Millennium Development Goals - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that all 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. They include eradicating extreme poverty, reducing child mortality rates, fighting disease epidemics such as AIDS, and developing a global partnership for development.[1]
The Millennium Development Goals are a UN initiative.

1 Background 1.1 Ideas behind the MDG 2 Goals 2.1 Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2.2 Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education 2.3 Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women 2.4 Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rates 2.5 Goal 5: Improve maternal health 2.6 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 2.7 Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability 2.8 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development 3 Debate surrounding the MDGs 4 Progress 5 Review Summit 2010 6 Challenges 6.1 Controversy over funding of 0.7% of GNI 7 Related organizations 7.1 MDG related projects 7.1.1 Accessing Development Education 7.1.2 TeachMDGs 7.1.3 UN Goals 8 See also 9 References 10 External links 10.1 United Nations 10.2 Others

The aim of the MDGs is to encourage development by improving social and economic conditions in the world's poorest countries. They derive from earlier international development targets,[2] and were officially established
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and preserving the environment. human rights and protection of the vulnerable. and increasing social.[4][5] The Millennium Declaration was. For the infrastructure focus. then UN Secretary General Kofi Annan saw the need to address the range of development issues. tuberculosis and malaria. with the majority of the focus going towards increasing basic standards of living.[8] The objectives chosen within the human capital focus include improving nutrition. The Declaration asserts that every individual has the right to dignity. amplifying farm outputs through sustainable practices. improving transportation infrastructure. healthcare (including reducing levels of child mortality. On the side of the OECD.000 non-governmental and civil society organisations from more than 100 countries. reducing violence. equality.[3] Additional input was prepared by the Millennium Forum. increasing political voice. the objectives include improving infrastructure through increasing access to safe drinking water. By this time. human rights. In the area of peace and security. The Millennium Summit was presented with the report of the SecretaryGeneral entitled ‘We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the Twenty-First Century’. economic and political rights. improving infrastructure. Most of this improvement has occurred in East and South Asia. which brought together representatives of over 1. The setting came about through a series of UN-led conferences in the 1990s focusing on issues such as following the Millennium Summit in 2000. economic and political rights focus. It came about from not just the UN but also the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). the objectives include empowering women. the OECD had already formed its International Development Goals (IDGs) and it was combined with the UN's efforts in the World Bank's 2001 meeting to form the MDGs. and increasing reproductive health).[citation needed] Ideas behind the MDG The MDGs originated from the Millennium Declaration produced by the United Nations.[6][7] The percentage of the world's population living in extreme poverty has halved since 1981. This led to his report titled. energy and modern information/communication technology. HIV/AIDS. Summit environmental protection.Wikipedia.Millennium Development Goals . ensuring equal access to public services. The MDGs focus on three major areas of Human development (humanity): bolstering human capital. Lastly. and education. where all world leaders present adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration. for the social. nutrition. women and others.wikipedia. and 2 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . The Forum met in May 2000 to conclude a two-year Heads of State at the Millennium consultation process covering issues such as poverty eradication. With the onset of the UN's 50th anniversary.[4] The MDGs were made to operationalize these ideas by setting targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration on a set fifteen-year timeline. the adoption of the Brahimi Report was seen as properly equipping the organization to carry out the mandates given by the Security Council. The approval of the MDGs was possibly the main outcome of the Millennium Summit. freedom. We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century which led to the Millennium Declaration. a basic standard of living that includes freedom from hunger and violence. and encourages tolerance and solidarity. there was a criticism of the fall of global Official Development Assistance (ODA) by major donors. the free encyclopedia http://en. the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The graph shows estimates and projections from the World Bank 1981–2009. only part of the origins of the MDGs. however.

Millennium Development Goals .Wikipedia. There are eight goals with 21 targets. The MDGs were developed out of the eight chapters of the United Nations.[8] The MDGs emphasize that individual policies needed to achieve these goals should be tailored to individual country’s needs. female and male[14] Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005.[8] The MDGs also emphasize the role of developed countries in aiding developing countries. debt relief for developing nations. secondary and tertiary education Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament[15] Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rates 3 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . therefore most policy suggestions are general.[10] and a series of measurable indicators for each target. as outlined in Goal increasing security of property rights.wikipedia. girls and boys Enrollment in primary education Completion of primary education Literacy of 15-24 year olds. but as a partner in the developing-developed compact to reduce world poverty. and Young People GDP Growth per Employed Person Employment Rate Proportion of employed population below $1 per day (PPP values) Proportion of family-based workers in employed population Target 1C: Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption[13] Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Target 2A: By 2015. Goal Eight sets objectives and targets for developed countries to achieve a “global partnership for development” by supporting fair trade. and at all levels by 2015 Ratios of girls to boys in primary.[11][12] Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1A: Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day Proportion of population below $1 per day (PPP values) Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Target 1B: Achieve Decent Employment for Women.[8][9] Thus developing nations are not seen as left to achieve the MDGs on their own. Men. signed in September 2000. the free encyclopedia http://en. and encouraging technology transfer. The goals chosen were intended to increase an individual’s human capabilities and “advance the means to a productive life”. all children can complete a full course of primary schooling. increasing aid and access to affordable essential medicines.

and other diseases Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS HIV prevalence among population aged 15–24 years Condom use at last high-risk sex Proportion of population aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS Target 6B: Achieve.wikipedia.Wikipedia. universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course)[18] Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds. a significant reduction in the rate of loss Proportion of land area covered by forest CO2 emissions. per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) Consumption of ozone-depleting substances Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits Proportion of total water resources used Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected Proportion of species threatened with extinction Target 7C: Halve. achieving. between 1990 and 2015. by 2015. the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (for more information see the entry on water supply) 4 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . reverse loss of environmental resources Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss. total. by 2015. the maternal mortality ratio Maternal mortality ratio Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel Target 5B: Achieve.Millennium Development Goals . the under-five mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Infant (under 1) mortality rate Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles[16] Goal 5: Improve maternal health Target 5A: Reduce by three quarters. malaria. universal access to reproductive health Contraceptive prevalence rate Adolescent birth rate Antenatal care coverage Unmet need for family planning[17] Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. between 1990 and 2015. by 2010. the free encyclopedia http://en. by 2010.

Africa. non-discriminatory trading and financial system Includes a commitment to good governance. nutrition. urban and rural Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation Target 7D: By 2020. enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt. as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ GNI Proportion of total sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education. the free encyclopedia http://en. total and to LDCs. rule-based. admitted free of duty Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Debt sustainability: Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative.Millennium Development Goals . Official development assistance (ODA): Net Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source. landlocked developing countries and small island developing States. and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally Target 8B: Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Includes: tariff and quota free access for LDC exports. essential drugs in developing countries Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis Target 8F: In co-operation with the private sector.wikipedia. and more generous ODA (Overseas Development Assistance) for countries committed to poverty reduction Target 8C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States Through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs). to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers Proportion of urban population living in slums[19] Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Target 8A: Develop further an open. provide access to affordable. US$ Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services Target 8E: In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies. development. predictable. primary health care. make available the benefits of new 5 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . safe water and sanitation) Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs Market access: Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs.

[21] Furthermore. it is impossible to determine if progress has been made toward the goals. to include gender and reproductive rights. as well as more progress made.[5] Prioritizing interventions helps developing countries with limited resources make decisions about where to allocate their resources through which public policies. which waste limited technologies. The MDGs also lack an emphasis on sustainability.[22] It is further argued that for difficult to measure goals. an Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in Law.wikipedia. malaria. environmental sustainability and spread of technology.[21] Household surveys are often used by the UN organisations to estimate data for the health MDGs. and tuberculosis often have the least amount of reliable data collection.Millennium Development Goals .[21] These surveys have been argued to be poor measurements of the data they are trying to collect. and even just basic health and education.[5] Thus. establishing obtainable objectives with operationalized measurements of progress (though the data needed to measure progress is difficult to obtain). and it is wrong to assume that all MDGs are doomed to fail due to lack of data. and tuberculosis are in practice impossible to measure and that current UN estimates do not have scientifically validity or are missing. prioritizing interventions. that there is still validity in setting goals as they provide a political and operational framework to achieving the goals. they do not capture all elements needed to achieve the ideals set out in the Millennium Declaration.Wikipedia. With an increase in the quantity and quality of healthcare systems in developing countries.[5] The joint 6 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . countries with the highest levels of maternal mortality. especially information and communications Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population Personal computers in use per 100 population Internet users per 100 Population[20] Drawbacks of the MDGs include the lack of analytical power and justification behind the chosen objectives. best practices have be identified and their implication is measurable as well as their positive effects on progress. making their future after 2015 questionable.[22] Lastly the MDGs bring attention to measurements of wellbeing beyond income.[21] Proponents for the MDGs argue that while some goals are difficult to measure.[21] Attaran argues that without accurate measures of past and current data for the health related MDGs.[5] The MDGs are also argued to help the human development by providing a measurement of human development that is not based solely on income. and encourage the flow of aid and information sharing. such as the lack of strong objectives and indicators for equality. more data will be collected.[22] They also assert that non-health related MDGs are often well measured.[5] The MDGs also strengthen the commitment of developed countries to helping developing countries.[4][5] The MDGs also lack a focus on local participation and empowerment (excluding women’s empowerment) [Deneulin & Shahani 2009]. and this attention alone helps bring funding to achieving these goals. Population Health.[5][23] The measurement of human development in the MDGs goes beyond income. leaving the MDGs as little more than a rhetorical call to arms. malaria. while the MDGs are a tool for tracking progress toward basic poverty reduction and provide a very basic policy road map to achieving these goals. and many different organisations have redundant surveys. argues that goals related to maternal mortality. Amir Attaran.[5] The MDGs leave out important ideals. and increasing the developed world’s involvement in worldwide poverty reduction. which is considered by many scholars to be a major flaw of the MDGs due to the disparities of progress towards poverty reduction between groups within nations.[4] Another criticism of the MDGs is the difficulty or lack of measurements for some of the goals. and Global Development Policy at University of Ottawa. the free encyclopedia http://en.

[32] While the World Bank and ADB limit MDRI to countries that complete the HIPC program.Millennium Development Goals .wikipedia. namely gender. the divide between the humanitarian and development agendas and economic growth. the free encyclopedia http://en. such as the Sub-Saharan Africa regions have yet to make any drastic changes in improving their quality of life. the IMF's MDRI eligibility criteria are slightly less restrictive so as to comply with the IMF's unique "uniform treatment" requirement. Instead of limiting eligibility to HIPC countries. In the case of MDG 4. Some countries have achieved many of the goals. and the ADB each endorsed the Gleaneagles plan and implemented the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) to effectuate the debt cancellations. To accelerate progress towards the MDGs. the Sub-Saharan Africa reduced their poverty about one percent. The Commitment to Development Index.[25] The major countries that have been achieving their goals include China (whose poverty population has reduced from 452 million to 278 million) and India due to clear internal and external factors of population and economic responsibility of developing and developed nations for achieving the MDGs increases the likelihood of their success.[24] while others are not on track to realize any. the IMF. areas needing the most reduction.[32] Backed by G-8 funding.[31] It is a more comprehensive measure of donor progress than simply Official Development Assistance as it takes into account policies on a number of indicators that affect developing countries such as trade. the World Bank. The MDRI supplements HIPC by providing each country that reaches the HIPC completion point 100% forgiveness of its multilateral debt.[30] Goal 8 of the MDGs is unique in the sense that it focuses on donor government commitments and achievements.Wikipedia. according to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute. and are at a major risk of not meeting the MDGs by 2015. migration.[27][28][29] Achieving the MDGs does not depend on economic growth alone and expensive solutions. the International Monetary Fund. any country with annual per capita income of $380 or less qualifies for MDRI debt cancellation. which is reinforced by their 189-country support (the MDGs are the most broadly supported poverty reduction targets ever set by the world).[8] Progress towards reaching the goals has been uneven. published annually by the Center for Global Development is often considered to be the numerical targeting indicator for the 8th MDG. rather than successes in the developing world. Countries that previously reached the decision point became eligible for full debt forgiveness once their lending agency confirmed that the countries had continued to maintain the reforms implemented during HIPC status. such as measles immunisation.[26] However. Other countries that subsequently reach the completion point automatically receive full forgiveness of their multilateral debt under MDRI.[26] Fundamental issues will determine whether or not the MDGs are achieved. the G-8 Finance Ministers met in London in June 2005 (in preparation for the G-8 Gleneagles Summit in July) and reached an agreement to provide enough funds to the World Bank. The IMF adopted the $380 threshold because it closely approximates the countries eligible for HIPC.[32] 7 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . In the same time as China. and the African Development Bank (ADB) to cancel an additional $40–55 billion debt owed by members of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). This would allow impoverished countries to re-channel the resources saved from the forgiven debt to social programs for improving health and education and for alleviating poverty. and investment. some developing countries like Bangladesh have shown that it is possible to reduce child mortality with only modest growth with inexpensive but effective interventions.

improving women’s health by increasing their bargaining power in the family through paid work. target-based approach to international development. such as Naila Kabeer.[35] Researchers at the ODI argue progress can be accelerated due to recent breakthroughs in the role equity plays in creating a virtuous circle where rising equity ensures the poor participate in their country's develop and creates reductions in poverty and financial stability. about looking to an uncertain future and exploring what kind of system is needed after the MDG deadline has passed. According to the 'In Focus' Policy Brief from the Institute of Development Studies. education and political representation. Since low-birth weight babies have limited chances of survival. and Noeleen Heyzer argue that an increased focus on women’s empowerment and gender mainstreaming of MDGs-related policies will accelerate the progress of the MDGs. the ODI is working with partners to put forward league tables at the 2010 MDG review meeting. Examples abound and include Brazil's cash transfers.[35] The effects of increasing drug use have been noted by the International Journal of Drug Policy as a deterrent to the goal of the MDGs. Caren Grown.[37] She supports her point with evidence that South Asian countries with the high levels in of gender discrimination that limit women’s access to food and healthcare cause these same countries to have the highest rates of low birth weight babies in the world.[37] Another way empowering women will help accelerate the MDGs is the inverse relationship between mother’s schooling and child-morality. reducing gender inequalities in employment. as well as the positive correlation between increasing a mother’s agency over unearned income and health outcomes of her children. especially girls. increased emphasis should be placed on gender mainstreaming development policies and 8 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . guaranteeing women’s property rights. guarantying sexual and reproductive health rights.wikipedia.Wikipedia.[34] Further developments in rethinking strategies and approaches to achieving the MDGs include research by the Overseas Development Institute into the role of equity.[37] Grown asserts that the resources. will reduce child mortality.[37] Increasing a mother’s education and workforce participation increases these effects. a MDG in itself (MDG 6A).[37][39] In order to encourage women’s empowerment and progress towards the MDGs. about progress so far on poverty reduction. improving infrastructure to ease women’s and girl’s time burdens. as 2015 approaches. great progress could be made towards the MDGs. Kabeer argues that increasing women’s empowerment and access to paid work will help reduce child mortality. the free encyclopedia Yet. and combating violence against women. increasing global uncertainties such as the economic crisis and climate change have led to an opportunity to rethink the MDG approach to development policy. increasing seats held by women in government.[35] Researchers at the ODI thus propose equity be measured in league tables in order to provide a clearer insight into how MDGs can be achieved more quickly.[37] Lastly empowering women by creating economic opportunities for women decreases women’s participation in the sex market which decreases the spread of AIDS.[38] She argues that if donor countries and developing countries together focused on seven “priority areas”: increasing girl’s completion of secondary school. it is just the political will that is missing.[37] This is because women experiencing malnutrition have low birth weight babies.Millennium Development Goals .[36] Other development scholars. but also as political. technology and knowledge exist to decrease poverty through improving gender equality. the 'After 2015' debate[33] is about questioning the value of an MDG-type.[35] Yet equity should not be understood purely as economic. Uganda's eliminations of user fees and the subsequent huge increase in in visits from the very poorest or else Mauritius's dual-track approach to liberalisation (inclusive growth and inclusive development) aiding it on its road into the World Trade Organization.[38] Both Kabeer and Heyzer believe that the current MDGs targets do not place enough emphasis on tracking gender inequalities in poverty reduction and employment as there are only gender goals relating to health.

Graphs from the Millennium Development Goals Report 2010 Proportion of people living on less than $1. 2008) Numbers of people living with. 2008) External debt service payments as a proportion of export revenues (2000. 2008) Under-five mortality rate (1990. 2005) Enrolment in primary education ( collecting data based on gender. the free encyclopedia http://en.Millennium Development Goals .25 a day (1990.wikipedia. newly infected with and killed by HIV (1990-2008) Proportion of population using an 'improved water source' (1990.Wikipedia. 2008) 9 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM .

and other nations.[42] However. remaining aid money goes towards natural disaster relief and military aid which does not further the country into development.7% of GNI Over the past 35 years.7 percent of GNI by 10 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM .7% Target The UN "believe[s] that donors should commit to reaching the long-standing target of 0. the free encyclopedia http://en."[41] The commitment was first made in 1970 by the UN General Assembly. the 50 least developed countries only receive about one third of all aid that flows from developed countries. it has shown that more than half is towards debt relief owed by poor countries.7 percent of its gross national product at market prices by the middle of the decade. There were also major new commitments on women's and children's health. with five years left to the 2015 deadline.[40] Many development experts question the MDGs model of transferring billions of dollars directly from the wealthy nation governments to the often bureaucratic or corrupt governments in developing countries. Although developed countries' aid for the achievement of the MDGs have been rising over recent years. and hurts support for expanding badly needed aid.Wikipedia."[43][44] Support for the 0. the members of the UN have repeatedly made a "commit[ment] 0.Millennium Development Goals . raising the issue of aid not moving from rich to poor depending on their development needs but rather from rich to their closest allies. there has been disagreement from the Internet users per hundred people (2003. Controversy over funding of 0. The text of the commitment was: Each economically advanced country will progressively increase its official development assistance to the developing countries and will exert its best efforts to reach a minimum net amount of 0.7 per cent of gross national product (GNI) as ODA to developing countries. and major new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty. According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2006). The conference concluded with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date. As well.wikipedia. over the Monterrey Consensus that urged "developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the target of 0. 2008) A major conference was held at UN headquarters in New York on 20–22 September 2010 to review progress to date. This form of aid has led to extensive cynicism by the general public in the wealthy nations. hunger and disease.7% of rich-countries' gross national income (GNI) to Official Development Assistance.

the Millennium Villages Project.S.7%.5% of GNI in International Development Assistance by 2015-2016.[42] The European Union has recently reaffirmed its commitment to the 0.globalpovertyproject. The Global Poverty Project (http://www. universities.[48] John Bolton argues that the U. Indeed. As of 2009.4 Billion Reasons to educate people about the Millennium Development Goals and our capacity to end extreme poverty within a generation. In 2007. Professor Jeffrey Sachs.Wikipedia.[50] The United Nations Millennium Campaign is a UNDP campaign unit to increase support to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and seek a coalition of partners for action. the bill has not passed.7% aid targets."[53] 11 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM . schools.7% goal.[51] is a U.S.[49] The Australian Government has committed to providing 0. General Assembly first endorsed the 0.7% of GDP on development is an international education and advocacy organisation using its multimedia presentation 1. the United Kingdom and the United States to equip people with the knowledge and resources they need to encourage the achievement of the MDGs. which exceed the UN target for ODA of 0. as of May 2005. civil society organizations and media at both global and regional levels.Millennium Development Goals . The Borgen Project worked with Sen. The Millennium Campaign targets intergovernmental. Washington has consistently opposed setting specific foreign-aid targets since the U.wikipedia. "four out of the five countries."[45] Many organizations are working to bring U. community groups and churches around Australia.7% goal in 1970. The EU External Relations council says that.S.N.7% Target However. The Millennium Villages Project currently operates in 14 sites across 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. a bill requiring the White House to develop a strategy for achieving the goals. without noting the long-standing 0. Inc.[46][47] Challenges to the 0. never agreed in Monterrey to spending 0. Their aim is to "encourage our leaders to halve global poverty by 2015. They travel to workplaces.[52] in partnership with Columbia University's Earth Institute and the UNDP that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving the Goals through an integrated and community-led approach to holistic development. political attention to the Millennium Development Goals. or Millennium Promise.7% of their GNP towards poverty reduction by the target year of 2015. Millennium Promise coordinates a project. of GNI are member states of the European Union. many Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations. Ray Chambers. New Zealand. Barack Obama on the Global Poverty Act. but Barack Obama has since been elected President. including key members such as the United States.7%. and Wall Street leader and philanthropist. The Micah Challenge is an international campaign that encourages Christians to support the Millennium Development Goals.-based non-profit organization dedicated to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and founded in 2005 by renown international economist and Special Advisor on the MDGs to the UN Secretary General. are not progressing towards their promise of giving 2015". government. the free encyclopedia http://en.. Some nations' contributions have been criticized as falling far short of 0. The Millennium Promise Alliance.

shtml) . D. teachers and pupils in developing local oriented teaching resources promoting the MDGs with a particular focus on sub-Saharan Africa and integrate these into the educational systems. 2. Millennium Development Goals website.html#ch03note8.manchester. conferences and resources since 8 Visions of Hope is a global art project that explores and shows how art.3746. ^ The OECD and the Millennium Development 5.[54] The Development Education Unit of Future Worlds Center envisions.bwpi.pdf retrieved 11 June 2011.Millennium Development Goals . "8" a series of eight short films centered around the eight Millennium Development Goals Declaration of Human Duties and Responsibilities Seoul Development Consensus Precaria (country) Unintended pregnancy 1. Séverine. TeachMDGs The Teach MDGs[56] European project led by Future Worlds Center aims to increase awareness and public support for the Millennium Development Goals by actively engaging teacher training institutes. J.un. ^ Hulme. Leads a number of European-wide projects such as the Accessing Development Education and TeachMDGs. artists & musicians as positive change agents can help in the realization of the eight UN Millennium Development Goals. /Working-Papers/ 4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Deneulin. An Introduction to the Human /37/0. ^ a b c d Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social /millenniumgoals/bkgd. Studies. designs and implements development education awareness campaigns. "The Politial 12 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM .00.html) Development and Capability Approach: Freedom . Sterling.wikipedia. website.oecd. Accessed 11/15/10. the free encyclopedia http://en. MDG related projects Accessing Development Education Accessing Development Education[55] is a web portal developed by Future Worlds Center within an EU funded project (ONG-ED/2007/136-419). retrieved 2010. ^ Background page (http://www. It provides relevant information about Development and Global Education and helps educators share resources and materials that are most suitable for their work. with Lila Goals (http://www. trainings. UN Goals UN Goals[57] is a global project dedicated to spreading knowledge of these millennium goals through many different means through various internet and offline awareness campaigns. DO_TOPIC. ^ http://www. VA: Earthscan.idrc. United Nations justice?: The challenge of intersecting inequalities. and Shahani. Naila Kabeer for Institute of Development 16 June 2009. http://www.Wikipedia. OECD Development Co-operation Directorate and Agency.. 2010.

edu/ifdebook/ebook2/contents / 26. & J. 2005. 2004.ids." United Nations Development Programme. ^ "Gender and the MDGs" (http://www. targets. Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Eradication and the Millennium Development Goals: A Handbook for Policy-Makers and Other /goal5. Ro (2007). 9.mdgmonitor.lse.mdgmonitor.mdgmonitor.thebrokeronline.mdgmonitor. 7462 (Aug. Can The Millennium Development Goals Be Attained? BMJ: British Medical Journal. 35.odi. 37. and indicators ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 1 (http://www. 13 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM .cfm) ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 5 (http://www. PLoS Medicine | October 2005 | Volume 2 | Issue 10 | e318 ^ a b c McArthur JW.asp?id=4892&title=millennium-developmentgoals-equitable-growth-policy-brief.odi. 15(2).1. 21. 19. ^ Addressing the inequalities in child survival (http://www. / /goal1.undp. http://www.wikipedia.0020379 ^ Andy Haines and Andrew Cassels.asp?id=1937&title=mdgs-humanitariandevelopment-divide. ODI Briefing Paper. Carrasco.mdgmonitor. ^ "Economic growth and the MDGs" ( /goal4.mdgmonitor. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 22. M. 30. /goal2. Naila. 34. Vol.1371/journal.pdf ^ a b c d e United Nations. http://www. 2004). /details. 17.uiowa. Overseas Development the free encyclopedia http://en. Commonwealth /goal6.list of 2004) 7.asp?id=1937&title=mdgs-humanitariandevelopment-divide) .uk/resources /details. 18.asp?id=2386&title=gendermdgs-gender-lens-vital-pro-poor-results/) .org / ^ a b c d e f g Kabeer.Wikipedia.cfm?file=IF9.odi. ODI briefing /resources/details. June /addressing-the-inequalities-in-child-survival/) 31.asp?id=4892&title=millennium-developmentgoals-equitable-growth-policy-brief) . 394-397 ^ http://www.mdgmonitor. Response to Amir Attaran. Retrieved 7 July /Working-Papers/bwpi-wp-1607. etc. ^ /details.savethechildren. 2006. pp.cfm) ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 8 (http://www. Milo (2010) The MDGs and equity (http://www. Economy of the MDGs: Retrospect and Prospect fro the World's Biggest Promise". ^ Andy Haines and Andrew /goal7. ^ http://www.unmillenniumproject.cfm) ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 3 (http://www. 2003.odi. ^ "MDGs and the humanitarian-development divide" (http://www. New Political Economy. "The Millennium Development Goals Report: 2006.shtml) 33.cfm) ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 7 (http://www. doi:10.Millennium Development Goals . 29. ODI Briefing Paper. Overseas Development Institute.mdgmonitor. Retrieved 7 July /details.McClellan. /DATASTATISTICS/Resources /MDGsOfficialList2008. /details. Drugs and development: The global impact of drug use and trafficking on social and economic development. ^ Singer.cfm?c=BEN&cd= ^ a b http://econ. Overseas Development Institute. Sachs JD. 20. ^ a b c E. ^ a b c d Vandemoortele. 24. 28. 12. 27. 394-397.cfm) ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 4 (http://www.odi.pdf .org /goal3. 7462 (Aug.mdgmonitor.pmed. Can The Millennium Development Goals Be Attained? BMJ: British Medical Journal. C.asp?id=2386&title=gender-mdgs-genderlens-vital-pro-poor-results/. Schmidt-Traub G. 10. 2004. 14.cfm) ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 6 ( /hdr03_complete. ^ MDG Monitor (http://www. PLoS Med 2(11): e379.293-306 ^ http://www. International Journal of Drug Policy 19 (6):467-478. Vol. 11.pdf) Institute of Development Studies (IDS) In Focus Policy Brief /goal8.pdf) /details. No. 16. No. ^ Human Development Report 2003 (http://www.asp?id=4895&title=mdgs-equity) Overseas Development Institute 36.cfm?c=BRA&cd= ^ http://www. 8.cfm) ^ MDG Monitor:Goal 2 ( ^ http://siteresources.cfm) ^ a b c d e Amir Attaran. 2005.bwpi.un. 2008). ^ 'After 2015: Rethinking Pro-Poor Policy' ( "Foreign Debt: Forgiveness antetretetred Repudiation" University of Iowa Center for International Finance and Development E-Book (http://www. 23.pdf (accessed January An Immeasurable Crisis? A Criticism of the Millennium Development Goals and Why They Cannot Be Measured.

org Quality of Life Index ( /sep2005/ /07_aconf198-11.unmillenniumproject. ^ 8 Visions of Hope .wikipedia. ^ TeachMDG Website (http://teachmdgs. Drugs and development: The global impact of drug use and trafficking on social and economic development. ^ a b http://www. ^ a b United Nations Millennium Declaration (http://www.htm) MDG Progress Monitor produced by UN (http://www. September 2.the Millennium Development Goals and You (http://www. 2005.wordpress. Review Summit 2010 (http://www. 9-12 40. / /sep2005/ Caritas Australia .un. ^ http://www. 2005). ^ Noeleen Heyzer. ^ UN Development Programme .8visionsofhope. Gender and Development.developmenteducation. International Journal of Drug Policy 19 (6):467-478 56.unmillenniumproject. Itemid=60) Blueprint for a Better World .Where Art meets the UN Millennium Development Goals ( United Nations UN Millennium Development Goals ( Caren.un. M.htm) .un.cfm?Section=Make_Poverty_History1) Millennium Development Goals Browser at OpenEconomics. Others Overseas Development Institute on MDGs ( /mdg/) (includes full dataset in easily downloadable form) Millennium Development Goals Indicators: MDG Dashboard (downloadable database) (http://esl.unmillenniumproject. ^ http://www. ^ http://www.MDGs (http://mdgs.Make Poverty History with the Millennium Development Goals (http://www. ^ http://bproject.8visionsofhope.millenniumpromise. 2005.ungoals. ^ http://www.pdf 44. ^ 49. http://www. 1. ^ http://bproject.” Development 48(3): 82–86.htm / /EUExternalRelations24May.cfm?BC=Media& ID=5854_3696_6753_7484_7221 /costs_benefits2. the free encyclopedia http://en.pdf 45.ausaid. pp.collinsindicate.Wikipedia. ^ (http://www. Vol.htm on-capitol-hill/ /ecosoc_Chapter_4_apr15. ^ Accessing Development Education Website (http://www.. BusinessWeek 52.asp?id=37& title=millennium-development-goals-mdgs) World Bank eAtlas of the Millennium Development Goals ( 48. “Answering the Skeptics: Achieving Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals. Millennium Development Goals (Mar. ^ http://www.aer.businessweek.caritas. ^ "Bush Balks at Pact to Fight Poverty" (http://www. Making the Links: Women's Rights and Empowerment Are Key to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals.blueprintforabetterworld.usmission.undp.usunnewyork. ^ ^ /dc/mdg_unsd/ 14 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM .pdf 46.mdgmonitor.htm) UN Stats Division .net) 57.Millennium Development Goals .org/wiki/Millennium_Development_Goals 38. ^ www.Section on MDGs (http://www.openeconomics.odi. Ideas for Development . Retrieved from " Egypt.html) Right to education Project ( /4340/) An ongoing PBS documentary series that follows 7 children from 7 countries who are struggling to achieve a basic World Bank Site on MDGs ( End Poverty 2015 . Jordan and Morocco on the MDGs produced by Cortlan McManus (http://cine.html) IPS News .org) MDG Africa Steering Group ( / of heads of International Development Agencies (http://www.pbs.’s target date for achieving universal education (MDG #2) Masterclass on MDGs Review (http://www.wikipedia.MDGs Special Report ( Collaborative short film shot in Yemen. 15 of 15 12/13/2011 11:25 AM .eadi. The series continues through 2015. additional terms may apply.endpoverty2015. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.theinternationalonline. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. World Health Organization ( Technical updates on MDGs are available at www.UN Millennium Campaign (http://www. See Terms of use for Many articles on MDGs Country profile on Maternal and Newborn Health by Making Pregnancy Safer. the The International ( Generation 21 ( Development Goals information site (http://www.php?title=Millennium_Development_Goals& oldid=464607339" Categories: Development Economic indicators International development Maternal health Millennium Development Goals Poverty United Nations documents 2001 in international relations This page was last modified on 7 December 2011 at Time for School (http://www. the free encyclopedia http://en.asp) MDGs and Transparency (http://www.right2info-mdgs.. a non-profit organization.ideas4development.childsurvival.Millennium Development Goals .mdgafrica.

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