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5-1 Introduction 5-2 Conservation of Mass 5-3 Mechanical Energy gy 5-4 General Energy Equation 5-5 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows gy y y 5-6 The Bernoulli Equation

5-1 Introduction

This chapter deals with 3 equations commonly used in fluid mechanics

The Th mass equation i an expression of the ti is i f th conservation of mass principle. The Bernoulli equation is concerned with the conservation of kinetic, potential, and flow energies of a fluid stream and their conversion to each other. The energy equation is a statement of the conservation of energy principle.

5-1

Conservation of mass principle is one of the most fundamental principles in nature. f d l i i l i Mass, like energy, is a conserved property, and it cannot be created or destroyed during a process process. For closed systems mass conservation is implicit since the mass of the system remains constant during a process. For control volumes, mass can cross the boundaries , which means that we must keep track of the amount of mass entering and leaving the control volume.

5-2

The amount of mass flowing through a control surface per unit time is called the mass flow rate & and is denoted m The dot over a symbol is used to y indicate time rate of change. Flow rate across the entire crosssectional area of a pipe or duct is obtained b i t bt i d by integration ti

Ac Ac While this expression for m is exact, p , & it is not always convenient for engineering analyses.

5-3

& m = m = Vn dAc

& Integral in m can be replaced with average values of and Vn 1 Vavg = Vn dAc Ac Ac For many flows variation of is & very small: m = Vavg Ac & Volume flow rate V is given by

& V = Vn dAc = Vavg Ac = VAc

Ac

Note: many textbooks use Q & instead of V for volume flow rate. Mass and volume flow rates are & related by m = V &

5-4

The conservation of mass principle can be expressed as

dmCV = dt

& & Where min and mout are th t t l rates of mass f the total t flow into and out of the CV, CV and dmCV/dt is the rate of change of mass within the CV.

Fluid Mechanics Y.C. Shih February 2011

5-5

For CV of arbitrary shape,

rate of change of mass within the CV dmCV d = dV dt dt CV net mass flow rate r r & & mnett = m = Vn dA = V n dA

CS

CS

CS

r r d dV + CS V n dA = 0 dt CV

5-6

For steady flow, the total amount of mass contained i f i d in CV is constant. Total amount of mass entering must be equal to total amount of mass leaving

& & m = m

in out

V A = V A

n n n in out

Fluid Mechanics Y.C. Shih February 2011

5-7

Mechanical energy can be defined as the form of energy that can be converted to mechanical work completely and directly by an ideal mechanical device such as an ideal turbine. Flow P/, kinetic V2/g, and potential gz energy are the forms of mechanical energy emech= P/ + V2/g + gz Mechanical energy change of a fluid during incompressible flow becomes

emech =

P2 P 1

V V + + g ( z2 z1 ) 2

2 2 2 1

In the absence of loses emech represents the work loses, supplied to the fluid (emech>0) or extracted from the fluid (emech<0).

5-8

Transfer of emech is usually accomplished by a rotating shaft: shaft work h f h f k Pump, fan, propulsion: receives shaft work (e.g., from an electric motor) and transfers it to the fluid as mechanical energy Turbine: converts emech of a fluid to shaft work. In the absence of irreversibilities (e.g., friction), mechanical efficiency of a device or process can be d fi d as defined

mech =

=1

5-9

In fluid systems, we are usually interested in increasing the pressure, velocity and/or pressure velocity, elevation of a fluid. In these cases, efficiency is better defined as the ti f (supplied or extracted work) vs. rate th ratio of ( li d t t d k) t of increase in mechanical energy

pump turbine

shaft ,in

mech , fluid

5-10

One of the most fundamental laws in nature is the 1st law of thermodynamics, which is also known as the conservation of energy principle. It states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed during a process; it can only change forms

Falling rock, p g , picks up speed p p as PE is converted to KE. If air resistance is neglected neglected, PE + KE = constant

5-11

The energy content of a closed system can be changed by two mechanisms: heat transfer Q and work transfer W. Conservation of energy for a closed gy system can be expressed in rate form as Net rate of heat transfer to the system:

& & & Qnet ,in = Qin Qout

5-12

Recall general RTT

dBsys

r r d = bdV + b Vr n dA CS dt d d CV dt

dEsys dt d

r r d = edV + e Vr n dA CS dt CV d

& & & Wnet ,in = Wshaft ,net ,in + W pressure ,net ,in

Fluid Mechanics Y.C. Shih February 2011

5-13

Where does expression for pressure work come from? When piston moves down ds under the influence of F=PA, the work done on the system is Wboundary=PAds. t i PAd If we divide both sides by dt, we have

& & W pressure = Wboundary = PA ds = PAV piston dt

r r & W pressure = PdAVn = PdA V n

r n is outward pointing normal Negative sign ensures that work done is positive when is done on the system.

5-14

Moving integral for rate of p g g pressure work to RHS of energy equation results in:

Qnet ,in + Wshaft ,net ,in f P r r d & = edV + + e e Vr n dA dt CV CS

Recall that P/ is the flow work, which is the work associated with pushing a fluid into or out of a CV per unit mass.

5-15

As with the mass equation, practical analysis is q ,p y often facilitated as averages across inlets and exits

Qnet ,in + Wshaft ,net ,in = m=

AC

r r V n dAc

Qnet ,in + Wshaft ,net ,in P P d V2 V2 & & & = edV + m + u + + gz m + u + + gz 2 2 dt CV out in

5-16

Qnet ,in + Wshaft ,net ,in V2 V2 & & = m h + + gz m h + + gz 2 2 out in

For steady flow, time rate of change of the energy content of the CV is zero. This equation states: the net rate of energy transfer to a CV by heat and work transfers during steady flow is equal to the difference between the rates of outgoing and incoming energy flows ith mass. energ flo s with mass

5-17

For single-stream g devices, mass flow rate is constant.

V22 V12 qnet ,in + wshaft ,net ,in = h2 h1 + + g ( z2 z1 ) 2 P V12 P2 V22 1 wshaft ,net ,in + + + gz1 = + + gz2 + ( u2 u1 qnet ,in ) 1 2 2 2 V12 P2 V22 + + gz1 + wpump = + + gz2 + wturbine + emech ,loss 1 2 2 2 P 1

5-18

Divide by g to get each term in units of length

Magnitude of each term is now expressed as an equivalent column height of fluid i e Head fluid, i.e.,

5-19

If we neglect piping losses, and y p p have a system without pumps or turbines

P V12 P2 V22 1 + + z1 = + + z2 1 g 2 g 2 g 2 g

Each term has the units of length and g represents a certain type of head. The elevation term, z, is related to the potential energy of the particle and is called elevation head. p/, is the pressure head and represents the height of a column of the fluid that is needed to produce the pressure p. V2/2g ,is the velocity head and represents the vertical distance for the fluid to fall freely (neglecting friction) if it is to reach velocity V from rest.

Thi is the B lli ti This i th Bernoulli equation It can also be derived using Newton s Newton's second law of motion (see text, p. 187). 3 terms correspond to: pressure, velocity, and elevation head.

Fluid Mechanics Y.C. Shih February 2011

5-20

5-21

P V1 P V 1 + + gz1 = 2 + 2 + gz 2 2 2

2 2

5-22

Static,Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressure

V2 P+ + gz = constant (kPa) 2

V2 = P+ 2

Pstag

(kPa)

V=

2(Pstag P)

5-23

It is often convenient to l t t plot mechanical h i l energy graphically using h i ht i heights. Hydraulic Grade Line

P HGL = +z g

Energy Grade Line (or total energy)

P V2 EGL = + +z g 2g

Chapter 5: Mass, Bernoulli, and Energy Equations

5-24

5-25

5-26

The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation l it d l ti and is valid in regions of steady, steady incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible. Equation is useful in flow regions outside of boundary layers and wakes.

5-27

Limitations on the use of the Bernoulli Equation q

Steady flow: d/dt = 0 Frictionless flow No shaft work: wpump=wturbine=0 Incompressible flow: = constant No heat transfer: qnet,in=0 Applied along a streamline (except for irrotational flow)

5-28

5-29

5-30

5-31

emech in = emech out + emech loss mech, mech, mech,

P1 V1 P V + + z1 + hpump,u = 2 + 2 + z 2 + hturbine + hL g 2g g 2g

2 2

5-32

5-33

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation q Applying Newtons second law (which is referred to as the conservation of linear f dt th ti f li momentum relation in fluid mechanics) in the s-direction on a particle moving along a di ti ti l i l streamline gives

5-34

5-35

5-36

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