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William Shakespeare (baptised 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616)[a] was an English poet and

playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-
eminent dramatist.[1] He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon" (or
simply "The Bard"). His surviving works consist of 38 plays,[b] 154 sonnets, two long narrative
poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living
language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.[2]

Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18 he married Anne
Hathaway, who bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585
and 1592 he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of the
playing company the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to
have retired to Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later. Few records of
Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such
matters as his sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written
by others.[3]

Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1590 and 1613. His early plays were
mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the
end of the sixteenth century. Next he wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet,
King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest examples in the English language. In his
last phase, he wrote tragicomedies and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays
were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime, and in 1623, two
of his former theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic
works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's.

Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise
to its present heights until the nineteenth century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed
Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians hero-worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that
George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry".[4] In the twentieth century, his work was repeatedly
adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain
highly popular today and are consistently performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and
political contexts throughout the world.

Romeo and Juliet is an early tragedy by William Shakespeare about two teenage "star-cross'd
lovers" whose "untimely deaths" ultimately unite their feuding households. The play has been
highly praised by literary critics for its language and dramatic effect. It was among
Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most
frequently performed plays. Its influence is still seen today, with the two main characters being
widely represented as archetypal young lovers.

Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to Ancient Greece.
Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke
in 1562, and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1582. Brooke and
Painter were Shakespeare's chief sources of inspiration for Romeo and Juliet. He borrowed
heavily from both, but developed minor characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris, in order to
expand the plot. The play was probably written around 1595–1596, and first published as a
quarto in 1597. The text was of poor quality, and later editions corrected it, bringing it more in
line with Shakespeare's original text.

Shakespeare's use of dramatic structure, especially his expansion of minor characters, and the
use of subplots to embellish the story, has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The
play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the
character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet form over time.
Characters frequently compare love and death and allude to the role of fate.

Since its publication, Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times in stage, film, musical
and operatic forms. During the Restoration, it was revived and heavily revised by William
Davenant. Garrick's 18th century version, which continued to be performed into the Victorian
era, also changed several scenes, removing material then considered indecent. Performances in
the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman's, restored the original text, and focused on
greater realism. Gielgud's 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeare's text, and used
Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama.

Romeo y Julieta es una famosa obra del dramaturgo William Shakespeare, estrenada el 29
de enero de 1595.

El balcón de Julieta, en Verona

Dos familias nobles de la Verona del siglo XIV, Montesco y Capuleto, se encuentran en
discordia desde muchos años atrás. Romeo, hijo de Montesco, es un joven inconstante,
enamorado del amor; pero después se enamora de Julieta, hija de Capuleto, quien
candorosamente corresponde a este amor. Los jóvenes han jurado amarse y llevan su juramento
hasta la muerte. Romeo y Julieta recorren en cuatro días toda una vida de amor entre odio,
rencor y venganza, y se ofrecen en sublime inmolación para disiparlos.

En "Romeo y Julieta" surge el amor, como una necesidad ineludible del hombre, llevado a la

En Shakespeare encontramos todos los valores humanos, a la persona proyectada en todas sus
facetas, en sus cualidades y defectos, lo que nos hace vibrar con sus personajes, identificarnos
con ellos y comprenderlos a cada momento.

Todos simpatizamos con los enamorados, y si hacemos un juicio basándonos en la trascendencia

que ha tenido esta obra, que se distingue por su atemporalidad, Romeo y Julieta están -y estarán
siempre- entre los amantes más conocidos del mundo, tanto por su personalidad como por su

No obstante, la primera obra escrita sobre Romeo y Julieta no fue la de Shakespeare, aunque sí
ha sido ésta la más conocida. El primero que escribió la historia fue Luigi da Porto, de Vicenza,
en el año 1520, y tras ella se han escrito numerosas versiones en prosa, en verso, ballets y obras
de teatro. Con respecto a la veracidad de los hechos, según la documentación que al respecto
parece ser que se conserva, no se puede confirmar que la historia de los amantes fuera verídica,
que ocurriera así realmente. Lo que sí parece que se ha confirmado es que en la casa que se dice
de Julieta, sita en una posada restaurada del siglo XIII, en la Via Cappelo 27 de Verona, cuyo
balcón se ve en la fotografía, efectivamente vivió la familia Capuleto y también parece ser
cierto que existían rivalidades importantes entre la mayoría de familias de la ciudad, no sólo
entre Montescos y Capuletos.
Macbeth cannot be dated precisely owing to significant evidence of later revisions. Many
scholars conjecture the likely date of composition to be between 1603 and 1606.[2] As the play
seems to be aimed at celebrating King James's ancestors and the Stuart accession to the throne
in 1603 (James believed himself to be descended from Banquo),[3] they argue that the play is
unlikely to have been composed earlier than 1603; and suggest that the parade of eight kings—
which the witches show Macbeth in a vision in Act IV—is a compliment to King James VI of
Scotland. Other editors conjecture a more specific date of 1605-6, the principal reasons being
possible allusions to the Gunpowder Plot and its ensuing trials. The Porter's speech (Act II,
scene III, lines1-21), in particular, may contain allusions to the trial of the Jesuit Henry Garnet
in spring, 1606; "equivocator" (line 8) may refer to Garnet's defence of "equivocation" [see:
Doctrine of mental reservation], and "farmer" (4) to one of Garnet's aliases.[4] However,
"farmer" is a common word, and the concept of "equivocation" was also the subject of a 1583
tract by Queen Elizabeth's chief councillor Lord Burghley, and of the 1584 Doctrine of
Equivocation by the Spanish prelate Martin Azpilcueta, which was disseminated across Europe
and into England in the 1590s.[5]

Scholars also cite an entertainment seen by King James at Oxford in the summer of 1605 that
featured three "sibyls" like the weird sisters; Kermode surmises that Shakespeare could have
heard about this and alluded to it with the weird sisters.[6] However, A. R. Braunmuller in the
New Cambridge edition finds the 1605-6 arguments inconclusive, and argues only for an
earliest date of 1603.[7] The play is not considered to have been written any later than 1607,
since, as Kermode notes, there are "fairly clear allusions to the play in 1607."[8] The earliest
account of a performance of the play is April 1611, when Simon Forman recorded seeing it at
the Globe Theatre.[9] The play was set in the 12th century

Macbeth was first printed in the First Folio of 1623 and the Folio is the only source for the text.
The text that survives had been plainly altered by later hands. Most notable is the inclusion of
two songs from Thomas Middleton's play The Witch (1615); Middleton is conjectured to have
inserted an extra scene involving the witches and Hecate, for these scenes had proven highly
popular with audiences. These revisions, which since the Clarendon edition of 1869 have been
assumed to include all of Act III, scene v, and a portion of Act IV, scene I, are often indicated in
modern texts.[10] On this basis, many scholars reject all three of the interludes with the goddess
Hecate as inauthentic. Even with the Hecate material, the play is conspicuously short, and so the
Folio text may derive from a promptbook that had been substantially cut for performance, or an
adapter cut the text himself.

Hamlet is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, probably written between 1599 and 1601. The
play, set in Denmark, recounts how Prince Hamlet exacts revenge on his uncle Claudius, who
has murdered Hamlet's father, the King, and then taken the throne and married Hamlet's mother.
The play vividly charts the course of real and feigned madness —- from overwhelming grief to
seething rage —- and explores themes of treachery, revenge, incest, and moral corruption.

Despite much literary detective work, the exact year of writing remains in dispute. Three
different early versions of the play have survived: these are known as the First Quarto (Q1), the
Second Quarto (Q2) and the First Folio (F1). Each has lines, and even scenes, that are missing
from the others. Shakespeare probably based Hamlet on the legend of Amleth, preserved by
13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum and subsequently retold by
16th-century scholar François de Belleforest, and a lost Elizabethan play known today as the

The play's dramatic structure and depth of characterisation mean that Hamlet can be analysed,
interpreted and argued about from many perspectives. For example, commentators have puzzled
for centuries about Hamlet's hesitation in killing his uncle. Some see it as a plot device to
prolong the action, and others see it as the result of pressure exerted by the complex
philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge and
thwarted desire. More recently, psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious
desires, and feminist critics have re-evaluated and rehabilitated the often-maligned characters of
Ophelia and Gertrude.

Hamlet is by far Shakespeare's longest play, and among the most powerful and influential
tragedies in the English language. It provides a storyline capable of "seemingly endless retelling
and adaptation by others".[1] During his lifetime the play was one of his most popular works,[2]
and it still ranks high among his most-performed, topping, for example, the Royal Shakespeare
Company's list since 1879.[3] It has inspired writers from Goethe and Dickens to Joyce and
Murdoch, and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella".[4] The title
role was almost certainly created for Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's
time;[5] in the four hundred years since, it has been played by the greatest actors, and sometimes
actresses, of each successive age.