CHAPTER 9 : LINES AND PLANES IN 3 DIMENSIONS

9. 1 Angle Between Lines And Planes 9.1.1 a)Based on the diagram, calculate the angle between the line and the plane given Example 1: Plane :EFGH Line :GC A B F G Angle : D 1. a) Plane : ABCD Line : DV V b) Plane Line : SRLK : QL

K

4 cm
C E D

3 cm
C S P Q

L

5 cm
R

8 cm
A

6 cm 8 cm
H

7 cm 12 cm

10 cm
Angle :

B

CH tan ∠CGH = G H 4 = 8

∠CGH

Angle :

∠CGH = 26.57o / 26o 34’
Example 2 : Plane : PSK Line : KR K 2. a) Plane Line L A B R Q F G : CDEH : FD D C b) Plane Line X : URST : RX Y

5 cm
S P

6 cm 4 cm
E

12 cm

8 cm 15 cm
H

7 cm
R Angle :

U

T

Angle : tan

∠RKS

24 cm

S

Angle :

SR K S 1 2 = 5 ∠RKS = 67.38o / 67o 23’

∠RKS =

Example 3 : Plane : JKLM

3. a) Plane : ABCD

b) Plane : ABCD

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

1

Line : NK NM = 11 cm N

Line

: AV V

Line A B F G

: DG D 6 cm C E 5 cm H

4 cm
D M L A B

6 cm 9 cm 8 cm

C

12 cm

J

12 cm

K

Angle KM = tan

: ∠ NKM
12 2 + 9 2

= 15 cm

NM KM 1 1 = 1 5 ∠NKM = 36.25o / 36o 15’

∠NKM =

c)

Plane : QRST Line : TP 12 cm S

d)

Plane : QPWT Line : RX U

e) V

Plane : SRUT Line : PN P Q

T 5 cm Q R 7 cm P Q 8 cm P R T S

Y
W S M 12 cm R T

5 cm U

X

12 cm

N 6 cm

Exercise 1 : Based on the diagram, calculate the angle between the line and the plane given

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

2

a) The diagram shows a cuboid. Calculate the angle between line NE and the plane of GFKN K N F G L

b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a horizontal base JKLM .Calculate the angle between line KS and the plane of SRLM. R S

12 cm
M P Q L 8 cm E M 5 cm J 6 cm K

5 cm 16 cm
H

c) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between line RY and the plane of STY. X 6 cm U 8 cm R 14 cm T Y

d) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between line QE and the plane of DCE.

E
5 cm

F

D

P
12 cm

C

S

A

6 cm

Q

B

e) The diagram shows a pyramid . Given that HP = 13 cm. Calculate the angle between line

f) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the angle between line UV and the plane of PSWV.

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

3

PG and the plane of EHP. P V

W

X U S

7 cm
H G

3 cm
R

9 cm
E

4 cm
P

7 cm

F

5 cm

Q

g) The diagram shows a pyramid with a horizontal base DEFG. Given that VO = 9 cm. Calculate the angle between line GV and the plane of DEFG. V

h) The diagram shows a pyramid with a triangle base CHD. Calculate the angle between line CA and the plane of ADH. A 8 cm B 6 cm D 2 cm H

G D O 12 cm E

F 5 cm

C

9. 2 Angle Between Two Planes

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

4

9.2.1

a) Calculate the angle between the two planes. 1. a) Plane KLSP and plane JKLM S P M L R V b) Plane PSWV and plane VUXW W

Example 1: Plane EFGH and plane GHDA A B F G D

9 cm
C

Q

X U S Q

6 cm
H

E

15 cm
K

4 cm
R

12 cm
J

6 cm
P

8 cm

5 cm 7 cm

20 cm

Angle : ∠ DHE = ∠ AGF tan ∠DHE =
A F G F 9 = 6 DHE = 56.31o / 56o19’ ∠

Example 2 : Plane PQLK and plane SRLK K L 7 cm S P 12 cm Q R 10 cm

2. a) Plane ABCD and plane ADEF

E

b) Plane URST and plane XRSY X Y

13 cm

F

D
20 cm

C 5 cm
U 9 cm R 12 cm T

A

Angle : ∠ QLR = ∠ PKS Q R LR 1 0 = 7 ∠QLR = 55o

10 cm

B

S

tan

∠QLR =

Example 3 : Plane TRQ and plane SRQP 11 cm Q P

3. a) Plane ABCD and plane V ABV

b) Plane PQSR and plane PQKL K L 3 cm

S Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions T

D R A
5

C B P

S 5 cm 4 cm Q

R

5 cm 4 cm

8 cm

5 cm

Angle : ∠ TRS tan ∠TRS =
T S R S 4 = 1 1

∠QLR = 19.98o / 19o59’

Example 4: Plane DEV and DEFG . VO = 7 cm V

4a) Plane GCB and plane ABCD G 10 cm C

b) Plane PMNT and Plane KLMN

K

12 cm

N
9 cm

G D

F 12 cm E A

D O 8 cm B

10 cm

M

O

L cm 12

T L F

M
10 cm

Angle : tan

∠ VMO
VO M O 7 = 6

P

∠VMO =

∠VMO = 49.40o / 49o24’

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

6

Example 5 : Plane ABE and plane ABCD E

4 a) Plane SRQ and plane SRUT P

b) Plane SURP and plane PTR

15 cm F D K 36 cm A L 18 cm B C
S

12 cm
P Q V Q

R

4 cm
W U

M

T

5 cm S
N U

10 cm
R T

Angle : EK = tan

∠ ELK
15 2 − 9 2 = 12

8 cm

EK LK 1 2 = 3 6 ∠ELK =

∠ELK =

Exercise 1 a) The diagram shows a pyramid with a horizontal base ABCD. Given that VO = 9 cm. Calculate the angle between the plane VAD and the plane of ABCD. V 10 cm A B O C J 7 cm K P D 8 cm M 6 cm L 9 cm Q b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a horizontal base JKLM .Calculate the angle between the plane SRKJ and the plane of SRLM. R S

C
10 cm c) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the

D d) The diagram shows S prism. Calculate the a R B
15 cm
7

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

P

8 cm

A

Q

angle between the plane PLM and the plane of PLNQ. P 5 cm L 10 cm K 20 cm N Q

angle between the plane QRC and the plane of PQRS.

M

e) The diagram shows a pyramid. Calculate the angle between the plane FGP and the plane of EFGH P

f) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle between the plane ABCD and the plane of DQR. D C 9cm B S 7cm P 13 cm Q R

14cm H G 24 cm E 18 cm F

A

How to answer the SPM format Question

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

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Example 1 Diagram 1 shows a pyramid LPQRS . L

Step 3 : Identify the angle L

P 10 cm Q 12 cm

P

J cm
R

S

10 cm Q Angle : 12 cm

J cm
R

S

∠ LQJ

Diagram 1 The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. J is the midpoint of RS. The vertex L is 8 cm vertically above the point J. Calculate the angle between the line QL and the base PQRS. Step 1 : - Colour line QL and shade/colour plane PQRS - Determine the meet point L

Step 4 : Calculate the angle

JQ = tan

12 2 − 5 2 = 13

∠LQJ =
=

L J Q J

P 10 cm Q 12 cm

J cm
R

S

8 1 3

∠LQJ =

Step 2 : Identify normal and orthogonal projection L

P 10 cm Q 12 cm

J cm
R

S

Normal line : LJ Orthogonal projection : QJ

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

9

Example 2 Diagram 2 shows a prism with horizontal square ABCD. Trapezium KABL is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface NKAD is vertical while the rectangular surface MLBC is inclined. N M

Step 3 : Identify the perpendicular line with BC and lies on plane NBC and the base ABCD . N M

L K D 6 cm C A 8 cm B C

L K D 6 cm A B

8 cm Diagram 2

Line NC and DC are perpendicular with line BC Step 4 : Identify the angle N M

Calculate the angle between the plane NBC and the base ABCD. Step 1 : - Shade/colour plane ABCD - Determine the line intersection between plane NBC and the base ABCD N M A L K D 6 cm A B C K

L D 6 cm B C

8 cm

Angle : ∠ NCD Step 5 : Calculate the angle ND tan ∠NCD = DC = 6 8

8 cm

Line intersect : BC

∠NCD = 36.89o / 36o52’
Questions Based on the Examination Format

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

10

1. Diagram 1 shows a pyramid with a 2. Diagram 2 shows a cuboid with horizontal rectangular base PQRS. V is vertically above P. base KLMN. V P 11 cm S Q R 6 cm N K S R 4 cm Q M 5 cm L

P

8 cm DIAGRAM 1

12 cm DIAGRAM 2

Calculate the angle between the line VR and the plane PQRS.

Calculate the angle between the line SL and the base NKLM.

3. Diagram 3 shows a cuboid ACBDEFGH. Given EH = FG = 8 cm. D C 7 cm A B G H

4. Diagram 4 shows a right prism with a horizontal plane ABCD. It is a uniform prism and its cross section is an isosceles triangle of sides 4 cm. The thickness of the prism, EA = 4 cm. H 6 cm E D C

DIAGRAM 4 Calculate the angle between the plane ABH and Calculate the angle between the plane EHD and the plane ABE. the plane FEHG.

F

DIAGRAM 3

5 cm

E

A

4 cm

B

S 4 cm 5) Diagram 5 shows a pyramid with the

T

Z 6) R Diagram 6 shows a cuboid. Z is the U 6 cm X W V 10 cm DIAGRAM 6
11

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

Y

horizontal plane, TRS. The rectangle PQRS is vertical plane. 10 cm Q P 12 cm 13 cm T S R DIAGRAM 5

midpoint of TW .

Calculate the angle between the plane PTS and the plane TQR.

Calculate the angle between plane YVZ and the horizontal plane XYVW.

7) Diagram 7 shows a right prism with base the rectangular plane ABCD. Right triangle BCF is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface DCFE is vertical while the rectangular surface BAEF is inclined. E F

8) Diagram 8 shows a pyramid REFGH. The base EFGH is a horizontal rectangle. R is the midpoint of HG. The apex R is 9 cm vertically above the point S. R

6 cm
D A C

H

S

G

5 cm E 24 cm F

6 cm 8 cm
B DIAGRAM 7 Calculate the angle between the plane DB and plane EDCF. DIAGRAM 8

Calculate the angle between line ER and the plane EFGH.

S R Y N 10) Diagram 10 shows a right prism. Right

K

P 9) Diagram 9 shows a cuboid. P is the midpoint Q 12 cm 10 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

L

M 6 cm

12

of line RQ.

angled triangle SUT is the uniform crosssection of the prism. P 5 cm 12 cm Q R

20 cm U S DIAGRAM 9 cm T DIAGRAM 10

Calculate the angle between the plane LQY and Calvulate the angle between the plane PSR and the plane MQRN. the plane PUTR..

11) Diagram 11 shows a prism . The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle . X is the midpoint of SR. L M 5 cm S P

12) Diagram 12 shows a right prism with rectangle base EFGH. EFPQ and GHPQ are rectangle. P Q E L 12 cm F H M 6 cm

5 cm G

X

R 8 cm

12 cm Q DIAGRAM 11 cm

DIAGRAM 12 cm Calculate the angle between line LQ and the base EFGH.

Calculate the angle between line PX and the plane SRML.

Past Year SPM Questions

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

13

1. Nov 2003 Diagram 1 shows a prism with a horizontal square base HJKL. Trapezium EFLK is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface DEKJ is vertical while the rectangular surface GFLH is incline. D G

E J 6 cm

F H

K

8 cm Diagram 1

L

Calculate the angle between the plane DLH and the base HJKL.

[ 4 marks ]

2 July 2004, Q4 Diagram 2 shows a cuboid. E H

D

C

F 5 cm

9 cm G DIAGRAM 2

A

12 cm

B

Calculate the angle between the line AH and the plane ABCD.

[4 marks]

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

14

3. Nov 2004, Q3 Diagram 2 shows a pyramid VJKLM. V

L 10 cm K DIAGRAM 2 12 cm

M

Q cm
J

The base JKLM is a horizontal rectangle. Q is the midpoint of JM. The apex V is 8 cm vertically above the point Q. Calculate the angle between the line KV and the base JKLM. 4. July 2005, Q2 Diagram 1 shows a right prism with rectangle ABCD as its horizontal base. Right angled triangle FAB is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface BCEF is inclined. E [ 4 marks ]

F D 3 cm 12 cm A 5 cm B DIAGRAM 1 C

Calculate the angle between the plane ABE and the base ABCD.

[3 marks]

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

15

5. Nov 2005, Q4 Diagram 1 shows a right prism. Right angled triangled PQR is the uniform cross-section of the prism. T 5 cm U 12 cm

S

18 cm Q R

P

DIAGRAM 1

Calculate the angle between the plane RTU and the plane PQTU. 6. July 2006, Q4 Diagram 2 shows a right prism. The base HJKL is a horizontal rectangle. The right angled triangle NHJ is the uniform cross-section of the prism. M

N

8 cm L 6 cm H 12 cm DIAGRAM 2 Identify and calculate the angle between the line KN and the plane HLMN. 7. Nov 2006, Q2 J K

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

16

Diagram 1 shows a right prism. The base PQRS is on horizontal rectangle. The right triangle UPQ is the uniform cross section of the prism.

Identify and calculate the angle between the line RU and the base PQRS. [ 4 marks ]

8. SPM June 2007 Q2 Diagram shows a right prism. The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. Trapezium PQVU is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangle QRWV is a vertical plane and the rectangle UVWT is an T inclined plane. U

14 cm

W S V
7 cm

P
12 cm

R
5 cm

Q Identify and calculate the angle between the plane PQW and the base PQRS. [3 marks]
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

17

9. SPM Nov 2007 Q4 Diagram shows a right prism. The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. Right angled triangle QRU is the uniform cross-section of the prism. V is the midpoint of PS. T

U S 5 cm R

V P 12 cm Q 16 cm

Identify and calculate the angle between the line UV and the plane RSTU. [3 marks] 10. SPM June 2008 Diagram shows a cuboid ABCDEFGH with horizontal base ABCD. P, Q and R are the midpoints of BC, AD and FE respectively. R F G 5 cm Q A D C 8 cm P B FPCR and the base ABCD. [4 marks] 6 cm E H

Name and calculate the angle between the plane

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

18

11. SPM Nov 2008 Diagram shows a cuboid. M is the midpoint of the side EH and AM = 15 cm. E M F G H

D A 8 cm B a) Name the angle between the line AM and the plane ADEF. b) Calculate the angle between the line AM and the plane ADEF. [3 marks]

C

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

19

ANSWERS
Chapter 9 :Lines And Planes In 3 Dimensions 9.1.1 1a 3a 3e 16.70o / 16o42’ 21.80o / 21o48’ 18.43o / 18o26’ b f 1b 3b 5b b f 26.57o / 26o34’ 51.34o / 51o20’ 74.05o / 74o3’ 36.89o / 36o52’ 63.43o / 63o26’ 33.69o / 33o41’ 34.70o / 34o42’ c 26.57o / 26o34’ d 66.42o / 66o25’ c g 2a 4a 54.46o / 54o28’ 54.16o / 54o10’ 67.38o / 67o23’ 60o d h 2b 4b 71.57o / 71o34 53.13o / 53o8’ 29.05o / 29o3’ 53.13o / 53o8’ 1b 3b 54.46o / 54o28’ 24.78o / 24o47’ 2a 3c 68.20o / 68o12’ 28.30o / 28o18’ 2b 3d 29.74o / 29o45’ 38.66o / 38o40’

Exercise 1 a 50.91o / 50o54’ e 28.30o / 28o18’ 9.2.1 1a 36.87o / 36o52’ 3a 57.99o / 58o 5a 36.87o / 36o52’

Exercise 1 a 66.04o / 66o2’ e 37.87o / 37o52’

PRACTICE SPM FORMAT
1 5 9 47.73o / 47o44’ 63.43o / 63o26’ 30.96o / 30o58’ 2 6 10 17.10o / 17o6’ 36.87o / 36o52’ 30.96o / 30o58’ 3 7 11 54.46o / 54o28’ 36.87o / 36o52’ 53.13o / 53o8’ 4 8 12 56.31o / 56o19’ 34.70o / 34o42’ 18.43o / 18o26’

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

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SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Nov 2003 Jul 2004 Nov 2004 Jul 2005 Nov 2005 Jul 2006 Nov 2006 Jun 2007 Nov 2007 Jun 2008 Nov 2008

36.87o / 36o 52’ 18.43o / 18o 26’ 31.61o / 31o 36’ 14.04o / 14o 2’ 33.69o / 33o 41’ 50.19o / 50o 12’ 34.70 / 34O42’

∠WQR,54.46° or 54°28' ∠SUV , 31.61° or 31°36' ∠QPR,32° ∠EAM ,15.47° or 15°28'

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

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