locks • Footage of ships going through Panama Canal in 1917 (http://www.
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