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15.1 Probability of an Event

Important concept: number of outcomes in A n( A) • P ( A) = number of outcomes in S = n( S ) , where 0 ≤ P ( A) ≤1 1. Determine the sample space for each of the following experiments. Example : a) A fair coin is tossed. S = { heads, tails} S= d) A card is picked from the following cards. e) The result of true – false question. S= S= f) A number is select at random from the set b) A pen is taken out at random from a bag containing a blue pen and a black pen. c) A ball is picked at random from a bag containing a blue ball, a green ball and a red ball. S=

H

E

B

A

T

{x : 5 ≤ x ≤ 12, x is an integer}

S=

2. Determine the probability of an event. a) A bag contains 7 red balls, 5 green balls and 6 pink balls. A ball is picked at random. Find the probability for each of the following events. b) A bag contains 6 white marbles, 8 red marbles and 12 green marbles. A marble is picked at random. Find the probability that the marble is c) The table shows a set of numbers. A number is chosen at random from the set. 10 11 15 17 22 19 16 25 18 i) A = a red ball is picked n(A) = 7, n(S) = 18 n( A) 7 P ( A) = = n( S ) 18 i) Red n ( R) = n(S )= P® = i) Probability that a prime number is chosen = ii) Probability that the number chosen is divisible by 2 = iii) Probability that a multiple of 5 is chosen = ii) B = a green ball is picked n(B) = n(S) = P(B) = white n(W) = n(S) = P(W)= iii) C = a pink ball is picked n (C) = n(S) = P(C) = green

Probability II

1

d) Each vowel in the word i) a pink card is drawn ‘PROBABILITY’ is written on a pink card and each consonant is written on a blue card. A card is drawn at random from these cards. Find the probability that e)A letter is selected at random from the word ‘ASSOCIATIONS’. Find the probability of selecting f) A factory has 24 male and 16 female workers. If a worker is selected at random, find the probability that the letter ‘S’

ii) A vowel is drawn iii) a letter B is drawn

ii) the letter ‘O’

The letter ‘P’

i)

a male worker is selected

ii) a female worker is selected

iii) If 4 female workers leave the factory and, then, a worker is selected, find the probability that a female worker is selected.

3. Determine the number of objects. Example: a) A bag contains 36 cards. The probability of getting a blue card from 1 the bag is . Number of 3 blue cards in the bag 1 6 1 = 3 × =2 3 e) A bag contains 27 blue pens and some black pens. The probability of picking a 3 blue pen is . 4 Total number of pens in the bag 4 = 27 × = 36 3 b) A bag contains 48 cards. The probability of getting a green card 1 from the bag is . 4 Number of green cards in the bag = f) A bag contains 20 red pens and some green pens. The probability of picking a red pen is 2 . 5 Total number of pen in the bag = c) A bag contains 27 cards. The probability of getting a pink card from 1 the bag is . Number 3 of pink cards in the bag = d) A bag contains 60 cards. The probability of getting a red card 1 from the bag is . 5 Number of red cards in the bag = h) A bag contains 24 brown pens and some yellow pens. The probability of picking a brown pen 3 is . Total 7 number of pen in the bag =

g) A bag contains 18 pink pens and some blue pens. The probability of picking a blue pen is 2 . Total number of 3 pen in the bag =

Probability II

2

**i) A class has 12 boys and
**

some girls. The probability of choosing a 3 boy is . 8 Total number of students in the class =

j) A factory has 21

male workers and some female workers. The probability of choosing a male 3 worker is . 8 Total number of workers in the factory =

k) There are 60 yellow files and some brown files in a drawer. The probability of choosing 3 a yellow file is . 5 Total number of files in the drawer =

l) A bag contains 25 red apples and some green apples. The probability of choosing a red 5 apple is . 8 Total number of apples in the bag =

15.2

Complement of an Event The complement of an event A is denoted by A'. A' contains all outcomes of the sample space that are not in A. P(A) + P(A') = 1 P(A') = 1 – P(A)

•

• •

1. State the complement of each of the following events in words and set notation. Event Complement of event in Complement of words event in set notation a) A fair coin is tossed A = { head } A' = A head is not A' = { tail } obtained b) A fair dice is tossed B = An odd number B’ = is obtained c) A letter is picked at random from the word ‘DILIGENT’ C = The letter I is obtained C’ =

2. Solve problems involving complement. a) The probability that a team 2 loses in a match is . 5 What is the probability that the teams win the match? P (W ) =1 −P (loss ) in 2 3 =1 − = 5 5 b) The probability that Rahim is late 1 for school is . 8 What is the probability that he is on time? c) A basket contains some red apples and some green apples. The probability of picking a 2 red apple is . 7 The probability of picking a green apple, P(Green) = d)A tray contain some soft-boiled eggs and some hard boiled eggs. The probability of choosing a soft2 boiled egg is . 5 P( Hard-boiled egg) =

Probability II

3

e) A box contains a total of 24 red and purple grapes. The probability of choosing a 1 red grape is . 6 i) P(Purple) = ii) Number of purple grape =

f) A box contains a f) There total of 40 green and are a total of 64 purple marbles. The orange and pink plates probability of in a basin. The choosing a green probability picking an 2 1 marble is . orange plate is . 5 4 i) P(Purple) = P(pink plate) = ii) Number of pink plate = ii) Number of green marbles=

g) A fair dice is rolled. Find the probability that i) the number obtained is less than 5 ii) the number obtained is not less than 5

15.3

Combined Event A combination of event A or event B is A ∪ B. P(A or B) = P(A ∪ B) n( A ∪ B ) = n( S ) A combination of an event A and event B is A ∩ B . P(A and B) = P(A ∩ B) n( A ∩ B ) = n( S )

• • • •

1.a) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. List the possible outcomes for the following event. A = { head or number 6 is obtained } A = { (H, 1), (H, 2), (H, 3), (H, 4), (H, 5), (H, 6), (T, 6) }

b) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. List the possible outcomes for the following event. B = { tail or number 2 is obtained } B=

c) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. List the possible outcomes for the following event. C = { number 2 or 5 is obtained } C=

d) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. List the possible outcomes for the following event. D = { number 3 or 6 is obtained } D=

Probability II

4

2. A fair coin is tossed twice. List the possible outcomes for the following events. a) two heads are obtained b) two tails are obtained c) a head and a tail is obtained

3. Let set A = {P, Y, R, A, M, I, D} and set B = {3, 4}. An element is chosen at random from each set. a) List the sample space, S, for the experiment. b) List the possible outcomes for the following events. - a vowel and number 4 are chosen - a consonant and number 3 are chosen

4. A number is chosen at random from the numbers 15 to 30. List the outcomes of the combined events below. a) a multiple of 5 or a prime number b) a number that when divided by 3, has 1 or 2 as reminder c) an even number or number 15.

**{x :5 ≤ x ≤ 16, x is an integer}. List the outcomes
**

of the event that an even number and perfect square are selected. Let A = an even number is selected = B = a perfect square is selected = Q = the event that an even number and perfect square are selected B = A∩ =

5. A number is selected at random from the set

Probability II

5

Based on the lists of possible outcomes in the sample space and the respective events, find the probability of the following combined events. 1.a) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. List the possible outcomes for the following event. A = { head or number 6 is obtained } A = { (H, 1), (H, 2), (H, 3), (H, 4), (H, 5), (H, 6), (T, 6) } S ={(H,1), (H,2), (H,3), (H,4), (H,5), (H,6), (T,1), (T,1), (T,1), (T,1), (T,1), (T,1)} b) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. B = { tail or number 2 is obtained }

P(B)=

P ( A) =

n( A) 7 = n( S ) 12

d) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. D = { number 3 or 6 is obtained } P(D) =

c) A fair coin and a dice are tossed. C = { number 2 or 5 is obtained } P(C) =

2. A fair coin is tossed twice. a) A = two heads are obtained b) B = two tails are obtained c) C = a head and a tail is obtained

3. Let set A = {P, Y, R, A, M, I, D} and set B = {3, 4}. An element is chosen at random from each set. a) a vowel and number 4 are chosen b) a consonant and number 3 are chosen

4. A number is chosen at random from the numbers 15 to 30. a) a multiple of 5 or a prime number b) a number that when divided by 3, has 1 or 2 as reminder c) an even number or number 15.

{x :5 ≤ x ≤ 16, x is an integer}.

5. A number is selected at random from the set

Find the probability that an even number and perfect square are selected.

Probability II

6

15.4 1.

Questions Based on Examination Format District P Q R Residential School 2 3 5 Non-residential school 3 4 2

The table above shows the number of residential and non-residential schools in three district P, Q and R. The probability that Lina will be sent to district P, Q, or R is the same. Calculate the probability that Lina will be sent to a) a residential school in district Q b) a non-residential school 2. Hassan and Lee represented their school in either a quiz or a debate. The probabilities that 3 4 Hassan and Lee represent the school in a quiz are and respectively. Calculate the 5 7 probability that a) Hassan represents the school in a quiz and Lee represents the school in the debate, b) Hassan and Lee represented the school in the same competition. 3.

C O U R T E O U S

Nine alphabetic cards above are placed in a box. Two cards are picked at random from the box, one after another without replacement. Calculate the probability that a) The first card is “O” and the second card is not “O”. b) Both the cards picked have the same alphabet.

Box E

Box F

4.

Black card 4 7 White card 3 2 The table above shows the number of black cards and white cards in box E and box F. Ros takes a card randomly from box E. If the card taken is black, the card is returned to the box. If the card is white, the card is put into box F. Then, a second card is taken from box F. Calculate the probability that Ros takes a) Black card from box E followed by a white card from box F, b) A black card from box F. 5. In a survey carried out on a group of 18 arts enthusiasts. 10of them like music and the rest like painting. Two people are chosen at random from the group. Calculate the probability that a) Both of them like music b) Both of them have the same interest.

Probability II

7

6. Zul and Sidek played two games. The probability that Zul wins the first game is probability that Zul wins the second game is a draw. Calculate the probability that a) Zul wins both the games b) Zul wins any of the games.

1 . The 3

2 . The results of the two games cannot end in 5

7. During the coming school holiday, the probabilities of Lina visiting Cameron Highlands and 2 3 Genting Highlands are and respectively. Calculate the probability that Lina 5 7 a) visiting Cameron Highlands and Genting Highlands b) visit Cameron Highlands or Genting Highlands 8. Sue and Liza choose to register in either school A or school B. The probabilities that Sue and 1 3 Liza choose school A are and respectively. Calculate the probability that 3 4 a) Sue chooses school A and Liza chooses school B. b) Sue and Liza choose the same school. 9. Student Zul Hamdan The probability of joining the Science stream Arts stream. 2 1 3 6 3 2 1 0 5

The table above shows the probabilities that Zul and Hamdan will join the Science stream or the Arts stream after completing form three. Calculate the probability that a)Zul and Hamdan will join the Science stream b) one of them joins the Science stream and the other joins the Arts stream. 10.

T 10. T

T A A B E

The cards above are put into a box. A card is drawn at random from the box. If the card drawn is T, the card is replaced. If the card is not T, the card is not replaced. Then, a second card is drawn at random from the box. Calculate the probability that a)both the card drawn are marked T b) one of the card is marked T

Probability II

8

15.5

Past Year SPM Questions

November 2003 1. Diagram 5 shows the route of a vehicle which carries a group of volunteers. The group consists of 7 males and 5 females who are dropped off at random to sell flags at various points along the routes. Taman Aman

Other places Starting point

a) If two volunteers are dropped off at Taman Aman, calculate the probability that both are males. b) Two volunteers of different gender are dropped off at Taman Aman. If two other volunteers are then dropped off at Taman Sentosa, calculate the probability that at least one of them is female. [5 marks] July 2004 2. Table 1 shows the number of pupils attending a motivation camp. Number of Pupils School Boys Girls School A 8 7 School B 7 3 Two pupils from the group are required to take part in a show. a) If a pupil is chosen at random from school A and another one from school B, calculate the probability that both are girls. b) If two pupils are chosen at random from the group of boys, calculate the probability that both are from the same school.

Taman Sentosa

[5 marks]

November 2004 3. Table 1 shows the number of coupons in two boxes, A and B. The coupons are of various values, RM1, RM2 and RM5. Students are given coupons as an incentive for selling bookmarks. Number of Coupons RM1 RM2 RM5 1 6 8 2 5 3

Box A B

Students selling more than 100 bookmarks are given the chance to draw at random a coupon from box A. Students selling less than 100 bookmarks are given the chance to draw at random a coupon from box B. Ali sells 120 bookmarks. Lim sells 52 bookmarks. Find the probability that a) Both of them draw a RM5 coupon. b) The total value of the two coupons drawn by them is less than RM4.

[5 marks]

Probability II

9

July 2005 4. Diagram below shows the route of a cross-country event of a school. Station E Station D Start/ End Station A Station B

Station C

A group of 8 boys and 6 girls from the St. John Ambulance Brigade have been chosen for duty for the event. All of them will be taken by a van to be placed for duty at various stations. The van travels to station A, then Station B, then station C, and so on. a) Two pupils from a group are chosen at random for duty at Station A. Calculate the probability that both are girls. b) Two girls from the group are placed for duty at Station A. Two other pupils are then chosen at random for duty at Station B. Calculate the probability that they are of different gender to each other.

[5 marks]

November 2005 5. A group of 5 boys and 4 girls take part in a study on the type of plants found in a reserved forest area. Each day, two pupils are chosen at random to write the report. a) Calculate the probability that both pupils chosen to write the report on the first day are boys. b) Two boys do write the report on the first day. They are then exempted from writing the report on the second day. Calculate the probability that both pupils chosen to write the report on the second day are of the same gender.

[5 marks]

July 2006 6. Table below shows the number of teachers in a two-session school. Session Morning Afternoon Number of teachers Men Women 6 10 4 8

Two teachers from the school are chosen at random to attend an assembly of Teacher’s Day at the state level. Calculate the probability that both teachers chosen a) are men, [5 marks] b) are from the same session

Probability II

10

7. November 2006 In a quiz contest, there are three categories of questions consisting of 5 questions on sports, 3 questions on entertainment and 7 questions on general knowledge. Each question is placed inside an envelope. All of the envelopes are similar and put inside a box. All the participants of the quiz contest are requested to pick at random two envelopes from the box. Find the probability that the first participant picks a) the first envelope with a sport question and the second envelope with an entertainment question, b) two envelopes with questions of the same category.

[5 marks]

8. June 2007 Table 1 shows the number of a group of students in Form 1 Alpha and Form 1 Beta who are entitled to receive school bags.

**Form 1 Alpha Gender Boys Girls
**

Table 1 Two students from the group are chosen at random to receive a school bag each. Find the probability that both students chosen A are boys B are girls from the same class [5 marks] 9. November 2007 Diagram 4 shows ten labeled cards in two boxes.

1 Beta 6 2

3 5

A

2

Box P

B

C

D

3

E

Box Q

4

F

G

Diagram 4 A card is picked at random from each of the boxes. By listing the outcomes, find the probability that A both cards are labeled with a number B one card is labeled with a number and the other card is labeled with a letter.

Probability II

11

[5 marks] 10. June 2008 Two students are chosen at random to arrange books in the library. They are chosen from a group of 2 boys and 3 girls. By listing the sample space of the possible outcomes of the events, find the probability that a) two girls are chosen, b) at least one boy is chosen.

11. November 2008

**Diagram 10 shows three numbered cards in box P and two cards labeled with letters in
**

box Q.

2

3

P

6

Y

Q Diagram 10

R

A card is picked at random from box P and then a card is picked at random from box Q. By listing the sample of all possible outcomes of the event, find the probability that a) a card with an even number and the card labeled Y are picked, b) a card with a number which is multiple of 3 or the card labeled R are picked. [5 marks]

Probability II

12

ANSWER

Chapter 15 Probability 15.4 Questions according to Examination Format 1

1 3 1 × = 3 7 7 1 3 1 4 1 2 17 × + × + × = 3 5 3 7 3 7 35 3 3 9 × = 5 7 35 3 4 2 3 18 × + × = 5 7 5 7 35 2 7 7 × = 9 8 36 2 1 2 1 1 × + × = 9 8 9 8 18 4 2 8 × = 7 9 63 4 7 3 7 67 × + × = 7 9 7 10 90 10 9 5 × = 18 17 17 10 9 8 7 73 × + × = 18 17 18 17 153 1 2 2 × = 3 5 15 1 3 2 2 7 × + × = 3 5 3 5 15 2 3 6 × = 5 7 35 2 4 3 3 2 3 23 × + × + × = 5 7 5 7 5 7 35 1 1 1 × = 3 4 12 1 3 2 1 5 × + × = 3 4 3 4 12 2 3 1 × = 3 10 5 2 2 3 1 19 × + × = 3 5 10 6 60

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Probability II

13

10

3 3 9 × = 7 7 49 3 4 4 3 26 × + × = 7 7 7 6 49

**15.5 SPM Past Year Questions SPM 2003
**

7 6 7 × = 12 11 22 4 3 4 6 6 4 2 × + × + × = 10 9 10 9 10 9 3 5 3 3 × = 13 10 26 8 7 7 6 7 × + × = 15 14 15 14 15 8 3 4 × = 15 10 25 1 2 1 5 6 2 19 × + × + × = 15 10 15 10 15 10 150 6 5 15 × = 14 13 91 8 4 4 8 16 × + × = 12 11 12 11 33 5 4 5 × = 9 8 18 3 2 4 3 3 × + × = 7 6 7 6 7 10 9 5 × = 28 27 42 16 15 12 11 31 × + × = 28 27 28 27 63

SPM 2004 J

SPM 2004

SPM 2005 J

SPM 2005

SPM 2006 J

SPM 2006

5 3 1 × = 15 14 14 5 4 3 2 7 6 34 × + × + × = 15 14 15 14 15 14 105 8a) 80 9a) 12

1 21

SPM 2007 J

8b) 28 9b) 12

5

11

SPM 2007 N

SPM 2008 J

10) S = { B1G1 , B1G2 , B1G3 , B2 G1 , B2 G2 , B2 G3 }

Probability II

14

10a) 10

SPM 2008 N

3

10b)

7 10

**11) S = {(2, Y ), ( 2, R ), (3, Y ), (3, R), (6, Y ), (6, R)} 11a) 1 3 11b) 6
**

5

Probability II

15

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