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17.1 Angle Between Lines And Planes Definitions 17.1 The angle between a line and a plane is the angle between the line and its orthogonal projection on the plane.

V

Line: KV Plane : PQRS Normal to the plane: VL Orthogonal projection of the line onto the plane: KL Angle between KV and the plane PQRS is VKL

S

o

R L

K P 1. Q 2.

E

E A B

A B

O

D

C

D

C

Line DE and plane ABCD

Line AE and plane ABCD

3.

4.

E

A B E

A

B

D

C

D

C

Line CE and plane ABCD

Line BE and plane ABCD

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

1

17.1.1 Name and draw the

i) normal line ii) orthogonal projection

Example 1: Plane :EFGH Line :GD A B F D C E

1. a) Plane : DEFG Line : DV V

b) Plane Line

: PQRS : KQ

K

L

G O

F

S P Q

R

G

H

D

E

Normal line : DE Orthogonal projection : GE Example 2 : Plane : PSK Line : KR K L

Normal line : Orthogonal projection : 2. a) Plane Line A B : CDEH : GC D C F E

Normal line : Orthogonal projection : b) Plane Line : BCV : AV

V

D A

S P Q

C B

R

G

H Normal line : Orthogonal projection : V b) Plane : ADEF Line : DG A B F G H C E

Normal line : SR Orthogonal projection : SK Example 3 : Plane : GEV Line : VF V

Normal line : Orthogonal projection : 3. a) Plane : CDV Line : BV

D

D G O D E Normal line : Orthogonal projection : F A B

C

Normal line : FO Orthogonal projection : VO

Normal line : Orthogonal projection :

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

2

17.1.2 (a) Name the angle between the line and the plane given

Example 1: Plane :EFGH Line :GD A B F D C E

1. a) Plane : DEFG Line : DV V

b) Plane Line

: PQRS : KQ

K

L

G O

F

S P Angle : b) Plane Line : BCV : AV Q

R

G Angle : DGE

H

D Angle :

E

Example 2 : Plane : PSK Line : KR K L

2. a) Plane : CDEH Line : GC A B D C F E

V

D A

S P Q

C B

R

G Angle :

H Angle :

Angle : RKS

Example 3 : Plane : GEV Line : VF V

3. a) Plane : CDV Line : BV

V

b) Plane : ADEF Line : DG A B F G Angle : H C

D

D G O D Angle : FVO E Angle : F A B

C

E

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

3

Exercise 1 : Name the angle between the line and the plane given a) Line UN and plane PQU b) Line JN and plane JKLM

S

yN

R

S

yN

R

T P

yM

Q

M

P

Q

yG

L

U

J K

c) Line XS and plane XYTU X Y

d) Line BE and plane ABCD

E

U

T S

F

D

yL

C

R

A

yK

B

e) Line MF and plane KLMN K L

f) Line PA and plane PQRS W

yA

N F G M E S H P Q V U X

yB

R

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

4

Exercise 2 : Name the angle between the line and the plane given a) The diagram shows a pyramid with a horizontal base DEFG. Name the angle between line GV and the plane of DEFG. V b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a horizontal base JKLM .Name the angle between line KS and the plane of SRLM. R S

G O D E

F M

P L

Q

J

K

c) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between line RY and the plane of STY. X Y

d) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between line QE and the plane of ABCD.

E

U

T S

F

D

yP

C

R

A

yQ

B

e) The diagram shows a cuboid. Name the angle between line NE and the plane of GFKN K N F G L M E

f) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between line RV and the plane of PSWV. W

V U S

X

R

H P Q

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

5

17. 2 Angle Between Two Planes 17.2 The angle between 2 intersecting planes is the angle between 2 lines; one on each plane, which are drawn respectively from a common point on the line of intersection between the 2 planes and perpendicular to it.

E

L

F

LM and MN are perpendicular to DC.

D

M

C

The angle between the plane ABCD and the plane CDEF is KML ( or ADE or BCF )

A

N

B

Skills assessed y To identify the angle between a line and a given plane. y To identify the angle between 2 given planes. Solving Strategies : y Draw and/or colour the given line. y Shade or colour the given plane. y Draw the normal to the plane. y Draw the orthogonal projection of the line onto the plane. y Mark the angle between the line and its orthogonal projection onto the plane. y Name the angle using the 3 alphabets. Common errors : y Students failed to identify the given plane. y Students did not find the orthogonal projection of the line onto the plane. y Student failed to identify the required angle.

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

6

Finding Normal and Orthogonal Projection

1.

E F

2.

E F

A B

A B

D

C

D

C

Plane ABCD and plane CDEF

Plane ABCD and plane CDEF

3.

F E

4.

E G F

A

B

A

H

B

C

D

J

C

Plane ABCD and plane CDE

Plane ABCD and plane CDG

5.

F E

6.

F E

H

A B

A B G

D

C

D

C

Plane ABCD and plane ADE

Plane ABCD and plane ADH

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

7

17.2.1 a) Name the angle between the two planes. Example 1: Plane EFGH and plane GHDA A B F G D C E M 1. a) Plane KLSP and plane JKLM S P L S H J K P Q R V U R b) Plane PSWV and plane VUXW W

Q

X

Angle : DHE and AGF Example 2 : Plane PQLK and plane SRLK K L 2. a) Plane ABCD and plane ADEF b) Plane URST and plane XRSY X Y

E

F

S P Q R

D

C

U

T S

A

B

R

Angle : QLR and PKS

Example 3 : Plane TRQ and plane SRQP P Q

3. a) Plane ABCD and plane ABV V

b) Plane PQSR and plane PQK K L

D S T Angle : TRS R A B

C

S P Q

R

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

8

c) Plane JKLM and plane PKL S P M L R

d) Plane MHEL and plane NHE K N F G L M E

e) Plane ABCD and plane BCE

E

Q

F

D

C

J

K

H

A

B

Example 4: Plane DEV and DEFG V

4a) Plane GCB and plane ABCD G

b) Plane KLMN and plane KPN

K

F A D O B C

yE

T

N

G O D

yL

L

yM E

yF

M

Angle : VMO

P

c) Plane ABE and plane ABCD E

d) Plane RUQ and plane SRUT P

e) Plane SURP and plane PTR R

P

Q

yV

Q

F

D

yK

C

S

yM T yN

U

S

yW

U

A

yL

B

R

T

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

9

Exercise 1 : Name the angle between the two planes a) Plane SRQP and plane QUTR R S T Q P M U K P L Q b) Plane JQRM and plane JKLM S R

J

c) Plane RSYX and plane URST X Y

d) Plane BCF and plane ABCD

E

U

T S

F

D

C

R

A

B

e) Plane GMLF and plane GHEF K L

f) Plane PQA and plane PQRS W

yA

N F G M E S H P V U X

yB yC

Q

R

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

10

Exercise 2 : Name the angle between the two planes a) The diagram shows a pyramid with a horizontal base DEFG. Name the angle between the plane VDE and the plane of DEFG. b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a horizontal base JKLM .Name the angle between the plane SRKJ and the plane of SRLM. S R

P M L

Q

J

K

c) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between the plane RSY and the plane of RSTU. X Y

d) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between the plane ABE and the plane of ABCD.

E

F

U T S

D

yP

C

R

A

yQ

B

e) The diagram shows a cuboid. Name the angle between the plane HEK and the plane of GHEF K N F G L M E

f) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between the plane UVWX and the plane of PSWV.

H

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

11

Questions According To SPM Format 1. Diagram 1 shows a pyramid with a 2. Diagram 2 shows a cuboid. rectangular base PQRS. V is vertically above P. V S P S P R Q K N R Q M

L

DIAGRAM 1

Name the angle between the line VR and the plane PQRS A. PRV C. VQP B. VRS D. VQS

DIAGRAM 2

Name the angle between the line PM and the plane SRMN. A. PMK C. PMR B. PMQ D. PMS

3. In the diagram 3, X and Y are the midpoints of PW and SV respectively. U V

4. Diagram 4 shows a right prism. H

yY

R T S W

E

J

K

yX

F Q P G

DIAGRAM 4

DIAGRAM 3

The angle between line RX and the plane RSVU is A. RXY C. XRY B. XYR D. XQR Name the angle between line EK and plane EFJH. A. EKJ C. HEK B. EKF D. JEK

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

12

5. Diagram 5 shows a pyramid .PQRS is a rectangle. P Q

6. Diagram 6 shows a cuboid.

S P

R Q

S T

R

W T

V

U

DIAGRAM 5 DIAGRAM 6

Name the angle between the line TQ and the plane PQRS A. QPT C. RST B. QST D. SQT The angle between the line SU and plane PSWT is A. USP C. UST B. USQ D. USW

7. Diagram 7 shows a cuboid. U V

8. Diagram 8 shows a right prism. H

R

T

S

W

E

J

K

Q

P

F

G

DIAGRAM 7

The angle between plane QPV and the plane QPWT is A. VQW C. VPW B. UQT A. EGF D. QPV C. HGJ

DIAGRAM 8

Name the angle between the plane EGKH and the plane FGKJ. B. EKF D. GKE

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

13

9. Diagram 9 shows a right prism . S P R A B D

10. Diagram 10 shows a right pyramid MABCD with its square base ABCD . M

D

C

Q

C DIAGRAM 9 A

O

B DIAGRAM 10

Name the angle between the plane ACS and the plane SADR. A. CAS C. ACD B. SCD D. CAD

The angle between the line MC and plane ABCD is A. MCD C. AMC B. MCA D. AMD

11. The diagram 11 shows a right prism on a horizontal plane. Given that STU is an equilateral triangle and PV = VR = SW = WU . R P

12. Diagram 12 shows a prism. A and B are the mid-points of JK and ML, respectively. JXK and MYL are isosceles triangle. Y

yV

Q

S

yW

U

X M

yB

L

T DIAGRAM 11 The angle between the plane PRT and the plane PRUS is A. PQS C. TQW B. RQU D. TVW J

yA

K

DIAGRAM 12 Name the angle between line AY and the plane JKLM. A. YBA C. YAB B. AYB D. ABY

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

14

13. Diagram 13 shows a right prism . F D C A

14. Diagram 14 shows a pyramid. G H

K

J

yM

B DIAGRAM 13

L DIAGRAM 14 The angle between the plane GHJK and plane HJL is A. GHL C. KJL B. JHL D. KLJ

Name the angle between line DM and the plane ACFD. A. CDM C. CMD B. DCM D. DCB

15. The diagram 15 shows a right prism on a horizontal plane SRUT. Equilateral triangle RUQ and STP are the uniform cross-section of the prism. M and N are the mid-points of ST and RU, respectively. P

16. Diagram 16 shows a cuboid with base PQRS . . T U W V S P R Q

Q S

yM

T

yX

R DIAGRAM 15

yN

U DIAGRAM 16

The angle between the plane PRN and the plane RSTU is A. PRS C. PNM B. MRP D. NPM

Name the angle between the plane WXR and the plane QRWV. A. QRX C. RWX B. RXQ D. SXU

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

15

17. Diagram 17 shows a cuboid with rectangular base EFGH . Q R P S E F G

18. Diagram 18 shows a cuboid on a horizontal plane EFGH. J is a mid-point of GH.

B

C D

A

F E J H

DIAGRAM 18

G

H DIAGRAM 17 Name the angle between the plane PSG and the plane PSHE. A. SGH C. GSH B. PGE A. AJE D. GPE C. GBC 19. Diagram 19 shows a prism on a horizontal plane QRP and vertical rectangular QRST . S T R Q P DIAGRAM 19 Name the angle between the plane PRS and the plane QRST is A. PSQ C. PRT B. PST D. PRQ J DIAGRAM 20 Name the angle between line NK and base JKLM. A. NKM C. NMJ B. NMK D. NKJ K M L D. GAC 20. Diagram 20 shows a prism with rectangular base JKLM . LM is normal to base JKLM . N B. AGE

The angle between the plane ABGJ and the plane ABCD is

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

16

**PAST YEAR SPM QUESTIONS
**

1. SPM Nov 2003, Q13 Diagram 6 shows a right prism with an isosceles triangle PQR as its horizontal base. M and N are the mid-point of SU and RQ, respectively.

S

yM

U

T R

yN

Q

P DIAGRAM 6

Name the angle between the plane PQR and the plane PUS. A. UPT C. QPN B. NPT D. MPN

2. SPM July 2004, Q16 Diagram 9 shows a cuboid with PQRS as its horizontal base. T U S P W V R

Q

DIAGRAM 9

Name the angle between the plane TQR and the plane TUVW. A. TRW C. WTR SPM Nov 2004, Q14 B. TQV D. VTQ

3.

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

17

Diagram 8 shows a cuboid with horizontal base PQRS. T W

U S P

V R

Q

DIAGRAM 8

Name the angle between the line QV and the plane QUR. A. VUR C. VQU B. VUQ D. VQR

4.

SPM July 2005, Q14

Diagram 6 shows a right pyramid NPQRS with square base PQRS. N

P

S

Q

R

DIAGRAM 6

The angle between the line NQ and the base PQRS is A. PQN C. QNS B. NQS D. QNR

5. SPM Nov 2005, Q14

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

18

Diagram 7 shows a right pyramid with a quadrilateral base EFGH. V

H

G

E

F

DIAGRAM 7

What is the angle between the line VF and the base EFGH ? A. VFE C. VFH 6. SPM July 2006, Q14 Diagram 7 shows a cuboid with a horizontal base TUVW. P Q U V DIAGRAM 7 S R T B. FVH D. FVE

W

The angle between the line PW and the base TUVW is A. PWV C. PTW B. PUW D. PWU

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

19

7. SPM Nov 2006, Q14 Diagram 7 shows a cuboid with a horizontal base TUVW.

Diagram 7

Name the angle between the plane PQWT and the plane SRWT. A B C D

QTR QWR QTS QWS

8. SPM Jun 2007, Q 16 Diagram 9 shows a pyramid PQRS. The horizontal base QSR is a right angled triangle. Vertex P is vertically above S.

P

S Q

Name the angle between the line PR and the plane PSQ. A B C D RPS RPQ PRS PRQ

Diagram 9 R

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

20

9. SPM Nov 2007 Q14 Diagram 8 shows a pyramid with its rectangle base QRST.

P

Diagram 8 T Q R

Vertex P is vertically above T. Name the angle between the plane PTS and the plane PTQ. A B C D PQT PST SPQ STQ

S

10. SPM Jun 2008, Q 15. Diagram 8 shows a cuboid with a horizontal base TUVW.

S R P Q T W U V

What is the angle between the plane SVW and the plane PQRS? QSW A B RSW C QSV D PSV

Diagram 8

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

21

11. SPM Nov 2008, Q14 Diagram 7 shows a right-angled triangular prism with the horizontal base QSTV. U P V T S

Q

**What is the angle between the plane STU and the base QSTV?
**

A B C D TUV UTV USV SUV

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

22

ANSWERS Exercise 1 a) NUM c) SXT e) KMF b) NJG d) EBL f) APB

Exercise 2 a) VGO b) LSK c) RYT d) EQP e) ENF f) RVS

Exercise 1 a) PQU or SRT b) QJK or RML c) XRU or YST d) FBA e) MGH or LFE f) ACB Exercise 2 a) VLO b) MSJ or KRL d) EQP e) KEF c) YST f) UVP or XWS Practice SPM Format 1. A 2. D 3.C 6. C 7. C 8.A 11. D 12. C 13.A 16. A 17. C 18.C

17.2.4 1a) JKP b) UVP 2a) BAF b) URX

or or or or

** MLS XWS CDE TSY
**

c) PKJ

4. D 9. D 14. C 19. D

5. D 10. B 15. C 20. A

3a) VBC b) KPS d) NHM e) ECD

4a) GLO b) PEF c) ELK d) QNM e) TVW

SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS 1. D 2. C 3. C 4. B 5. C 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. D 10. B 11. B

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

23

Problems Solving The Angle Between The Line And The Plane Exercise 1 : Based on the diagram, calculate the angle between the line and the plane given a) The diagram shows a cuboid. Calculate the b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a angle between line NE and the plane of GFKN horizontal base JKLM .Calculate the angle between line KS and the plane of SRLM. R S K L N F G

12 cm

M E M 5 cm J 6 cm K P L 8 cm Q

5 cm 16 cm

H

c) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between line RY and the plane of STY. X 6 cm U 8 cm R S 14 cm T Y

d) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between line QE and the plane of DCE.

E

5 cm

F

D

yP

12 cm

C

A

yQ

6 cm

B

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

2

e) The diagram shows a pyramid . Given that HP = 13 cm. Calculate the angle between line PG and the plane of EHP. P

f) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between line UV and the plane of PSWV. W

V

X U S

3 cm

R

7 cm

H G

4 cm

P

9 cm

E

7 cm

F

5 cm

Q

g) The diagram shows a pyramid with a horizontal base DEFG. Given that VO = 9 cm. Calculate the angle between line GV and the plane of DEFG. V

h) The diagram shows a pyramid with a triangle base CHD. Calculate the angle between line CA and the plane of ADH. A 8 cm B

G O D 12 cm E

F 5 cm

6 cm C

D 2 cm H

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

3

9. 2 Angle Between Two Planes 9.2.1 a) Calculate the angle between the two planes. 1. a) Plane KLSP and plane JKLM S P M L R V b) Plane PSWV and plane VUXW W

Example 1: Plane EFGH and plane GHDA A B F G D C

9 cm

E

Q

X U S Q

4 cm

R

15 cm

J K

6 cm 12 cm 8 cm

H

6 cm

P

5 cm 7 cm

20 cm

Angle : DHE = AGF tan DHE =

AF GF 9 = 6

** DHE = 56.31o / 56o19¶
**

Example 2 : Plane PQLK and plane SRLK K L 13 cm 7 cm S P Q R 10 cm 2. a) Plane ABCD and plane ADEF b) Plane URST and plane XRSY X Y

E

F

D

20 cm

C 5 cm

U 9 cm R 12 cm T S

12 cm

A

Angle : QLR = PKS

10 cm

B

tan QLR =

QR LR 10 = 7

QLR = 55o

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

4

Example 3 : Plane TRQ and plane SRQP 11 cm P Q 5 cm S 4 cm T Angle : TRS tan TRS = R

3. a) Plane ABCD and plane ABV V 8 cm D A

b) Plane PQSR and plane PQKL K L 3 cm

C 5 cm B P

S Q 5 cm

R 4 cm

TS RS 4 = 11

QLR = 19.98o / 19o59¶

Example 4: Plane DEV and DEFG . VO = 7 cm V

4a) Plane GCB and plane ABCD G 10 cm D O A 8 cm B C

b) Plane PMNT and Plane KLMN

K

12 cm

N

9 cm

G O D

F 12 cm

yL

T L

12 cm

yM 10 cm E

yF

M

10 cm

Angle : VMO tan VMO =

P

VO MO 7 = 6

VMO = 49.40o / 49o24¶

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

5

Example 5 : Plane ABE and plane ABCD E

4 a) Plane SRQ and plane SRUT P

b) Plane SURP and plane PTR

15 cm F D

P Q S

12 cm yV

Q

R

yK

36 cm

C

4 cm

yM T

5 cm S

U yN 8 cm

yW

T

U

L A 18ycm B

Angle : ELK EK = R

10 cm

15 2 9 2 = 12 EK tan ELK = LK 12 = 36 ELK =

Exercise 1 a) The diagram shows a pyramid with a horizontal base ABCD. Given that VO = 9 cm. Calculate the angle between the plane VAD and the plane of ABCD. V 10 cm A O B C D 8 cm M 6 cm J 7 cm K P L 9 cm Q b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a horizontal base JKLM .Calculate the angle between the plane SRKJ and the plane of SRLM. R S

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

6

c) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between the plane PLM and the plane of PLNQ. P 5 cm Q

d) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between the plane QRC and the plane of PQRS.

C

10 cm

D

L 10 cm K M 20 cm N

S

yB

15 cm

R

P

8 cm

yA

Q

e) The diagram shows a pyramid. Calculate the angle between the plane FGP and the plane of EFGH P

f) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between the plane ABCD and the plane of DQR. D A S C 9cm B R 7cm P 13 cm Q

14cm

14cm H G 24 cm E 18 cm F

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

7

How to answer the SPM format Question Example 1 Diagram 1 shows a pyramid LPQRS . L Step 3 : Identify the angle L

P

P S 10 cm Q R Angle : LQJ Diagram 1 12 cm

S

10 cm Q

Jy cm

12 cm

Jy cm

R

The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. J is the midpoint of RS. The vertex L is 8 cm vertically above the point J. Calculate the angle between the line QL and the base PQRS. Step 1 : - Colour line QL and shade/colour plane PQRS - Determine the meet point L

Step 4 : Calculate the angle

JQ =

12 2 5 2 = 13 LJ QJ 8 13

tan LQJ = P 10 cm Q 12 cm S

Jy cm

R

=

LQJ =

Step 2 : Identify normal and orthogonal projection L

P 10 cm Q 12 cm

S

Jy cm

R

Normal line : LJ Orthogonal projection : QJ

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

8

Example 2 Diagram 2 shows a prism with horizontal square ABCD. Trapezium KABL is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface NKAD is vertical while the rectangular surface MLBC is inclined. N M

Step 3 : Identify the perpendicular line with BC and lies on plane NBC and the base ABCD . N M

K D 6 cm C A 8 cm

L C

K D 6 cm A

L

B

8 cm Diagram 2

B

Line NC and DC are perpendicular with line BC

Step 4 : Identify the angle N M

Calculate the angle between the plane NBC and the base ABCD. Step 1 : - Shade/colour plane ABCD - Determine the line intersection between plane NBC and the base ABCD N M A K D 6 cm A B L C K

L D C

6 cm B

8 cm

Angle : NCD Step 5 : Calculate the angle tan NCD =

8 cm

ND DC 6 8

Line intersect : BC =

NCD

= 36.89o / 36o52¶

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

9

Questions Based on the Examination Format 1. Diagram 1 shows a pyramid with a 2. Diagram 2 shows a cuboid with horizontal rectangular base PQRS. V is vertically above P. base KLMN. S R V P 11 cm N S R 6 cm Q K 4 cm Q M 5 cm 12 cm DIAGRAM 2 Calculate the angle between the line SL and the base NKLM. L

P 8 cm DIAGRAM 1

Calculate the angle between the line VR and the plane PQRS.

3. Diagram 3 shows a cuboid ACBDEFGH. Given EH = FG = 8 cm. D C

4. Diagram 4 shows a right prism with a horizontal plane ABCD. It is a uniform prism and its cross section is an isosceles triangle of sides 4 cm. The thickness of the prism, EA = 4 cm. H 6 cm E D C

7 cm A B G H

DIAGRAM 4 Calculate the angle between the plane ABH Calculate the angle between the plane EHD and and the plane ABE. the plane FEHG.

F

5 cm

E

A

4 cm

B

DIAGRAM 3

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

10

5) Diagram 5 shows a pyramid with the horizontal plane, TRS. The rectangle PQRS is vertical plane. 10 cm P Q 12 cm 13 cm S R

6) Diagram 6 shows a cuboid. Z is the midpoint of TW . S T 4 cm R 6 cm Y X U

yZ

W

T DIAGRAM 5 Calculate the angle between the plane PTS and the plane TQR.

10 cm

V

DIAGRAM 6 Calculate the angle between plane YVZ and the horizontal plane XYVW.

7) Diagram 7 shows a right prism with base the rectangular plane ABCD. Right triangle BCF is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface DCFE is vertical while the rectangular surface BAEF is inclined. E F

8) Diagram 8 shows a pyramid REFGH. The base EFGH is a horizontal rectangle. R is the midpoint of HG. The apex R is 9 cm vertically above the point S. R

6 cm

D A C

H

y S

G

5 cm E 24 cm F

6 cm 8 cm

B DIAGRAM 7 Calculate the angle between the plane DB and plane EDCF.

DIAGRAM 8 Calculate the angle between line ER and the plane EFGH.

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

11

9) Diagram 9 shows a cuboid. P is the midpoint of line RQ. R S

10) Diagram 10 shows a right prism. Right angled triangle SUT is the uniform crosssection of the prism. P 5 cm 12 cm Q R

K 12 cm P

N

yY

Q 10 cm 20 cm U

L 6 cm

M S

T

DIAGRAM 10 DIAGRAM 9 cm Calculate the angle between the plane LQY and Calvulate the angle between the plane PSR and the plane MQRN. the plane PUTR..

11) Diagram 11 shows a prism . The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle . X is the midpoint of SR. L M 5 cm S P

12) Diagram 12 shows a right prism with rectangle base EFGH. EFPQ and GHPQ are rectangle. P

Q E

yL

12 cm

H

5 cm G

y X

Q

R 8 cm F

yM

6 cm

12 cm

DIAGRAM 11 cm Calculate the angle between line PX and the plane SRML.

DIAGRAM 12 cm Calculate the angle between line LQ and the base EFGH.

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

12

Past Year SPM Questions 1. Nov 2003 Diagram 1 shows a prism with a horizontal square base HJKL. Trapezium EFLK is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface DEKJ is vertical while the rectangular surface GFLH is incline. D G

E J 6 cm K 8 cm

F

H

L

Diagram 1 Calculate the angle between the plane DLH and the base HJKL. [ 4 marks ]

2 July 2004, Q4 Diagram 2 shows a cuboid. E H

D

C

F 5 cm

G

9 cm

DIAGRAM 2 A 12 cm B

Calculate the angle between the line AH and the plane ABCD.

[4 marks]

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

13

3. Nov 2004, Q3 Diagram 2 shows a pyramid VJKLM. V

L 10 cm K 12 cm

M

Qy cm

J

DIAGRAM 2 The base JKLM is a horizontal rectangle. Q is the midpoint of JM. The apex V is 8 cm vertically above the point Q. Calculate the angle between the line KV and the base JKLM. [ 4 marks ]

4. July 2005, Q2 Diagram 1 shows a right prism with rectangle ABCD as its horizontal base. Right angled triangle FAB is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface BCEF is inclined. E

F D 3 12 A 5 cm B DIAGRAM Calculate the angle between the plane ABE and the base ABCD. [3 marks] C

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

14

5. Nov 2005, Q4 Diagram 1 shows a right prism. Right angled triangled PQR is the uniform cross-section of the prism. T 5 cm U 12 S

18 Q R

P DIAGRAM 1 Calculate the angle between the plane RTU and the plane PQTU.

6. July 2006, Q4 Diagram 2 shows a right prism. The base HJKL is a horizontal rectangle. The right angled triangle NHJ is the uniform cross-section of the prism. M

N

8 L 6 cm H 12 J K

DIAGRAM 2 Identify and calculate the angle between the line KN and the plane HLMN.

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

15

7. Nov 2006, Q2 Diagram 1 shows a right prism. The base PQRS is on horizontal rectangle. The right triangle UPQ is the uniform cross section of the prism.

Identify and calculate the angle between the line RU and the base PQRS. [ 4 marks ]

8. SPM June 2007 Q2 Diagram shows a right prism. The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. Trapezium PQVU is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangle QRWV is a vertical plane and the rectangle UVWT is an inclined plane. T U

W

14 cm

V S P

12 cm 7 cm

R

5 cm

Q Identify and calculate the angle between the plane PQW and the base PQRS. [3 marks]

16

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

9. SPM Nov 2007 Q4 Diagram shows a right prism. The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. Right angled triangle QRU is the uniform cross-section of the prism. V is the midpoint of PS. T U S 5 cm R 16 cm 12 cm Q Identify and calculate the angle between the line UV and the plane RSTU. [3 marks]

V P

10. SPM June 2008 Diagram shows a cuboid ABCDEFGH with horizontal base ABCD. P, Q and R are the midpoints of BC, AD and FE respectively. E R F G 5 Q A 8 B D C P 6 H

Name and calculate the angle between the plane FPCR and the base ABCD. [4 marks]

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

17

11. SPM Nov 2008 Diagram shows a cuboid. M is the midpoint of the side EH and AM = 15 cm. E M F G H

D A 8 cm B a) Name the angle between the line AM and the plane ADEF. b) Calculate the angle between the line AM and the plane ADEF. [3 marks] C

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

18

ANSWERS

Chapter 9 :Lines And Planes In 3 Dimensions 9.1.1 1a 3a 3e 16.70o / 16o42¶ 1b 54.46o / 54o28¶ 21.80o / 21o48¶ 3b 24.78o / 24o47¶ 18.43o / 18o26¶ 26.57o / 26o34¶ 51.34o / 51o20¶ 54.46o / 54o28¶ 54.16o / 54o10¶ 67.38o / 67o23¶ 60o 71.57o / 71o34 53.13o / 53o8¶ 29.05o / 29o3¶ 53.13o / 53o8¶ 68.20o / 68o12¶ 28.30o / 28o18¶ 29.74o / 29o45¶ 38.66o / 38o40¶

2a 3c

2b 3d

Exercise 1 a 50.91o / 50o54¶ e 28.30o / 28o18¶ 9.2.1 1a 36.87o / 36o52¶ 3a 57.99o / 58o 5a 36.87o / 36o52¶

b f

c g

d h

1b 74.05o / 74o3¶ 3b 36.89o / 36o52¶ 5b 63.43o / 63o26¶ 33.69o / 33o41¶ 34.70o / 34o42¶

2a 4a

2b 4b

Exercise 1 a 66.04o / 66o2¶ e 37.87o / 37o52¶

b f

c

26.57o / 26o34¶

d

66.42o / 66o25¶

**PRACTICE SPM FORMAT
**

47.73o / 2 17.10o / 17o6¶ 3 o 47 44¶ 5 63.43o / 6 36.87o / 36o52¶ 7 o 63 26¶ 9 30.96o / 10 30.96o / 30o58¶ 11 o 30 58¶ SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS 36.87o / 36o 52¶ 1 Nov 2003 18.43o / 18o 26¶ 2 Jul 2004 31.61o / 31o 36¶ 3 Nov 2004 14.04o / 14o 2¶ 4 Jul 2005 33.69o / 33o 41¶ 5 Nov 2005 50.19o / 50o 12¶ 6 Jul 2006 34.70 / 34O42¶ 7 Nov 2006 1 54.46o / 54o28¶ 36.87o / 36o52¶ 53.13o / 53o8¶ 4 8 12 56.31o / 56o19¶ 34.70o / 34o42¶ 18.43o / 18o26¶

8 9 10 11

Jun 2007 Nov 2007 Jun 2008 Nov 2008

WQR,54.46r or 54r28' SUV , 31.61r or 31r36' QPR,32r EAM ,15.47r or 15r28'

Line And Planes In 3-Dimensions

19

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