# GRADIENT AND AREA UNDER A GRAPH Distance – Time Graph Distance

B s Rest B

A 0

A a b

Time

c

A car is traveling from A to B. The car stopped for a while at B and go back to A. a.) The duration of time spent for rest = b - a b.) Speed from A to B = Gradient AB A(0,0) B(a,s) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 s −0 Speed = = x 2 − x1 a −0 c.) Speed from B to A = Gradient BA B(b,s) A(c,0) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 s −0 Speed = = x 2 − x1 b −c * speed must be positive value d.) The average speed of the whole journey Average speed =
total distance total time (A → B) + (B → B) + (B → A) = c ( s − 0) + (0 − 0) + ( s − 0) = c

Example 1

Distance (km) 0)
120

0

2

6

Time (hour) 10

The diagram, shows the distance-time graph of a car traveling from town A to B. Find a.) What is the distance between town A and town B? b.) What is the duration of time spent by the driver at town B for rest? c.) Find the speed of the car in the first 2 hours. d.) Find the speed of the car in the last 4 hours. e.) Find the average speed of the whole journey. Answer : a.) The distance between town A and B = 120 – 0 = 120 km b.) The duration of time spent at town B = 6 – 2 = 4 hours. c.) Speed in the first 2 hours = Gradient (0,0) ( 2 , 120) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 120 − 0 120 = = 60 kmh -1 Speed = = x 2 − x1 2 −0 2 d.) Speed in the last 4 hours = Gradient ( 6 , 120 ) ( 10 , 0 ) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 0 −120 −120 = = −30 = 30 kmh -1 Speed = = x 2 − x1 10 − 6 4 * speed must be positive value e.) The average speed of the whole journey Average speed =
total distance total time (120 - 0) + (0 - 0) + (120 - 0) 240 = 24 kmh = = 10 10

-1

Example 2 Distance (km) 0)

55

25 0 0700 0720 0740 A

0740

Time of day

The diagram above shows the distance-time graph for the journey of a motorcycle. Calculate a.) The distance travelled by motorcycle in the last 20 minutes. b.) The speed of the motorcyclist in the first 20 minutes in kmh-1. c.) The speed of the motorcyclist in the last 20 minutes in kmh-1. d.) The average speed for the whole journey in kmh-1. Answer : a.) The distance traveled in the last 20 minutes = 55 – 25 = 30 km b.) The speed in the first 20 minutes = Gradient ( 0700 , 0 ) ( 0720 , 25) x1 y1 x2 y2

25 − 0 25 y 2 − y1 = = 75 kmh -1 0720 − 0700 20 Speed = x 2 − x1 60 60

c.) The speed in the last 20 minutes = Gradient ( 0720 , 25 ) ( 0740 , 55) x1 y1 x2 y2 Speed =

55 − 25 30 y 2 − y1 = = 90 kmh -1 0740 − 0720 20 x 2 − x1 60 60

total distance d.) The average speed = total time

55 55 = = 82 .5 kmh -1 40 = 0740 − 0700 60 60

Exercises 1.

The diagram shows the distance-time graph of a particle for a period of 30 s. a.) State the time in which the particle is stationary b.) Calculate the speed 0f the particle in the last 15 s. c.) Find the average speed in ms-1, for the whole journey.

2. The diagram shows the distance-time graph of a lorry and car. The driver of the car started the journey 2 hours later than the lorry driver. a.) Calculate the speed of the car. b.) Calculate the speed of the lorry in the first 3 hours. c.) What is the length of time taken by the car to overtake the lorry? d.) Calculate the difference in average speed of the car and lorry in the first 5 hours.

Speed – Time Graph Speed

Constant speed B m C

A – B – Acceleration (positive gradient) B – C – Constant speed (zero gradient)
D

A 0

a

b

Time

c

B – A – Deceleration (negative gradient)

a.) The duration of time spent for constant speed = b - a b.) The rate of change of speed from C to D = Gradient CD A(0,0) B(a,m) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 m −0 Acceleration = = x 2 − x1 a −0 c.) The rate of change of speed from C to D = Gradient BA B(b,m) A(c,0) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 m −0 Deceleration = = x 2 − x1 b −c d.) Total distance = area under the graph *Area of triangle *Area of trapezium
1 × base × height 2 1 = × sum of two parallel sides × height 2

=

e.) The average speed of the whole journey Average speed =
total distance total time

=

area of trapezium ABCD c

Example 3 Speed (ms-1)

20

0

2

6

Time (s) 9

The diagrams shows the speed-time graph of a particle for a period of 9 s. a.) State the length of time, in s, that the particle moves with a constant speed. b.) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the first 2 s. c.) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the last 3 s. d.) Calculate the distance for the whole journey. e.) Calculate the average speed in ms-1 in the period of 6 s. Answer : a.) The length of time with a constant speed = 6 – 2 = 4 s b.) The rate of change of speed in the first 2 s = Gradient (0,0) ( 2 , 20 ) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 20 − 0 = 10 ms −2 (Acceleration) Rate of change of speed = = x 2 − x1 2 −0 c.) The rate of change of speed in the last 3 s = Gradient ( 6 , 20 ) (9,0) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 0 − 20 = −6.67 ms −2 (Deceleration) Rate of change of speed = = x 2 − x1 9 −6 d.) The distance for the whole journey = area under the graph Area of trapezium
1 × sum of two parallel sides × height 2 1 = ×[( 6 − 2) + (9 − 0)] × 20 = 130 m 2

=

e.) The average speed in ms-1 in the period of 6 s Average speed =
total distance total time

=

1 × [( 6 − 2) + (6 − 0)] × 20 100 2 = = 16 .67 ms -1 6 6

Example 4

The diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle for a period of 9 s a.) State the length of time, in s, that the particle moves with a constant speed b.) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the first 4 s. c.) Calculate the average speed, in ms-1, in the period of 9 s.

Answer : a.) The length of time with a constant speed = 9 – 4 = 5 s b.) The rate of change of speed in the first 4 s = Gradient ( 0 , 20 ) ( 4 , 10 ) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 10 − 20 = −2.5ms −2 (Deceleration) Rate of change of speed = = x 2 − x1 4 −0 c.) The average speed in ms-1 in the period of 9 s Average speed =
total distance total time [ 1 × [( 20 − 0) + (10 − 0)] × 4 ] + [ (9 − 4) × (10 − 0)] 110 = 2 = = 12.22 ms -1 9 9

Exercises

1.

The diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle for a period of 16 s. a.) State the length of time, in s, that the particle moves with a constant speed. b.) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, for the last 6 s. c.) Find the distance travelled by the particle in the first 10 s.

2.

Diagram A shows the distance-time graph of object A. Diagram B shows the speed-time graph of object B. Determine a.) the speed of object A b.) The difference in the distance travelled by the two objects in 12 seconds.

Problem Solving Example 5

The diagram shows the distance-time graph of runner. Determine a.) the speed in the first 2 seconds b.) the value of d if the speed in the last 3 seconds in 0.5 ms-1 Answer : a.) The speed in the first 2 seconds = Gradient (0,0) ( 2 , 10 ) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 10 − 0 = 5ms −1 Speed = = x 2 − x1 2 −0 b.) The speed in the last 3 seconds = 0.5 ( 5 , 10 ) (8,d) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 d −10 = 0.5 Speed = = x 2 − x1 8 −5
0.5(3) = d −10

d = 11.5 Example 6

The diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle for a period of T s. a.) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the first 3 s. b.) Given that the total distance travelled in T s is 89 m, calculate the value of T. Answer : a.) The rate of change of speed in the first 3 s = Gradient

( 3 , 10 ) x2 y2 y 2 − y1 10 −16 = −2ms −2 (Deceleration) Rate of change of speed = = x 2 − x1 3 −0 b.) The total distance travelled in T s = 89 m The distance = area under the graph Total distance in T s =
1 × sum of two parallel sides × height 2 1 89 = [ × [(16 − 0) + (10 − 0)] × 3 ] + [ (T − 3) × (10 − 0)] 2

( 0 , 16 ) x1 y1

T=8 Example 7

The diagram shows the speed-time graph of an object. a.) Find the distance traveled in the first 5 seconds. b.) Calculate the value of t if the average speed of the object for the whole journey is 2.7 ms-1 Answer : a.) Distance travelled = area under the graph = b.) Average speed =

[

1 × [(1 − 0) + (4 − 0)] × 2 ] + [ (5 − 2) × (4 − 0)] 2

= 17 m
total distance total time

1 × (t − 5) × ( 4 − 0) 2.7 = 2 t 2.7t = 17 + 2(t – 5) t = 10

[17 ] + [

]

Example 8

The diagram above shows the speed-time graph of a particle in motion over a period of 14 s. Given that the rate of change of speed of the particle in the last 4 s is -4 ms-2, calculate a.) the value of u b.) the average speed of the particle in the first 10 s. Answer : a.) The rate of change of speed in the last 4 s = -4 ms-1 ( 10 , u ) ( 14 , 0 ) x1 y1 x2 y2 y 2 − y1 0 −u = −4 Rate of change of speed = = x 2 − x1 14 −10 -u = -4(4) u = 16 b.) The average speed of the particle in first 10 s Average speed =
total distance total time 1 [ × [(8 − 0) + (16 − 0)] × 3 ] + [ (16 − 0) × (10 − 3)] 148 = 2 = = 14 .8ms -1 10 10

Exercises 1.

The diagram shows the distance-time graph of a motorbike for a period of T minutes. a.) State the length of time, in minutes, that the motorbike is stationary. b.) Calculate the average speed, in km min-1 of the motorbike in the first 15 minutes. c.) The average speed of the car in T minutes is 0.3 km min-1. Calculate the value of T. 2.

The diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle for a period of 9 s. a.) State the length of time, in s, that the particle moves with a constant speed. b.) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the last 4 s. c.) Given that the distance travelled in the first 5 s is 35 m, calculate the value of u. 3.

The diagram above shows the speed-time graph of a particle’s movements for a period of 10 s. Calculate a.) the value of u, if the particle’s rate of change of speed in the first 2 s is 4.5 ms-2. b.) the value of t, if the total distance travelled during the first t seconds is 46 m. Exercise 1 c.) the total distance travelled in the last 8 s.
The diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle over a period of T seconds. Given that the total distance travelled in T seconds is 124 m. Calculate a) its acceleration in the first 4 seconds. b) the value of T Solution

Speed (m s-1 )

Exercises (SPM Format)

20 12

0

4

T

Time (s)

Speed (m s-1 ) 8 u

Exercise 2
0 Time (s)

6

10

The diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle over a period of 10 seconds. Calculate the value of u in each of the following cases Its acceleration in the first 6 seconds is 0.5 ms-2 . The total distance traveled in the 10 seconds is 58 m
Exercise 3

Solutiondiagram shows the speed-time graph of an object The
over a period of 14 seconds. Calculate a)its deceleration during the first 4 seconds b) the value of u, if the distance travelled in the last 10 seconds is 150 m. Solution Speed (m s-1)

29 u 150

4

10

14

Time (s)

Distance from A (km) 250 144 R P Q Exercise 4 In the diagram, OPQ is the distance-time graph of a car traveling from town A to town B. The straight line RPS represents the distance-time graph of a van traveling from town B to town A. Calculate the a) average speed, in km h-1 , of the car from town A to B b) value of t if the van travelled at uniform speed. Solution

S 0 t 5 6

Time(hrs)

PAST YEAR QUESTIONS 1. Nov 2003

Speed (ms-1)

Diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle for a period of 17 s. State the length of time, in s, that particle moves with uniform speed.

18 u

b) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms, in the last 4 s c) Calculate the value of u , if the total distance traveled in the first 13 s is 195 m. [ 6 marks] 6 13 17 Time (s) Diagram shows the distance-time graph for the journeys of a car and a bus. The graph JKLM represents the journey of the car and the graph JLN represents the journey of the bus. Both vehicles depart from town T at the same time and travel along the same road. M N K J L Calculate the average speed, in km h, of the car over the 2 hour period. 0.5 0.8 2.0 At a certain time during the journey, both vehicles are at the same location. Find the distance, in km , between that location and town T. State the time taken by the bus to reach that location from town T. Diagram shows the speed-time graph of a particle for a [6 marks] period of t seconds. State the length of time, in s, that the particle moves with uniform speed. Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2 , in the first 5 seconds. Calculate the value of t, if the total distance traveled for the period of t seconds is 148 meters. [6 marks] 5 12 t Time (s) State the length of time, in hours, during which the car is stationary.

0

2. Nov 2004 Distance from town T (km)

170 120 48 0

3. Nov 2005 . Speed (ms-1 )

21

9 1 0

4. July 2006

Diagram shows the speed-time graph for the movement of a particle for a period of 30seconds. State the length of time, in s, for which the particle moves with uniform speed. Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2 , in the last 8 seconds. Calculate the value of u, if the distance traveled in the last 14 seconds is 229 m. [6 marks]

Speed (ms-1 )

25

u

0

16

22

30

Time (s)

5. Nov 2006, Q9 Diagram 4 shows the speed-time graph for the movement of a particle for a period of 20 seconds.

(a)
(b)

State the uniform speed, in ms-1, of the particle. The distance traveled by the particle with uniform speed is 84m. Calculate (i) the value of t, (ii) the average speed, in ms-1, of the particle for the period of 20 seconds. [ 6 marks ]

8 Julai 2007. Diagram 3 shows the speed-time graph for the movement of a particle for a

period of 20 seconds.
Speed (m s-1 ) 36

24

0

t

15 Diagram 3

20 Time (s)

(a) State the uniform speed, in ms-1, of the particle. (b) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the last 5 seconds.

(c) Given that the distance traveled by the particle in the first 15 seconds is 408 meters, calculate the value of t .
[6 marks] 9 November 2007. Diagram 5 shows the distance-time graph for the journeys of a bus and a taxi . Distance (km) Town B 90 J S

30 Town A P 0

Q

R

30 40

K 65

150

Time (minutes)

Diagram 5 The graph PQRS represents the journey of the bus from town A to town B.

The graph JK represents the journey of the taxi from B to town A. The bus leaves town A and the taxi leaves town B at the same and they travel along the same road. (a) State the length of time, in minutes, during which the car is stationary.

(b) (i) If the journey starts at 9.00 a.m., at what time do the vehicles meet ? (ii) Find the distance, in km, from town B when the vehicles
meet . (c) Calculate the average speed, in km h-1, of the bus for the whole journey. 10 Jun 2008. Diagram 10 shows a speed-time graph for the movement of a particle for a

period of 25 s.
Speed (m s-1 ) 28

u 10

0

12

16 Diagram 10

25 Time (s)

(a) State the duration of time s, for which the particle moves with uniform speed. (b) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the first 12 s. (c) Calculate the value of u, if the total distance traveled in the period of 25 s is 438 m.

[6 marks]

11 November 2008. Diagram 9 shows the speed-time graph for the movement of a particle for a period of t

seconds.
Speed (m s-1 )

20

12

0

4 Diagram 9

t

Time (s)

(a) State the uniform speed, in m s–1 , of the particle. (b) Calculate the rate of change of speed, in ms-2, in the first 4 seconds. (c) The total distance traveled in t seconds is 184 meters. [6 marks]

ANSWERS 14.1 Speed-time graph Area Exercise 1 A. 1. 2. 3. 4.

40 104 60 64

B.

1. 2. 3. 4.

36 63 104 78

Area under Graph 1. i) 10 ii) 30

Rate of change speed 1. 2 2. i) ii) 1 3 -4
2 @ 0.67 3 -3

iii)
2. i) ii) iii) 3. i) ii) iii) iv) 4. i) ii) iii) 5. i) ii) iii) 6. i) ii) iii) Average speed 1.

40 12 30 42 9 6 24 39 80 18 98 4 24 48 6 27.5 45.5

3.

i) ii)

4.

i) ii)

-1 −5 @ -2.5 2

Find the value of v 1. 2. 3. 4. 10 5 14 25

Find the value of t 1. 2. 3. 4. 7.6 15 12 12

9 @ 4.5 2

3.

25 @ 6.25 4

2.

5 @ 1.67 3

4.

8.35

14.2 DISTANCE-TIME SPEED DISTANCE AND SPEED 1 3 AVERAGE SPEED 1 45 2 2 24 80 3
4 @ 0.8 5

SPM Format questions 1a 2 1b 3a 3b −7 @ -3.5 2 PAST YEAR QUESTIONS 2003 (a) 7 b 2004 2005 2006 (J) 2006 (N) 2007 (J) 2007 (N) 2008 (J) 2008 (N) (a) 0.3 (a) 7 (a) 16 (a) 14 (a) 24 (a) 35 (a) 9 (a) 20 b b b b b b b b

7 21

2a 4a

5 41/67

2b 4b

6 2.88

-4.5 85 1.6 –3.125 (i) 18 (ii) 16 – 4.8 (i) 9.40 a.m (ii) 60 1.5 2

c c c c

5 (i) 48 16 18
C(ii)

0.8

c c c c

8 36 14 10