LATTICE GEOMETRY
Al1 Plane
spacings.
The value
may
Cubic:
=
d2
1
h2
+
+
a2
k2
cr
2
I
Tetragonal:
k2
2
I
d2
1
h 5
(?
4 /h 2
hk a2
k?\
3\
Rhombohedral:
1
_ "
(h
2
I )
sin
(l
1
2(hk
cos a)
h2
k2
2
I
OrthoMic:
1
Monochnic:
d
/h2
I
sm /8\a
(Snh
2
k  h
siu
2
I
2cos0\
)
r
c
2
ac
TricUnic:
~T 2
=
2
S 22 k2
S3 3^ 2
2S 12 /ifc
2S23 kl
2S l3 hl)
triclinic crystals
V = Sn =
volume
6 c
2 2
sin sin
2 2
ft
2
S33 = a
Si2 ^23
<Si3
2 2
sin
7,
)S
= =
=
cos 7),
cos a), cos
ft).
a2 6c(cos
2
ft
cos 7
ob c(cos 7 cos a
459
460
LATTICE GEOMETRY
Cell volumes.
[APP.
Al2
unit
The
of the
cell.
Cubic:
Tetragonal:
V=
a3
a c
2
Hexagonal:
V = V=
V = V =
2
V=
0.866a
Rhombohedral:
Orthorhombic:
a 3 VI
3 cos a
abc
2 cos3 a
Monoclinic:
abc sin
ft
Tridinic:
abc
cos
cos
2
ft
cos 7
2 cos a cos
cos 7
between the plane (AiA'i/i), of Al3 Interplanar angles. The angle dj, and the plane (/i 2 2 fe), of spacing rf 2 may be found from the following equations. (F is the volume of the unit cell.)
</>
spacing
/c
Cubic:
cos
<t>
=
2
,
2
fc,
/I
*2 ""+
Tetragonal:
cos<
3a 2
cos
<t>
=
2
fc 2
4c
* 2 fc 2
+
4c
Rhombohedral:
cos
</>
[sin
a(/ii/i2
fc^g
(cos
cos a)(*!fe
fc 2 ^i
hh*
fefci
ftifc 2
Al3]
INTERPLANAR ANGLES
461
Orthorhombic:
cos
</>
iT2
Monocfo'm'c:
cos
^>
=
sin
2
18
a2
TT 2 6
~
I
~
ac
TricKrac:
^1^2
077
APPENDIX
The
shown
A21
The same lattice of points, however, may be referred to a hexagonal cell having axes ai(H), a 2 (H), and c(H). The hexagonal cell is no longer primitive, since it contains three lattice points per unit cell (at 000, ^ ^, and and it has three times the volume of the rhombohedral cell. f f f),
If
of a plane
one wishes to know the indices (HKL), referred to hexagonal axes, whose indices (/i/c/), referred to rhombohedral axes, are known,
may
be used
H K
= =
k,
kl,
h
L =
+k+
l.
FIG. A21.
cells in
a rhombohedral attice.
APP. 2]
RHOMBOHEDRALHEXAGONAL TRANSFORMATION
463
Thus, the (001) face of the rhombohedral cell (shown shaded in the figure) has indices (01 1) when referred to hexagonal axes.
Since a rhombohedral lattice may be referred to hexagonal axes, it follows that the powder pattern of a rhombohedral substance can be indexed on a hexagonal HullDavey or Bunn chart. How then can we recognize
From
it
follows
H + K +
If
L =
3/r.
the lattice is really rhombohedral, then k is an integer and the only lines appearing in the pattern will have hexagonal indices (HK L) such that the sum ( L) is always an integral multiple of 3. If this condition is not satisfied, the lattice is hexagonal.
H+K+
the pattern of a rhombohedral substance has been so indexed, with reference to hexagonal axes, and the true nature of the lattice determined, we usually want to know the indices (hkl) of the reflecting planes
i.e.,
When
when
referred to
rhombohedral axes.
h
are
= J(2H
+K+
(// 2K +
L).
There
then the problem of determining the lattice parameters an and a of the rhombohedral unit cell. But the dimensions of the rhombohedral cell can be determined from the dimensions of the hexagonal cell, and this
is
is
tion for the rhombohedral system. The first step is to index the pattern on the basis of hexagonal axes. Then the parameters an and c of the
hexagonal cell are calculated in the usual way. Finally, the parameters of the rhombohedral cell are determined from the following equations:
2
,
Finally,
Fig.
it
if
cell in
special value of 2.45, then the angle a of the rhombohedral cell will equal 60 and the lattice of points will be facecentered
Compare Fig. A21 with Figs. 27 and 216. Further information on the rhombohedralhexagonal relationship and on unit cell transformations in general may be obtained from the International
cubic.
Tables jor
XRay
1,
pp. 1521.
APPENDIX
WAVELENGTHS
In averaging, A'ai
(cont.)
is
A~e* 2
APP. 3]
405
by Y. Cauchois and H. Hulubei (Hermann, The CauchoisHulubei values have been multiplied by 1.00202 X Paris, 1947). 10~ 3 to convert them from X units to angstroms. Values, in angstroms, for the K lines and K absorption edge were kindly furnished by G. 1). Rieck prior to publication in Vol. Ill of the International Tables for XRay Crystallography, and are published here with the permission of the Editorial Commission of the Interdes Discontinuity d' Absorption
national Tables.
APPENDIX
4
(t/p)
AND DENSITIES
(p)
(coni.)
466
APP. 4]
467
(conf.)
468
[APP. 4
JO
^
C3
.%
O C
bl
s
.Si
3
s
o
E^
^ >
>.
APPENDIX
VALUES OF
5
2
sin
(cont.)
469
470
VALUES OP
sin
[APP. 5
From The Interpretation of XRay Diffraction Photographs, by N. F. M. Henry, H. Lipson, and W. A, Wooster (Macmillan, London, 1951).
APPENDIX
(cont.)
471
472
VALUES OF
(sin 0)/X
[APP. 7
APPENDIX
VALUES OF
(con*.)
APP. 7]
VALUES OF
(sin 0)/X
473
APPENDIX
(cont.)
474
APP. 8]
475
(cont.)
476
[APP. 8
From XRay
Diffraction
H. P. Rooksby, and A.
J.
by Poly crystalline Materials, edited by H. S. Peiser, C. Wilson (The Institute of Physics, London, 1955).
APPENDIX
MULTIPLICITY FACTORS FOR
Cubic:
hkl
hhl
POWDER PHOTOGRAPHS
Okk
12
Okl
hhh
8
001
~6~
48*
24
hhl
24*
Okl
hkl
hk0
12*
hh0
6
Ok0
6
001
04*
hkl
19*
12*
Tetragonal:
hhl
Okl
hkO
8*
hhO
4
OkO
4
001
16*
2
001
Orthorhombic:
hkl
8444222
Okl
hOl
hkO
hOO
OkO
Monodinic:
hkl
hOl
OkO
T
Triclinic:
IT
hkl
~2
These are the usual multiplicity factors. In some crystals, planes having these two forms with the same spacing but different structure factor, and the multiplicity factor for each form is half the value given above. In the cubic system, for example, there are some crystals in which permutations of the indices (hkl) produce planes which are not structurally equivalent; in such crystals (AuBe, discussed in Sec. 27, is an example), the plane (123), for example, belongs to one form and has a certain structure factor, while the plane (321) be= 24 longs to another form and has a different structure factor. There are ~^planes in the first form and 24 planes in the second. This question is discussed more fully by Henry, Lipson, and Wooster: The Interpretation of XRay Diffraction
indices comprise
Photographs (MacMillan).
477
APPENDIX
10
LORENTZPOLARIZATION FACTOR
/l
+ cos 2 29\
2
\ sin 6 cos 6 /
(cont.)
478
APP. 10]
LORENTZPOLARIZATION FACTOR
479
From The Interpretation of XRay Diffraction Photographs, by N. F. M. Henry, H. Lipson, and W. A. Wooster (Macmillan, London, 1951).
APPENDIX
11
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Charge on the electron
(e)
=
=
4.80
9.11
1.67
X
X
10~~
10
esu
Mass
of electron (m)
10~
28 24
gm gm
Mass
of neutron
(c)
=
=
X X
X
10~
10
Velocity of light
3.00
6.62
1.38
10
cm/sec
erg sec
=
(k)
10~
27
Boltzmann's constant
Avogadro's number
= =
=
X
X
10~ 16 erg/A
10
23
(JV)
6.02
1.99
per mol
cal/A/mol
10~~
7
electron volt
1
= =
1.602
12
erg
cal
4.182
10 ergs
kX =
1.00202A
480
APPENDIX
12
1953
bracketed value is the mass number of the isotope of longest known halflife. Because of natural variations in the relative abundance of its isotopes, the atomic weight of sulfur has a range of 0.003.
t
481
APPENDIX
13
etc., in this
in Strukturbericht
to designate certain
common
structural types.)
TABLE A131
THE ELEMENTS
(cont.)
of
an element that
exists (or
is
thought
to exist) in
more than
482
APP. 13]
483
(cont.)
*
Ordinary form
of
an element that
exists (or
is
thought to
exist) in
more than
one form.
484
[APP. 13
(or
is
thought to
exist) in
more than
From Structure of Metals, 2nd edition, by Charles Company, Inc., New York, 1952).
S.
Barrett (McGrawHill
Book
APP. 13]
485
TABLE A132.
APPENDIX
14
predicted theoretically
tally
This was first by de Broglie in 1924 and demonstrated experimenby Davisson and Germer in 1927 (for electrons) and by Von Halban
by a
and Preiswerk
If
in
1936
(for neutrons).
a stream of particles can behave like wave motion, it must have a wavelength associated with it. The theory of wave mechanics indicates that this wavelength is given by the ratio of Planck's constant h to the
momentum
of the particle, or
h
>
mv
where
(1)
If
a stream of parti
a crystal under the proper conditions, diffraction will occur in accordance with the Bragg law just as for xrays, and the directions of diffraction can be predicted by the use of that law and the wavecles is directed at
Both electrons and neutrons have proved to be useful particles for the study of crystalline structure by diffraction and numerous applications of these techniques have been found in metallurgy. The differences between xray, electron, and neutron diffraction by
length calculated from Eq.
(1).
supplement one another to a remarkable degree, each giving a particular kind of information which the
crystals are such that these three techniques
stream of fast electronsjg^btjdned jn a on muchj/hg same^rmcipl^s as an xray tube. Thej5!&vetubgjopgrating^ iength associated with the electrons depends on the a^pjifijj.xo[tage since
diffraction.
.
A142 Electron
is
given by
(2)
m^J=j!^
where
e is
Combination of Eqs.
length
the charge on the electron and D the applied voltage (in esu). (1) and (2) shows the inverse relation between wave
and voltage:
/ISO
\~F
486
A143]
NEUTRON DIFFRACTION
is
487
angstroms and the applied voltage V is in volts. This equasmall relativistic corrections at high voltages, due to the variation requires tion of electron mass with velocity. At an operating voltage of 50,000 volts, the electron wavelength is about 0.05A, or considerably shorter than the
where X
in
wavelength of xrays used in diffraction. The important fact to note about electrons is that they are much less penetrating than xrays. They are easily absorbed by air, which means that the specimen and the photographic plate on which the diffraction pattern is recorded must both be enclosed within the evacuated tube in which
beam is produced. An electrondiffraction "camera" therefore contains source, specimen, and detector all in one apparatus. Another result is that transmission patterns can be made only of specimens so thin as
the electron
to be classified as foils or films,
and
only of a thin surface layer of the specimen, since diffraction occurs over
a depth of only a few hundred angstroms or less. But even these thin layers of material will give good electrondiffraction patterns, since electrons are scattered much more intensely than xrays.
advantage a question of investigating the structure of thin films, foils, and the like. Electron diffraction has been successfully used to study the structures of metal foils, electrodeposits, oxide films on metal, surface layers due to polishing, and metal films deposited by evapoover xray diffraction
These characteristics
when
ration.
A143 Neutron
diffraction.
By making
a chainreacting pile, a beam of neutrons can be obtained. The neutrons in such a beam have kinetic energies extending over a considerable range, but a "monochromatic" beam, i.e., a beam composed of neutrons with a
this single energy, can be obtained by diffraction from a single crystal and is the kinetic If diffracted beam can be used in diffraction experiments.
(3)
v is its velocity.
Combination
of Eqs. (1)
and
(3) gives
_
(4)
The neutrons
much
the same
issuing from a pile have their kinetic energies distributed in way as those of gas molecules in thermal equilibrium; i.e.,
they follow the Maxwell distribution law. The largest fraction of these socalled "thermal neutrons" therefore has kinetic energy equal to kT, where k is Boltzmann's constant and T the absolute temperature. If this
488
fraction
is
[APP. 14
E = kT in
Eq.
(4)
crystal,
then
we can
insert
T is of the
order of 300
of the same ments are performed with a neutron diffractometer, in which the intensity of the beam diffracted by the specimen is measured with a proportional
to 400 A, which means that X is about 1 or 2A, i.e., order of magnitude as xray wavelengths. Diffraction experi
counter
filled
with
BF 3
gas.
between neutron diffraction on the one hand and and electron diffraction on the other lies in the variation of atomic xray 26. scattering power* with atomic number Z and with scattering angle of an atom increases as Z increases and decreases as The scattering power
The main
difference
and
same manner.
at
all
Neutrons, however, are scattered with the same intensity scattering angles and with a fine disregard for atomic number; in
other words, there is no regular variation between scattering power for neutrons and the atomic number of the scatterer. Elements with almost
the same values of Z may have quite different neutronscattering powers and elements with widely separated values of Z may scatter neutrons Furthermore, some light elements scatter neutrons more equally well. than some heavy elements. The following valuesf illustrate how intensely number: irregularly the scattering power for neutrons varies with atomic
Element
~~H C
Al
Fe
Co
Ni
W
U
Cu
It follows that structure analyses can be carried out with neutron diffraction that are impossible, or possible only with great difficulty, with xray
*
This term
is
atom
The "atomic scattering in coherently scattering incident radiation or particles. 2 power" for xrays is evidently proportional to f , the square of the atomic scattering factor.
f Largely from Experimental Nuclear Physics, Vol. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1953.)
2.
Edited by E.
A143]
NEUTRON DIFFRACTION
489
or electron diffraction. In a compound of hydrogen or carbon, for example, with a heavy metal, xrays will not "see" the light hydrogen or carbon atom because of its relatively low scattering power, whereas its position in
the lattice can be determined with ease by neutron diffraction. Neutrons can also distinguish in many cases between elements differing by only one
atomic number, elements which scatter xrays with almost equal intensity; neutron diffraction, for example, shows strong superlattice lines from ordered FeCo, whereas with xrays they are practically
diffraction therefore
invisible.
Neutron
complements way, and the only obstacle to its more widespread application would seem to be
the very small
eral use.
number
APPENDIX
15
very simplicity,
is all
is
phenomena and
that
is
Yet there are diffraction effects applications of xray diffraction. law is totally unable to explain, notably those involving which the Bragg diffuse scattering at nonBragg angles, and these effects demand a more
many
The reciprocal lattice general theory of diffraction for their explanation. the framework for such a theory. This powerful concept was provides introduced into the field of diffraction by the German physicist Ewald in
1921 and has since become an indispensable tool in the solution of
problems.
many
lattice
may
essential features is time well spent, artificial, the time spent in grasping its because the reciprocallattice theory of diffraction, being general, is apthe simplest to the most intriplicable to all diffraction phenomena from
cate. Familiarity with the reciprocal lattice will therefore not only provide the student with the necessary key to complex diffraction effects but will deepen his understanding of even the simplest.
A152 Vector multiplication. Since the reciprocal lattice is best formulated in terms of vectors, we shall first review a few theorems of vector
the multiplication of vector quantities. algebra, namely, those involving
scalar product (or dot product) of two vectors* a and b, written the product of the absolute ab, is a scalar quantity equal in magnitude to the cosine of the angle a between them, or values of the two vectors and
The
ab
ab cos a.
vectors Geometrically, Fig. A151 shows that the scalar product of two the product of the length of one vector and the projecmay be regarded as tion of the other upon the first. If one of the vectors, say a, is a unit vector then ab gives immediately the length of the provector of unit
(a
jection of
b on
a.
sums or
differences of vectors
is
b)(c
d)
(ac)
(ad)
(bc)
(bd).
in italic stands for
Boldface symbols stand for vectors. the absolute value of the vector. 490
A153]
491
a x b
v
FIG. At 51.
vectors.
FIG. A152.
vectors.
The order
of multiplication
is
of
no importance;
b =
b
a.
i.e.,
The
a
product) of two vectors a and b, written plane of a and b, and equal in mag
nitude to the product of the absolute values of the two vectors and the sine of the angle a between them, or
c
c
b,
a.
ab sin
of c is simply the area of the parallelogram constructed suggested by Fig. A152. The direction of c is that in which a righthand screw would move if rotated in such a way as to bring a into b. It follows from this that the direction of the vector product c is reversed if
The magnitude
on a and
b, as
is
reversed, or that
b = (b
a).
Corresponding to any crystal lattice, we can construct a reciprocal lattice, so called because many of its properties are reciprocal to those of the crystal lattice. Let the crystal lattice have a Then the corresponding reunit cell defined by the vectors ai, a 2 and a 3 b where ciprocal lattice has a unit cell defined by the vectors bi, b 2 and a
lattice.
bi
=(a Xa3
2
),
(1)
b2
= =
 (a X
3
i
(2)
ba
Xa
2 ),
(3)
the volume of the crystal unit cell. This way of defining the vecb 2 b 3 in terms of the vectors a 1? a 2 a 3 gives the reciprocal lattice tors bi, certain useful properties which we will now investigate.
and
is
492
Ab;
FIG. A153.
b3
is,
shown in Fig. 153. The recipto Eq. (3), normal to the plane of ai and according
a 2 as shown.
,
by
X
V
a2
OACB)
of cell)
OA CB) (height
OP
of a 3 on b 3 is equal to the height of the cell, which simply the spacing d of the (001) planes of the crystal lattice. Similarly, we find that the reciprocal lattice axes bi and b 2 are normal to the (100) and (010) planes, respectively, of the crystal lattice, and are equal
since
in turn
By
lattice.
extension, similar relations are found for all the planes of the crystal The w^hole reciprocal lattice is built up by repeated translations
.
by the vectors bi, b 2 b 3 This produces an array of points labeled w ith its coordinates in terms of the basic vectors. Thus, the point at the end of the bi vector is labeled 100, that at the end of the b 2 vector 010, etc. This extended reciprocal lattice has the following
of the unit cell
,
each of which
is
properties
(1)
vector
it
point in
tal lattice
H/^ drawn from the origin of the reciprocal lattice to any having coordinates hkl is perpendicular to the plane in the cryswhose Miller indices are hkl. This vector is given in terms of its
+
is
kb 2
f Ib 3
(2)
The length
of the vector
d of the
(hkl) planes, or
A153]
493
1A
I <
020
220
(010)
(110) (100)
v(210)
,200
crystal lattice
reciprocal lattice
FIG. A154.
The
4A.
The
The important
thing to note about these relations is that the reciprocalcompletely describes the crystal, in the sense that
is related to a set of planes in the crystal and represents the orientation and spacing of that set of planes. Before proving these general relations, we might consider particular
examples of the reciprocal lattice as shown in Figs. A154 and A155 for cubic and hexagonal crystals. In each case, the reciprocal lattice is drawn from any convenient origin, not necessarily that of the crystal lattice, and
Note that Eqs. (1) to any convenient scale of reciprocal angstroms. take on a very simple form for any crystal whose unit cell is through (3)
0.25A 1
1A
020
(100)
crystal lattice
reciprocal lattice
220
4A. FIG. A155. The reciprocal lattice of a hexagonal crystal which has ai (Here the threesymbol system of plane indexing is used and as is the axis usually
designated
c.)
The axes
as
to the drawing.
494
[APP. 15
rhombic.
EI,
.
based on mutually perpendicular vectors, i.e., cubic, tetragonal, or orthoFor such crystals, b 1? b 2 and b 3 are parallel, respectively, to
,
, ,
, ,
a 2 and a 3 while 61, 6 2 and 6 3 are simply the reciprocals of ai, a 2 and a 3 In Figs. A154 and A155, four cells of the reciprocal lattice are shown, vectors in each case. By means of the scales shown, together with two
vector is equal in length to the reciprocal of the spacing of the corresponding planes and normal to them. Note that reciprocal lattice points such as n/i, nk, nl, where n is an integer, correspond
it
may
to planes parallel to (hkl) and having 1/n their spacing. perpendicular to (220) planes and therefore parallel to
Thus,
,
H 220
is
HH O
and (220) are parallel, but 220 is twice as long as planes have half the spacing of the (110) planes. Other useful relations between the crystal and reciprocal vectors follow
from Eqs.
a2
,
HH
its
Since b 3 for example, is normal to both ai and (1) through (3). dot product with either one of these vectors is zero, or
,
b 3 ai
= b 3 a 2 =
is
0.
of
b 3 and a 3 however,
,
A 153)
b3
a 3
(6 3 ) (projection of
a 3 on b 3 )
= (^)(OP)
=
In general,
1.
a m b n
1,
if
=
The
0,
if
m m
(4)
n.
(5)
fact that H/^ is normal to (hkl) and Hhki is the reciprocal of be proved as follows. Let ABC of Fig. A156 be part of the plane nearest the origin in the set (hkl).
may
Then, from the definition of Miller indices, the vectors from the origin
to the points A, 5, and
are ai/A,
a 2 /fc, and a 3 /Z, respectively. Consider the vector AB, that is, a vector drawn from A to B, lying in the
plane
(hkl).
Since
+ AB =
k
then
FIG. A156.
ciprocallattice vector
and
cry&tal
plane
(hkl).
A153]
495
AB =
(fcbi
+
(4)
ft> 3 )
we
\k
h/
and
(5),
find
HAB = 11=0.
must be normal to AB. Similarly, it may be Since this product is zero, is normal to AC. Since is normal to two vectors in the shown that
normal to the plane itself. plane To prove the reciprocal relation between and in the direction of H, i.e., normal to (hkl). Then
(hkl), it is
d, let
n be a
unit vector
= ON =
h
n.
But
n =
Therefore
EI
H H
==
H H H
#'
Used purely as a geometrical tool, the reciprocal lattice is of considerable help in the solution of many problems in crystal geometry. Consider, for example, the relation between the planes of a zone and the axis of that zone.
Since the planes of a zone are
all parallel to one line, the zone axis, their norThis means that planes of a zone are represented, by a set of points lying on a plane passing through
the origin of the reciprocal lattice. If the plane (hkl) belongs to the zone whose axis is [uvw], then the normal to (hkl), namely, H, must be perpendicular to [uvw]. Express the zone axis as a vector in the crystal lattice and as a vector in the reciprocal lattice:
Zone
axis
UBL\
H
If these
hbi
+ + + kb 2 +
va.%
fl> 3 .
must be
zero:
0,
496
This
is
[APP. 15
the relation given without proof in Sec. 26. By similar use of such as the reciprocallattice vectors, other problems of crystal geometry, derivation of the planespacing equations given in Appendix 1, may be
greatly simplified.
A154
Diffraction
and the
reciprocal lattice.
The
connection with diffraction problems. reciprocal lattice, however, We shall consider how xrays scattered by the atom at the origin of the other crystal lattice (Fig. A157) are affected by those scattered by any
lies in its
atom
whose coordinates with respect to the where p, q, and r are integers. Thus,
and ra 3
OA =
fracted
,
pai
q& 2
Let the incident xrays have a wavelength X, and let the incident and difbeams be represented by the unit vectors S and S, respectively. S S, and OA are, in general, not coplanar.
To determine the conditions under which diffraction will occur, we must determine the phase difference between the rays scattered by the atoms and A. The lines On and Ov in Fig. A 157 are wave fronts perpendicular to the incident beam S and the diffracted beam S, respectively. Let 6
be the path difference for rays scattered by
5
and A.
Then
+ Av = Om + On
= S
=
= uA
OA+
(S)OA
S
).
OA (SS
)
(S
S
FIG. A157.
and A.
(After Guinier,
XRay
&
A154]
497
by
(6)
Diffraction
(S
now related to the reciprocal lattice as a vector in that lattice. Let )/X
is
SSn
kb 2
form of a vector in reciprocal space but, at this point, no particular significance is attached to the parameters A, fc, and I. They are continuously variable and may assume any values, integral or nonintegral.
This
is
now
in the
Equation
(6)
now becomes
fcb 2
Zb 3 )
ra 3 )
2ir(hp
kq
Ir).
beam will be formed only if reinforcement occurs, and this that be an integral multiple of 2?r. This can happen only if h, fc, requires and I are integers. Therefore the condition for diffraction is that the vector
diffracted
<t>
(S
SS
fcb 2
n> 3
(7)
h, &, and I are now restricted to integral values. Both the Laue equations and the Bragg law can 'be derived from Eq. (7). The former are obtained by forming the dot product of each side of the equation and the three crystallattice vectors EI, a 2 as successively. For
where
example,
or
EI
(S
 S
= =
h\.
(8)
Similarly,
a 2 (S
 S  S
fcX,
(9)
aa(S
ZX.
(10)
498
[APP. 15
Equations
in
through (10) are the vector form of the equations derived 1912 to express the necessary conditions far diffraction.
occur.
They mustHbe satisfied simultaneously for diffraction to As shown in Fig. A157, the vector (S S ) bisects the incident beam S and the diffracted beam S. The
can therefore be considered as being reflected from a set of planes perpendicular to (S states that (S
beam S
 S
).
In fact, Eq.
)
(7)
is
parallel
to
H, which
is
in turn perpendicular to
the planes
(hkl).
Let
be the angle
between S
(or So)
S
2 sin
0.
Therefore
2 sin
sphere of
reflection
S  S
H=
FIG. A158.
tion.
The Ewald
construc
or
= 2d sin 6.
beam
vectors.
The conditions for diffraction expressed by Eq. (7) may be represented graphically by the "Ewald construction" shown in Fig. A158. The vector S /X is drawn parallel to the incident beam and 1/X in length. The terminal point
of this vector
is
lattice,
drawn to the same scale as the vector S /X. A sphere of radius 1/X is drawn about C, the initial point of the incidentbeam vector. Then the
condition for diffraction from the (hkl) planes
reciprocal lattice (point
is
A158) touch the surface of the sphere, and the direction of the diffractedbeam vector S/X is found by joining C
in Fig.
to P.
When
this condition
is
fulfilled,
the vector
OP
equals both
HAH
and (S
So)/X, thus satisfying Eq. (7). Since diffraction depends on a reciprocallattice point's touching the surface of the sphere drawn about " C, this sphere is known as the "sphere of reflection.
Our
all
initial
assumption that
p, g,
and
r are integers
apparently excludes
crystals except those having only one atom per cell, located at the cell corners. For if the unit cell contains more than one atom, then the vector
OA
coordinates.
cell affects
in the crystal
may have
atoms
of these additional
and
only the intensities of the diffracted beams, not their directions, only the diffraction directions which are predicted by the Ewald
construction.
Stated in another way, the reciprocal lattice depends only size of the unit cell of the crystal lattice and not at all
A155]
499
to take
on the arrangement
cell.
If
we wish
atom
arrangement into consideration, we may weight each reciprocallattice 2 point hkl with the appropriate value of the scattering power (= F where F is the structure factor) of the particular (hkl) planes involved.
,
Some
planes
may
reciprocallattice points
from consideration,
points
(h
+ +
k
I)
by the
surface of the sphere of reflection. The radius of the sphere may be varied by varying the incident wavelength (Laue method), or the position of the reciprocal lattice may be varied by changes in the orientation of the crystal
(rotatingcrystal
A156 The
rotatingcrystal
is
As stated
in Sec. 36,
when mono
incident on a single crystal rotated about one of its chromatic radiation axes, the reflected beams lie on the surface of imaginary cones coaxial with
The way
in
which
may
be shown
very nicely by the Ewald construction. Suppose a simple cubic crystal is rotated about the axis [001]. This is equivalent to rotation of the reciprocal lattice
about the bs
axis.
Figure
A 159
shows a portion
of the recipro
rotation axis
of crystal
rotation axis of
reciprocal lattice
and
axis of film
sphere of
reflection
FIG. A159.
500
[APP. 15
by points lying layer") in the reciprocal lattice, normal to b 3 When the reciprocal lattice rotates, this plane cuts the reflection sphere in the small circle shown, and any points on the I = 1 layer which touch the surface must touch it on this circle. Therefore all diffractedbeam
on a plane
(called the "I
sphere vectors S/X must end on this circle, which is equivalent to saying that the diffracted beams must lie on the surface of a cone. In this particular case, all the hkl points shown intersect the surface of the sphere sometime durdiffracted beams shown ing their rotation about the b 3 axis, producing the In addition many hkO and hkl reflections would be proin Fig. A159.
of clarity. duced, but these have been omitted from the drawing for the sake This simple example may suggest how the rotation photograph of a crystal of
unknown structure, and therefore having an unknown reciprocal latcan yield clues as to the distribution in space of reciprocallattice tice, the crystal rotated sucpoints. By taking a number of photographs with about various axes, the crystallographer gradually discovers the cessively
complete distribution of reflecting points.
Once the
because
it is
the crystal
A156 The powder method. The random orientations of the individual rotation of a single crystals in a powder specimen are equivalent to the
lattice therefore takes
The reciprocal crystal about all possible axes during the xray exposure. on all possible orientations relative to the incident
its origin remains fixed at the end of the So/X vector. Consider any point hkl in the reciprocal lattice, initially at PI (Fig. A1510). This point can be brought into a reflecting position on the surface of the reflection sphere by a rotation of the lattice about an axis through and normal to OC, for example. Such a rotation would move PI to P 2
beam, but
But the point hkl can still remain on the surface of the sphere [i.e., reflection will still occur from the same set of planes (hkl)] if the reciprocal lattice is then rotated about the axis OC, since the point hkl will then move
vector sweeps around the small circle P 2 P.3. During this motion, the out a cone whose apex is at 0, and the diffracted beams all lie on the surface of another cone whose apex is at C. The axes of both cones coincide with the incident beam. The number of different hkl reflections obtained on a powder photograph
depends, in part, on the relative magnitudes of the wavelength and the on the relative crystallattice parameters or, in reciprocallattice language, and the reciprocallattice unit cell. To find sizes of the sphere of reflection
the
number
and the
we may regard the reciprocal lattice as incidentbeam vector S /X as rotating about its terminal
of reflections
fixed
point
A156]
501
of
FIG.
A1510.
Formation
of
cone
.
FIG. A1511.
for the
The
limiting sphere
powder method
powder method.
through
all
possible positions.
The
about
the origin of the reciprocal lattice and sweeps out a sphere of radius 2/X, All reciprocallattice points called the "limiting sphere" (Fig. A1511).
and cause
It
is
within the limiting sphere can touch the surface of the reflection sphere reflection to occur.
also a corollary of Eqs. (1) through (3) that the
is
volume
v of
the
of the crystal
unit
cell.
Since there
is
cell of
the reciprocal
is
lattice, the
number
given by
n =
(47r/3)(2/X)
v
327TF
.
(11)
3)r
:
cause a separate reflection some of them may have a zero structure factor, and some may be at equal distances from the reciprocallattice origin, i.e., correspond to planes of the same spacing.
Not
all of
these
n points
will
(The latter
the
effect is
number
of different planes in a
taken care of by the multiplicity factor, since this gives form having the same spacing.) How
ever,
Eq. (11)
may
number of possible reflections. For example, if V = 50A3 and X = 1.54A, then n = 460, If the specimen belongs to the triclinic system, this number will be reduced by a factor of only
will
2,
contain 230 separate diffraction lines! As the powder photograph of the crystal increases, so does the multiplicity factor and the symmetry fraction of reciprocallattice points which have zero structure factor, resulting in a decrease in the
number
of diffraction lines.
same
502
[APF. 15
cause of the continuous range of wavelengths present in the incident beam. Stated alternatively, contact between a fixed reciprocallattice point and the sphere of reflection is produced by continuously varying the radius of
the sphere. There is therefore a whole set of reflection spheres, not just one; each has a different center, but all pass through the origin of the reincident beam is ciprocal lattice. The range of wavelengths present in the
has a sharp lower limit at XSWL, the shortwavebut length limit of the continuous spectrum the upper limit is less definite silver in is often taken as the wavelength of the absorption edge of the the emulsion (0.48A), because the
of course not infinite.
It
;
120 reflection
1410
reflection
continuous spectrum drops abruptly at that wavelength [see Fig. l18(c)]. To these two extreme wavelengths correspond
spheres,
which
is
The
incident
beam
is
along the bi vector, i.e., perpendicular to the (M)0) planes of the crystal. The larger sphere shown is centered
at
wipe
\SWL
reciprocal of XSWL, while the smaller sphere is centered at A and has a radius
FIG.
Al 5~12.
of
Reciprocallattice
treatment
(S
the
Laue
method.
So)
= H.
There is a whole series of spheres lying between these two and centered on the line segment AB. Therefore any reciprocallattice point lying in the shaded region of the diagram is on the surface of one of these spheres and corresponds to a set of crystal planes oriented to reflect one of the incident wavelengths. In the forward direction, for example, a 120 reflection will be produced. To find its direction, we locate a point C on AB which is
and the reciprocallattice point 120; C is equidistant from the origin therefore the center of the reflection sphere passing through the point 120. Joining C to 120 gives the diffractedbeam vector S/X for this reflection.
The
many
backwardreflected
beams, is found in similar fashion; here the reciprocallattice point in question is situated on a reflection sphere centered at D. There is another way of treating the Laue method which is more convenient for
many
purposes.
The
is
A157]
503
(12)
Both sides of this equation are now dimensionless and the radius of the sphere of reflection is simply unity, since S and S are unit vectors. But the position of the reciprocallattice points is now dependent on the wavelength used, since their distance from the origin of the reciprocal lattice
is
In the Laue method, each reciprocallattice point (except 0) is drawn out into a line segment directed to the origin, because of the range of wavelengths present in the incident beam. The result is shown in Fig. A1513,*
which is drawn to correspond to Fig. A1512. The point nearest the origin on each line segment has a value of \H corresponding to the' shortest wavelength present, while the point on the other end has a value of \H corresponding to the longest effective wavelength. Thus the 100 reciprocallattice line extends from A to B, where OA = X mm ^ioo and OB = A max #iooSince the length of any line increases as increases, for a given range of wavelengths, overlapping occurs for the higher orders, as shown by 200, 300, 400, etc. The reflection sphere is drawn with unit radius, and reflection occurs
reciprocallattice line intersects the sphere surface. the advantage of this construction over that of Fig. Alo12 Graphically, is that all diffracted beams are now drawn from the same point C, thus
whenever a
facilitating the
tions.
reflec
This construction also shows why the diffracted beams from planes of a zone are arranged on a cone in the Laue method. All reciprocallattice lines representing the planes of one zone lie on a plane passing through
120 reflection
sphere of reflection
410
reflection
000
100
400
FIG.
A1513.
Alternate
So
= XH.
reciprocallattice
treatment of the
Laue method.
lattice, relative to
In this figure, as well as in Figs. A 15 11 and A1512, the size of the reciprocal the size of the reflection sphere, has been exaggerated for clarity.
504
IAPP. 15
sphere of reflection
FIG. A1514.
The
effect of
lattice.
the origin of the reciprocal lattice. This plane cuts the reflection sphere in circle, and all the diffracted beam vectors S must end on this circle, thus producing a conical array of diffracted beams, the axis of the cone coincid
Another application
problem
of temperature
diffuse scattering will illustrate the general utility of the reciprocallattice method in treating diffuse scattering phenomena. The reciprocal lattice
of
any
crystal
may
whenever the sphere of reflection intersects a point in reciprocal space where the "scattered intensity" is not zero. If the crystal is perfect, the
scattered intensity is concentrated at points in reciprocal space, the points of the reciprocal lattice, and is zero everywhere else. But if anything occurs to disturb the regularity of the crystal lattice, then these points become
smeared out, and appreciable scattered intensity exists in regions of reciprocal space where fe, fr, and / are nonintegral. For example, if the atoms
of the crystal are undergoing thermal vibration, then each point of the reciprocal lattice spreads out into a region which may be considered, to a first approximation, as roughly spherical in shape, as suggested by Fig.
A1514(a). In other words, the thermally produced elastic waves which run through the crystal lattice so disturb the regularity of the atomic vectors end, not on points, but in small planes that the corresponding
spherical regions.
The
it
scattered intensity is not distributed uniformly remains very high at the central point, where A, k,
and
weak and
volume,
A157J
505
What
be the
effect
of
we make
\H, then each volume in the reciprocal lattice will be drawn out into a rod, roughly cylindrical in shape and dirocal lattice equal to
spherical
through the reflection sphere and one such rod. The axis of each rod is a
line of
is
sur
the
reflection
sphere at a
diffracted
reflection.
and produces the strong beam A, the ordinary Laue But on either side of A
scattered rays, extendto C, due to the intersec
FIG.
A1515.
pattern
posure.
showing
there are
ing from
tion,
weak
Aluminum
crystal,
280C,
min
ex
extending from b to c, of the diffuse part of the rod with the sphere In a direction normal to the drawing, however, the diffuse of reflection. rod intersects the sphere in an arc equal only to the rod diameter, which
is
much
be.
streak running radially through the usual sharp, Figure A1515 shows an example of this phenomenon, often called thermal asterism because of the radial direction of the diffuse streaks. This photograph was obtained from aluminum at 280C iri 5 minutes.
Actually, thermal agitation is quite pronounced in aluminum even at room temperature, and thermal asterism is usually evident in overexposed roomtemperature photographs. Even in Fig. 36(a), which was given a normal
exposure of about 15 minutes, radial streaks are faintly visible. In this photograph, there is a streak near the center which does not pass through any Laue spot it is due to a reciprocallattice rod so nearly tangent to the reflection sphere that the latter intersects only the diffuse part of the rod and not its axis.
latter
:
CHAPTER
11. 4.22
15. 4
X lOlrtsec17. cmVgm
1
1
,
2.79
10~ 8
erg;
1.95
(a) 30.2
cm 2 /gm,
0.55
3.88
1.29
10~ 8 erg
118.
111. 1.54A
114. 0.000539
in.,
20
ma
3.28 to
CHAPTER
27.
2
211. Shear
61
section
on
(T210)
(6)
will
show
(r)
this
strain
0.707
214. (a)
19S,
27S, 48E;
39S,
219.
42N, 26E;
CHAPTER
31. 8.929
gm/cm
33. 63.5
t
35.
B
0.11
SB
10
1000A
750 500 250
0.31
45 80
0.43
1.76
CHAPTER
43.
F2 =
2
for
mixed
k
indices;
/)
F2 =
for (h
of 2;
+

I)
an odd multiple
2
of 2;
F*
64/r for (h
an even multiple
F~
32/r
for (h
I)
odd.
45.
2k
F2
. .
3n 3n 3n 3n 3n 3n db
2p
(as
1, 3, 5,
.
.
7
.)
.)
8p(as8, 10,24
4(2/>
4(fZn
+
2 2
fs)
2
2(2p
1
1
+ +
1
1)
2S
.
.)
4(fZn 4(/Zn
3(/Zn
.
/s)
2
)
8p
4(2p
8;;
.)
.)
.
3nl 3n db 3nl
+
+ +
d=
.)
3(fZn
(/2n
2
+ /s + /s + fs +
2 2
2 2
(/Znf/s)
1) l)
4(2p
2(2p
fs)
2
)
(/zn
+/s
Line
1
hkl
Gale. Int.
110
10.0
2
3 4
410. Ill and 200.
200
211
17
3.3
1.1
1.
220
ratio
is
The
2100 to
506
507
CHAPTER
61. 0.67
(6) third
5
53. (a) Third, fourth
cm
cm
for (200)
and
fifth;
and fourth.
CHAPTER
61. 38 minutes
63.
AS
A20
(c)
12.3
cm
67. 1.58 to
CHAPTER
71. 0.44 74. (a) 1.14 (Co) to
1
81.
wise, looking
to
plane
is
83. 26 about beam axis, clockfrom crystal to xray source; 3 about EW, clockwise, looking from 86. Habit 9 about NS, counterclockwise, looking from N to S 69E; 60S, 46W. 26N, 14W; 14S, 100}
.
CHAPTER
91. 45,000 psi
listed in the order in
9
95. (6) 0.11, 0.18, 0.28,
93. Diffractometer
and
0.43,
CHAPTER
10
101. Ill, 200, 220, 311, 222, 400, 331, 420, 422, and 511 (333); a = 4.05A 106. Ill, 220, 311, 400, 331, 422, 511 (333), 104. 100, 002, 101, 102, 110 108. 100, 002, 101, 102, 110, 103, 440. Diamond cubic; a = 5.4A; silicon.
200, 112.
Hexagonal closepacked; a
3.2A,
5.2A; magnesium.
CHAPTER
111.
11
=bl.7C
113. 4.997A
115.
Near 6
30
CHAPTER
121.
12
0.0002A
CHAPTER
132. 0.0015
13
508
CHAPTER
141.
14
145. 12.5
BaS
143. Mixture
of
Ni and NiO
volume percent
austenite
CHAPTER
161. (a)
15
(NaCl).
1.05
A20 = 1.75
inadequate,
(mica), 1.20
(6)
(LiF), 0.81
quate,
NaCi
A20 =1.41
(mica),
CHAPTER
161. 2.20
16
mg/cm
163. 0.00147
in.
CHAPTER
171. dblSOOpsi
17
INDEX
Absorption of xrays, 10
Balanced
filters,
211
S.,
Absorption analysis
ysis
(see
Chemical anal10, 11
BARRETT, CHARLES
454
by absorption)
Absorption edges,
table,
464
456
82,
84
Absorption factor, DebyeScherrer, 129 diffractometer, 189 for reflection from flat plate, 189
for transmission through flat plate,
31
Broad
lines,
measurement
of,
447
287
Bunn
chart, 309
342
on powder pat
314
Characteristic radiation, 6
474
table,
Atomic weights,
481
Atom AuBe
sizes,
52
wavelength table, 464 Chemical analysis by absorption, 423 absorptionedge method, 424 direct method, monochromatic, 427 polychromatic, 429 Chemical analysis by diffraction, 378
qualitative, 379
structure, 49
in,
AuCu, ordering
AuCus, ordering
370 363
in,
Background
166
radiation,
powder method,
333
Backreflection
Backreflection
333
semifocusing, 443
urement, 388
509
510
Choice of radiation, 165 CLARK, GEORGE L., 455
Clustering, 375
INDEX
DebyeScherrer method (continued) film loading, 154
intensity equation, 132
Coating thickness, 421 COCHRAN, W., 456 COHEN, M. U., 338 Cohen's method, 338
for cubic substances, 339
for noncubic substances, 342 Coherent scattering, 105, 111 Cold work, 263
specimen preparation, 153 DECKER, B. F., 285 Defect structures, 317, 353
Depth
23
131
Diamond
structure, 48
of,
Compton Compton
effect,
107
modified radiation, 108, 111 Conservation of diffracted energy, 131 Continuous spectrum, 4
Laue
COOLIDGE,
W.
D., 17
method, 502 powder method, 500 rotatingcrystal method, 499 Diffraction lines, extraneous, 299 Diffraction methods, 89
Diffractometer, 96
201
(see
334
Countingrate meter
Ratemeter)
specimen preparation, 182 use in determining crystal orientation, 237 Diffusion studies, by absorption measurements, 428
compounds,
table,
31
CsCl
structure, 47
in,
CuZn, ordering
369
333 DebyeScherrer method, 326 diffractometer method, 334 pinhole method, 333
random, 332
in ratemeter in sealer
INDEX
EWALD, P. P., 490 Ewatd construction, 498
Excitation voltage, 7 Extinction, 399
511
Extrapolation
DebyeScherrer method, 329, 330 diffractometer method, 334 pinhole method, 330
Facecentered cubic structure, 43
Ferrite, 51
IBM
386
Incoherent scattering, 108, 111 Indexing powder patterns, cubic crystals, 301
Film
(see
Filters,
Photographic film) 16
measurement with
Chemical anal
sealer,
205
by
fluorescence)
powder pattern
lines, in
Focal spot, 22
CdTe, 320
Form,
37, 41
series,
copper, 133
Fourier
319
ZnS
200
72
equations, 460
Interstitial solid solutions, 51, 351
General Electric Co., 179, 409 Goniometer, 143 Grain growth, 266
Grain
JAMES,
ty.
W., 456
Keysort diffraction data cards, 385 KLUG, HAROLD P., 455 kX u" t, 87
;
HANAWALT,
J.
D., 379
Lattice,
29
Lattice parameters, 30
512
INDEX
Multiple
excitation
(in
fluorescence),
416
Multiplicity factor, 124
table,
333
with DebyeScherrer camera, 326 with diffractometer, 334
477
NaCl
structure, 47
Neutron
487
Nonprimitive
179,
417
215
1
Optimum specimen
38
parameter, 366
thickness, 164
experimental technique,
transmission, 89, 229
of,
335
AuCu, 370
in
AuCu 3
363
in
CuZn, 369
due to nonuniform strain, 264 LIPSON, H., 456 Longrange order, 363 Longrange order parameter, 366 LONSDALE, KATHLEEN, 455
Lorentz factor, 124
Lorentzpolarization factor, 128
table,
by backreflection Laue method, 215 by diffractometer method, 237 by transmission Laue method, 229
Parametric method, 356 Particle size, 261
Particlesize broadening, 9799,
478
is
262
when monochromator
used, 172
PEISER, H. S., 455 Penetration depth (xrays), 269 Phase diagrams, determination of, 345
Photoelectrons, 12, 111
Photographic
film,
24
MILLER, W. H., 38
MillerBravais indices, 40 Miller indices, 38
333
Monitors, 206
Monochromators
chromators)
(see
Crystal
mono
measurement, 333 under semifocdsing conditions, 443 for stress measurement, 441 for texture determination, 276, 280 Planespacing equations, table, 459
for parameter
Plastic
on Laue
INDEX
Plastic deformation (continued)
effect
513
202
Sealers, 179,
errors,
204
Point
lattice,
205
used, 172
when monochromator
Pole figure, 274
SCHERRER,
P.,
149
Polycrystalline aggregates, 259 crystal orientation, 272 crystal perfection, 263 crystal size, 259 Polygonization, 249, 266 Powder method, 93, 149, 500
240
5
Primitive
cells, 33,
Principal stresses,
36 436
Shortwavelength
limit,
SIEGBAHN, M.,
(sin
2
,
9,
86
0)/X values,
table,
472 469
254
243
Quadratic forms of Miller indices, tabk, 471 Quartz, determination in dust, 398
Sodium
351
Radiography,
Random
352 xray scattering from, 367, 376 Ratemeter, 179, 206 calibration, 210 errors, 208 Rational indices, law of, 54 Reciprocal lattice, 454, 490
solid solution, 50,
Seller
Recovery, 266
Recrystallization, 250, 266
Residual
stress, 263, 431 in weldments, 432, 453 Resolving power, for plane
spacings,
Specimen preparation, DebyeScherrer method, 153 diffractometer method, 182 Spectrometer, 85 automatic, 417 curved reflecting crystal, 409 curved transmitting crystal, 409 flat crystal, 407 Sphere of reflection, 498 SPROULL, WAYNE T., 456
Standard projections, 71,
73,
74
Stereographic projection, 60
Laue, 227
for transmission Laue, 235
211
436
514
Stress
INDEX
measurement
(continued)
Uranium
structure,
46
434
when lines are broad, 447 Structure factor, 116 of BCC element, 119
of
B.,
456
table,
FCC
of of
of
HCP
ZnS
464
NaCl, 121
WEVER,
F.,
of,
387
Symmetry
table,
elements, 34
WYCKOPP, RALPH W.
Xrays, absorption characteristic, 6
continuous, 4
of,
G., 458
35
10
TAYLOR,
A.,
456
of,
269
production
of,
17
method, 276
Thomson equation, 107 Time constant, 207 Time width of slit, 210
TIPPEL, T. L., 455 Torsion, 244
by random
solid solutions,
367
Transmission Laue camera, 1 38 Transmission Laue method, 89 for crystal orientation, 229
Twinned
250
crystals,
75
rotatinganode type, 23
X unit,
87
L.,
YUDOWITCH, KENNETH
457
ZnS
Unit
cell,
(zincblende) structure, 49
29 460
Zone, 41
Zone law,
41,
495