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8/30/2011

RGIPT APPLICATIONS OF BIOGAS
RGIPT
APPLICATIONS OF BIOGAS

GROUP MEMBERS:-| RAJAT GUPTA(M-10-25), SWARBHANU HANDIQUE(M-10-32), UDIT AGARWAL(M-10-33)

Table of Contents

Cooking

  • 1. ...............................................................................................................................................

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  • 2. Lighting................................................................................................................................................

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Fuel for

  • 3. engine.....................................................................................................................................

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  • a) Gasoline Engine

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  • b) Diesel Engine

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  • c) Gas on Electric Power

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  • 4. Electricity generation ...........................................................................................................................

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Applications of Bio Gas

  • 1. Cooking

A cooker is more than just a burner. It must satisfy certain aesthetic and utility requirements, which can vary widely from region to region. Thus, there is no such thing as an allround biogas burner. Most households prefer two-flame burners. The burners should be set initially and then fixed. Efficiency will then remain at a high practical level. Single-flame and lightweight cook-stoves tend to be regarded as stop- gap solutions until more suitable alternatives can be afforded.

Biogas cookers require purposeful installation with adequate protection. Before any cooker is used, the burner must be carefully adjusted. Test measurements should be performed to optimize the burner setting and minimize consumption.

Biogas burner or stoves work satisfactorily for domestic cooking under water pressure of 75 to 85 mm. The stoves may be single or double burners varying in capacity from 0.22 to 1.10 m 3 . of gas consumption per hour. Generally, stoves of 0.22 and 0.44 m 3 . (8 and 16 ft 3 .) capacities are more popular. A 1.10 m. (40 ft 3 .) burner is recommended for a bigger family. The gas demand can be defined on the basis of energy consumed previously.

  • 2. Lighting

Biogas can be used for lighting in non-electrified rural areas. Special types of gauze mantle lamps consuming around 0.07 to 0.14 m 3 . of gas per hour are used for household lighting. Several companies in India manufacture a great variety of lamps which have single or double mantles. Generally, mantle lamp is used for indoor purposes and 2-mantle lamps for outdoors. Such lamps emit clear and bright light equivalent to 40 to 100 candle powers. These are generally strong, well built, bright, efficient and easy to adjust. Compared to stoves, Lamps are more difficult to operate and maintain. Different types of lamps are in use in China. They are simple in operation and easy to manufacture and are low priced. In remote places, clay lamps that do not need much skill to manufacture are still being used by Chinese farmers.

There is a big demand for biogas in non-electrified rural areas. Luminosity is equivalent to 60 watt if 0.11 - 0.15 m 3 per hour of biogas is consumed by common gas lamp.

3. Fuel for engine

Biogas is a combustible gas and can be used as fuel for engine as well as cooking and lighting. The ignition point of biogas is about 800 0 C. Its combustion is smokeless and pollution free, with anti detonation which is an important feature, especially when the biogas contains about 30% CO2. Besides, the mixture of CH4 and air has a wide combustible range and favors condition for forming a mixed gas. Intenal combustion engine run with biogas can provide the same power as that operated with conventional fuel which gives a lot of convenience to fitting system. The materials for combustion engine are locally available and the production of biogas fermentation can save a lot of fossil fuels with consequent economic benefits.

The internal combustion engine has generally a four stroke engine, i.e. intake, compression, power stroke and exhaust.

  • a) Gasoline Engine

Only a biogas air mixer is required to be installed just preceding the carburetor for a four stroke engine. But biogas cannot directly be used for a two-stroke gasoline engine. This type of internal combustion engine needs, lubrication supplied by engine oil and fuel. If biogas is used for petrol, this lubrication does not work which could damage the engine. Because of proliferation of automotive in the world, it seems to be relatively easy to get second hand gasoline car engine so it is quite suitable to modify for biogas.

  • Modification of intake: The main modification of the intake is to provide the biogas after the air filter in the inlet pipe. The procedure to convert the intake system for biogas is mainly to install an extra mixing device at the rear at the air filter. This mixer consists of a manual valve and controlling gas intake and T shape pipe.
    For small engines than 10 hp, it is sometimes advantageous to provide plastic bag near the gas inlet so that the engine can siphon in the gas easily.
    For starling purposes it is important that the supplied amount at gas must be greater than that at the normal operation. Alter starting and warming up, the

flow of gas must be reduced and controlled by means at a gas tap. It is

flow of gas must be reduced and controlled by means at a gas tap. It is often easier to start the engine with gasoline and then gradually change to biogas. Maintenance tends to be lower when gas is used as a fuel. Valves, plugs. etc remain clear and the sump oil needs less frequent changing. The engine tends to run a bit hotter and the cooling system must be in good condition.

b) Diesel Engine

Because of high thermal efficiency and economy, diesel engines are popular and this engine can also be modified to biogas engine. This engine is usually compression ignition type and does not have spark ignition part. Temperature in a cylinder under pressure stroke is 600 - 700°C and this temperature is not enough to ignite biogas naturally. Therefore diesel is inevitable for ignition even after modification to biogas engine. The way to convert the intake system for biogas is the same as the case of gasoline engine.

c) Gas on Electric Power

Generating electricity is a much more efficient use of gas than using gas for lighting. To generate 1 kWh. of electricity, 0.7 m 3 . of biogas is required. This would be sufficient for 10 electric bulbs, 60 walls each for one hour. The same .7 m 3 of gas would only be sufficient for 5 gas lamps, each of 100 foot- candle power, which is equivalent to 60 watts of electric bulbs. Fittings of electric bulb costs less and is cheaper to maintain than biogas lamps. The disadvantage is the high cost of the engine and the generator and distribution wires.

4. Electricity generation

Generating electricity is much more efficient use of biogas than using it for gas light. From energy utilization point of view, it is more economical to use biogas to generate electricity for lighting. In this process, the gas consumption is about 0.75 m 3 per kW hour with which 25x40-watt lamps can be lighted for one hour, whereas the same volume of biogas can serve only seven lamps for one hour (BRTC 1983). Generating electricity is a much more efficient use of gas than using gas for lighting. To generate 1 kWh of electricity, 0.7 m 3 of biogas is required. This would be sufficient for 10 electric bulbs, 60 watts each for one hour. The same 0.7 m 3 of gas would only be sufficient for 5 gas lamps, each of 100 footcandle power which is equivalent to 60 watts of electric bulb. A fitting of electric bulb cost less and is cheaper to maintain than biogas lamps. The disadvantage is the high cost of engine and generator and the distribution wires.