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Early Roman Armies ee S 3 i} ies publi in Great Bain in 1998 by ‘Onpeey Pushing, Els Care, Chapel Wy, ale, Orford OX? LP, United Kino, mi: inflogwosrerpublshing com (©1995 Osprey Publishing Lat Repeal 197, 1995, 200 Seis Ete MARTIN WINDROW Allright reserve. Apart foe any fai dealing for the purpose of piste study, researc, cic o review, [Parad under she Copyright Desig and Patents Aer 1988, no part ofthis publication maybe reproduced, stored ina urea tem, or rans in any form lor by any means, electronic, let chemi, ‘mechanical optical, photocopying, recording or erie, thou the prior permission ofthe enpyight lmnerEnguiis should beaddresed tothe Publisher ISBN 185532136 Filmset in Great Briain Prine in China throught Wok Prin Ld For \caraoouroF at. aooes potas (Oss Misti aN AvuTON PAs crac ‘The Mating Mages, Osprey Dist UK, POBox 40, Walingbeough, Nerthans, NN842A, Unie Kingdom. nal: infonpreetonah ‘The Marhatng Manage, OxpeyDirat USA, fo Moznrboas merainl, POBox 1, Ox Wi sw20.001, USS Eni inby@orpresdisctinncom, seeeenpeesublishing com Acknowledgments ‘The authors would like to thank Dr. J. Briscoe and Mr. ‘TJ. Quinn for their help in the writing of this book. They would also like to express a debt of gratitude to Peter Connolly, whose book Greece and Rome at War, which constituted the first attempt to integrate the historical and archaeological evidence dealing with the army of Archaic Rome, has been a constant source of reference. Artist's note Readers may care to note that the original paintings from which the colour plates in this book were pre- pared are available for private sale. All reproduction copyright whatsoever is retained by the Publishers. All ‘enquiries should be addressed to: Seorpio Gallery PO Box 475 Hailsham E, Sussex BN27 281. ‘The Publishers regret that they can enter into no correspondence upon this matter. EARLY ROMAN ARMIES ROME’S EARLY HISTORY Early Rome and the Romans were only one of a umber of peoples and se From the earliest historical indeed, throughout most of the sixth Bc Rome was ruled by kings, the Tarquins, ne originally from the Etruscan city of i, In 509 (according to later Roman tradi- tion) the last of these Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Superbus, was expelled. Rome declared herself a Republic, and was governed by two annually elected magistrates known as ‘consuls’. For a while, how-