Steam

The mist formed when the gas or vapor from boiling water condenses in the air.  the gas or vapour into which water is changed when boiled  the hot wet substance like a thin cloud that is produced whenwat er is heated  Steam is the gas formed when water passes from the liquid to the gaseous state

Dry And Wet Steam
In steam-using industries, two commonly referred to types of steam are dry steam (also called ”saturated steam”) and wet steam.
• •

Dry steam applies to steam when all its water molecules remain in the gaseous state. It's a transparent gas. Wet steam applies to steam when a portion of its water molecules have given up their energy (latent heat) and condense to form tiny water droplets.

Types of Steam
If water is heated beyond the boiling point, it vaporizes into steam, or water in the gaseous state. However, not all steam is the same. The properties of steam vary greatly depending on the pressure and temperature to which it is subject

Pressure-Temperature Relationship of Water & Steam

Department Of Textile Engineering

6

clean. and low-cost Department Of Textile Engineering 6 . until the boiling point. enabling reduced initial equipment outlay Safe. If this steam is then further heated above the saturation point. particularly at temperatures of 100 °C (212°F) and higher. Advantages of using saturated steam for heating Industries normally use saturated steam for heating. drying or other procedures Saturated steam has many properties that make it an excellent heat source. cooking. cold water gets warmer and receives energy in the form of “sensible heat”. it becomes superheated steam (sensible heating). Saturated steam Saturated (dry) steam results when water is heated to the boiling point (sensible heating) and then vaporized with additional heat (latent heating In a boiler. Some of these are: Property Advantage Rapid. even heating through latent heat transfer Pressure can control temperature High heat transfer coefficient Originates from water Improved product quality and productivity Temperature can be quickly and precisely established Smaller required heat transfer surface area. As indicated by the black line in the above graph Saturated steam occurs at temperatures and pressures when the rate of water vaporization is equal to the rate of condensation. energy from the fuel is transfered to liquid water in order to create steam.Saturated (dry) steam results when water is heated to the boiling point (sensible heating) and then vaporized with additional heat (latent heating). At first.

Advantages of using superheated steam to drive turbines  Superheated steam is used almost exclusively for turbines. and is not typically used for heat transfer applications.1472°F) at atmospheric pressure is particularly easy to handle. even vacuum.g. otherwise the temperature will drop as even at constant pressure Superheated steam needs to maintain a high heat is lost from the system Department Of Textile Engineering 6 .Superheated Steam Superheated steam is created by further heating wet or saturated steam beyond the saturated steam point.  To maintain the dryness of the steam for steam-driven equipment. This yields steam that has a higher temperature and lower density than saturated steam at the same pressure. e. and is used in the household steam ovens seen on the market today. whose performance is impaired by the presence of condensate  To improve thermal efficiency and work capability. Superheated steam is mainly used in propulsion/drive applications such as turbines. to achieve larger changes in specific volume from the superheated state to lower pressures. Superheated steam heated to 200 – 800°C (392 . Disadvantages of using superheated steam for heating Property Low heat transfer coefficient Disadvantage Reduced productivity Larger heat transfer surface area needed Variable steam temperature velocity.

Even the best boilers may discharge steam containing 3% to 5% wetness Principal Applications for Steam Some typical applications for steam in industry        Heating/Sterilization Propulsion/Drive Motive Atomization Cleaning Moisturization Humidification STEAM OF HEATING Positive Pressure Steam Steam is typically generated and distributed at a positive pressure.Property Sensible heat used to transfer heat Temperature may be extremely high Disadvantage Temperature drops can have a negative impact on product quality Stronger materials of construction may be needed. When steam is generated using a boiler. STEAM FOR PROPULSION/DRIVE Department Of Textile Engineering 6 . requiring higher initial equipment outlay Wet Steam This is the most common form of steam actually experienced by most plants. it usually contains wetness from non-vaporized water molecules that are carried over into the distributed steam. this means that it is supplied to equipment at high pressures and temperatures higher than 100°C (212°F). In most cases.

Steam boilers and generators that use fuel oil will use this method to break up the viscous oil into smaller droplets to allow for more efficient combustion. There are some thermal electric power plants that use 25 MPa abs (3625 psia). The steam turbine is a piece of equipment that is essential for the generation of electricity in thermal electric power plants. They are also used for continuous removal of air from surface condensers.Steam is regularly used for propulsion (as a driving force) in applications such as steam turbines. and reliability. progress is being made toward the use of steam at ever-higher pressures and temperatures. 610°C (1130°F) superheated. STEAM FOR MOISTURIZATION Department Of Textile Engineering 6 . supercritical pressure steam in their turbines STEAM AS MOTIVE FLUID Steam can also be used as a direct "motive" force to move liquid and gas streams in piping. efficiency. Steam jet ejectors are used to pull vacuum on process equipment such as distillation towers to separate and purify process vapor streams. Boilers that use oil or coal as the fuel source must be equipped with soot blowers for cyclic cleaning of the furnace walls and removing combusted deposits from convection surfaces to maintain boiler capacity. STEAM FOR ATOMIZATION Steam atomization is a process where steam is used to mechanically separate a fluid. STEAM FOR CLEANING Steam is used to clean a wide range of surfaces. In an effort to improve efficiency. One such example from industry is the use of steam in soot blowers. in order to maintain desired vacuum pressure on condensing (vacuum) turbines.

use low pressure saturated steam as the predominant heat source for indoor seasonal heating. are the equipment used for conditioning the air for indoor comfort. For example. Often mills that produce animal feed in pellet form use direct-injected steam to both heat and provide additional water content to the feed material in the conditioner section of the mill. preservation of books and records. steam is used for moisturization in the production of paper. HVAC coils. STEAM FOR HUMIDIFICATION Many large commercial and industrial facilities. Steam Humidifier in Air Duct Department Of Textile Engineering 6 . and infection control Steam is used to humidify air within an air duct before the air is distributed to other regions of a building. often combined with steam humidifiers. Another example is pellet mills.Steam is sometimes used to add moisture to a process while at the same time supplying heat. especially in colder climates. so that paper moving over rolls at high speed does not suffer microscopic breaks or tears.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful