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METHOD GASPEY-0TT0-3AUER

ELEMENTARY

SWEDISH GRAMMAR
COMBINED WITH
EXERCISES, READING LESSONS AND CONVERSATIONS

HENRI FORT.
II

SECOND EDITION.

LONDON.
DAVID NDTT, 57-59 Long Acre,

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON &

NEW

DYRSEN THE NEWS G. E.STECHERT & CO.,


STEIGER & BOSTON: RITTER & FLEBBE,
E.

DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, CO., 100 Southwark Street, S. E. YORK: BRENTANO'S, Fifth Avenue and 27th Street. & PFEIFFER (CHRISTERN'S), 16 West 33rd Street. INTERNATIONAL COMPANY, 83 and 85 Duane Street.
C.

W.

W.

151-155 West

25th Street.

CO., 25 Park Place. formerly C. A. KOEHLER


Street.

&

Co.,

149 a

Tremont

HEIDELBERG.
aTJ]L.ITJ

OROOS.

i9n.

pr>

sill

nil

The method of Gaspey-Oito-Sauer is my own private property, having been acquired by purchase from the authors. The text-books made after this method are incessantly improved. All rights, especially the right of making new editions, and the right of translation for all languages, are reserved. Imitations and fraudulent impressions will be prosecuted according to law. I am thankful for communications relating to these
matters.

Heidelberg.

Julius Oroos,

Preface.
The second edition of this "Elementary Swedish Grammar" has undergone many alterations in the text
of the exercises, most of which have been taken from the best class-books used in Swedish schools.

The

chief

features

of

the

second edition consist

in the adaptation of the phonetical ciation phonetique internationale"

system of the "Assoand the application

of the

new Swedish orthography

in accordance with the

Royal Circular of the 7tli of April, 1906. Special care and attention have been devoted to the phonetical transcription of the sounds and to the accentuation of the words occurring in the text, but it should be remembered here that each word has been treated individually and accented accordingly, no mention being made of the "melodious" accent, which would be quite out of place in an elementary book of
this kind.

The author hopes


a

great

that the second edition, which is improvement over the first, will meet
all

with the favour of and prove useful to


begin learning the Swedish language.

those

who

much pleasure in thanking Mr. W. Gr. Priest, of London, who revised the manuscript of the English part, and Miss A. E. Millberg, of Berlin, who had the

He

has

great kindness to read the Swedish part and helped him with her valuable advice.

Cognac, December, 1910.

H. Fort.

ivi249302

IV

Contents.
Page
Pronunciation.

The alphabet
Accentuation Pronunciation of the letters

Vowels
Consonants Swedish writing
1.
2.

1 2 2 2

Lesson.

The indefinite article The terminal definite article The independent definite article
Declension of substantives.

3.

I.

declension

4.
5. 6. 7.

II.

III.

, .

IV.

8.
9.

10. 11.

V. Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns The gender of substantives Remarks on the nouns. Read. Less. Fisket i Sverige The auxiliary verbs. Reading Lesson: Gustav

18 20 22 23 26 28 32 35 38 41 46 51

12. 13.
14.

Vasas ungdom The adjective. Reading Lesson: Gruvan The adjective (contin.). Read. Lesson yiS^ocMoZTTis hlodhad The verb. I. conjugation. Read. Less.: Stockholm
.
. :

54 59
64 69 75

15.

II.

conjugation. Reading Lesson


/S'^ocA:^oZm (cont.)
.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.


24.
25. 26. 27. 28.

III.

IV.

80 Kinnekulle Slag et vid Poltava 84


.

Auxiliary verbs (contin.). Read. Less.: yiS'rm^es/bZA:

The numerals. Read. Less. Svenskt metersgstem The pronouns. Reading Lesson: Nordens natur The pronouns (contin.). Reading Lesson J^m^ma The deponent verbs. Read. Less. ^nsfma (cont). The impersonal verbs. Read. Less. Gustav Adolf Compound verbs. Reading Lesson: Gustav Adolf
:

92 95 101

108 113 117


120 123
127

(contin.)

Reading Lesson: Gustav Adolf (contin.) List of the principal prepositions. Reading Lesson Sveriges natur List of the principal conjunctions. Reading Lessoa: Sveriges natur (contin.) List of the principal interjections. Reading Lesson
Adverbs.
:

130 132

Hemmet
29.
>

The

construction

of sentences.

Reading Lesson:
135 139 152 157 161 192

Hemmet
Reading exercises

(contin.)

Poems
Appendix
Vocabulary:
I.

II.

Swedish-English English -Swedish

Pronunciation,

1.

The Alphabet.
letters,

The Swedish alphabet consists of 29 1. which are represented and named as follow:
Character.

\":

'-

.\

'

Pronunciation.

following signs:
1)
'
*

2.

Accentuation.
is

The Swedish accentuation

represented by the

2)
'

which indicates the strong accent mid-strong accent

r,

3)
'

y,

4)

weak accent secondary weak


this

accent.

These

signs,

when

placed,

a) after a b) after a

vowel indicate that

vowel

is

long,
is

consonant that the preceding vowel

short.
Ex.: 1) a)

bad [ba'd], bath. 1) b) all [al^l all. 2) a) bada [ba'da% to bathe. 2) b) alia [d'a'], all (pi.). 3) a) mogenhet [mco'gdnhe't], maturity. 3) b) fattig [fafig'], poor. 4) a) promenad [prco'radnatd], walk. 4) b) destillera [des'tildra], to distill.

3.

Pronunciation of the letters.


I.

Vowels.
1.

A.

Swedish a
1) In

is

pronounced:

man

long syllables like a in father like Gero in ^ttte and French a in ame.
Phonetic transcription: a.

Ex.: a)
c)

apa [a'pa% monkey.


bra
[bra.'],

b) sfcada [ska'da'], damage.


well.

2) In

short syllables it has no equivalent sound in English. It nearly resembles English u in fun and corresponds to German tt in 33lott and French a in capital.
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) alster [al'stdr], product. b) packe [pak'd^], package.
c)
a.

docka \dok-a%

doll.

Pronunciation.

2.

E.

Swedish
1) in

e is

pronounced:

long syllables nearly like a in name and ai in sail, German e in fe^(en and French ^ in bl6.
Phonetic transcription:
e.

Ex.: a) ek [etk], oak. b) fel [fell], mistake.

2) in

a) like a in c in 2Scrf and

short syllables man, parish,


:

carry ,

German

French al

in traltre.
ee.

Phonetic transcription:
Elx.:

a)

b)
/9)

verk [vBevtk], work, herr [hBer^^ sir.

like e in better, German c in @affe and final e in French words such as porte after the pronunciation used in the South of France, in the

final syllables
Ex.
:

in

-e,

-el,

-er.
a.

Phonetic transcription:
[^os'a'j, boy. b) fag el [fotpdl], bird.

a)

gosse

c)

kloster [klosttdr], monastery.


there

3) like

e in other cases.
:

and 2lU
e.

in

hair

in

all

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.

fest [festt],

feast.

penna

[pen'a^], pen.
:

Except

when

it

a few words such as ett, svedd, hemma, has nearly the sharp sound of i in middle.
in
3.
I.
:

Swedish
1) in

i is pronounced long syllables like ee

in meet.
i.

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.
:

a) isa [i'sa% to ice.

b) piga, ]prga,% maid.


c)

hageri, [ba'gdrif], bakery.

2) in

short syllables like i


a)

in
i

miss.

Ex.:

Phonetic transcription irra [ir'a'], to err.

(as above).

b)

minska [min'ska%

to decrease.

1*

Pronunciation.

4.

0.

o is pronounced: long syllables: a) nearly like o in go or oa in gfOat in a few words of foreign origin ending in -oh, -of, -ok, -om, -ofiy 'op, -or, -OS, -ovy -log and in some other words such 1) in

Swedish

as:

kol, son, sova etc. Phonetic transcription: o. Ex.: garderob [gar'ddroth], wardrobe.

Jilosof [fiVosotf], philosopher.

epok [epotk'l, epoch. symbol [symbo'l], symbol.

ekonom

[ek'onotm]^ economist.

polygon [pol'igoin], polygon. mikroskop [mik'rosko.'p], microscope.


korridor [kor'ido!r],
corridor.

metamorfos [me'tamorfots], metamorphose.


alcov [alkoiv\ alcove. dialog [di'aloig\ dialogue. kol \kotl]^ coal.

son [sotn\ son. sova [so'va% to

sleep.

oa in broad5> /9) like o in more, in door in a few words before -rl, -rd, -I
Phonetic transcription: Ex.: a) sorl [so.'rl], murmur, b) order [o.'rddr], order.
y) like
o.

and oo and -v.

o in to lose, oo in too or u in at the end of a long syllable and at the beginning of a word when forming a syllable of its own.
rule
in

many monosyllables

Ex.:

ord
stol

[ojlrd],

Phonetic transcription: word.


chair.

co.

[staj!i\^

ro [roj!], rest. broder [bra>'ddr% brother. obekant [co'bdkan't], unknown.


2) in

short syllables:

a) like o in clock in
Ex.: a) lock [loki], curl, b) ollon [ol'on% mast.

most cases:
o.

Phonetic transcription:

oo in book, u in put in a few /9) like monosyllables, at the end of a short syllables and in the plural termination -or.

Pronunciation.

Phonetic transcriptions:
Ex.: a) ost
b)
c)

co.

[ojstt],

cheese.

rodd [rcodt], rowing. kvitto [kvit'a)% receipt. d) vokal [vcokatl], vowel.


e)

skolor

f)

dockor [dok-ajT%

[skco'lajr^], schools. dolls.

5.

U.

Swedish u has two


1) In

different sounds.
it

has a sound peculiar to the long syllables Swedish language and has no equivalent in English. It is not unlike French u in pure and German u in fu^ren. This sound is obtained in rounding the lips as closely as possible and pronouncing i whilst with drawing the tongue and the lower lip backwards.
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a)
b)
c)

ui.

ur [mtr\

gud
hus

d) tu [tui^,
e)

watch, clock. [gmtd\ god. [hmis\ house. two.


(bjiti'da^\,

hjuda

to invite.

N.B.
sound
:

In unaccented syllables,

u,

has a somewhat more open

Ex.: a) rubin [rmbi'n], ruby.


b)
(till)

salu [saUui],

(for) sale.

2) in

short syllables it has also a sound peculiar to the Swedish language and which is nearly like English u in pat, ou in could or German
tt

in ittng.
Phonetic transcription
:

u.

Ex.: a) under [untddr], wonder.


b)
c)

kund
stund

[kuntd], customer.
[sfun!d],

moment.
fact.

d)
e)

faktum [fak'tum%

furstinna [fudstin'a%

princess.

f)

rum

[rum!], room.

6.

Y.

Swedish
1)

tj

has:

in

long syllables a close sound nearly like French n in dune or German tt in 3tt9el.

Pronunciation.

Phonetic transcription: y.
Ex.: a)
b)
c)

yra

myra

[y'ra''\ whirl. \my'ra% ant.

hy [hyt\

village.

short syllables an open sound nearly 2) French u in lustre, rustre and German
in

like
tt

in f(uftern.
Phonetic transcription: y.
Ex.: a) ynka [yy'ka^ to pity, b) syster [sys'tdr% sister.
o

7.

A.

Swedish a

is

pronounced:

1) in lonj? syllables like o in go, oa in coat and German ii in BQ^n.

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) dr, [o.V], year. b) dka [o'ka^], to drive. c) pdse [po'sd% bag. d) gd [go!], to go.
e)

o.

trdd

[tro.^d],

thread.

2) in

short syllables
o in 3Sol!.

like o in

clock and Gero.

man

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a)
c)

dska [os'ka% thunder.


[sol!],

b) sdll
d)
e)

matt sdng

sieve. [mot!], measure.

[soy!],

song.
rat.

rdtta [rot'a%

8.

A.

is pronounced: long syllables: a) before r followed by a consonant like a parish but longer and German d in 9efa^rlid&.

Swedish a

1) in

in

Phonetic transcription: ,
Ex.: aria [$s'rla% wagtail.

jdrn

lice!jin],

iron.

gdma
^) in all in hair.

[jag'jina% willingly.

other

cases like e in there or ai

Pronunciation.

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a)

e.

dga

b) dta

{e'ga.% to posess. ['ta% to eat.

c) hdra [he'va'-], to bear. d) Idra [U'ra^ to teach. ^ e) tra [trei], wood. Tend \knf\^ knee. f)

2) in short syllables: a) before double r or r followed by a consonant like a in c8p,yhat or German c in 2Bcrf.
Phonetic transcription: %. Ex.: a) drr [sert\ scar. b) drt \8erit\ pea.
c)

mdrke

[mier'kd'],

mark.

d) Idrka

[l%rka%

lark.

^) in all other cases like e in tbere or ai in liair.


Phonetic transcription: Ex.: a) dpple [ep'h'], apple.
b) hdst [hes't] horse.
c)
.

Idmpa [lm'pa%
'

to apply.

9.

0.

Swedish
1) in

6*

is

pronounced:

long syllables:

) before r followed by a consonant nearly like i in bird. It has also the broad sound of French

oeu in c(ur.
Ex.: a)
Phonetic transcription: [ceUn], eagle. b) morda [mce'rda'], to murder. c) lordag [lceUda(gJ], Saturday.
ce.
'^

om

/?) before simple r (followed by a vowel or at the end of a word) nearly like e in her. It corresponds to German (i in iitter.

Phonetic transcription: o. Ex.: a) for [/oVr], for. b) ora [o'ra'], ear.


c)

d)

fora [fd'ra% smor [smo'r],

to lead.

butter.

and before r in the plural of a very few words ending in 6 like French eux in deux or German ii in B^ne.
f) in all other cases

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) oga
b)
[0'ga,'],

0.

lopa

eye. [l0'pa% to run.

Pronunciation.

c) hon [h0in\ prayer. d) /^c* {fr0t\ seed.

e)

mor

[mo.^r], maids.

2) in

short syllables:
nearly like i in first or
Phonetic transcription:
ce.

a) before r o> in 6rter.

German

Ex.: a) ort [ceUt], plant. b) torst [toed,.^st], thirst.


c)
j3)

dorr

[doer!], door.

in

all

other cases like e in her and GerPhonetic transcription:


o.

man

ii

in r5ften.

Ex.: a) ost [ds!t] east. b) rosta [ros'ta'], to vote.


c)

mossa

[mds'a'], cap.

II.

Consonants.
10.

B.

Swedish
1)

b is

pronounced:
Phonetic transcription:
b.

like English h in ball.


Ex.: a) bild [biUd], image.
b) stab lsta.^b], staff. c) kabel [kaibdll cable.

d)
e)

snabb [snabf], swift. bubbla [bub'W], bubble.

2) like English p in pot before t in the snabbt (neuter of: snabb) and s- sound.
Phonetic transcription: p.

word

Ex.: snabbt

[snai?'.^],

swift.

klubbslag

[lclup'sla.'g],

blow with a

club.

11.

c.
:

Swedish
wels
Ex.:
e,

c is

pronounced
y.

1) like English 8 in
i

8ense

before the
s.

soft

vo-

and

Phonetic transcription:
a)

ceder [seiddr], cedar.

b) cirkel \sir'kdl'-\ circle. c) cylinder [sylin'ddr], tall hat.

Pronunciation.

2) like

English k in
k.

kill.

chef>: a) before h (except in French words such as

etc.)

and

Phonetic transcription: k.
Ex.: a) och [oki], and. b) jiicka [fiik'a% c) icke [ik'd'], not.
girl.

Note. words as:

d) lycka [lyk-a% luck. In the new orthography

is

substituted for

c.

Such

kanon \kano/-n\ cannon. kompass [kDrnpas!], compass.


kurtisera [kur*tise.^ra], which were formerly spelt with
to court,
c,

etc.

etc.

are

now

spelt with k.

See page 11.

12.

D.

Swedish d
1) like

pronounced: English d in duck.


Phonetic transcription: d.

is

Ex.: a)
b)
c)

dag [da'g], day. bada {ba'da'], to rad [raid], line.

bathe.

2) like

English t in take.

a) before s at the genitive case followed by a vowel. derived syllables beginning by s. /9) before
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a)
b)
t.

guds (fruktan) [gut's-], fear of gods (dgare) [gcot's-], landlord.

god.

3)

Swedish d is not audible at the beginning of words before j. The combination dj is sounded like j.
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a)
b)
j.

(See page 12.)

djup djur

[juiip], deep.
[jyuiir]^

animal.

13.

F.
:

Swedish f
1) like

is

pronounced

English f in frui, cuif. a) at the beginning of words.


r) at

/?)

before s and t. the end of some foreign words.

10

Pronunciation.

Phonetic transcription: /.

Ex.

a) b)
c)

!
(

fara [fa'ra% danger. frag a [froga^] question.


Jikon [Jl'kon%
fig.

a) loft [loftl loft.

b)

rofsa
strof

[rejf^'sa'],

rake.

c) luft [luf't], air.

a)

[stro!f], strophe.

b)
c)

fotograf [fcof cograif]^ photographer.


jilosof [fiVDsotf\ philosopher.

2) like English v in voice.


a) at the end of words (except foreign words ending in -grafj -strof -sof and those ending in -mf). middle of words (except before s and ^). /?) in the
^

Phonetic transcription: Ex.:

v.

Uf[Wvl
bref

life.

[bre'v], letter.

After

tafla [ta'vla% table. silfver [sil'vor], silver. the new orthography

is

replaced by v in above cases.

See page 18.


liv in stead of lif

brev in stead of bref tavla in stead of tafia,


silver in stead of silfver.

14.

G.

1) like

pronounced: English y in year. a) before the soft vowels: e^ i, i/, a and o. ^) after I and r in the same root- syllable.
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.:
(
'

Swedish g

is

j.

a) get [je't], goat. b) giva Wva'], to give.


c)

gyckel

[jykidl], jest,

d) gdst [jes't], guest. e) gora [jor'a% to do.

^ P

j
\

a) farg [fier!j], colour. b) svalg [si [svaUj], throat.

2) like English g in get.

a) before the hard vowels a, -o, -u and a. e and after i in short unaccented final /9) before
syllables.

Pronunciation.

11

y)

before a consonant.

S) at the

end of a syllable (except


Phonetic transcription: g.
street.

1, /3).

Ex.:

(
J

a)

gata [ga'ta%

b)
c)

god

[gcoid], good.

gud
gd

[gmtd]^ god.

\ d)

[got], to go.

a) spegel [spe'gdr], looking-glass b) fattig [fat'ig^], poor.

^ r

a)

I b)
f

grata [gro'ta% to weep, prdgla [pr'gla% to coin.

^ ^
3) like

a) lag [lo.'gl low. b) lag [latg], law.

English k in keen.

a) before s
/9)

and
the

t.

before

final

syllables

in

-set,

-sen

and

sera.
Phonetic transcription: k.

Ex.:

a) c)

[hdk.'st], highest, [hdk!st], highest. b) fattigt [fat'ik% poorly. [fat'ikHl

hogst ~ )gst

sagt

[sakit], said

a) hlygsel [blyk\sdl], bashfulness.

b)
c)

avldgsen [a'vhk'sdn], remote. bog sera [bok'setra], to tow.

4) like

English
n.

ng

in

finger

between a short

vowel and

Phonetic transcription: y.
Ex.: a) regna [reyna'], to rain. b) fdgna [feyna''], to gladden.

5) like

English sh in sbade before


Phonetic transcription
:

-e-

and

-i

in

foreign words.
/.

Ex.: geni [fenif] genius. logi [lofit], lodging. Note. In the combinations ^j, the Ex.: gjort [jojj,!t]^ made.

is

mute.

gjuta

[jm'ta''],

to found.

15.

H.

Swedish
1) like

h is pronounced:
in

English h

hold before vowels.

12

Pronunciation.

Phonetic transcription: h.
Ex.: hagla Uia'gla^], to hail. hehag [hdhatgX pie [hdhat

2) before the

consonants j and v \

/i is

quite mute.

Ex.: hjul [juitl]^ wheel. hjdlp [jeltp\ help. hjdrta [J8Br'ta% heart. hjord [jojUd]^ flock.

16.

J.

Swedish j
1) like

pronounced: English y in .year.


jord
Phonetic transcription: J. [jcoUd], earth.
to invite.

is

Ex.

a)
c)

b) Jul [jut- 1], yule.

bjuda [bjm'da%
koja
[koj-a^], cot.

d) bjorii [bjoe'rn], bear,


c)

2) like

English 8h in bush, derived from French.


Phonetic transcription
Ex.:
a)
:

shame
/.

in

words

projeJd [projfektt]^

project,

b)

jurnal

[furna.'l], journal.

17.

K.

pronounced: like English k in kid. 1) a) before the hard vowels a, o, u, and a. the soft vowels e and i in unaccented /?) before
final syllables.
f)

Swedish k

is

before and after a consonant (except j),

d) at the end of a word or e) in some loan words.


Ex.:
f

a syllable.

a) b)
c)

kap [ka'p], cape. kopp [kop'], cup.

kull [kul'], brood. d) kdl [W'l], cabbage.

^ r
^

j
\

a) rike

[rrkd% kingdom.
before

b) trdkig [tro'kig^\ tedious.


this
letter
y,

after the

Words formerly beginning with h drop new orthography.


h]i-ad [vatd], what.

h\varje [i'ar'jd% each. li\vem [vemt\ who.

Pronunciation.

13

a)

b)
c)

klocka [khk'a'], clock. krig [kri'g], war.

prakt
skola

[prak!t], magnificence,
[sk(o'la'\, school.

rid)
e)

minska
rysk
tak

[min'ska.''], to decrease.

f)
a)

[rys!k], Russian.
[ta'k], roof. [o'ka^], to drive.

^{

b)

dka

a) b)
c)

m^kiv [arkHv], archives. anarki \an'aTkit\ anarchy. bankeft [baykef], banquet.


in 9}idb$en

2) like

German b^

and [nearly

like

t-y in don'(t-y)ou popular.] a) before the soft vowels e, i, y (except in cases

mentioned at

1, /5,

<^,

page

12) a

and
c.

o.

^) before j.
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.:
[

a)

kedja

[ge'dja'], chain,

b) kil

[gitl],

wedge.
cold.

\
I

c)

kyla [cy'la'\

d)
e)

kdr
kol

[getr],
[co.'Z],

dear.
keel.

Note: ko \ko.%

cue.
dell.

A
Swedish
and
call.

a)

kjusa [cia'sa%

b) kjol [qojU], petticoat.

18.
I

L.
like

is

pronounced

English 1
Z.

in loan

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) lag [la'g]. law b) sval [sva:l], cool.
c)

kalla [kal'a'l to
is

call.

Note.

mute before j and

in the

word <ivdrld*.

Ex.: a) Ijus \.jm!s], light. b) Ijud ljm!d\, sound. c) vdrld [v^j,!d], world.

19.

M.
in

Swedish
main.

is

pronounced like English m

Phonetic transcription: m.
Ex.: a)
b)
c)

matta [mat'a^

carpet.

palm
lampa

[pal.'m], palm.

[lam'pa''\ lamp.

14

Pronunciation.

20.

N.

Swedish n
1) like

pronounced; English n in none generally.


Phonetic transcription: n.
nature.

is

Ex.: a) natur
b)
c)

[natui.'r]^

panna
organ

[pan'a'J, forehead. [orgatn], organ.

2) like

English ng in sing before k and in a few words loaned from French.


Phonetic transcription;
y.

Ex.: a) vink [vir)tk\ beck. b) linka [liij'ka^], to limp. c) annons [ano7)ts\ advertisement.

3)

is

mute

in the

words:

lugnt

[luytt], peacefully.

ndmnt

\nemtt\ named.
is

The combination ng
1) like

pronounced:
sing and

English ng
e,
i,
?/,

in

German ng
it

in

6ringen.
a) After tal sound.

a and a whereby
it

has a pala-

/?) after a, o tural sound.

and u whereby

has a slightly guty.

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) engelsk [ey.'dlsk], p]nglish. b) ingen [iy'dn'], none. c) yngling [yy'Uy'l youth. d) dnga [oy'a,^], steam.
e) cingel hy'dl'], angel.

f) g) h)

rang [ra,y.% rank. halkong [bdlkoy:], balcony, lunga [luya,% lung.


is

2)

In the combination gn, g


a) like

pronounced:

English g in guest at the beginning of words: (It is then never mute as English g in gnaw.)
Phonetic transcription: g.
Ex.: a)

gnat [gnatt^ quarrel. b) gnista [gnis'ta], spark. c) gno [gn(jjt\ to rub.


d) gncill [gnelf], whimpering.

Pronunciation.

15

/^)

like

English ng in siiig
Phonetic transcription:

+ n
7)71.

at the end of

words.
Ex.: a)
,b)

vagn

ugn

[vayiri], carriage. [ur)tn\ oven.

21.

P.
like

Swedish j9
Ex.
:

is

pronounced

English p in peep.

Phonetic transcription: p.
[pojtT\ pole. b) lojpjp [loA course.
a)
c)

pol

apa [a'pa% monkey.

22.
Is

Q.
like
it is

replaced in the

k by which always pronounced new orthography:


etc.

now

(qvist) kvist [kvis.% branch,

23.

R.

Swedish
1) nearly

is

pronounced:
it

English r in room but be vibrated with the tip of the tongue.


like
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) [rco't], root. b) [broj'd9r% brother.
r.

should

2) before -n, -d,

-s,

-t

it is

almost quite mute.


,i

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a)
b)
c)

(also: r).

ham

[hajbtn], child.

lard [lsedtd\ learned. forst [foRdtst], first.


[

d) hevars

L^j^^^

[h^va^t|\ God forbid!

24.

S.

Swedish

s is

pronounced like English s in seat.


Phonetic transcription:
s.

Ex.: a) stund [stuntd], moment.


b)

c)

resa \re'sa% to ros [ro)is\ rose.

travel.

16

Pronunciation.

Note. In words ending in -sion, the combination nounced like English sli in ship.
Phonetic transcription
Ex.: a) mission {mifcotn], mission, b) pension [payfojtn], pension.
:

si>

is

pro-

/.

The combinations:
pronounced

sch-,

sj-,

skj-

and

stj-

are also

like 8h in sliip.

Ex.: a) schal [fa.% shawl. b) sjo [/0.I, sea.


c) skjuta [Jm'ta'], to shoot. d) stjart [j^d!t], tail.

Sk.

The
1) like

combination sk is
-a

pronounced: English sh in ship.


-e, -i,
-z/,

a) before

and

-0.
:

Phonetic transcription /.
Ex.: a) sken [fe!n], shine.
b) skicka [fik'a% to send. c) sky \fy!l sky. d) skagg [feg!], beard.
c)
j3)

skord

[Jcedkl], crop, harvest.

in the following
a)

words:

b)
c)

marskalk {7nar'fal'k], marshal. mdnniska [me'nijy], man.


skarlakan [farlaikan],
scarlet.

2) like English sk in de8k.


a) before a
/5)

consonant. before the hard vowels a, 0, u and a. y) after all vowels at the end of words or syllables.
Phonetic transcription: sk.
Ex.: )

skriva [skri'va^\ to a) skald [skaV.d]^ poet. 1 b) skog [skoj'.gX wood.


a)

write.

c) skur \skm:r\^ shower. d) skdjp [skoi-p], cupboard.

a) rask [rastk'], swift. b) fisk [fisikl fish.


ci

kusk

{kustlc],

coachman.

d) flask Xflisik]^ bacon. e) pdsk [postk], easter.

In derivatives and in the various inflections of words the of which ends in s/L', these two consonants have the same sound as in the root-syllable before e> and i.

Note.

root-syllable

Pronunciation.

17

Ex.: disk-en ('from disk) [dis'kdn''^ the counter. jUask-et (iiom flask) fles'kd^t], the bacon.

fiaskig ^from fjask) [fJES'kig% bustling. jiskeri f from fisk) [Jis'kerif], fishery.

The combination
1) like
-scent, -scens

sc is

pronounced:
8hip
in

English 8 in

words ending

in

and

-scion.
:

Phonetic transcription /.
Ex.: a) konvalescent [kon'valefsnH], convalescent, b) konvalescens [kon'valefen's], convalescence.

Note.

These words may also be pronounced:

[kon'valesn.'t] [kon'valesen^s].

2) like

English s in 8un in the following words

seen [se'n], scene. sceneri ]s^ndrif], scenery. scenisk [se!niskj, scenic(al).

25.

T.

Swedish
1)

like

t is pronounced: English t in tip in most words.

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) tacka [tak'a^ to thank.
b) rdtta [rot'a^], rat. c) mat [ma-'t], food.

t.

2) like

English ts
i.

in gets before
ts.

followed by

the vowels a or

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) aktie [ak'tsid], share.

b) initiativ [in^itsiati^v], initiative.

The combination
a) like

ti

is

pronounced:
In foreign words ending
:

8h

in ship.

in -Hon

preceded by a consonant.
Phonetic transcription
y*.

Ex.: lektion [lekfcotn], lesson.


/5)

like

ending

in -tion

English ch in church in foreign words preceded by a vowel.


Phonetic transcription:
tf.

Ex.: nation [natfojtn], nation.

The combination
b^ in 3)idb4en.

tj

is

pronounced
c.

like

German

Phonetic transcription:
Elementary Swedish Grammar.

18

Pronunciation.

26.

V.
like

Swedish

v is

pronounced

English v in
v.

,voice.

Phonetic transcription:

Ex.: a) vagn \vaytn\, carriage. b) tavla [ta'vla,\ picture. c) Ijuv [jiiitv], sweet.

27.

W.

This letter only occurs in some names of towns, persons and countries. It is pronounced as v (26 -v) and never as English w.
28.

X.
like

Swedish x

is

pronounced

English x in

fix.

Phonetic transcription: ks.


Ex.: taxera \takseira], to tax.

Note. In words ending in -xion the combination nounced like: kf.


Ex.: reflexion [re'flekfcoin], reflection.

cci

is

pro-

29.

Z.
in sit.

Swedish
Ex.: zink

z is

pronounced like English 8


Phonetic transcription:
s.

[siy.'k], zinc.

4.

Swedish writing.
of the
little

The Swedes make use


and their handwriting
differs

Latin characters from the English

handwriting. Notice the following letters

yf U, J

^ U,
v_^
Ky

i^x^j

(y ^

and

'?

Preliminary remarks.
1.

The genders.

Swedish three genders, viz: the masculine (han-kon), the feminine (hon-kon), and the
There are
in

neuter

(det-kon) genders.

Pronunciation.

19

The study of the genders in Swedish is an important and one for Englishmen; but it should be observed that it is sufficient to distinguish the neuter nouns from the masculine-feminine group which are followed or preceded by the same articles, their inflections remaining always the same.
Note.
difficult

2.

The numlbers.
sin-

The Swedish language has two numbers: the


gular (ental)

and the plural


3.

(flertal),

The parts of speech.

The parts
The article The noun
ord).

of speech in
(ting.

Swedish are the following:


The verb (hdndelseord). The adverb (omstdndighetsord) The preposition (forord). The conjunction (bindeord). The interjection (utropsord).
.

(artikel). or substantive

The adjective (egenskapsord) The pronoun (ersdttningsord).

First Lesson.

The

1.

articles.
articles: the inarticle

There are

in

Swedish three
article.

definite
the

article, the

terminal definite
indefinite article.

and

independent definite
I.

The

(Obestamd artikel.)
2.

The

indefinite

article

is

equivalent to

the

English article a or an and has two forms: 1. en which is used before masculine and feminine nouns; 2. ett which is used before neuter nouns.
Ex.:

en

gosse (masc), a boy;

en

Jiicka

(fern.),

a girl; etf

barn

(neut.), a child.

3. Interrogative sentences with the auxiliary' verbs hava"^ to have and vara" to be are formed as in English: Is the father good? Ex.: dr fadern godf

hava de en fader f

Have they a father?


to have.

Hava [ha'va%
Jag har [jatg hatr\ I have. du har {duit ], thou hast
lian

har Vhani ], he has. hon har [hojnt ], she has. det har ^dett ], it has. vi hava vii ha'va% we have. I haven ii ha'vdn% you have. de hava dii ha'va% they have.

(you have).

Words.
the wagtail bird fdgel U'oigdJ] hamen[ha'JLndn'^] [the] children
[le'rlan^]

drlan

stjdrt [fxjitt]
liten
\li'tdn^'\

tail
little

mask

[masth]

worms

The

articles.

21

ungar
munter
Idng

[i?;*ar']

yoimg ones
stalk

iitjalk [fel'k]

vem ?' [vemf] vadf [va!d]


styv [sty!v]

who ?
what?
stiff

mitt [nkf]
livlig [li'vlig^]
[Zo?;/]

pretty
lively

[m.unitdr] merry, gay

dr [%!r] or [e^r] is dro[x'roy]or[8'rco^] are.


alia [aZ'aJ everybody,
like to see
all

wpp och ned


ok: ne'd]

long [upt up and

down

segdma[setjse'rTia']

hon

[hconf]
[ott si'g]

at sig

[she] it. for itself

tycka mycket
[tyk'a''

om

are

very fond
like

myk'df
it

of,

sj

sina [si'na^] its. da [do^ when, as trippar [trip'ar^] ambles, is ambling

omkringlomkriyf about plockar [plok'ar picks up

henne [hen'd'] som [som^ vippar [vip'ar^] ihland [ihlanta\

that,

which

wags
sometimes, now and then

gungar
dan^]

[guy'ar'

swings

pa
gor
och

[poi]
[jotr]
[oki]

on
does and.

hurudan?[hia'rm how? what?

Reading Exercise

1.

Arlan. Arlan ar en liten natt fagel. Hon ar munter och livlig. Alia se henne garna. Barnen tycka mycket om henne. Hon har en lang styv stjart, som vippar upp och ned, da hon Hon plockar mask at sig och sina ungar. trippar omkring. Ibland gungar hon pa en stjalk.
Conversation.

Hurudan ar arlan? Ar hon en livlig fagel?


Se alia henne garna?

Vem

tycker mycket om henne? Hurudan stjart har hon? Vad gor hon, da hon trippar omkring? Vad plockar hon at sig och sina imgar? Pa vad gungar hon ibland?

Words.
pupil Idrjungellse'rjuy'd] school-master skolmdstare [skco'lmes'tard'']

the teacher chair


the desk(s)

Idraren
Idrostol
stoj'r]

[U'rardii^]
[le'rco-

school

skola

man
class-room

man [man^
klassrum

[skoj'la''']

pulpet(ema)[pulpeit]

(neut.)

penholder
inkstand

pennskaft

(neut.)

maps
blackboard

[klas^rum^] kartof' [ka'rtcor'] svart tavla [svaM't


ta'vla"]

[pen'skaf^t]

copy-book

hldckhorn (neut.) [hUkliojUn] skrivbok [skrrvbco'k]

forms

skolhdnkar[skoj-lbey^kar]

reading book Idsebok [U'sdbo/k]

22

Lesson

2.

pencil
I

am
go
to

our
I

jag dr [ja'g e^r] vdr [vo'r] school jag gar iskola[ja.'g


goir i skoj'la^] talar [ta'lar'] engelska [ey^dlska]

blyertspenna [hlyeMspen^a]

learned
in

lard [lasUd]
i [if]

several there are,


sits

[is]

flere [fle'rd'] det jinns[dett fints]


sitter [sitidr]

speaks English Swedish

behind each
I

hakom [hakom^
varje
[var'jd^]

see

jag

sei^

[jatg setr].

svenska [sven'ska^]

Translation Exercise 2.
The class-room.
go to school. Our school-master is a learned man; he speaks English and Swedish. In a class room there are several maps, a black board, and forms. The Each pupil has a teacher sits in a chair behind a desk. form and a desk. What do you see on the desks? I see a penholder, a pencil, an inkstand, a copy book and a
I

am

a pupil.

reading book.

Second Lesson.
II.

The terminal

definite article.

(Slutartikel.)

1. This article consists of a letter or a syllable It answers to the affixed to the end of substantives. article the. English
2. It plural, viz.:

has four forms in the singular and in the

3.

-n or -en for the

masculine and feminine nouns


2^^,
3'*^

Singular.
and
5'^

of the I'S
Ex.
:

declensions.^
;

gossen, the boy ; flickan, the girl hagaren, the baker.

nyheten, the news

't

or

-et
4^^'

for the

neuter nouns
declensions.
^

belonging to the

3'"'^,

and

5*^

Ex.:

myteriet, the sedition;


the table.

spdnnet, the buckle; hordef,

4.

Plural,

-we for the


5*^

masculine substantives
^

of the

2'''^

and

declensions.

Ex.: gossarne, the boys; hagai^ne, the bakers.


^

See lesson 3 and the following

(4,

5,

6 and

7).

The
-na

article.

23

for the substantives of each gender belonging to the P% 2^*^ and 3^*^ declensions.^
Ex.
:

flickorna, the

girls gossarne or gossarna, the boys nyheterna, the news; myterierna, the seditions.
;

-a for the

neuter nouns
neuter nouns

of the 4^^ declension.

Ex.: spcinnena, the buckles.

-en for the


Ex.:

of the 5^^ declension.

hamen,

the children; borden, the tables.

III.

The independent

definite article.

(Fristaende artikel).

The study of the independent definite article connected with that of the qualifying adjective, being it will be treated in lesson 12.
5.

jag dr [ja!g et du dr [diai _ han dr ^an' ] hon dr [hojni ]

"Vara [va'ra^] to be. det dr [dett J thou art vi dro [vit troj'"']
I

am
is

it

is

we

are

he
she

is

dren de dro

]ii

s'rdn']

you are
they are.

[det e'rco^]

Words.
2 pd 800

talet [po' in the ninth 800 taildt] century

stort

[stcotdt]

great
fertile

fruktbart [fruk'tbauH] vdrt [votjbt]

8ver(i)ge
svsmrtjd]

[ii

in

Sweden

our
of since
greatest

[he'vdiy'] chieftain sdndebud (neut.) messenger(s), ambassador(s) [sen'ddbia^d]

hovding

av [atv\ sedan [sedan]


storsta
[stoRJitsta]

folket
kdt]

(neut.) [foU- people

bodde

[bojd'd']

dwelt

hette [het'd^]
(neut.)

Ryssland

Russia

[rys'lan^d[\

kommo
kom

[kom'oj'']

was called, whose name came [was


said

land (neut.) \lantd] country ordning [o'ddni'^'^] order army ^dr [heir] Ostersjon [os'tdr- the Baltic Sea
fo'n]

sade [sa'dd''] ingen [%*a?i']

no

come \komi] Tidrska [hsev'ska''] rule


samlade[sam'ladd''] assembled, mustered, gathered

pd andra sidan on

[pot an'dra' si'dan'] rike (neut.) [ri'kd'] kingdom

the side

other

grdnserlgrentsdr] borders, bounds


i

grundlade

seglade [se'gladd^] sailed founded


[grun'dladd'']

vdrlden
ddn]

[it

vssU- in the world

grannland

neighbouring [gran'lan^d] country mdktig [inek'tig^] powerful


(neut.)
^

vidgade [vid'gadd'] extended vdxte ut [vek'std'' grew to, came mtt] till honom [til! to him
hon'om^]
(4, 5,

be-

See lesson 3 and the following

and

7).

dtta hundra.

24

Lesson
from
osf\

2.

frdn

[frohi\

over us ddrfbr [dser^foer] therefore hdr [h%tr or heii^ here

over OSS [oivdr

gjorde en ^a^

[jco'jdd']
[e.'n

did

datg\

one day
[we] know then.

kdnna

[vi] [cn'a!'\ '

c? [dot]

Reading Exercise
Rurik.

3.

Pa 800
hette Rurik.

talet
Till

bodde

Sverige

en maktig hovding,
fran

som
fol-

honom kommo en dag sandebud

ket

Vart land ar stort och fruktbart, men det finns ingen ordning dar. Kom darfor och harska Da samlade Rurik en stor har, seglade over over OSS.'* Ostersjon och grundlade pa andra sidan ett rike, som sedan vidgade sina granser och viixte ut till ett av de storsta i
i

Ryssland och sade:

varlden.

Det riket kanna

vi

alia,

det ar vart grannland:

Ryssland.
Conversation.

Vem
Vad

bodde i Sverige pa 800 talet? hette denne (this) maktige hovding?


i

Vem kom till honom? Vad sade sandebuden fran folket Vad gjorde Rurik da? Vad heter (what is the name of)
grundlade?

Ryssland?
det
rike,

som han

Words.
[the]

man

mdnniskan
vdsen

\men'i-

being
the

(neut.) [vetsdn]

human Tnd'nniskokroppen
[men'ifcokrop ^dn\

body the head


the the the the the the

huvudet
d'9t]

[hia'vu-

the the the the the the the

back
heart
liver

ryggen
levern

rygidn]
[I

hjdrtot. Jsed'tat']

mouth
hair

munnen
hdret

eivdm]
[mun.'dn]

[hotrdt]

stomach
sides

trunk
face

hdlen [bo!hn]

arms
leg, legs fingers nail

mag en \ma'gdn^] sidoma [si'dcom a*] annar [avmar^]


ben
[betri]

ansiktet [an'sikHat] forehead pannan pan'an'] ogonen p'gondn^] eyes


ears

fingrar [fivgrar']

cheeks

[o'ronan'J kindema [gin'ddr713*]

oronen

the limbs the chin


very,

ledema [te'dama^] hakan \ha'kan']


mgcket [mgk'dt^] fomuftigf [fcernufitikt]

nagel [naigdt]

much

the nose the lips the beard the neck the teeth
the tongue the breast

ndsan [ne'san^] Idppaima [lep'arna']

reasonable
consists of

skdgget U'egtdt] halsen [haUsdn]

belong to we hear

bestdr av [bdstoir] tillh ora [til'h o'ra]


vi

hora
[trei'^

tdndema
na*]

[vit ho'ra']

[ten'ddr-

two
three four
five

tvd
tre

[t}:oi]

tungan
brostet

[tuy'an^]
[brds.'tat]

fyra

[fy'ra'']

fefin [/f???.*].

Declension of Substantives,

25

Translation Exercise 4.
Man.
a reasonable being. The human body consists The different parts of the head, the trunk and the limbs. of the head are: the face, the forehead, the eyes, the ears, the cheeks, the nose, the mouth, the teeth, the lips, the chin, The tongue and the teeth are in the beard and the neck. The heart, the stomach the back and the ribs the mouth. (revhenen) belong to the trunk. The heart is in the breast. The lungs and the liver are also in the breast. A man has four limbs: two arms and two legs. We have two hands and each hand has five fingers. Each finger has a nail.

Man

is

Third Lesson.
Declension of substantives.
1. (bdjningar)
1.

The Swedish language has

five declensions

2.

3.

4.

which are varied by four cases: the nominative answering to the questions: who? or what? the genitive answering to the questions: whose? or of which ? the dative answering to the questions: to whom or to what? the accusative or objective case answering to the
questions:

whom?

or

what?

2.
Ex.

Formation of the genitive. The genitive is formed in the singular and


s
;

the plural by adding


:

to the nominative.
skolors, of schools.
to

faders, fathers
1.

Note

noun the s
Ex.
:

is

the terminal definite article is affixed added to the article and not to the noun.
;

When

the

gossens, the boy's


2.

skolornas, of the

schools.

the substantive is preceded by the indefinite article the genitive case is formed by adding s to the substantive and not to the article which remains unchanged,

Note

When

Ex.: en

Note
of the

blommas, of a flower; ett barns, a Nouns ending in s, x and z take no indefinite form, that is when preceded by the
3.
is

child's.

s in the genitive
indefinite article.

The
is

s of the genitive left unaltered.

replaced by an apostrophe or the substantive

2Q
Ex.

Lesson

en jprins

or en

prins

slott, a prince's castle.

Note 4. Whilst the genitive case is used in English with nouns denoting animate objects and sometimes with nouns denoting time and space, it is used in Swedish with all sorts of nouns, whether they indicate animate or inanimate objects.
I.

First Declension.
declension

3.

The
-a.

first

comprises

all

feminine

nouns in
4.

The
:

sion is formed
Ex.

plural of nouns belonging to this declenby changing -a into -or.


;

flicka, girl

flickor,

girls.

5.

The terminal

definite article is -n in the sin-

gular and -na in the plural.


6.
Indefinite

Example.
Form.
Definite

Form.

N. G. D. A.

en en en en

Singular.. N. blomman, the flower blomma, a flower G. blommans, of the flower blommas, of a flower D. blomman, to the flower blomma, to a flower A. blomman, the flower. blomma, a flower

Plural.
N.

blommor, flowers. G. blommors, of flowers D. blommor, to flowers A. blommor, flowers


[ha'dd^], I

N.
G.

blommoma,
blommornas,

D. blommoma, A. blommoi^na,

the flowers of the flowers to the flowers the flowers.

Haya.

Jag hade [ha'dd'] or du hade, thou hadst han hade, he had hon hade, she had
sjdar

had

det hade,
VI hade,

I
Words.

it had we had haden, you had

de hade, they had.

[fo'ar^]

lakes

mdngd

[me'O-d]

quantity

Vdnern Malar en
Vattem oar [0'ar']
fatten (neut.) [vatidn]
isles,

mdrkvdrdigf
[maer'kvse'rdikt]

remarkable

mdrkvdrdigaste
islands

most remarkable
clear

[mderkvcx'rdigastd]

water

klart

\kla:.it\

bottnen

[bottndn']

bottom
motion, movement
tributary

djup \jmtp] imt [leti]

deep
easily

rorelse [ro'rdlsd^j
tillflode [til'Jio'dd]

svdr sjo [svo!rfo!] rough sea

ganska
ka'

litet

[gan's- ever so

little

li'tdt']

stream

tusen [tmtsdn]

thousand

dar

[o'ar']

rivers

ndgra

hio'gra''']

some
greater,
lar-

lander

[leniddr]

countries

storre [stcerta]

pa jorden
jo/dddn^]

[pot

on earth
smd'rre [smoer.'d]

ger smaller

Declension of substantives.

27

quite, very

28

Declension of substantives.

29

Note.
article for

The article -ne is, properly speaking, the terminal definite masculine nouns, but the use of the article -na for mascuis

line

nouns

becoming more and more general.

4.
I.

Examples.
Sul)stantive8 ending in -e.
Definite

Indefinite

Form.
Singular.
N. G. D. A.

Form.

N. G. D. A.

en en en en

gosse, a boy gosses, of a boy (a boy's) gosse, to a boy gosse, a boy.

gossen, the boy gossens, of the boy gossen, to the boy gossen, the boy.

(the boy's)

N. gossar, boys G. gossai'S, of boys D. gossar, to boys. A. gossar, boys.


II.

Plural. N. gossatme, the boys


(boys').

G.

gossarnes,
boys')

of the boys (the

D. gossarne, to the boys A. gossarne, the boys.

Substantive with various terminations.


Singular.

Indefinite

Form.

N. G. D. A.

en en en en

gdrd, a yard gdrds, of a yard gdrd, to a yard gdrd, a yard.

Definite Form. N. gdrden, the yard G. gardens, of the yard D. gdrden, to the yard A. gdrden, the yard.

Plural.
N. gdrdar, yards G. gdrdars, of yards D. gdrdar, to yards A. gdrdar, yards.

N.
G.

D.
A.

gdrdama, the yards gdrdamas, of the yards gdrdama, to the yards gdrdama, the yards.

Yara.

Jag var [vair] I was du var thou wast han var he was hon var she was

det var it was vi voro \va>'ro/]

we were voren you were de voro they were.

Words.

Lappama
p'ama'] ansiktsfdrg
siktsjagr'j]

[la-

[the]

Laplan-

toppmossa
mos'a]

[top'-

peaked cap

ders
[an'-

complexion
trousers coat

hoskap

[hoj'ska^p] cattle
cattle

boskapsskotsel
[bco'skapfofsdl]

feeding pla-

hyxor

[hyk'sa)r^'\

kolt [koUt] vadmal [va'dmal] drugget(coarse


stuff)

hostdder
ste^ddr]

[ho)'-

dwelling
ces

trakt [traktt]

region

renar

[re'nar']

skinn [fin'] pals [pd's]

reindeer skin
fur

dkerhruk

[o'kdr-

husbandry

hrm'-k] hjordar[ja)'jidar'-] herds

30

Declension of substantives.

31

aunt
cousins
easter holi-

j faster [fasitdr] I moster [mcos^tdr]

spent

kusiner [kmsiindr] pdskferier [pos'kfe'ridr]

days garden

trddgdrd [tre'goUd]
\morfar''[m(or:far] armor ^ [far'mojr]
-,

^ grand fatherZ-^^-^r'!/*^^-^?;^

tillhragte {til' brak^td] several years j^ere dr [fie're'' otr] plays spelar [spe/lar^] sjunger [fuy'dr'] sings de gd [di! go'] they go kind to me goda mot mig [gorda' mojtt mi'g]
stays
will

grand mother
stories

stannar
to

\mormor^[ma>rima>r]

come

skola
tilf]

komma

[stan'ar']
till

sagor

[sa'gojr^]

us

oss [skorla" kom-'a'

cakes

kakof

[ka'kcor']

grand

isonson [son'son^] \dotterson [dot'dr8071']

enjoy myself roa mig [rwa' mi!g] we shall play vi skola leka [z;z?
skoj'la le'ka^]
to tell

(Son
grand daughter
\
\
^

dottev

[sow

berdtta [bdrd'a]

dot'er]

to

bake

baka
dlska

[ba'ka']
[el'ska']

dotterdotter [dot'dvdot'ar]

like

French

franska

[fran'ska^]

my my
still

(pi.)

German
Swedish
teaches

tyska [tys'ka^'] svenska \svEn'ska^'\


Idr,
\ltr

alive

min [mi'n] mina [mi'na'] dnnu i livet, vid


[snui''
it

liv

litvdt

vitd

under vis ar
,

Wv]
beautifully

un'ddrvi^-

fdrtrdffligt
treffliktj.

[for-

speaks

sar talar

if\

[ta'lar']

Translation Exercise 8.
The Family.
a teacher in

My
our

parents are
school.

still

alive.

My

father

is

grammar

He

teaches

modern languages;

he

speaks French, German and Swedish very well. He spent several years in France, Germany and Sweden. My mother plays on the piano and sings beautifully. I have a brother and two sisters; they go to school. I love my parents with all my heart (av alt mitt hjdrta), for they are very kind to me. My little sister stays at home to-day, because she is ill; I hope she will be better to-morrow (i morgan). My I shall enjoy Uncle and aunt will come to us at Easter. We myself with my cousins during the easter holidays. shall play in my grandfather's garden. Our grandfather will tell us nice stories and our grandmother will bake good cakes for us. Their grandsons and granddaughters like them very much.
by the father's
side.
^

by the mother's

side.

32

Fifth Lesson.

1.
1.

III.

Third Declension.

This declension contains:

the

masculine

n o u n s ending in

-ac?,

-nad^ -skap
-d,

and -ndr ;
2.

the
-het,

feminine nouns ending


-else,

in -an,

-t,

-sfj

-and and -ang ;


-ant^
-ass,

3;

the
-en
-ik^

and

masculine nouns ending in -at, -is and- the feminine nouns

ending

in

4.

and -ur, which come from a foreign language and have the accent on the last syllable; the neuter nouns which end in -eum and -ium and are derived from Latin;
-ion

5.

the

polysyllabic neuter nouns

in -eri;

6.

a great
as:

of monosyllabic nouns of each gender and with various terminations, such


priest;

number

prdst (masc),
er in

dam

(fem.), lady; salt (neut.), salt etc.

2. The substantives of the third declension take the plural. Ex.: mdnad, month; mdnader, months; r or else, movement, motion; rorelser, movements; tryckeri, printing-office; tryckerier, printing-offices.

Note

1.

The words

in -else drop the final-e before taking the

plural ending.

Ex.: hdndelse, event (occurrence); hdndelser, events.

Note

2.

The nouns ending

in

-and and -dug change a and

into a.

-um

Ex.: tand, tooth; tdnder, teeth; tang, pincers; tdnger, pincers, tongs etc, Note 3. Nouns, ending in -eum and -ium drop the syllable before taking the plural termination. Ex.: museum, museum, plur.: museer.

The terminal definite article of the 3. third declension has four different forms in the singular and in the plural, viz:
1.

a) in the singular: -n for the feminine


-en for the

2.

tives

masculine and feminine ending in a consonant;

substantives ending in -e; substan-

Declension of substantives.

33

3.

-et

for the

neuter

substantives;

b) in the

plural:

-na for each gender.


Note. Neuter nouns in -eum and before adding the terminal definite article.

-mm

drop the syllable -um.

Ex.: museet, the museum.

4.
I.

Examples.
Feminine and Masculine Nouns.
Form.
Singular.
artist

Indefinite

Definite

Form.

N. en konstndr, an
G. en

konstndrs,
(an artist's)

of

an

artist

N. konstndren, the artist G. konstndrens, of the


(the artist's)

artist

D. en konstndr, to an artist A. en konstndr, an artist


N. konstndrer, artists G. konstndrers, of artists D. konstndrer, to artists A. konstndrer, artists.
II.

D. konstndren, to the artist A. konstiidren, the artist.

Plural.
N. konstndrerna, the
(the artists')
artists

G. konstndr ernas, of the artists

D. konstndrerna, to the artists A. konstndrerna, the artists.

Neuter Nouns.
Definite

Indefinite

Form.

Form.

Singular.
N. ett spinneri, a spinning-mill G. ett spinneris, of a spinningmill

N. spinneriet, the spinning-mill G. spinneriets, of the spinningmill

D. ett spinneri,
mill

to

spinning-

D. spinneriet,
mill

to

the

spinning-

A. ett spinneri, a spinning-mill.

A. spinneriet, the spinning-mill.

N. spinnerier, spinning-mills

Plural. N. spinneriema, the spinningmills.

G. spinneriers, of spinning-mills

G.

spinneriemas,
ning-mills

of the spinto

D. spinnerier, to spinning-mills

D.

spinneriema,
ning-mills
mills.

the

spin-

A. spinnerier^ spinning-mills.

A. spinneriema,

the spinning-

Words.

34
eldstaden[el'dsta'- the

Lesson

5.

fire

place
pla-

skrapa upp
pa' up']

[skra'- scrape up

ddn] sovplatser [so'v- sleeping


plat^Sdr] foda [fo'da']
ces

bo

[bcj']

dessa dro
'rco']

[des'a'

dwell these are

food

clothes dragareldra'gard'] beasts of bur-

kldder VkUiddv^

den

flyttningama
Iflyt'niyama,']

the movings things ackja (a kind of sledge) boat

saker
ackja
bat

[sa'kdr]
[ak'ja']

[va'ri- through which je'nom] gar ut [go.'r m't] goes out serve tjdna [ge'na'] bredas [bre'das'] are spread out pa marken [pot on the floor

varigenom

madtkdn] skaffa [skaf'a']


ej blott [eji blotf]

[bo.'t]

medar
kol

ime'dar^]

[go.'l]

runners keel
rein

bdra [be'ra'] spdnnas [spen'as']


ser ut [setr m!t] begins

procure not only bear


are put to

torn [tomf]

looks like

da det b orjar

[do.^

when
to

it

dett b (Br'jar']

bred [bretd] Idngs [l7j.'s]

broad
along holds

om

bli[va] [bli'va^]

hosten [om!

in

become autumn

rymmer
ndtt

[rym.'dr]

ochjdmt

[net' just

hos'tdn] to move flytta ner [ne'r] leva av [leva' a'v] live on out of ur [iii'r]

ok.' jm.'t]

down

dkande [okan'dd'] kor [Qd:r]


kallt [kalit]

driver drives
cold.

Eeading Exercise
Lapparua

9.

(continued).

det borjar bli kallt om hosten, flytta de ner i skogarna, dar (where) renarna leva av renlav, som de skrapa upp ur snon med sina klovar. Lappama bo i kator. Dessa aro ett slags talt ay vadmal med hal i taket, varigenom roken fran eldstaden gar ut till sovplatser tjana renskinn, som bredas pa marken. Renarna skaffa lappen ej blott foda och klader, de aro aven bans dragare, som vid flyttningama bara bans saker. Denne ser vintern spannas de for ett slags slade, ackja. ut som en liten bat, ar utan medar med en bred kol langs mitten och rymmer natt och jamt en (one) akande, vilken kor renen med endast en tom.

Da

Om

Conversation.
flytta lapparna om hosten? Varav leva renarna? Huruledes (pa vad satt) skrapa de upp renlav ur snon? Vari bo lapparna? Beskriv (Describe) lappamas bostader? Vartill tjana renarna? Vad kallas lappamas siadar?

Vart

Hum

ser en

ackja ut?

Declension of substantives.

35

Words.
dwelling pla- he7nvist[he7n'vis^t]
ces
in the country

water

lilies

ndckrosor
rcL>''sojr\

{nek'-

pa
i

landet [poi lani-

cowslips
roses

gullvivor [gul'vi'vcor]

ddt]
in

town

staden[i' sta'ddn]

rosor

[rco'sojr]

summer house sommarbostad[sDm'arbo/stad]


hill

dew-drops
tulips

daggdroppar
[dag'drop'ar]

park
orchard
fruittrees

kulle [kul'd'] park [par!k]

tulpaner
ndr]
vi

[tulpat-

frukttrddgdrd
[fruktre^godd]

we
1

reside,

bo

[vi' bco^]

(dwell)
like

frukttrdd [fruk'tre'\

jag dlskar (tycker


om)[ja'g
eV'skar'-]

cherry-trees

korshdrtrdd
[Qce,r'sh^rtr\

stands det star [deit sto^r] in the middle mitt i [mitt it}
it

apple-trees
pear-trees

dppeltrdd
tre'\

[ep'dl-

shady
plenty of in front of

skuggig [skug'ig']

manga

[moy'a']

pdrontrdd[pe'rontre']

framfor

[framt-

flower garden

hlomstertrddgdrd
[blojm'stdrtre^gdrd]

among swim
beautiful

for] ibland [iblantd]

simma
other

[sim'a^]
[jo.'n,

basin
gold fishes
violets

bassdng
Jis'kar]

[bas7j']

guldfiskar[gul'd'

skon, fager faigdr]

many

manga andra
[moy^a' an'dra'].

violer

[vico.'ldr]

Translation Exercise 10.


The house. have two dwelling places. In summer we reside I like our (dwell) in the country and in winter in town. summer-house very much. It stands on a small hill in the middle of a shady park. Behind the house there is a large orchard with plenty of fruittrees: cherry-trees, apple-trees and pear-trees. In the flower garden in front of the house there is an oval basin in which many gold fishes swim among water-lilies. In our flower garden we have plenty of violets, cowslips, roses, dew-drops, tulips and many other beautiful

We

flowers.

Sixth Lesson.
IV.

1.

Fourth Declension.
in -e;

1.

This declension contains:

all all

2.

neuter nouns neuter nouns


Ex.: knd, knee;

(most monosyllables) the root

of which ends in a vowel.

kndn, knees.
3*

36

Lesson

6.

The substantives belonging 2. declension form their plural in -n.


Ex.: spcinne, buckle;

to

the fourth

spdnnen,

buckles.

1.

3.

The terminal definite

article is:

-t

in the singfular. Ex.: spdnnet, the buckle.

2.

-a in the plural. Ex.: spdnnena, the buckles.

4.
Indefinite

Example.
Form.
Singular.
N. G. D. A.
Definite

Form.

N. ett rike, a kingdom G. ett rikes, of a kingdom J), ett rike, to a kingdom A. ett rike, a kingdom.

riket, the kingdom rikets, of the kingdom riket, to the kingdom riket, the kingdom.

N. riken, kingdoms G. rikens, of kingdoms D. riken, to kingdoms A. riken, kingdoms.

Plural. N. rikena, the kingdoms G. rikenas, of the kingdoms D. rikena, to the kingdoms A. jHkena, the kingdoms.

Words.
Tyskland
lan'd]
[tys'k-

Germany
Europe

vetenskapsman

men

of science

Europas
pas^]

[mo'rco- of
[fas't-

[ve'tdnskapsme^n\ konstndrej^lkon'st- artists


nerdr^]

fastland
lan^d]

continent

endast

\endas''t]

only

sidan [si'dan'] hav [ha.^v]

Nordsjon
fo'n]

the side sea [nco'rd- the North Sea

north norra [nor'a^] grdnsar till [gren'- borders upon


sar^]

sluttar [slut'ar']

Idngsamt
the slopes
rivers

[lon^g-

slopes slowly

sluttningarna
[slut'niyama^]

sam't]

mot, emot [moj.% towards


emco.'t]

Jioder [Jioj'ddr] strdnder [stren.'- banks


ddr]

utfor [uittfor'] rinna frm'a']

down
flow

skonhet

{J'enihet]
[tys'-

beauty
the

tyskama
karna']

Germans

learned [men] Idrde [Ix'rdd'^] flow flyta [flyta'l beromda [bdrom'- renowned
da']

folkmdngd [fol'kmey'd]

population

stolta over [stol'ta' proud of


[miVjoji- millions

miljoner
ridr]

oivdr]

vacker

\vak.'dr]
till

beautiful

vetenskap [ve'tdns- science


ka'-p]

uppgdr
hogt

[up'-

comes up
stand
[on
a]

to

art konst lkon!st] vdrlden [vae'jddn^] the world

gor' til!] std [sto!]


(adv.) [hok!t]
[sairu't]

high

skolor
intager

{skoylcjr^]

schools

[level]

[in'ta''gdr\ occupies

samt

Declension of Substantives.

37

Reading Exercise

11.

Tyskland. Tyskland intager mitten av Europas fastland. Endast pa norra sidan gransar det till hav Ostersjon och Nordsjon. Landet sluttar langsamt mot havet och utfor sluttningarna rinna manga stora floder. Till Ostersjon flyta Weichsel och Oder, till Nordsjon Elbe och Rhen. Storst av dessa ar Rhen; dess strander aro mycket beromda for sin skonhet och tyskarna aro mycket stolta over denna sin (their) vackra flod. Tyskland ar ej sa mycket storre an Sverige, men dess folkmangd uppgar till over 60 miljoner. Vetenskap och konst sta i hela Tyskland mycket hogt; intet land i varlden har sa manga skolor av alia slag samt sa manga vetenskapsman, larde och
:

konstnarer.

Conversation.

Ar Tyskland
Till vilka

ett stort

land?

hav gransar det at norr? Vilka aro Tysklands storsta floder? Vilken ar Tysklands storsta och vackraste flod? Varfore ar Rhen beromd ? Hvarfore aro Tyskarna stolta over denna flod? Ar Tyskland mycket storre an Sverige? Hum manga invanare har Tyskland? Sta vetenskap och konst mycket hogt i Tyskland?
Words.
on the ground
floor

pa

nedre

botten

bed rooms
valley

sovrum

[so'vrum']

rooms
sitting

rum (neut.) [rumi room vardagsrum (neut.)


[va'rdagsrum^]

[po' neidrd hottdn

dal [daU]

inthe morning pa
will

morgonen [po!
va'ra''

mor'on^dn]
be over

skola vara forbi


[skoj'la''

dining room study

matsal [ma'tsal^]

studerkammare
[stm'ddrkam^ard]
in (within)

fcerbH]

inom

tre

veckor
tre'

kitchen on the
floor
floor

kok
first

(neut.) [ge.'k]

three

weeks

[inom'
k-cor']

ve-

en trappa

upp

[ent

trap' a' upf]

on the second tvd trappor


[tvo.^ trap'cor''

upp
up']

to breathe andas [an'das'] the fresh air frisk luft [fris'.k

attics

vindskammare
[vin'dskam'ard]

luftt] alltid,
ti'd,

stddse

[al'-

ste'dsd']

out at (of) the

utgenomfonstren
[m't jetnomfontstrdn]

pleasant
loft

windows

trevligt [tre'vlig't] loft [loft].

Translation Exercise 12.

On
room,

The House (continued). the ground floor there are four rooms: the sitting the dining room, my father's study and the kitchen.

38

Lesson

7.

and second floor there are six beautiful bed Our house has also a loft and two attics. Out at the windows you can see the Rhine, that slowly flows in a
the
first

On

rooms.

verdant valley.
try.
It
is

ning.

move

to

The town

I should like to dwell always in the counso pleasant to breathe the fresh air in the morholidays will be over in three weeks and we shall

again.

Seventh Lesson.
V.

1.

Fifth Declension.
declension includes:

The

fifth

a) all
1.

masculine nouns

in -are;

2.

in -ande;

b) the names of substantives in -er;


c) all

peoples and

the

foreign

(loan)

neuter nouns
:

ending in a

consonant.

Except the neuter nouns in -eum and 4um derived from Latin which belong to the third declension.

2.

The substantives

of the fifth declension re-

main

unchanged

in the plural. Ex.: barn, child and children.

The 3. declensions is:


1.

terminal definite article

for this

a) for masculine -n in the singular.

nouns

Ex.: hagaren, the baker.


2.

-ne in the plural. Ex.: bagarne, the bakers.


ending in
-e

Note. The substantives terminal definite article.

drop

it

before adding the

b) for
1.
-et

neuter nouns

in the singular.
Ex.: bordet, the table; barnet, the child.

2.

-en in the plural.


Ex.: borden, the tables: barnen, the children.

Declension of substantives.

39

4.
I.

Examples.
Masculine Nouns.
Form.

Definite Form. Singular. N. Idraren, the teacher N. en Idrare, a teacher G. Idrarens, of the teacher G. en IdrareSy of a teacher (a
Indefinite

(the

D. en A. en

teacher's) Idrare, to a teacher Idrare, a teacher.

teacher's)

D. Idraren, to the teacher A. Idraren, the teacher.

Plural.
N. Idrare, teachers G. Idrares, of teachers D. Idrare, to teachers A. Idrare, teachers.
II.

N. Idrarne, the teachers


G.

Idrames,

of the teachers (the

D. A. Idrarne, the teachers.

teachers') Idrarne, to the teachers

Neuter Nouns.
Definite

Indefinite

Form.

Form.

N. ett hord, a table G. ett hords, of a table D. ett hord, to a table A. ett hord, a table.
N. G. D. A.

Singular. N. hordet, the table G. hordets, of the table D. hordet, to the table A. hordet, the table.
Plural.
N. G. D. A.
h or den, the tables hordens, of the tables h orden, to the tables horden, the tables.

hord, tables hords, of tables hord, to tables hord, tables.

Words.
fjdllen
[fjel'dn'']

the mountains
drifts

glacidrer
s'ie'r&r]

[gla-

glaciers

driver

[dri'vcor']

dret [o.'rdt] tdcke [tek'd']

the year cover [coat] the top toppen [tDp!dn] snogrdnsen [sno'- the limit of

samlar

sig [sam'- gathers

lar^ si!g]

nedanfor

gren'sdn]

snows
vales

[ne'dan'- underneath fcer] become hliva [hli'va']


arise

dalar \da'lar''^ fordjupningar

depressions

uppstd [up'sto^] hogre [hotgrd]


hinner [hin'dv'] fidlstdndigt [ful'sten^dikt]

hranterna

[fcerjm'pni7)ar''] [hran'- the steeps

higher succeed
fully

tdma^] tryoket [tryktdt]

the pressure

hortsmdlta[hor'ts- to melt away

hopade [hoj'padd^] heaped up snomassor [sno'- bulks of snow


mascor']

meVta]

utan

{m'tan'^

kvarligga [kvairis

but remain

pressas

samman
i.^s]

compressed

li'ga]

[prss'as^ sam'an^]
till is [tiU

dret
into ice

om [otvdt omt]
[e'vig'']

through the year


eternal, ever-

ismassor
sojr']

[i'sma-

bulks of ice
glaciers

evig

joklar

[jo'klar^]

som

[som.']

lasting as

40

Lesson
called

7.

(man) kallar (den)

it

is

sages

[se'gds'']

is

said

sdsom

[so'som^]

like

nd over na

Ino"] \no.\

i}^ ^^ h^yoiiiA
1

to reach

above

sammanhdngande hanging
[sam'anhey'andd] over hela [o.'vdr over the whole
he'la']

most mesta [mes'ta^^ i trdnga [zV fro?;'a'] in narrow


lidT
Sjisetr]

sd
such

starkt
startkt]

[sot-

[t]here so strong

sddant [sotdant]

Reading Exercise
Fjallen.

13.

Pa de hogre

fjallen ar det sa kallt,

att

snon

ej

hinner

fullstandigt bortsmalta om sommaren, utan stora driver ligga kvar aret om. Pa de allra hogsta fjallen ligger denna evig sno, som man kallar den, sasom ett sammanhangande tacke

over hela toppen ett sadant fjall sages na over snogransen. Mesta snon samlar sig i tranga dalar och fordjupningar nedanfor fjallbranterna, och har kan trycket av de hopade snomassorna bliva sa starkt, att snon pressas samman till is. Sa
;

uppsta stora ismassor, som

man

kallar joklar eller glaciarer.

Conversation.

Ar

det kallt

pa de hogre

fjallen?

Hinner snon fullstandigt bortsmalta om sommaren? Var ligger den eviga snon? Vad kallas sammanpressade snomassor?
Words.
drawing-room formak [fd'rma^k]
sofa

newspapers
ceiling

tidningar

[tid-

arm-chairs
chairs
foot-stools

soffa [sof-a'] Idnstolar [hn'stcj'l]

chandelier

tak [ta^k\ fniyar^] Ijuskrona [jm'skrco'na]

stolar

[stco'lar^]

every corner
plants vases flowers

varje horn
hcerhi]

[var'ja''

the walls

pallar [palar^] vdggai^na [veg'ar?ia']

vdxter

{vek'stdr"'\

vaser

[va'sdr^]
[hloj-

papers on the floor

tapetei^ [tapet'dr']

hlommor
ni'ojr^]

pa golvet [pot goltVdt]

rosy

rosenrod
ro'd]

[roj'sdn[tap'dt-

mattor [mat'cor^] carpets the pianoforte pianot [matnojt] the door dorren [doRrtdn] the window fdnstret[fontstrdt]
pictures

hung with
represent
illustrated

tapetserade
se'radd^]

framstdlla [fram'stel'a]

mdlningar [moVniyar'] mdlare [mo/'ara'j

illustrerade
stre'radd']

[iVii-

painters

landscapes
table rare

landskap
ka^p]

[lan'ds-

bloom
between
exotic

blomstra
emellan
[blojm'stra'] [emel'an^]

books

[h(oird] sdllsynt [ssl.synH] bocker [boktdr]

hord

china

exotisk [iksojitisk] porslin [porslitn].

Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns.

41

Translation Exercise 14. The Drawing-Room.


our drawing-room there are a sofa, four arm-chairs, and so many foot-stools. The walls are hung with rosy papers and the floor is covered with red carpets. Some pictures made by renowned painters are hanging from the Most of these pictures represent English landscapes. walls. On a small round table you can see several books and illuA beautiful chandelier is hanging from strated newspapers. the ceiling. Every corner of the room is garnished with rare plants and exotic flowers are blooming in china vases.
In
six chairs

Eighth Lesson.
Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns.

it
1.

First declension.

This declension has no irregular plural forms, but contains


:

1.

Certain nouns that are used only in the plural;


:

such as

anor, ancestors

matvaror,

victuals

bannor, chiding
flavor, estate.

indlvor, bowels dthavor etc., manners, gestures.

Some compound substantives which have preserved their ancient form of genitive in -o and -u; such as:
2.

mdnniskokdrlek, philanthropy. mdnniskodtare, man-eater


salupris, sale-price salutorg, market varumdrke, trade-mark varulager etc., warehouse.

in a as well ending in -e they are declined according to the second declension in the singular but follow the first declension in the plural.
3.

Some feminine nouns which end

as in

-e.

When

Ex.:
Note.

skugga

When

or skugge, shade; skuggan or the shade, but skuggor in the plural. ending in -e they are masculine.

skuggen,

1.

2.

Second declension.
of the final

The following nouns drop the vowel

syllable before taking the plural ending:

42

Lesson

8.

sommar, summer
afton, evening

morgon, morning
djdvul, devil
2.

somrav, summers aftnar^ evenings morgnar, mornings djdvlar, devils.

Two
The

moder, mother
3.

nouns modify their root-vowel: modrar, mothers


ddttrm%
daughters,

dotter, daughter

four nouns indicating the colours of cards are unchanged in the plural:
hjdrter, hearts ruter, diamonds
Jdover, club, clubs

spader, spade, spades.

4. Some nouns that end in -e as well as in -a in the singular, thus belonging to the first and the second declensions, but in the plural they are declined according to the second declension.

Ex.:

timme

or

timmar

timma, hour; timman,


in the plural.

the

hour,

but

Such are:
ande, breath; droppe, drop; make, husband; mane, moon; tanke, thought etc.

Third declension. 1. Several masculine and feminine nouns modify the root-vowel and most of them double the final con
3.

sonant before taking the plural termination:


fot, foot
rot, root

fotter,

feet

son, son
bot, fine

soner, sons
boter, fines.

rotter, roots.

Notice the plural of: bok, bocker, book, books ^ ledamot, ledamoter, member, members; not, notter, walnut, walnuts; get, getter, goat, goats and van, vdnner, friend, friends.
2.

few masculine and feminine nouns modify the


but do not double the
letter

root-vowel, the plural:

final

consonant in

bokstav,

stad, town natt, night fader, father


3.

bokstdver, letters stdder, towns ndtter, nights

fdder,

fathers.

The masculine and feminine nouns


their plural

in -a,

-e,

-o,

w,

and a form

by adding
mor, maidens

-r.

stadga, statute

stadgar, statutes

mo, maiden

'^-^{hf4ewife
ko, cow so, sow

^-''{

hir/ewives

kor, cows sor, sows

Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns.

43

rd, yard
sld, rod td, toe

rdr, yards
sldr, rods tdr^ toes

sko, shoe

skor, shoes

vallmo, poppy bonde, countryman


fiende, enemy bo, inhabitant

vallmor^, poppies bonder, countrymen


fiender, enemies bor^, inhabitants
in

frdnde,
Note.
gularly.

relative

The

foreign nouns

frdnder, -e and

relatives.
-i

form their plural


qvalite,

re-

Ex.:

teori,

theory; teorier, qvaliteer, qualities.

theories;

quality;

4.
1.

The word man, man, has two

plural endings:

2.

man and manner, men, in a general sense; man (unchanged), man, when denoting a group
of persons forming a whole.
Ex.: tio tusen

man

(soldiers), ten

thousand men.

4.

Fourth declension.

1. To this declension belong six nouns which are declined in the plural according to the third and fourth declensions; viz.: drenden or drender, business drende, business

fdngelse, prison brdde, board


tdckelse, covering ode, ode

fdngelsen

or fdngelser, prisons

regemente, regiment
2.

brdder, boards tdckelsen or tdckelser, coverings oden or oder, odes regementen or regementer, regiments.
or

brdden

The word:

oga, eye,

and om,

ear,

have an

irre-

gular plural.
Ex.: ogon, eyes; oron, ears.

5.

Fifth declension.

1. The word: fruntimmer, ladies, has three different plural forms when used with the definite article; viz: fruntimren (fruntimrena and fruntimmerna).

2. The word: finger, finger, is both neuter and masculine and takes the following endings when used with the definite article in the plural: fingren or fingrarne.
^ Or vallmoblommor. bor parishioners etc.

Only

in

compound words: socken-

44

Lesson

8.

Words,
korsfarare
fa'rara]
[kod's- .crusaders

hyste [hys'td']

had

(a

spite

agg
the Fins

till

against)

finnarna [ jin'arhedningar
[he'd-

heathens

landsteg [lan'ste'g] landed, went on shore uppmanade [up'- exhorted

ma'nadd]
[the] baptism dopet [doj.'pdt] Jm^an [h-ran'] [the] doctrine Finland Finland [/in'lan'd]

lata [lota']

to let to christen

dopa

[do'pa']
[de'

de vdgrade
ve'gra'dd]

they refused

biskop

[bis'kop'']

bishop
Christianity

Kristendomen
[kris't9ndoj^m9n]

besegrade
se'gra'dd]

[ba-

vanquished

apostel [aposttdl]

apostle

en ny
ny.'

omvand

[en' a

catechumen

compelled tvang [tvay'] mottaga [mort-ta'- to receive


kristen [krns'tan'] christian dtervdnde [o'tdr- came back
ven'dd]

om'ven'd]
spite
left

agg

[ag-]

kvarldmnade
blivit
vit''

[kva'TUm^nade^ kallad [blr- was called


kal'ad'] [an'gri'to attack

predikade [predi'- preached


ka'dd]

angripa pa]

mordades
da'dds]

[mod'r- was murdered.

Reading Exercise
Erik den Helige.^
Erik samlade

15.

i Sverige en har av korsfarare och Kung seglade med den ut for att angripa finnarna, som da annu voro hedningar. Han landsteg i trakten av Abo. Forst uppmanade ban finnarna att lata dopa sig, men de vagrade. Da

angrep han dem med sin har, besegrade dem och tvang dem De visste likval icke mycket om den att mottaga dopet. kristna laran. Da Erik atervande till Sverige, kvarlamnade han darfor biskop Henrik, som dar predikade kristendomen och darfor blivit kallad Finnlands Apostel. Biskopen mordades dock snart av en ny omvSnd finne, som hyste agg till honom.
Conversation.

Vad gjorde Erik den Helige

for att angripa finnarna?

Var (where) samlade han denna har? Voro finnarna annu hedningar? I vilken trakt landsteg Kung Erik? Voro finnarna villiga att lata dopa sig?

Vad gjorde Kung Erik niir de vagrade Vad hette Finlands Apostel? Av vem mordades biskopen Henrik?
the Holy.

at lata

dopa sig?

Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns.

45

Words.
book-case

bokskdp
verk

(neut.)

typewriter
the use

skrivmaskin
[skri'vmafi^n]

[boj'ksko^p]

works
writers

[vwr.'k]

begagnandet
ga7)'nan''ddt]

\bd-

skriftstdllare
[skrif'tstel'ard]

copying press kopiepress [kco'pidprS^]

poets

skalder [skalddr']
I

. ^ volumes
codes (laws)

band

[ba,n!d]
[la'g-

a safe
steel
bills

ett

kassaskdp

[polymer [voly-mdv^]
lagbocker
bok^dr]

[kas'asko'p] stdl [stoil]

vdrdepapper
[v^'rddpap'dr]

lawyer
writing-table

sakforare
fo'rard]

[sa'k-

money
[skri'v-

penningat^ [peiriyar^]

skrivbord
boj'rd]

green cloth
writing

gront kldde[gr0nH
kh.dd^]

ma- iskrivmaterialier
[

jewels family simple elegant

juveler [jmveUdr] familj [jmniUj]


enkel [eyjkdl]
elegant [e'legayit]

terials

[skri'mnat^eriailidr]

bound books bundna backer


[bun'dna'' bdk.'dr] stitched books ^a/ifc?e backer [hef'tadd^] Russian rysk [rys!k] covered with betdckt med [6atekH me.'d] provided mthforsedd med [for'sed^ me!d]

stationery

inkstands ink
blotter

bldckhorn

[blek'-

hco^m] black [bhk!] portfolj [podtfoHj]


linjalej' [linjaildr\

rulers

{pldnpapper[plo'nblotting]

paper

pap^dr] \l(iskpapper V pap^dr]

\les'k-

necessary
full

nodvdndig
ven'dig]

[no'd-

writing-paper skrivpapper [skri'vpap'dr] post-paper brevpapper [bre'v-

of

uppfylld

med [yp-

jyVd me!d]
red black

rod

[ro'd]
[sva'ji't]

pap'dv]
penholders
pencils

svart

pennskaft

pen's-

now a days

nu for

tiden [nm:-

kaft] blyertspennor

fo.'r trddn']

much spread mycket spridd


[myk'df spridf]
preserves

[bly'drtspen'cor] letter-weigner brevvdg [bre'vvotg]

forvarar [foe'rvarar''].

Translation Exercise 16.


The Study.
simple but elegant. In the bookcase there are many bound and stitched books. Among his various books you can see many works w^ritten by Svredish, French and Russian authors and poets. Most volumes are on law, as my father is a lawyer. The writing table is covered with green cloth and provided with all the necessary writing materials (stationery): two inkstands, the one full of black ink and the other full of red ink, a blotter, a

My

father's

study

is

ruler,

blotting-paper,

a letter-weigher.

On

writing-paper, penholders, pencils and a little table stands a typewriter.

46

Lesson

9.

Nowadays

Here is the use of typewriters is much spread. the copying-press. The safe is in the corner; it is made all of steel. My father preserves in it all sorts of bills, money and the family jewels.

Ninth Lesson.

The gender
I.

of substantives.

Masculine.

Masculine are:
a) All appellations of

men

and

male animals.
months,

Ex.: mdlare, painter; bonde, countryman; tupp, cock.

b) forests.

The names
Ex.:

of the seasons,

days and

sommar, summer; lordag,


in:

Saturday.

c)
1.

The nouns ending


Ex.:

-ad and -nad,

mdnad, month;

skillnad, difference.

2.

-ande (names of persons). Ex.: handlande, merchant.


Ex.: Idrare, teacher.

3. -are.

4.

-dom.
Ex.: barndom, childhood.
-e

5.

(Plural -ar).
Ex.: gosse, boy.

6.

-el

(Plural -ar), Ex.: axel^ axe.

7.

-er

(Plural -ar or
Ex.: seger, victory.

-er),

8.

-ing (concrete nouns).


Ex.:

taming,

die.

9.

-ling.

Ex. frdmlingj stranger.


:

10. -lek. Ex.: kdrlek, love.

11. 'ndr. Ex.: konstndr,

artist.

12. -skap (Plural -er). Ex.: egenskap, property.

The gender of

substantives.

47

Except:
1.

The

titles

ending in -hud

and -rad which are

neuter.
Ex.: sdndebud, ambassador; statsrdd, minister.
2.

3.

4.

hdrad, district; altare, altar; ankare, anchor, are also neuter. The words: fjdder, feather; -fidder^ elder; lever liver; adevj vein; ndver, birch-bark, are feminine. The nouns in -sel are also feminine.
^

The words:

II.

Feminine.

Feminine are:
a) All female Ex. flicka,
:

names and appellations:


girl
;

hona, hen.

Swedish rivers and the names b) of trees and the nouns in -and and -ang which modify the final vowel in the plural.

The names

of

Ex.: bjork, birch-tree; hand, hand.


c)
1.

The substantives

in

-a (Plural -or),
Ex.: skola, school; piga, maid.

2.

-an (abstract nouns).


Ex.: borjan, beginning.
-st

3.

-d,

-t^

Ex.:
4.
-else.

(mostly abstract). mdngd, great deal of; avsikt,

intention; konst, art.

Ex.: varelse, being.


5. -het

(mostly abstract).

Ex.: sannolikhet, likelihood.


6.

'ing (abstract
-sel

nouns) and -ning.

Ex.: handling, act, action; aktning, esteem.


7.

(mostly abstract).
Ex.: horsel, hearing.
-ik^

8.

-^,

-ion

and -ur (foreign words).


temperatur,
tem-

Ex.:

teori,

theory; fabrik, factory, perature; mission, mission.

Except:
1.

The words:
tree
;

blast,

brand, fire; pil, willow; apel^ applegale (strong wind) jdst^ yeast tingest^
; ;

48

Lesson

9.

pastry; strirkelse, starch; gaol; hackelse, hacked straw, and vdxt, plant, are masculine.
thing;
^ors^, thirst; bakelse,

hdktelse^

2.

sto,

The words: fruntimmer^ mare land, country


;
;

lady;
vide,

kvinnfolk,

women;
;

water-willow

fdng-

ghost; stdngsel, enclosure, paddock; tdckelse, covering; betsel, bridle; harhari, barbarity; baroni, barony; kompani, company; geni, genius, are neuter.
else,

prison;

spokelse,

III.

Neuter.

Neuter are:
a) The names of towns, countries, the letters of the alphabet and generally the words used substantively; such as ett ja, a yes:
Ex.: Frankrike, France;
ett b,

a b.

b)
1.

The nouns

in:

-a (Plural -n)

and nouns

in -a

derived from Greek

and Latin.
2.

Ex.: oga, eye; drama, drama. -an (concrete nouns).

Ex.
3.

lakan, sheet.

-ande and -ende (abstract nouns). Ex.: anforande, conduct; avseende, connection.
-e

4.

(Plural -n).
Ex.: spdnne, buckle.

5.

-el

and
Ex.
:

-er

(unchanged in the

plural).

galler, railing.

6.

-m.
Ex.: tryckeri, printing-house.
-on. Ex.: smultron, strawberry.

7.

8.

-skap (unchanged in the plural). Ex.: herrskap, master and mistress of

a house.

9.

-urn, -eum and -ium (derived from Latin). Ex. faktum, fact museum, museum studium, study.
:

Except:
The words: morgon, morning, and which are masculine.
afton, evening,

The gender

of substantives.

49

Words.

nordens

[nco'r-

[in] of the

gudfruktig [gm'd- pious


fruk'tig] tyckte sig [tyk'td' thought
si!g]

drommar

North ddn's] kvinnoi^[kvin'cor'] women [dro- dreams


visions

Idt

uppteckna [UH had

written

syner [s^'nar'] angels dnglar [eiflar^] Kristus [kris'tus''] Christ


rykte [ryk'td']

up'tek^na]

uppenbarat[up'dn- revealed
ba'rat]

renown,repute

spred sig [spread spread


sUg]

dlderdom

[ol'ddr- old age

Rom

dcom^]
[rojhn]
[po'vd7i']

vida omkring

all

around

Rome
the pope
festivities

[vi'da''

omkriy^
[se'dar- hereafter
settled

pdven

begav sig [hdgatv repaired


sitg]

hogtidligheter
[h dgti'dlighe^tdr]

sedermera
monastery nuns
of

iiunnekloster
[nun'dklDs'tdr]

me'ra] bosatt [bco'saf]


slutligen
ligdn^]
[sluc't-

kloster [khsttdr]

monastery
died at the age

at last

avled
70^

[a'vle^d]

dr gammal[otr gam'ar]

pa

of 70 deti tiden [po! at that time

vallfdrdade fm'rdadd

[val'-

went on a pilgrimage

ddrefter[dEtTeftdr\ afterwards

den! ti'ddn^] den heliga [deni


he'lig'a]

the holy

forklaradfor hel- canonised gon [fcerkla'rad^


for!
hel'gon'].

sam,tala[sam'ta^la] to converse

Reading Exercise
Den heliga

17.

Birgitta.

Pa den tiden levde en av Nordens markvardigaste kvinnor, den heliga Birgitta. Hon var mycket gudfruktig. I drommar och syner tyckte hon sig samtala med Kristus och anglarna och lat uppteckna vad de uppenbarat for henne. Hennes rykte spred sig vida omkring. Pa sin alderdom begav hon sig till Rom, dar hon sedermera var bosatt och slutigen vallfardade hon anda till Jerusalem. Hon avled 70 ar gammal i Rom Nagon tid darefter blev hon av paven under stora hogtidligheter forklarad for helgon. Hon grundlade i Vadstena ett nunnekloster, som blev det mest beromda kloster i hela Norden.
Conversation.

Vad vet Ni {what do you know) om den heliga Birgitta? Var hon gudfruktig? Med vem tyckte hon sig samtala i drommar och syner? Vad lat hon uppteckna?
Var hennes rykte stort?
Vid vilken alder avled hon?

Av vem
^

blev hon forklarad for helgon? Var grundlade hon ett kloster?
sjuttio

70.
a

Elementary Swedish Grammar,

50

Lesson

9.

W ords.
the dining

matsalen[ma'tsa^Idiil

napkins

servetter
t'dr]

room
apartment

[sa^rve-

rum (neut.) \rumf] ifamiljens [famil'J

ifrukostera

we breakfasti

members

[fruk'ostetra]
tili

of

jdn's]

the family

]medlemmar
I

welunch[eon]/^ ]ata tillfrukost


[me'd^[e-ta'

lem^ar]

we drink
[mo'lti^-

vi

dricka
drik'a^]

[vzV

meals

mdltider

ddr] [the] breakfast/ri^^'os^en


k'ostdn'']

[fru-

tea coffee

te [tef]

[the]

luncheon andra frukosten


[airdra'

cakes sandwiches
cold

kakor {ka'kojr''] smorgdsar


[sm(Er'gosar'-'\

kaffe [kafd^]

[the]

dinner

middags mdltiden
[mid'ags ddn]
vio^lti-

meat

[the]

supper

kvdllsvarden
[kvel'svaUddn] valnotstrd [va'lnot'stre]

red wine white wine assemble

kallmat [kal' ma't] rodvin [ro'dvi'n]


vitt

vin

[vW

viin]

forsamla
sam'la^]

sig [for-

walnuttree
table cloth

square
to take
is laid

fyrkantigt
kan''tigt]

[fy'r-

bord-duk dm^k]

[hco'rd-

intaga [inta'ga']

ar

dukad

[aetr

linen the maid dishes


plates

linne [/m"9']

dui'kad']
lays the cloth

pigan
fat

[pi'gan']
[tal'ri-

dukar bordet [dm'dar' bco'rddf]

[fa.'t]

tallrikar
kar']

she puts at 8 o'clock

Idgger [Ug'dr^] klockan 8^


[khk'an^]

glasses wine bottles

decanters

glas [glais] vinhuteljer [vi'nhmtEVj] vattenkaraffiner


[vat'9nkaraf'indr]

inthemorningpa morgonen [movgon'dn] in the evening_p aftonen


[aj^to-ndti^]

knives
forks

spoons

knivar gafflar skedar

p.

m.
eat

e.m.{eftermiddag)
[ef'tdr' mid'ag']

we

vi dta

[vii

'ta%

Translation Exercise 18. The Dining Room.

The dining-room is an apartment in which all the members of the family assemble to take their meals: breakfast, A square table of walnuttree luncheon, tea and dinner. stands in the middle of the dining room with twelve chairs around. The table is laid wdth a white table cloth made of very fine linen. When the maid lays the cloth she puts on the table dishes, plates, glasses, wine bottles, decanters, kniWe breakfast at 8 o'clock ves, forks, spoons and napkins. in the morning and lunch a 1 p. m. At 5 o'clock we drink In the tea or coffee and eat some cakes or sandwiches. evening we eat cold meat and drink red or white wine.
dtta.

51

Tenth Lesson. Remarks on the nouns.


I.

Gender of compound nouns.

Compound nouns are generally of the same 1. gender as the last component.
Ex.: husdgare (m) [from hus (n) and agave (m)]. Tiusfru (f) [from hus (n) and fru (f)].

posthus
II.

(n) [from

post

(f)

and hus

(n)].

Formation of female appellations.

2.

The female
titles),

to

the

appellations

appellations are formed by adding of male individuals -inna (female


-erska (profession),
-a,

animals and

-ska^

-iska

(names of peoples), -fru and -hustru (profession).


greve, count (earl) furste, prince
hertig, duke

grevinna, countess furstinna, princess


hertiginna, duchess

varg, he-wolf
lejon, lion

varginna, she-wolf
lejoninna, lioness

dsna, ass kock, cook


slaktare, butcher
tysk,

dsninna, she-ass kokerska, cook slaktarhustru (fru),


wife

butcher's

German

svensk, Swede spanior, Spaniard

tyska, German (lady) woman svenska, Swedish (lady) woman spaniorska, Spanish (lady) wo-

man
kines, Chinese kinesiska, Chinese (lady) woman. Note. Names of peoples ending in imam) change this syllable into -ska. Ex.: Norronan, Norwegian; Norska, Norwegian (lady)

woman.

3.

Special feminine appellations.


moder, mother
dotter, daughter syster, sister flicka, girl fru, lady

fader, father
son, son

broder, brother gosse, boy herr, gentleman

farbror^, uncle
morbror'^, uncle

faster^, aunt moster^, aunt

man, man
systerson^, nephew

kvinna, woman
syster dotter^, niece brorsdotter^, niece.

brorson^, nephew
^

By

sister's side.

^ the father's side. By the mother's side. * By the brother's side.

By

the

4*

52

Lesson

10.

III.

Double gender.

Double plural.

4.

The following nouns have a double gender


Masculine.
Neuter,
hdl, funeral-pile
fjdll, scale
hdl^
les

and

meaning:
hdlar, trunks
lofty

hdl, trunk

funeral-pi-

fjdll^loity mowii' fjall[ar\,


tain

fjdll^ scales

mountains

grund, motive
lock, curl, lock

grunder, motives

grund, shoal
lock, lid

grund, shoals
ZocA:, lids

lockar, locks

curls,

Feminine,
not, walnut rev, fishing-line

Neuter.
fishing-

notter, walnuts

revar,
lines.

not, cattle rev, reef

not, cattle rev, reefs.

Masculine,
bal, ball

baler, balls bank, sandbank bankar, sand-

bal, bale

5<2Zr, bales

bank, bank
6ors,Exchange
(building) ^??^, time

banker,

banks

bors, purse
^a72.gr,

banks borsar, purses

path

mask, worm
torsk, cod-fish
vals, cylinder

gdngar, paths maskar, worms


^or.s^*a7',

borser, Exchange (buildings) gdnger, times

mask, mask
^orsZ:, thrush

masker, masks
(no plural)

cod-fis-

hes
valsar, ders
cylin-

vals, waltz

valser, waltzes,

Feminine,
bok, book
wo^, drag-net

bocker, books
notar, drag-nets vdgar, scales

&o^',
??of,

beech-tree

bokar,
trees

beech-

note

r%,

scales

v^, wave

noter, notes vdgor, waves.

>Vor(ls.

fisket [fis'kdt^]

[the]

fishery,

stdllningar

[stel'-

stands nets

fishing

Bohusldn
htasle'n]

[bo)'-

Bohusliin
shires

niyar'] ndteu [nctdn^] storfiske [stoj'rjislco]

great fishery
ling

landskapen
Uan'dska'pdn]

fiskamci
kama']
gdn]

\fis'-

the fishers

Idnga [loya^] veckor [vek'cor^]


torsk [tortsk]

weeks
cod

fiskldgen [Jls'kU- fishing places

hdlleflun dralhel'd- halibut

byar
jord

\by'ar'']

villages
clifi"s

kusfen

Jdippor [klip'ojr^] trdd [tretd]


[jco.'ud]

trees

flun''dra] [kus'tdn^] shore sillfiske [sil'Jis^k9\ herring-fishery sillen [sil'dn'] herrig

land,earth,soil

invid [invHd]

on

Eemarks on
rikt [riktt]
rich,

the nouns.

53
naked barren
arable

abundant

nakna

[na'kna^]
[oj'd-

utomor dentil gt
[la'tomod'denHlikt]

extraordinarily

odlingsbar
liy'sbar]

ndsfan liksom
I

almost [nes'taii^] like [li'ksom''] aUmdnhet [iV al- generally

torka [torka'] far a [fa'ra']

overallt[0'V9rart] everywhere to dry


to

go

men'he^t]

vdstra [ves'tra'] sodra [so dra'] mest [mes.'t]

western southern

somUga[sDm'Uga'] some borta {bod'ta'] away

fdnga
olika

[foya']

to catch

most

idkas [idkas']
[oj'lika']
. . .

liggande[Ug'andd^] lying, situated vid [vi!d] on, near


oft a [of'ta^]
da']

often

da ...an [etn

they give themselves to various etn\ now ... now

inklamdalinkUm' - compressed
bland
[blan.'d\

givande [ji'vanda'] productive forsvunnenlfcers- disappeared.


vun'dn^]

amongst

Reading Exercise
Fisket
i

19.

Sverige. I Bohuslan, liksom i allmanhet i vastra och sodra landskapen, bo fiskarna mest i fiskelagen. Dessa aro byar, liggande vid stranden, ofta inklamda bland nakna klippor utan Overallt ser man stallningar trad och utan odlingsbar jord. sommaren fara somfor naten eller att torka fisk pa.

Om

pa sa kallat storfiske, ofta langt ut^) at Nordsjon; de ligga da borta i flera veckor och fanga torsk, langa helgeliga

fiundra

o.

s.

v.

(och sa vidare).^)
Sillfisket

Om

vintern idkas invid

kusten

har under olika tider varit olika rikt; an har det varit utomordentligt givande, an har sillen under manga ar varit nastan forsvunnen.
ett rikt sillfiske.

Conversation.
I vilket

Ian bo de fiesta fiskarna?

Var ligga fiskelagena?

om sommaren? Vad for fiskar fangar man i Nordsjon? Nar idkas sillfisket? Har sillfisket alltid lika givande?
Vart fara fiskarna

Words.
[the]

domestic husdjuren animals jm'rdn]

[hm's-

the hound

jakthunden
hun'ddu] hun'ddn]

[jak't-

the dog friend the bitch

hunden

Uiun'ddn]

the shepherd's/ar^wncZe/*

[fo'r-

van [v.'n] hyndan Uiywdan']

dog
the hunter the game

jdgaren

[je'garan']
[vil'd-

hu7idar [hun'dar^] dogs the watch-dog gdrdvaren [go.cdva'rdn]


^

villebrddet
bro'ddt]

the flock

hjorden [jcoUddn]

far away. Idngt ut and so forth etc.

54
the horses

Lesson

11,

hdstarna
na']

[hes'tar-

the mar( stona [stoj'na'^ the ass dsnan [o[o-sna^] in the meadow p cincjen [jpot
7)'9n'']

the she-ass the cat

dsninnan
7iin'an'']

\os-

katten

ycat'dii^]

tuppen
na']

honorna
kon
figg

[tup'dn'] [ho'nojv-

folet [f0'l9f]
[kco'ii]

mjolk [mjol'k]

bg^
[;fo'rdf]
[uli]

fdret
ull

oxen [ojk'sdii^] vagnen [vay'iidn^] plogen [plco'gdn']


tjuren [cm'rdn'] kalven (kal'vdn''] geten [je'tdn]

The

auxiliary verbs.

55

Infinitive.

JETava,
Participle present.

to have.

Supine.
haft, had.

havande, having.
Indicative.

Sul)junctive.

Present.

jag har du har han har


VI

S.

jag (have)

or

md

hava

du (have) or Tnd hava han (have) or md hava


(ha)
P. vi (have) or 1 (haven) or de (have) or

>M

hava

I haven

(han) de hava (ha)

md hava man hava md hava

Imperfect.

jag hade du hade han hade P. vi hade I haden de hade


S.

jag (hade) or skulle hava du (hade) or skulle hava han (hade) or skulle hava P. vi (hade) or skulle hava I (haden) or skullen hava de (hade) or skulle hava
S.

OS

bO

Perfect.
S.

P.

jag har haft du har haft ha7i har haft vi hava haft I haven haft
de hava haft

S.

jag (have)

or

md md

du (have) or md hava haft han (have) or md hava haft


(have) or
or or

hava haft

P. vi

I (haven)
de (have)

man hava

hava haft
haft hava haft
^

e8'

md

Pluperfect,

jag hade haft du hade haft han hade haft P. vi hade haft I haden haft de hade haft
S.

S,

jag (hade)

or skulle^

hava haft
haft haft haft haft haft

du

(hade) or skulle hava han (hade) ov skulle hava vi (hade) or skulle hava I (haden) ov skullen hava de (hade) or skullen hava

S.

Future. jag skall hava

Conditional.
S.

P.

du skall hava han skall hava vi skola hava I skolen hava de skola hava
Future past.

jag skulle hava du skulle hava

11

*^

P. vi skulle

hava hava I skullen hava de skulle hava


skulle

han

2-^

Conditional past.
S.

S.

jag skall hava haft du skall hava haft

han skall hava haft P. vi skola hava haft

J
P.

skolen hava haft de skola hava haft

ja^ skulle hava haft du skulle hava haft han skulle hava haft vi skulle hava haft I skullen hava haft de skulle hava haft

o a

Or matte.

56 Impcratiye.

Lesson

11.

Infinitive.
Pres.
Perf.
Int.

hav, have (thou) Idt orri OSS hava (havom), let us have haven (haver), have (ye)

hava hava

or lia^ to have haft, to have had


to be about to

skola hava,
have.

it

instead of vi hava, I haven, de hava. Note 5. The periphrastic forms of the tenses of the subjunctive mood are more frequently used.

ia^ /, is never written with a capital letter, unless occurs at the beginning of a sentence. Note 3. The pronoun I (ye, you) is written with a capital letter. Note 4. In general conversation vi ha, I han, de ha, are used
2.

Note Note

1.

The forms havom and haver

are antiquated.

Infinitive.

vara,
Participle present.

to be.

Supine.
varit, been.

varande, being.
Indicative.

Sul)jnnctive.

Present.
b.

P.

jag ar du ar han dr vi dro I dren de dro

S.

jag

du (vare) or md vara han (vare) or md vara


vi (vare) or

(vare) or

md

vara

P.

md

(var en) or

de (vare) vr

vara vara md vara

mdn

S.

jag var du var han var


voro
1 voren

P. vi

de voro

Imperject. S. jag vore or skulle vara du vore or skulle vara han vore or skulle vara P. vi vore or skulle vara I voren or skullen vara de vore or skulle vara
Perfect.

S_

"

S.

jag har varit du har varit han har varit P. vi hava varit I haven varit de hava varit

S.

jag (have) or md hava varit du (have) or md hava varit han (have) or md hava varit P. vi (have) or md hava varit I (haven) or mdn hava varit de (have) or md hava varit

s s

S.jag hade varit

du hade varit han hade varit


P.ti

hade varit
varit
^

I haden
^

de hade darit

Pluperfect. S.jag (hade) or skulle^ hava du (hade) or skulle hava han (hade) or skulle hava P.ri (hade) or skulle hava I (haden) or skullen hava de (hade) or skulle hava

varit varit varit varit varit varit

rt

e3

Or matte.

The
Future.

auxiliary verbs.

57

58

Lesson

11.

forrddiskt [fcere!- treacherously


diskt]

kdnde [gen'dd^
oemotstdndlig

felt

irresistible

hortford

[hoji't-

taken away
during heard
over

[ox em ojtston'dlig] forklddd [fo'r- disguised

under [un!ddr] horde [h(\idd']


tola

om [ta'la' om'} talk(ing)


intended

kUd'] trdffade \tref'add^] met,

came

across

dmnade [em'nadd^]
foretaga [fo'rdta^ga]

redan

[re'dan']

already

undertak(ing)

smog
si-g]

sig

[smo^g slipped.

Reading Exercise

21.

Gustay Yasas nngdom. Gustav Eriksson Vasa foddes i Uppland pa garden Lindholmen, troligen ar 1497. Hans fader var radsherre och en av Sturarnas trognaste anhangare. Sasom yngling kom Gustav till Sten Stares hov. Han kampade tappert i striderna mot Kung Kristian och i slaget vid Brannkyrka bar han den svenska fanan. Kort darpa blev han av den trolose Kristian forradiskt gripen och bortford till Danmark. Under sin fangenskap horde han danskarna tala om det stora krigstag de amnade foretaga mot Sverige. Gustav kande da en oemotstandlig langtan att fa komma hem och kampa for faderneslandet. Forkladd flydde han fran Danmark till Lybeck och traffade dar en skeppare, som forde honom over till Sverige om varen 1520. Da voro danskarna redan i besittning av storre delen av landet. Pa ensliga vagar smog han sig fran det ena stallet till det andra och kom slutligen till en av sin faders gar dar, Ravsnas i Sodermanland.
Conversation.

Var foddes Gustav Vasa? Vem var bans fader? Mot vem kampade han? Av vem blev han forradiskt gripen? Vad horde han under sin fangenskap danskarna Huruledes flydde han till Lybeck? Vem traffade han i denna stad? Nar aterkom han till Sverige?
Words.
kitchen-gar-

tala

om?

kokstrddgdrd
[gok'strwD^jid]

vegetables

gronsaker [gro'nsa'kdr]

den
wall the gardener

vdgg [vegf] trddgdrdsmdstaren [frrgojd-

radishes

spinage
love-apples'

rddisor [re'di^sojr] spenat [spena.'t] kdrleksdpplen


[ga?'rlefcsep^h7i]

seeds

fron

mes'tard] [fro^n]

asparagus

sparris [spar

The
tomatoes

adjective.

59

spaden

hackan

[spa'ddn^] [hak'an^]

rdfsan [ref'san^] omgiven [om'ji''vd7i\


sdtt
[sott]

seg

[seig]

mjuk
mogen

[mjuifk]

hdlsosam [heVsMsamy\
[moj'gdn^] flytta Cflyt'a'] det dr tid [deit etr
ti'd]

utrotar
tar].

[m'tr cot-

Translation Exercise 22.


The kitchen-garden.
Behind our house we have a large kitchen-garden. It is surrounded by a high wall. The gardener has sowed many seeds. We shall have plenty of vegetables in spring and summer radishes, spinage, love-apples, asparagus, onions, salad, carrots, beans, cauliflowers, parsley and sorrel. These
:

love-apples are red; they are ripe. In spring horse radishes are tough. Asparagus are soft and wholesome vegetables. It is time to transplant cabbages. The gardener roots up the weeds in the boarders. The gardener's tools are: the spade, the hoe and the rake.

60

Lesson 12.

A.

Indefinite Form.

2. The indefinite or strong declension has three different forms: a)

A common
alteration.

in the singular

form for the masculine and feminine whereby the adjective requires no

b)

particular form for the neuter in the singular, the inflection of which is -t. common form for the three genders in the c) plural, the inflection of which is -a.

Note.
of -a.

Participles in

-ad and superlatives

in -ast take -e instead

Examples.
Masculine. Sing, en god gosse
Plur.

Feminine.
en god fiicka
ett

Neuter.
gott

ham

goda
Note

gossar.

goda
adjectives

fiickor.

goda ham.

1.

The

that end in an accented vowel double

-t in

the neuter.

Ex.: grd^ grdtt; hid, hldtt; ny, nytt. Those ending in -en (unaccented) drop the -n before 2. taking the neuter inflection -t. Ex.: mogen^ Tnoget; trogen, troget.

Note

Note 3. The adjectives in remain unchanged in the neuter,


Ex.: fast; stolt; trott

-t

preceded by a consonant or in

-tt

etc.

Note

4.

Those ending in

-al,
-I,

in the plural the vowel preceding

-en, -el, -n, -r.

-er (unaccented) drop

Ex.:

gammal, gamla; tapper, tappra. mogen, mogna; ddel, ddla.


as well

Note 5. Those ending in -d preceded by a consonant, as participles in -ad change -d in -t in the neuter.
Ex.: hlind
neuter:

hlint

mild aktad
Note
-tt in
6.

milt
aktat.
in -d preceded

Those ending

by a vowel change d

in

fhe neuter.

Ex.: god, neuter: gott.

B.
3.

Definite Form.

weak declension has for the three genders and both numbers the same inflection -a. When the adjectives are declined according 4. to this form they are generally preceded by the InThe
definite or

dependent definite article

(fristaende artikel):

The

adjective.

61

den for the masculine and feminine in the singular. neuter in the singular. det three genders in the plural. de

Here it must be observed that the qualified noun has the terminal definite article although the adjective is preceded by the independent definite article, excepted in some cases which will be treated in the Lesson on the Pronouns.

Examples.
Singular.
Plural,

den goda (e) gossen den goda flickan


det

goda

harnet.

de de de

goda gossarne goda fiickorna goda barnen.

NB.

Note 2 and 4 apply also

to the adjectives declined after

the definite form.

5. In the masculine singular the inflection -e It should always be used instead of -a: also used.
a)

is

of

In exclamations and in solemn apostrophes. Ex.: gode Gud! svenske man! b) When the adjective is not followed by a noun or when it is used after a proper noun as a surname. Ex.: den gode, the good (man or woman) Karl den Store, Charles the Great. NB. Participles in -ad and superlatives in -ast take -e instead -a, as when declined according to the indefinite form.
C.
6.

Use

of the

modes of

inflections.

adjectives should be declined according to the strong declension when used:


1.

The

Without
Ex.
:

article or predicatively.
;

gott vin, good wine

vinet dr gott, the wine

is

good.

2.

With the indefinite


Ex.: en

article.

god man, a good man. en god flicka, a good girl. ett gott ham, a good child. (goda filckor) (good girls).

3.

With the indefinite pronouns.


Ex.: varje tapper soldat, every brave soldier.

4.

With the interrogative pronouns.


Ex.: vilket sott sockerf

weak

The adjectives are declined according to the declension when used:


7.

62

Lesson

12.

1.

Before a noun with the


ticle. Ex.:

terminal definite

ar-

NB.
2.

franska sprdket, the French language. In this case the adjective is generally preceded by the
article (see B. 4).

independent definite

After a noun in the genitive case.


Ex. faderns stora egendoinar, the father's large estates. After the personal, possessive, relative and demonstrative pronouns. Ex.: jag olyckliga mdnniska! min gode van!
:

3.

Remarks.
a)

Some

adjectives are indeclinable, such as:


in

ode, waste; gdngse, usual; hra, good etc. etc.

b)
all

These adjectives have the same termination


they take an
:

cases;
Ex.

in the

genitive

when used

as
but:

substantives.
den dygdiges olycka, the virtuous (man's) misfortune. den dygdige mannens olycka, the virtuous man's
misfortune.

Words.

gruvan [grrn'ran^] the mine maimer [maltmdr]

dmnen

[em'ndn'']

inre [in.^rd] herget [hserjtdt]

meter [mettdr]

gruvor [grui'vcor^']
at alia sidor
al'd^ si'dojr'']
[^oit

gdngar

[goyar'']
[ne'd-

rum

[rumf\

nedgdngen
goy'dn]

oppning

[op'niy']

brunn
stegar

[brunf]
[ste'gar^]

korgar [kor'jar^] tunnor [tun'ojr^] pd dagen [po!


da'gdn^]

lampor [lam'pojr^]
bloss [blosf]

upplyste
lys^td]

[up'-

nyttiga [nyt'iga^]

The

adjective.

63

Reading Exercise 23.


Grruyan.

For
mider Dessa
hel

att

jordens inre

sig djupt ner i berget jorden, stundom flera hundra meter. Sa far man gruvor. utvidgas at alia sidor^ sa att de slutligen besta av en

komma at maimer och har man fatt spranga

andra nyttiga amnen

mangd gangar och rum. Dar nere kunna ofta flera hundra manniskor arbeta. Nedgangen till en gruva utgor vanligen blott en smal oppning, som ser ut som en brunn man stiger ner pa branta stegar eller hissas utfor i korgar eller tunnor. I sjalva gruvan skuUe vara kolmorkt aven pa dagen, om man ej upplyste den med lampor eller bloss.
;

Conversation.

gora for att komma at maimer jordens inre? Varav bestar en gruva? Huru manga manniskor kunna arbeta i en gruva ? Huru ser nedgangen till en gruva ut?

Vad har man

fatt

Hur ypplyses gruvoma?


Words.
the earth

jorden [jutrddn]
ett

a ball

Mot

[eti klojtt]

the Isthmus the bays the peninsula

ndset Ine'sdt]

havsvikama
[hav'svi'karna]

the universe vdldsalUet[vse'dds-

aUdt]
the equator
line

halvon

[hal'vo^n]

ekvatorn

[ekva'-

round

rund

[rwitd]

moves
hemisphere
quarters
surface
linje [linih [Unijd] Hot [Jial'vJialvklot
infinite
fictitious

ror sig [rd!r siig] odndlig \oj'En^dlig\


finger ad[Ji7)jeiraa\
lik(a) [li'ka^^

kWt]
fjdrdedelar[fjss'jiddde'lar]

similar divides

yta [yta']

southern northern
flat

delar [de'lar^] sydlig [sydligl nordlig [noj'MUg^]


slat
[sh.^t]

oceaner[Q)' seaindr] the m2im-\2inAfastlandt [fas-tlan'ddt] the continents kontinenterna


[kon'tinen'tdrna']
tracts of land

oceans

wide
spitting fire

vidstrdckt
strek^t]

[vi'd-

eldsprutande [el'dsprm'tande]

landstrdckor
[lan'dstrEk^ojr] Idgland [lo'glan'd]

leads in the year

for
dr

plains,

low-

[/o.V] or pd .. . talet [otr or pot tatldt]

land streams
volcano

strommar
m'ar*^]

by the French av fransmdnnen


[stro-

[a.'vfran'smin^dn]
in the

Alps

pd Alperna
al'p9rna']

[po.'

vulkan [vulka'n]
the summits

fna^]
[top'ar-

.chain of moun- bergskedja[bser'jstams ge'dja]


strait

topparna
hojder

rocky
heights capes

klippig [klip'ig']
[hojtddr]
[ud'ar^].

sund
vdg

[sun'd]

way

[v!g]

uddar

64

Lesson 13.

Translation Exercise 24.


The earth.

The earth is round like a ball; it moves in the infinite The equator is a fictitious line, that divides the universe. earth into two similar hemispheres. Three quarters of the surface of the earth are covered by seas and deep oceans. The main-land is divided into two continents: the old and

new continents. On the main-land are high mountains, pieces of land, which are called plains, deep and vdde A mountain valleys (through) in which great rivers flow. that spits fire is called a volcano. A chain of mountains consists of several mountains. A strait is a way that leads from one sea into another sea. The Isthmus of Suez was cut by the French in the year 1870. Glaciers are heights covered with ice. There are many glaciers in the Alps. The summits of the highest mountains are covered with eternal snow. The sea-shores consist of steep capes, deep bays and rocky
the
flat

peninsulas.

Thirteenth Lesson.

The adjective
(continued).
II.

Degrees of comparison.
comparison
of Swedish adjectives is the comparative and the

1.

The

aifected

by two degrees:
A.

superlative.
Formation of the comparative.
into three

2. classes
:

The comparatives may be divided

a) The comparative which expresses a superior degree and which is formed in the regular way, that is, by adding -are to the positive.
Ex.: rik, rich; rikare, richer.

The comparative which expresses an equal deand which is formed by the words: lika or likasa gree
b)

placed before the positive.


Ex.: lika rik as poor
. .
.

as rich ....
.
.

lika or likasa fattig

The

adjective (continued),

65

c) The comparative which expresses an inferior degree and which is formed by the words: mindre or icke (lika) sd placed before the positive. icke (lika) sd rik not so rich Ex. mindre rik NB. Thaii is translated by an. As is translated by som.
:
. .

.,

Ex.

Han
He
He
B.
is

Han
is

dr rikare an min fader. richer than my father. dr icke sd stor som jag.
not so strong as I (am).

3.

Formation of the superlative. The superlative may be: attributive,

predi-

cative or absolute.
a)

by adding the syllable

when

superlative attributive is regularly formed -ast to the positive and is used followed by a noun (which may be understood).
Ex.
:

The

Bosen dr den vackraste hlomman

The rose is the prettiest flower Jag dr den yngste (sonen).


I

am

the youngest (son).


in
is

b) The superlative predicative is formed same manner as the superlative attributive, but used after the verb mm as predicate and variable.

the

only is in-

Ex.

Dessa blommor dro vackrast. These flowers are (the) prettiest

(in

German:

am
c)

jc^onften).

The superlative absolute, that


is

is

without

comparison

formed by placing such words asi mycket,


before the positive.

hogst, alldeles, ganska,

Ex.: mycket god, very good; hogst angendm, most agreeable; alldeles bid, quite blue.

Remarks.
1. The adjectives ending in -al, -el, -en, -er (unaccented) drop the vowel preceding I, n and r in the formation of the comparative and superlative.

Ex.: mogen, ripe; mognare, riper; mognast, (the) ripest.


2. Polysyllabic adjectives in -ad, -e, -se, -es, -isk and the polysyllabic participles form their comparative by

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

66

Lesson 13.

placing the adverb mera and their superlative b}' placing the adverb mest before the positive. Ex. krigisk, warlike mera krigisk ; mest krigisk.
:

3.

rative the positive.


Ex,
:

The adjectives ending in -a form their compaand superlative by adding only -re and -st to
stilla,
still
;

stillare ; stillast.

4. Notice the following adjectives which form their degrees of comparison like those in -a.

Positive.

The

adjective (continued).

67

Ex.: den rikaste fursten den vackraste fiickan det flitigaste barnet

de rikaste furstarne de vackraste flickorna de flitigaste barnen.

b)

The
Ex.

superlative predicative remains Dessa blommor dro vackrast.


is

unchanged.

c)

The superlative absolute


Singular.

declined like the


Plural.

indefinite form.

Ex.: fursten dr ntycket rik fiickan dr mycket vacker

barnet dr mycket sndllt.


E.

furstarne dro mycket rika flickorna dro mycket vackra barnen dro mycket sndlla.

6.

Irregular comparisons.
Comparative.
Superlative.

Positive.
liten (sing.),

mindre, smaller smd (plur.), smdrre, ddlig, elak (ond), bad sdmre, vdrre, worse
small

gammal,
fa,

old

bra, god, good

dldre, older bdttre, better

minst, smallest smdrst, sdmst, vdrst, worst didst, oldest bdst, best minst, least mest, most
fldsta,
est.

few

fdrre, less

mi/cfcen (sing.), much

mera, more
flera

manga (plur.), many


ndra
near.

mesta

ndrmare, nearer.

ndst, ndrmast, near-

Words.
blodbad
ba'd\
\bloj'd-

slaughter

till

doden

[ti'l

dei- to death
soldiers

ddn]

mdnnen
svek

stdt [stoif]
[sve.'k]

pomp
deceit

knektar
tar']

[knek'-

\mentm\ the men


(treachery) castle room, hall

ring

[riy!]

bodeln [boiddln]

ring the executio-

slott \sht:'\

ner

sal

[sa.'Z]

uppsyn
iron

[up'sy'ri] face,

mien,

svdrdet [svseirddt] the sword uppstdllda \up' posted


steVda}

[trco.^n]

look throne

beslutt[bdslm.'t9t] the decision avsdttning [a*t*- deposition


sif'niT)]

vdntade \vvrvtdid^''\ was awaiting dodade^de'dadds'] were killed


tillsatte [til'sat'd]

instituated

domdes [dom'dds'] were condemcourt


(of Ju-

domstol [doj'mstco'U

ned

stice) [po.^

hy Hades
dds']

[hyl'a-

was sworn
allegiance

a forhc pd forhand
forhanid] de anklagade
kla^gadd\

beforehand
the accused

[a?i*

krontes [kron'tds^] was crowned inbjudit [hvbjm^- invited


dit]

ones

68

Lesson most eminent

13.

fomdmsta
nm'sta\ visade sig

[fce'Ji-

forfoljt

\vi'-

showed
self

him-

fom

[fce'v-

persecuted

avsatt [a'vsaf^

matte straffas
samtyckte [sam'tyk'td]

nddig [no'dig^]
tankte
\t7)'td^'\

clement

thought
distinguished
called together

should be punished consented

framstdende
[fram'sto'dndd]

uppkallade [up'karadd]

'it [de'lta^git] partaken deliagit [c befallde [bdfaT- commanded

dd']

samlades
'dds]

[sam'la'- assembled

std

till

rdtta [sto^ to sue at law

til! ret'a']

mork

[mcer!k] satte sig [sat'd']

gloomy
sat (upon)

avgjord [a'vjcor^d] decided fordes ut [fcR'ji- were led out


d9s' uc't]

framtrddde
[fram'tre'dd]

appeared

avrdttas[a'vrt^as] be executed.

begdrde

[hdjseirdd]

demanded

Reading Exercise 25.


Stockholms blodbad.
hyllades Kristian II sasom Sveriges konung och kronStockholm med stor stat. Till hogtidlighetema hade han Han inbjudit de fornamsta mannen i riket och deras fruar. visade sig iiadig mot alia, men i sitt sinne tankte han pa svek. En dag i november 1520 blevo de mest framstaende svenskarna uppkallade till Stockholms slott. De samlades i en sal pa slottet. Konungen kom in med mork uppsyn och satte Infor honom framtradde nu Gustav Trolle sig pa sin tron. och begarde, att de, som forfoljt och avsatt honom, matte straffas. Konungen samtyckte hartill och befallde, att alia, som deltagit i beslutet om Gustav Trolles avsattning, skulle sta till ratta infor en domstol, som han tillsatte. Domen var pa forhand avgjord: de anklagade domdes till doden. Darpa fordes de ut till att avrattas. Pa Stortorget voro danska knektar uppstallda i en ring, och inom denna viintade bodeln med svardet. Nu dodades 82 av de fornamsta svenskarna.
tes
i

Nu

Conversation.

Vem

hyllades sasom Sveriges konung? Var krontes han? Vad skedde under dessa hogtidligheter? Vad vet Ni om detta blodbad?

Vilket ar agde det

rum?

Vad begarde Gustav Trolle? Vad befallde konungen?


tillsattes domstolen? vad domdes de anklagade? Hum manga av de fornamsta svenskarna dodades?

Av vem
Till

The

verb.

69

Words.
gold
silver

guld,

-et

[gul'd] -n
[pla'-

blast-furnace
steel

masugn,
suy^n]

-en [ma'-

silver, -vret[sil'vdr]

platinum, pla- platina,


tina

stdl, -et [stoH]

heavier than tyngre

an

[tgyrd'

metals
lead iron

metaller, -na [metal'dr]

en.']

precious
fusible

bly, -et [bly!]

dyrbar [dy'rba'r\ smdltbar [smel'tba'r]

jam,

-et

[jseUn]
[ko-

copper
mercury,
quick-silver the ore
iron-plate
tin

koppar, -en
p'ar']

smelts
easily

smdlter

[smel'tar''] latt [htt]

kvicksilver, -vret [kvik'sirvdr]

hard
ductile are dug out

hard

[hoidd]

malmen {maHmdn]
jdrnbleck,
tenn,
ten.']

tdnjbar [tsn'jba'r] graves ut [gre'vds'


m.'t]

-et

[jds'Miblsk^]
-et

smelted
or

smalt

[smelit]

[ten!

dipped is used
to solder

doppad

[dop'ad']

brukas [brm'kas']
loda [le'da'] (Mir rostigt
<

tin-plate

Ijusbleck, -et
blek']

[jiit's-

[bli.'r

cast-iron

gjutjdm,

-et [jut't-

rusts

ros'tig't]

mixture
coal

jeeUn] blandning,

-en

damp
brass

Iblan'dniy'] kol, -et \kotl\

[rostar [ros'tar'] fukt [fuktt] massing, -en[mS'-

]'

Translation Exercise 26.


Metals.
Platina Gold, heavier than silver; it is the heaviest metal. Precious metals are not the most useful. Lead is more fusible than iron; it smelts very easily. Copper is not so heavy as quicksilver. Silver is harder than gold and more ductile than copper. The ore as well as most metals are dug out of the earth. Iron-plate dipped into smelted tin becomes Cast iron is a mixture of iron and coal. Tin tin-plate. is used to solder other metals. Iron rusts easily when exposed to damp weather. Cast iron flows out of blast-furBrass is not so hard as steel. naces.
silver
is

and platina are precious metals.

Fourteenth Lesson. The verb.


1. The Swedish language has four conjugations which are distinguished by the termination of the

supine.

70

Lesson 14.

The termination of the supine


-at for
-t

is:

the P* conjugation. 2^^



S'-^

'tt
-it

4*^

The first three conjugations are called regular conjugations and the fourth irregular or strong conjugation.

2.

or

weak

First conjugation.

3.

The
-erttj

first

conjugation contains the verbs en-na, -ra, -ska, -sa

ding in

-iga^

-la,

and

-ta.

It takes:

-ade in the imperfect indicative. -ad in the past participle. -at in the supine.
4.
Indicatiye.

Alska^

to love.

Active volee.
Sul)juiictive.

Present.
I
S.

loye

etc.

I
S.

love or

may

love

etc.

jag dlkaf"

du dlskar' han dlskar


P. vi

dlska dlsken

de dlska.

or dlska du dlske or dlska han dlske or dlska. P. vi dlske or tna dlska I dlsken or dlska dlska. de dlske or

jag dlske

md md md

man

md

Imperfect.
I
S.

loYed

etc.

jag dlskade du dlskade

S.

P. vi

han dlskade. dlskade I dlskaden


de dlskade.

P.

I loved or might love etc. jag dlskade or skulle or matte dlska du dlskade or skulle or matte dlska han dlskade or skulle or matte dlska. vi dlskade or skulle or matte dlska

I dlskaden de dlskade
Perfect.

or skullen or mdttefti dlska or skulle or matte dlska.

I
S.

P.

have loved etc. jag har dlskat du har dlskat han har dlskat. vi hava dlskat I haven dlskat de hava dlskat.

have
S.

or

may have loved

etc.

jag

P.

md hava dlskat du md hava dlskat han md hava dlskat. vi md hava dlskat


I man hava
de

dlskat
dlskat.

md hava

The

verb.

71

Pluperfect.
I
S.

had loved

etc.

I
S.

had

or

might have loved


or skulle
> > >

etc.

P.

jag hade alskat du hade alskat han hade alskat vi hade alskat I haden alskat de hade alskat.
Future.
I
S.

P.

jag hade du hade han hade vi hade I haden


de hade

or

skulle skulle skulle skullen skulle

> >
> >

matte matte matte matte mdtten matte

Conditional.
etc.

shall love

I
S.

should love

etc;

jag skall dlska

du skall dlska han skall dlska.


P. VI

skola dlska skolen dlska de skola dlska.

jag skulle dlska du skulle dlska han skulle dlska. P. vi skulle dlska I skullen dlska de skulle dlska.
Conditional past.

I shall
S.

Future past. have loved

etc.

I
S.

should have loved

etc.

jag skall hava dlskat du skall hava dlskat

jag skulle hava dlskat du skulle hava dlskat

P. vi skola

hava dlskat. hava dlskat I skolen hava dlskat de skola hava dlskat.
skall

han

han

P. vi skidle

hava dlskat. hava dlskat I skullen hava dlskat de skulle hava dlskat.
skulle

Imperative.
dlska,
love.
let

Infinitive.
Pres. Perf.
Int.

dlskom,

us love.
ye.

dlska, to love. hava dlskat, to have


skola dlska,

loved.

dlsken, love

to be about to love.

Participles.
Pres. Perf.

dlskande, loving. havande dlskat, having


dlskat,
loved.

loved.

Sup.

Passive voice.
Indicative.

Subjunctive.
Present.
I
S.

am

loved

etc.

he or

may he loved

etc.

S.

jag dlskas du dlskas

han dlskas.
P. vi

dlskas

I dlskens
de dlskas.

jag dlskes or md dlskas du dlskes or md dlskas han dlskes or md dlskas. P. vi dlskes or md dlskas I dlskens or man dlskas de dlskes or md dlska.

72

Lesson 14.

Imperfect.
I
S.

was loved

etc. S,

jag dlskades du dlskades Tian dlskades.

P. vi

dlskades

P.

7 dlskadens
de dlskades.

I were or might be loved etc. jag dlskades or skulle or matte du dlskades or skulle or matte han dlskades or skulle or matte vi dlskades or skulle or T/ia^^e I dlskadens or skullen or mdtten de dlskades or sfcwZ/e or wdffe

Perfect.

have heen loved etc. S. Ja^ ^ar dlskats du har dlskats han har dlskats. P. vi hava dlskats I hava dlskats
de hava dlskats.

have
S.

or

may have heen

loved,

jag

ma

hava dlskats

The

verb.

73
been loved.

Supine: (ilskats
Note.

passive voice is also formed by the auxiliary verbs <hlivai> and ^vara^ and the participle perfect past.

The

jag Mir (dr) dlskad etc., I am loved. jag blev (var) dlskad etc., I was loved.

Irregular verbs of the


Infinitive.

I.

Conjugation.
Imperfect.
hette

Ind. Present,
Sing.
Plur.

Supine.
hetat

heta

to

be

named

heter

heta

kunna
leva veta
vilja

to be able to live
to

kan
level"

kunna
leva veta
vilja

kunde
levde
visste
ville

kunnat
levat vetat
velat.

know

vet
vill

will

Words.
utlopp [m'tlop^]

mouth

salt-sea saltsjo [sal'tfo^] holmar [hol'mar^^ islets halvdar\hal'v0ar^\ peninsulas

around kring [kriy.'] utgores av \m't- are formed out


jo'rds
a.'v']

of

skilda [fil'da^]

separated
filled

sund, vikar

pi.

[sunJd']

straits

uppfyllda [up'

up

[vi'kar^]

JyMa]
lummiga[lum'iga'] bushy
sjdlv [fsl'v]
itself

ldvskog[l0'vskoj'g^ foliage dungar [du7far'] clumps soder [so.'ddr] south malmenlmal'mdnl the suburb djurgdrden [jui'r- the zoological

ddrigenom

[d.'ri-

thereby
divided

goUddn]

garden
the ghost parliament-

je'n'om] delat [de'laf] at soder [o.'t

se.'-

to the south to the north in the west in the east

anden

[an'dd'n]

riksdag shuset
[rik'sda'gshm'
S'dt]

house
sluice vessel

slussen [slus.'dn] the fartyget [fa'rty'- the


gdt]

ddr] at norr [o!t nor!] i vaster [tV ves.'tdr] i oster [i' os.'tdr'] oster om [os.'tdr
om.']

to the east of

strax

intill

quite near

allt

kunglig [kuy'lig'] royal ever since ifrdn [altt


ifroin]

begravna

[strakis intiH] [6a-

buried

gra'vna'] hredvid\hre'dvitd] close to


tvdrton^tvBBJi-tom''] vice versa vanligtvis [va'n- usually liktvi^s] beldgen [bdUigdn^ situate(d)

helgeands [hd'jd- of the Holy Ghost an'ds]


bygffd [byg;d]
built

ndmligen [nem'ligdn']

namely
new.

ny

[ny.']

Reading Exercise

27.

Stockholm. Stockholm ar en av de vackrast belagna stader i Europa. Hela trakten kring Malarens utlopp i ^Saltsjon" utgores av sma oar, holmar och halvoar, skilda av sund och vikar samt

74

Lesson 14.

uppfyllda av sma branta berg, skogar och lummiga lovskogsdungar. Sjalva Stockholm ligger pa flera holmar och halvoar och ar darigenom delat i flera delar: I mitten ligger Staden'' pa en holme mellan Norrstrom" och Soderstr6m" at soder Sodermalm'',atnorr Norrmalm" samt ^Kmigsholmen" i vaster och Ostermalm*^ i oster. Oster om Staden" at ^Saltsjon" till ligga Skeppsholmen*' och ^Djurgarden'^ Staden'' ar Stockholm aldsta del. Har ar det Kmigliga Slottet" och pa en liten holme strax intill ligger Riddarholmskyrkan". dar konungarna allt ifran Gustav II ligga begravna. Pa en annan
;

holme, ,,Helgeandsholmen'', ligger det nya Riksdagshuset". Bredvid ^Soderstrom" ar en sluss byggd for fartyg, som skola ga fran Malaren till ,,Saltsj6n'* eller tvartom; vattnet i Malaren star namligen vanligtvis hogre an i Saltsjon''.
Conyersation.

Ar Stockholm en vacker stad?

Av vad
Pa vad

utgores trakten kring Malarens utlopp


ligger sjalva

Saltsjon ?

Stockholm? I hum manga delar ar Stockholm delat? Vilka aro Stockholms viktigaste byggnader? Vad ar byggt det bredvid Soderstrom?
Words,

buildings

hyggnader\hyg'nad^dr]

professors

Idrare

\l'rard^\

merchant
lesson

kopman [gd'pman^]
lundervisning [uwj

head-master \iskol)fdrestdndare I [foTdston^dard]


dormitories

ddrvis^niy] [lektion [Ukfcotri]

sovsalar
lar]

[so'vsa'-

children
is

ham

\haiji7i\

conducted forvaltas
valtas]

[foR'r-

dining-rooms
infirmary

matsalar [ma'tsa^lar]
IS

composed bestdr av [bdsto'r


of
a.'v]

sjukrum
rum^]

[fuck[skco'l-

spacious
quiet

rymlig \rym'lig^^
stilla
\stil'a^'\

school-rooms
teachers
of

skolrum
rum']

scolded

grdlade
la^dd]

pa

\_gr'-

languages drawing master rard\ writing master skrivldrare[skri'vU^rard]


singing

sprdkldrare[spro'kh^rard] ritldrare [ri'tU'''

was whisper- viskade [vis'ka'dd]


ing
industrious
polite

flitig [flitig'] hdvlig [ho'vlig']

indulgent
[soj}'-

skonsam

[skco'n-

sdngldrare
W'rard]

master
pupils
class

Idrjungar
juy^ar]

[Ise'r-

blames punishes
strict

rooms

klassrum

[klas'-

impartial

sam'] tadlar [tad'lar^^ straffar \^straf'ar^'\ Strang \stry^ opartisk [oj'par^tisk].

The

verb.

75

Translation Exercise 28.


The School.
one of the finest buildings in the town. The school is It is conducted by a very learned director. composed of three spacious dormitories, two dining-rooms, an infirmary, four class-rooms. We have three teachers of (for) modern languages, a Latin and Greek master, a drawing master, a singing master, a writing master and two other teachers. Pupils must be quiet in the class-room. Our teachers are very strict but impartial. Are all present to-day? No, four pupils are absent they must be ill. Our director scolded the merchant's son because he was always whispering during

Our school

is

parents

Industrious and polite children are loved by their Is your master indulgent? Yes, he blames us often but punishes us very seldom.
the lesson.

and masters.

Fifteenth Lesson.
Second conjugation.
belonging- to the second conju 1. are divided into two classes: gation a) To the first class belong all verbs the root of which ends in -k, -p, -s, -t, and contains one of the

The verbs

weak vowels
-te
't

a, y, o,

e,

i.

These verbs take:


in the imperfect indicative. past participle. -t in the supine. To the second class belong all verbs the root
in the

b) of

which does not end


a, y,
o,

in -k, -p,
,
i.

-s,

-t,

but contains one

of the vowels:

-de in the

imperfect indicative.

-d in the past participle. -t in the supine.

Kopa,

to buy. Active voice.


Indicative. Present.

Boja,

to bend.

Passive voice.

S.

jag

du han

76

Lesson 15.

Imperfect.
S.

jag

S.

jag

du > han J
P. vi

kopte.

bojde.

du > han J
P. vi

koptes.
koptes.

hojdes. hojdes.

kopte.

bojde.

I
de

kopten.
kopte.

hojden.
bojde.

I
de

koptens.
koptes.

bojdens.
hojdes.

Note. The compound tenses of the Indicative and the Subjunctive etc. are conjugated with the same auxiliary verbs as the verb: dlska, dlskas.

The

verb.

77

78

Lesson

15.

Words.
uppfarten
fa^rtdn]
\up'the ascent
lifts

dngslupar
Im'par]

[^oy's-

steam-launch
slopes ,

hissar

[his'ar''^

stupar

[^stui'par^']

sinks

jamvdgar [jx'dn- railways


ve'gar]

down
Idtta {let'a^^ facilitate s. k. sd kalladid) so called

tunnlar [tun'lar'''] tunnels promenadplatser walking


[prco'mdna'dplafsdr]

place

[so.'kal'add']

finnas
(the)

[jin'as^^

are found, there are

kungstrddgdrden
[kuystrEgo'rddn]

King's

garden (the) Hopgarhumlegdrden den \hum'ldgo'rddn\ operahus [oj'pdra- opera house

underground [un'ddrjojUdisk] innehdller [ind'containSjholds


historisk \histcjtTisk'\

underjordisk

historical

hm^s]

nationalmuseum
[nat'fojna'lmiase^urri]

national

mu-

tvdrsover

[tvsej,'-

through

seum
artistic(al)

se'vdr] bekant [bdkanti]

known
leads
also

konstsam lingar
[kon'stsam^liyar]

leder [le'ddr^]

collections

ock

lokf]

sandds [san'do^s] sand


bergds [bxr'jo^s] ridge
seger
kdr\
[se.'gdr]

ridge

talrik [ta'lri^k]

numerous
visited

besokas [bdso'kas^] are

victory
facto-

bekvdmt [bdkv7n!t]

comfortably

fabriker

[fabrit- works,
ries

avdelning [a'vde%

division

park

[paM^k]

stockholmare
[stok'hormard]

park Stockholmers

Jiotta [Jlot'^'} forlustelsestdlle [fcerlus'tdlsdsterd]


slot'n]

navy
pleasure

ground
pleasure

lustsloiten [lus't- the

omgivningar[om'- environs
jivniy^ar]

castles

spdrvagnar[spo'r- tram-cars.
vay^nar]

Beading Exercise 29.


Stockholm.

Sodermalm stupar brant


dit

at sjon.

har

man

tva

s.

k.

hissar.

For att latta uppfarten For jarnvagarna finnas tva

langa underjordiska vagar, s. k. tunnlar. A ,,Norrmalm,. ligga Stockholms tva fSmamsta promenadplaster, ^Kungstradgarden'' och ^Humlegarden'', samt Operahuset och Nationalmuseum, som innehaller statens historiska och konstamlingar. Tvarsover Norrmalm*' gar en sandas, Brunkebergsasen**, bekant genom Sten Stures seger over danskarna; genom denna as leder ock en tunnel. Pa ,.Kungsholmen'* finnas stora fabriker. Vid Skeppsholmen" ligger en avdelning av svenska flottan. Djurgarden ar en vacker park med talrika sommarbostader; den ar stockholmarnas forniimsta forlustelsestalle. Mycket besCkas ocksa de i Stockholms niirhet liggande kungliga lustslotten ^Haga**, ^Ulriksdal" och j,Drottningholm".

The

verb.

79

Mellan Stockholms olika delar avensom till dess omgivningar kommer man latt och beqvamt med sparvagnar och angslupar.
Conyersation.
ar brantast? Var ligga Stockholms tva fornamsta promenadplaster ? Vad kallas de? Var ligger en avdelning av svenska flottan? Vilka aro stockholmarnas fornamsta forlustelsestallen ?

Vilken

malm

Words.
the tTa.desm3inhandlanden[han'dlan'ddn] business, pi. affdrer [afsridr]
creditors

fordringsdgare
Ifoj'rdriyse'gard]

debitors

gdldendrer
ne'rdr]

[jel'dd-

goods
profit

var or gods
^

[va'-

r(j)T\ gcot^s]

manager
bills

disponent
nenit]

[dis'pco-

vinst

[vin.'st]

tradesmen
the merchant
clerks

handlanden\han'dlan'ddn]

vdxlar

[vek'slar^]

receipts
[co'p-

kvitton [kvit'ojn^]

kopmannen
tojrisitdr]

man'dn] kontorister [kon'-

commercial code
losses

handelsbalk [han'ddlsbal'k]

forluster
lus'tdr]

[foRV[6a-

book-keeper
cashier
traveller
office

hokhdllare \ha)'khoVard] kassor [kaso.'r] [handels]resande


[re'san'dd]

balance-sheet balanskonto
lay'skon^toj]
assets

(tillgdngar) aktiva ak[til'goy^ar,


tiv!a]

kontor
tco'.r]

(neut.) [kon-

liabilities

(skulder), passiva [skul'ddr, pasivia]

merchandise
customers
orders
I

handelsvaror
[han'ddlsva'rcor] kunder [kun'ddr^]

does

buys
sells

gor [joir] koper [p0-ar']


forsdljer [fcersel'jdr']

luppdrag

(neut.)

[up'dra^g] bestdllning[bdstl'-

employs
sends out

my']
order-book
invoices

^bok orderl
bco'k]

\D'j,ddr

sysselsdtter [sgs'dlsd'dr] utsdnder [m'tsen'ddr]

imports
exports enter

fakturor
tm'rojr']

infor [in'fqr'] utfor [m* ftfor'] inskriva [in'skri^


va]

correspon-

brewdxUng \bre'vvek'sUy]

dence
agents

make
attend

out

utstdller
rdv]

[uctste[bdsoe'r-

ombud, agenter
[om' bm'd,agn.'tdr]

besorja
Ja']

cash-book
invoice-book

kassabok
bco'k]

[kas'a-

fakturbok
tm'rboj'k]

[fak[la'gdr[hui'-

keeps pays
receives

for

[for^]
\up'bser''\

betalar [bdta'lar']

uppbdr

stock-book
ledger

lagerbok
boj'k]

signs
is

undertecknar [wvddrtek'nar]

Jiuvudbok vudbo/k]

bound

dr tvungen
tvuy'dn'']

[fer'

80
take stock
ascertain

Lesson 16.

inventera
tetra]

[in'ven-

in compliance

with to
properly
regularly

enlighet med hV 'nligh&t meid]


[ve'-

utrbna [m'tre'na]
overskrida [0'vdrskri'da]
hilligt [bil'ig^t]

vederborligen
ddrbce'rligdn

go beyond

cheap
dear

dyrt
.
.

[dyji't]
. .

yearly

now an ... an [sn! enf] therefore ddrfor [dser'fc&r] now


.

easy
or

regelmdssigt [regdlmesHgt] drligen [o'rligdn'] latt [Ut^


eller [elidr]

Translation Exercise 30.


Commerce.

The tradesman does business; he buys goods and sells them again with a profit. Tradesmen buy now cheap now dear. The merchant employs several clerks, a book-keeper
and a cashier in his office; he sends out travellers to every part of the world to sell and buy goods; he therefore imports and exports all kinds of merchandise. The clerks enter
the travellers' or customers' orders in the order-book, make out invoices and attend to the correspondence with the The book-keeper keeps the agents, travellers or customers. cash-book, the ledger, the invoice book and the stock-book. The cashier pays the merchant's creditors and receives The manager signs the letmoney from his debitors. In compliance with the ters, invoices, bills and receipts.

commercial Code in France every merchant is boimd keep books properly and regularly and take stock every year that he may ascertain his losses or profits. The balance sheet shows whether the assets go beyond the liabilities. It is then easy for the merchant to ascertain his
to
profits.

Sixteenth Lesson.
Third conjugation.
1. To this conjugation belong monosyllabic verbs and a few others
ie,

all
:

the following

to

ske, to
bo, to

show happen
dwell

sno, to twist tro, to believe

varsko, to
sy, to

warn

bero, to depend glo, to gape

sew

gnOf to rub
gro, to shoot forth sko, to shoe

bry, to trouble, to bother trd, to long for


ro, to
fly,

row

to flee

The
gry, to dawn sky, to shun spy, to spit, to vomit md, to be, to feel forma, to be able

verb.

81

sd,

to

sow

forebrd, to reproach fid, to skin feM, to strike forsmd, to disdain


spa, to foretell, to predict dtrd, to long for.

nd, to reach to take after


J

brd[s],
I

to resemble

2.

These verbs take:


'dde in the imperfect indicative. -dd in the past participle. -tt in the supine.

Tro,
Active voice.
Indicative.

to believe.

Passive voice.
Indicative.

Subjunctive.
Present.

Subjunctive.

S.

jag

S.

du
Tian P. VI

tror.
tro.

md md
md

jag

tro}
tro. tro. tro.

du han
P. vi

tros.

md md
md

tros.^

tros.

I
de

iron.
tro.

man

I
de

trons.
tros.

mdn

tros. tros. tros.

Imperfekt.
S.

jag

S.

jag

du
han
P. vi

trodde.
trodde.

trodde.^

du
han
P. vi

troddes,

troddes.^

trodde.

I
de

trodden, trodde,

trodden. trodde,

I
de

troddes. troddes. troddens. troddens. troddes. troddes.

Note. The compound tenses are conjugated in the as the verb: dlska, cilskas (page 70).

same manner

Imperative.
tro P. tron.
S. S. tros.

P. trons.

Infinitive.

tro.

tros.
Participle.

troende.

trodd.

^ The simple form of the subjunctive is antiquated and consequently no longer used. ^ The periphrastic forms are like those of the verb dlska, dlskas. Elementary Swedish Grammar. g

82

Lesson 16.

Supine,
trott.

trotts.

Note. The 1st person plural of the imperative mood is formed with the auxiliary verb ^Idta^ and the personal pronoun oss.

Ex.: Idtom oss tro,

let

us believe.

Irregular Verbs of the III. Conjugation.


Indicative.
Infinitive.

Pres.
Sing.
Plur.

Imp,
Sing.
Plur.

Supine.
dott

Participle,

do

to die

dor

do

dog
jick

dogo
jingo

dod

(adj.)
-et

fd

r
se
^

to get to go to

fdr gdr
lev

fd ga
le

gick
log

gingo
logo

fdtt gdtt
lett

(und) fdngen, gdngen, -et

laugh

to see

std to stand sld to beat

ser stdr sldr

se std sld

sag stod
slog

sdgo stodo
10

sett

sedd
(ut)

sett

stdtt

stdnden,
-et.

-et

slagit

slagen,

Words,

kyrkosocknar
[ccer'ksok'nar]

parishes

naturshdnhet
tm'rfonhe't]

[na- beauty of nature

hatften [heltftdn] the half avsatser [a'vsaf"-. shelves


Sdr]

ndra

[ne'ra']

near

trappsteg [trap'ste'g]

stairs

brett [bretf] wide, broad omfatta [oirvfafa] to comprise, to cover

jdmn
stone

[jemtn]

flat

stenart [ste'na'ut] species of

hoja sig [hoja' si'g] to rise liknande [li'kresembling


nan^dd]
tredje [tre'djd^]
third

sandsten [san'dste^n]

sandstone

alunskiffer
[a'lunfif'dr]

alumish slate
lime stone
trap^ firwood

hard [hoUd]
ak^tig]

hard

svartaktig \svax't- blackish

kalksten [kal'kste^n]

ddr uppe
up' 9^

[dstr

up there
to

trapp [trapf] barrskog [bar'skco'g]

vdxa
odlad

[vek'sa^]
[boR'.idig'']

grow
,

b ordig

fertile

hygd [bygtd] kyrka [fcer'Ara'] herrgdrd [hsergo^jid]

country church

[co'dlad'^]

tilled

culti-

vated
stdtlig
ligt]
[sto'tlig^'\

manor house
the view the plain surface

splendid
infinitely

odndligt [wend^skull [skul']

utsikten [m'tsik
tdn]

sake
travellers.

sldtten [sUttdn] yta [yta^]

resande [re'san'dd]

its

* an igneous rock (a variety of dolerite or basalt presenting a stair-like aspect.

named from

The

verb.

Reading Exercise

31.

KinuekuUe. Det markvardigaste av Vastgotabergen ar KinnekuUe. Det ligger invid Vanern/) ar nara 300 m. hogt, 14 km. langt och nara halften sa brett. Det omfattar tre hela kyrksocknar samt delar av fern andra. Det bildar icke en jamn sluttning,
utan hojer sig i avsatser, liknande stora trappsteg. Varje avsats bestar av en sarskild stenart den lagsta av sandsten, den andra av alunskiffer, den tredje av kalksten. Toppen innehaller en hard svartaktig bergart, som kallas trapp. Dar uppe vaxer barrskog; bergets ovriga delar utgora en bordig och val odlad bygd, med kyrkor och statliga herrgardar. Utsikten over bergets lagre delar samt over hela Vastgotaslatten och Vanerns vida yta ar oandligt vacker, och KinnekuUe besokes for sin naturskonhets skull mycket av resande.
:

Conversation.
Vilket ar det markvardigaste av Vastgotabergen? Vid vilken sjo ligger KinnekuUe? Hurudan ar dess sluttning? Varav besta dess avsatser? Ar utsikten over bergets lagre delar vacker?

For vad besokes KinnekuUe? Av vilken bergart bestar toppen?


Words.
the seasons drstidema[o'rstrof the year ddrna\ the trees trdden [trcddn^] the weather vddret [vetdrdt] this year i dr [it otr]
fruit

temperature

temjperatur
psratut^r]

[tem.[bloj-

blossoms
favourable
is

blommor
m'cor^]

gynnsam
sam']

[jyn'-

frukt [frukU]

nature natur(en) [natmtr] the crop, the skdrden[J CR'rd9n^] harvest

commenced borjas [bcer'jas'] intet under


[in'tef untddr]

wonder

under \un!d9r]
tdr]

no wonder

foga underligt
[frffs,' un'ddrligH] ej att undra

bathing places badorter[ba-dco^rthe leaves the days

pd

bladen

[bla'ddn*]

[j.'

at'

un'dra' pof\

dagama
man
na^]
I

[da'gar-

hot
it is

people
in wet ther

[mant]

getting cold

het [he!t] det blir kallt

vdtvdder
[vo'tvs'ddr]

dark
early

mork

[kalit]

[mortk]

wea

vid
'

tidigt

(pd dagen)

ruskvdder
[rus'kvE^ddr]

[ti'dig't]

Strang,
short best

hdrd

the sick climate

desjuka[de!furka^]

[streyt hoird]

klimat
matt\

(neut.) \kli-

kort bast

[kco!rt]

[besit]

a famous lake in Sweden.


6*

84

Lesson

17.

dogdays

rdtmdnad

(sing.)

seems
begin
to fall
is

[ro'tmo'nad] there will be det shall finnas


[skali Jin'as']
to smile

synes \sy'n9s^] borja [bcer'ja^] falla ned [fal'a'


netd]
[nalkas'']

smdle

everything
to revive

[smo'le'] allting, allt [al'tiy'


altt]

coming on nalkas

to catch cold
to recover

forkyla sig

[foer-

leva

upp

igen
i'jdn']

[leva''

up!

gyla' sitg] tillfriskna [tilfris^kna].

Translation Exercise 32.


The seasons of the years.
Spring is the season that I like best. Trees are white If the weather is favourable this year, with (av) blossoms. All nature smiles and everythere will be plenty of fruit. thing seems to revive. We have had a warm summer; the No wonder that it is so harvest has already commenced. hot we are in (pa) the dog days. During the whole summer we dwell in bathing-places. In autumn it is not so hot as

Leaves begin to fall; days become shorter. summer. In the morning it is getting cold winter is coming on. Winter is very cold in Sweden. People catch cold very easily in wet weather. The sick must spend winter in a warm climate In the month of December it is dark early. to recover. How can people be fond of winter! The days are so short and the temperature is so low.
in
;

Seventeenth Lesson.
Fourth conjugation.
Strong verbs.

1.

The strong verbs are characterized by vowelin the

changes of their root

a)
2.

Imperfect Indicative.

They The first group contains the verbs

are divided into three chief groups:


the root of

which undergoes but one vowel-change in the singular and in the plural of the Imperfect Indicative.
According to the change of the different rootvowels the verbs belonging to the first group may be
divided into 9 classes.

2nd

86

Lesson

17.

Olbservation.

It results from the above that the verbs belonging to the first group are characterized:
1.

by a simple change of the root- vowel in the Imperfect Indicative;

2.

by the preservation of the root-vowel


Supine
;

in

the

whereas those belonging to the second group are characterized


:

1.

by a double change of the root-vowel


perfect Indicative;

in the

Im-

2.

by the vowel in the Supine and Past Participle which is always u.

c) The third group contains all the irregular verbs belonging to the 4 conjugations. The irregular tenses will be given in the text as they occur or in the vo-

cabulary.
3. Besides the different changes undergone by their root- vowels, the strong verbs are also characterized

by the following terminations:


-en in the
-it

Past Participle.
Supine.

4.

Gripa,

to seize

The

verb.

87

Imperfect.
S.

jag

S.

jag

du han
P. vi

grep.

band.

du han
P. vi

greps.

bands.

I
de

grepo. grepen. grepo.

bundo. bunden. bundo.

I
de

grepos. grepens. grepos.

bundos. bundens. bundos.

Subjunctive.
Present.
S.

jag

S.

jag

du han
P. vi

gripe.

binde.
binde.^

du han
P. vi

gripes.
gripes.^

bindes.
bindes.^

gripe.^

I
de

gripen.
gripe.

binden.
binde.

I
de

gripens.
gripes.

bindens.
bindes.

Imperfect.
S.

jag

S.

jag

du han
P. vi

[
)

grepe.^

bunde. bunde. bunden. bunde.

du han
P. vi

[
I

grepes.^

bundes.^

grepe.

grepes.

I
de

grepen.
grepe.

I
de

grepens.
grepes.

bundes. bundens. bundes.

Imperatiye.
S.

grip.

bind.

S. grips.

binds.

P.

gripom.
gripen.

bindom.
binden.

P.

gripoms.
gripens.

bindoms.
bindens.

Inflnitiye,

gripa,

binda.
Participle.

gripas.

hindas.

gripande. bindande.
Supine.
gripit.

gripen.

bunden.

bundit.

gripits.

bundits.

The compound forms

are conjugated after <^alska page 70.

88

Lesson 17.

vis^t^^^t^^^^^
a

^^

-"^

s -^

.-ts

'Sj-^

ill ill

IIP! i*iri'l-ili:&il i Nl
-"^ .-s
.-t-

--^

:t:j

-to

.-t^

vS -1

-'^s

t^-:ts ,^
.*>i

"^

."tS

."^

S i

"<

.-t^

I U^~r

Wliiiiffliiiiijiife

ifiitti-PliiillHiiliilli! ^ '^^-^'?i,'^<2, ^^ ^ ^
^o ^5'^o ^o ro ro
'ts

'^

Qi

.<

,^

;:s ;;5-:2

5^!^o^

The

verb.

89

:5>i

S-

^^
c5

''.*

'-

''-

<=^

c/j

'^^oS,g. cc "^ so CO
?~

i:

S>

g ^

i:

g ^'^

?^-g 53,1

g^^ ^M

II ill

g
o c

CO

cc

cc

90

Lesson 17.

Words,
anfallet [an'fal'dt] the attack framgdng [fram'- success gonv']

utstd [m'tsto']
dterse
[o'tdrse^']

to

undergo

to see again
first

fienden [Ji'dnddn^] the enemy

forsta [/cers^a'] skedde [fed'd^]


vek
[ve.'Jc]

took place

truppema
p'drna']

[tru- the troops

gave way
got
to

oordning
niv\

[oj'o^Jid-

disorder

rdkade [ro'ka^dd] passa pd [pas' a'


anfalla [an'faVa'\

watch

skarorna
corna^]

[ska'r- the bands

to attack

kulregnet \km'l- the shower of


rty'dt]

hdstbdr
bo'r]

[hes't-

the bullets stretcher

bar [6o.V]

(borne by a horse) stretcher, bar-

overwhelm man'a] soon snart [snaji^t] spridde [sprid'd^] spread Idt [UH] caused, let to shoot to sonderskjuta
[o'vdr- to

overmanna

row

undkomma
kom'a]
[dra'ga^^

moda

pieces [sdn'ddrfm'ta] [un'd- to escape


to

[me'da^]

difficulty,

dterstoden
sto/ddn]

trouble \o'tdr- the rest

draga (undan)

with draw

medfora [me'dfo'ra]

to bring along

Turkiet \turkiidt Turkey


turkisk
[tur'ikisk' turkish

ndrbeldgna
bdlg''na]

[ne'r- neighbouring
to

omrdde \om'ro^dd

territory

befdlhavare \bd- chief commander ftlha'vard] fdlttdg [fd-tto'g] campaign disaster olycka [oxlyk^a^

sdra

[so'ra^^

wound

utmatiad [uct mafad]

exhausted
to to

formd
rddda,

[/cermo/]
sig.
I
'

fdngama
[fov'arna']

the prisoners

be able run away


one's
self

to save

lidanden

[li'dan^- sufferings

[red'a^']

ddn] dterstd [o'tdrsto^] to remain

modlos [moj'dWs] disheartened giva sig fdngen, to surrender


[ji'va''

ddribland
lan'd]

[de.'Hb-

among

si'gfoydn^]

fd

[foi]

(one's self) few, a few.

Eeading Exercise 33.


Slaget Tid PoltaYa.

Det forsta anfallet skedde med framgang, och fienden Men da rakade de svenska trupperna i oordning; ryssarna passade p, och anfollo dem samt overmannade snart de spridda svenska skarorna. Konungen lat fora sig omkring i det varsta kulregnet liggande pa en hastbar; men baren blev sonderskjuten och konungen undkom med moda pa sin hast. Aterstoden av haren drog sig, medforande konungen, undan till den niirbeiagna floden Dnjepr, som har bildade gransen mellan Ryssland och Turkiet. Sarad och utmattad formaddes konungen att med n&gra hundra man radda sig over floden in pa turkiskt omrade. I den aterstaende svenska
vek.

The
liaren

verb.

91

voro befalhavarna och en del av trupperna modlosa och haren, som nu bestod av omkring 14,000 man, daribland 5,000 sjuka och sarade, gav sig fangen at Ryssarna. De svenska fangarna fingo i Ryssland utsta Endast fa av dem atersago faderneslandet. ja lidanden.
efter falttagets olyckor,

Conversation,

Skedde det forsta


i

anfallet vid Poltava

med framgang?

Vad gjorde Ryssarna, da de svenska trupperna rakade


oordning?

Hur fordes konungen omkring? Huru manga man blevo sjuka och sarade?
Vid vilken flod gav sig den svenska haren fangen at

Ryssarna?
Words.
the visit at the door

besoket [bdso'kdt]

to
to

knock

knacka

[knak'a^]

pa dorren
do&r.'dn]

[po
[vi'd

who?

vem?

[vem!]

by the
side

fire-

vid

harden

be pleased glddja sig [glsd'ja''] ever since alt sedan [se'dan'']


to greet

hsedtddn]

a cup
I

en kopp [kopt^

hope

jag

hoppas

[ho!

p-as']

take a seat, please!


to

hdlsa [hel'sa^] ivar so god och tag \vair so plats


gojtd

1
y

oktatg

good bye!

farvdl (sd Idnge)

how

are you ?

huru

[farve'l so Uy'd'] star det till [hm'rm' stoir det tilf]

be

will

you

[mo!] Ni [viU nit\ itack! \takt]


vill

ma

plates]

from
sit

me

jag tackar
(I)

\_jatg

frdn mig
rnitg']

[fro'n
neid]

thank you<

tak'ar']

tackar sd mycket
{^siti

sitt

ned

\\tak'ar^ so my'kdt']
to call for

long

no
to stay to to

Idnge {ley'd'-'] nej [nejf]

/comma
itn]
i

in \kom'a'

stanna

[stan'a^]

to-day
I

hear

(erfara [erfa'ra'] ^fd veta [fo ve'ta^]

am

sorry

det

dag [^ datg] gor mig ont


[det
conif].

jotr

mitg

do

gora

[jo'ra^]

Translation Exercise 34.


The
Visit.

knocks at the door? Go and see who it is and It is Mr. Holm, the teacher of modern open the door. I am very pleased to see you. How are you? languages. It is an age since I saw you Take a seat, please! Sit on this chair by the fire-side; it is so cold. I am very Will you not take a cup well, but I have been very ill. of tea? I have No, thank you; I cannot stay longer. only called to hear how you are. I have much to do and

Who

92

Lesson

18.

must go back to the country to day. Another time I will stay longer with you. I am sorry that you cannot stay longer I hope to see you again soon. I thank you for your visit. Good bye! Greet your father from me.

>.

jag

du han

x^uxiliary verbs.

93

4.

To these should be added the


maste and fa.
3.

following

kunna,

viljay

kunnaf

to be able.
Imperfect.

Present.
S.

jag

du han

kan.

5.

6.

7.

94

Lesson 18.

ldgland[lo'gldn'd] lowland with regard tx) till [me^d hen'sy^n tilf] fjdlhnark \_fjd'- mountainous land mdr'k] tdthet [ts'he't] density

med hdnsyn

glest [gles't] befolkad [bdfolkad'] hogldnta [ho'glen^ta]

thinly

peopled

upper

nordlig [noj'rdlig^] northern


tat
[te.'t]

inhyggare [in'by- inhabitants


g'ard]

dense

l>el>ygyci

[bdbyya^]

to inhabit,

to

folkslag [fol'ksla^g]

race

look [m'tse^dndd] sprdk [spro'k] language on both sides pa orase sidor om'sd' si'[poi
dco'v]

utseende

people tdtare bebyggt more densely \tE'ta^rd bebyg!t] peopled sdrskilt [sas'rjil^t] particularly '

vars
tola

[vaj.^s]

of which,

[to'la^']

besldktad
.

\bd-

(whose) to bear akin


to resemble.

bade

och

as well ... as

[bo'dd' okr\

shk'tad'] likna [lik'na^^

sydlig [sydlig^]

southern

Reading Exercise 35.


Sveriges folk.
I jamforelse sydligare lander ar Sverige glest befolkat. I synnerhet galler detta om de hoglanta trakterna och allra mest om de nordliga skogs-och fjallmarkerna. Tatare bebyggt ar laglandet, sarskilt de sydliga slattlanden, till exempel Skane, vars sodra och vastra delar med hansyn till folktathet tala jamforelse med de battre befolkade trakterna i Europa. De fiesta av Sveriges inbyggare aro till nationen svenskar. I nagra trakter bo finnar och lappar, som aro beslaktade folkslag; de likna

Sverige bo over 5 miljoner manniskor.

med

varandra bade
finska gransen, pa omse sidor
till

till

utseende och sprak.

Finnarna bo nara

men nagra aven i de stora skogar, som ligga om Dalarna. Lapparna bo i fjalltrakterna ner
Conversation,

Harjedalen.

Hum

manga manniskor bo

Sverige?

Ar Sverige sMedes

tatt eller glest befolkat?

Vilken provins ar folkrikast? Vad kallas Sveriges inbyggare? Vad vet Ni om Finnarna och Lapparna? I vilka trakter bo dessa bada folkslag?

Words
post postcard

post [pos/^l brevkort [bre'vkcou^t]

envelope

kuvert [kmvcM't]

stamp
universal postal

frimdrke
mser^ka]

\_fri'-

telegraph telegraf\te'ldgraif] postal order post anvisning

union

vdrldspostforening \vssr ds pos'tfo^reniy]

[pos'tanvis^niy]

The numerals.
postman
letter

95

hrevhdrare [hre'vbe^rard] brev [breiv]

non-postpaid ofrankerad [oj'fraifkerad]


to deliver

avldmna [a'vhm^na] senast [se'nas't]

double
postage

dubbelporto
b'dlpojCtoj]

[dulatest

abroad
wire,telegram

utomlands [m'tomlan'ds]

to register

rekommendera
[re'komendetra]

telegramm
graTnf]

[te'ld-

words
figures
electric

ord [io!dd] tal \tail\


elektrisk
trisk]
[eleki-

post office

postkontor
kon^cor]

[pos't-

value
ters to

vdrde

[vse'rdd'']

invention
to despatch

uppfinning
finHy]

\up'-

printed mat- trycksaker


sa''kdr]

\tryk'-

avsdnda
da].

[a'vsen''-

send

skicka

[^fik'a^^

to belong

tillhora [tiVho^ra]

Translation Exercise 36.


Post and telegraph.
letter-paper and envelopes, if you wish Will you give me two penny your brother. stamps, and a post card. With postal orders one can send money to all the countries, that belong to the universal postal union. The postman has delivered me a non-postpaid letter; I therefore had to pay double postage. The postage of letters This wire was despatfor abroad is two pence half-penny. ched at nine o'clock; I should have received it at twelve Go to the post office and have these letters o'clock latest. registered. On registered letters (containing) enclosing banknotes, the actual value should be written in words and figures on the envelope. The electric telegraph is one of the most remarkable inventions of modem times. The post-man delivers letters, news-papers and printed matters twice a day. I have not been able to buy I had this letter registered.

You must buy


to

to

write

stamps, for the post

office

was

shut.

Mneteenth Lesson.
The numerals.
I.

Cardinal numbers (Grundtal).


f),

1.

en {m and
tvd,
tu,

ett (n)

one

fern, five

tvdnne, two tre, trenne, three fyra, four

sex, six
sju,

seven

dtta. eight

96
nio, nine

Lesson

19.

trettio,

thirty

Ho, ten
elva, eleven
tolf,

fyrtio, forty

twelve

femtio, fifty sextio, sixty


sjuttio,
dttio,

tretton, thirteen fjorton, fourteen femton, fifteen

seventy

sexton, sixteen
sjutton, seventeen

aderton, eighteen nitton, nineteen


tjugu, tw^enty
2.

eighty nittio, ninty hundra, a hundred tusen, a thousand en miljon, a million en biljon, a billion
noil,

nought.

In compound numbers between units are added as in English.


Ex.
3.
:

20100

the

femtio

fern,

fifty-five.

the hundreds and in the thousands the smaller number is placed before as in English. Ex. tre hundra, three hundred. fyra tusen, four thousand.

In
:

4. Tvenne designates two persons or things belonging together and is used instead of tva. Hundra and tusen may be used as nouns 5. and are neuter.
Ex.:
ett

hundra,

ett tusen.

6.
2
-|-

Note the following expressions:


gor
is
i

= 4 that

tvd och (plus) tvd

=2 2X2 = 4* 2 4 = 2 4 2 = 2
2
: :

fyra. lika tned minskat wied tvd \ dr (etc.), tvd. f fyra tvd ifrdn fyra \ j blir tvd. tvd gdnger tvd gor (etc.) fyra. tvd i fyra gor (etc.) tvd.
j )

dr

fyra genom tvd gor

(etc.)

tvd I

^**

|f ^"/^^^^

In the year is translated by the 7. (year) placed before the numeral. Ex.: In the year 1830: dr 1830.
II.

word a

Ordinal numbers (Ordningstal).


fjdrde, fourth

8.

forste, -a, first

andre,

-a,

second

femte, fifth
sjdtte, sixth

tredje, third

The numerals.
sjunde, seventh dttonde, eighth
fjortonde, fourteenth

97

tjugonde, twentieth
trettionde, thirtieth

nionde, ninth tionde, tenth elffe, eleventh


tolfte,

fyrtionde, fortieth

twelfth.

trettonde, thirtheenth

femtionde etc., fiftieth hundrade, hundredth tusende, thousandth.

number

compound ordinal numbers the greater placed before the smaller number, which takes the termination of ordinal numbers as in English.

9.

In

is

Ex.

fyrtiosjunde, 4:7th (and not fyrtionde sjunde).

III. Collective

numbers
ett

(Samlingstal).

10.

ett

ett

par, a pair (couple) dussin, a dozen

a score en gross, a gross.


tjog,

IV. Fractional
11.

numbers

(Deltal).

The

fractional

numbers are formed

in

Swe-

dish by adding

the particle -del (part) to the ordinal

numbers.
Ex.
:

en tredjedel, a third.
tvd tredjedelar,

two

thirds.

V. Proportional numbers.

12.

The proportional numbers are formed by


-dubbel or -faldig to the cardinal

adding the particles: numbers.

Ex.: tvddubbel or tvdfaldig, twofold. treduhhel or trefaldig, threefold.

The hours of the 13. in the following way: pressed


Hvad dr klockan? What
Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan

day and night are exis it?

time (o'clock)

dr ett, tvd, sex. It is one, two, six o'clock. dr half tvd, It is half past one. dr ire kvart pd (till) fern. It is a quarter to five. dr en kvart over tre I ^^ .^ ^ -i^^^^^ t^^^^^ ar en kvart pa fyra ) dr 5, 10 minuter over tvd. It is 5.10 m. past two. It is (wants) (dr) fattas 5, 10 minuter i sex. 5.10 m. to six. Huru dags? At what time?
Elementary Swedish Grammar.

98

The numerals.
to celebrate
p.

jira [^'ra']

last

m.

(in the

pa eftermiddagen
ef'tdvmid^a[_po gdri] avresa [a'vre'sa]
this

forliden ddn]
day week
i

[fcerli^-

afternoon)
to set to miss

dag am

dtta da-

gar till [i datg om


ot'a, da'gar'' tiV]
[se-'n]
[i

komma for
till

sent

late this

sen

[kom'a' for
[nes.t]

morning

morgan
on']

mor'-

senit til]

next

ndst

to leave

was born

foddes

[fod'ds^]

o'clock

avgd [a'vgoi] klockan [khk'an'].

Translation Exercise 38.


Age.

you? I am twelve years old. My brother Next month my father will be forty-four. Last is twenty. week my mother was thirty years old. She does not look so old. The teacher is a man of fifty years (of age). Is he so old? Your grand father will soon be eighty years old. When was your sister born? She It is a great (hog) age. was born on the 17^^ of January 1899. This day week we
old are
will celebrate

How

my

elder brother's birth- day.

The Hour.

What
It
is

o'clock is it?
it

not very late;

is

Can you tell me what o'clock it is? only two o'clock p. m. At what

time will you come to me to-night? I will await you until To morrow I will set out for London and as nine o'clock. the train leaves at nine o'clock, I will be at the station at a quarter to nine, not to miss the train.

Words.
rdknesdtt [re'kud- rule
SEf]

multiplikator

multiplier

de fyra rdknesdtten [de fyra'

the four rules

[murtiplika'tor'] faktor [jakitor] factor dividend dividend [di'vi-

addition

[adHt-

addition

dentd] division [di'vi-

division

fojin] term [tasrim]

term

kvot
total

fcoin]
[kvco't]

quotient
to
is

summa

[sum'a']
^

sum,

sammanldgga
[sam'anh'g^a] kallas [kal'as']

put
gether

to-

suhstraktion

subtraction

minuend

[sub'strakfojtn] [mi'nuienid] subtrahend [suh'rest

(are) called

to add [adefra] uppkomma [up'- to result

addera

kom^a]

trahn.'d] rest [rssH]

sammanldggande
[sam'anhg^andd] subtrahera [sub*- to subtract
trahe'ra]

skillnad \jil'nad'] difference

multiplikand multiplicand [muVtip likanJd]

forra

[/cer-a']

(the) former

7*

100

Lesson
(the) latter
to multiply

19.

senare [se'nard']

utvisa [m'tvi^sa]

to

show

multipUcera
[multiplise.'ra]

produkt

[^proj-

product
to divide

gemensam[^jeme'n- common
multiplikation multiplication [murtipUkafoj^n]

duktt] dividera [di'videtra']

divisor \divi'sor^^ divisor storlek lstoj'rle%] quantity.

Reading Exercise 39.


De fyra raknesatten.
Addition.

Att sammanlagga tal kallas aven att addera


tal,

som adderas, kallas termer, och det uppkommer genom deras sammanlaggande, summa.
dem.
Talen,
kallas
storre

som

Subtraktion. Att draga ett mindre tal fran ett storre, aven att subtrahera det forra fran det senare. Det
o

kallas minuend, det mindre subtrahend. stoden kallas, rest eller skillnad.
talet

Ater-

Multiplikation. Att multiplicera ett tal med ett annat ar att taga det forra sa manga ganger, som det senare utvisar. Det forra talet kallas multiplikand, det senare multiplikator bada tva med ett gemensamt namn, faktorer. Det tal, som uppkommer genom multiplikation kallas produkt.
:

Division. Att dividera vill saga att dela ett tal i sa lika stora delar, som ett annat tal innehaller enheter. Det forra talet kallas dividend, det senare divisor. Det tal, som visar storleken av var och en av de delar, i vilka dividenden blivit delad, kallas kvot.

manga

Conyersation.

Vad gor 8 till 10? Vad gor 3 fran 15? Vad gor 5 ganger 9? Huru manga ganger innehalles 4
Words.
time
tid [ti'd]

12?

October

oktober \okt(oibdr\

January February

januariljan'uicu'ri]

November
December
ordinary

november [ncovem'bdr]

februari
bruiairi]

[/e'-

december
bdr]

[desem.^-

March
April

mars maj

[maM's]

april lapriit]
[maji] juni [jmtni]

vanlig [va'nlig^^

May
June
July

Monday
Tuesday

mdndag \montdag\
tisdag [tiisda'g^

juli {jiatli}

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday Saturday

onsdag

\(l)insdag^^

August September

augusti \a(^gustti^ September [septem:bdr^

torsdag [tMUsda'g]

fredag tfreidag]
lordag ilo^trdag]

The pronouns.
Sunday
leap year

101

sondag [son'dag]
skottdr
[skot'or'']
\ti'md^'\

name
minute second

namn

{namtrt]

hour

timme

minut \minmtt] sekund [sekunid].

Translation Exercise 40.


Time.

There are four seasons of the year. These are: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Spring begins on the 21st March, Summer on the 22^^ of June, Autumn on the 22^^ September and winter on the 21st of December. An ordinary year has three hundred and sixty five days and a leap year three hundred and sixty six days. A month is the twelfth part of a year. The twelve months are January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December. The first, third, fifth, seventh, eighth, tenth and twelfth months have thirty one days, the second, twenty ei^t in an ordinary year and twenty nine in a leap-year, the fourth, the sixth, the ninth and the eleventh months have thirty days. A month has four weeks and a week seven days. The names of the days are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. A week is the fourth part of a month and a day the seventh part of a week. A day has twenty four hours, an hour sixty minutes and a minute sixty second.
:

Twentieth Lesson.

The pronouns.
There are in Swedish 7 kinds of pronouns 1. the personal, possessive, demontrative, determinative, relative, interrogative and indefinite pronouns.
:

A, Personal

2.

(Personliga).

First person.
(Masc,
fern,

and
N.

neut.)

Singular.
N. G. D. A.
jag,
I

Plural.

min, av mig, my (of me) (at) mig, to me, me mig, me.

we G. vdr, av
vi,

oss, our (of us)

D. (at) oss, to us, us A. oss, us.

102

Lesson 20.

3.

Second person.
(Masc,
fern,

and
N.

neut.)

Singular.
N. du, thou
G. din, av dig, thy (of thee) D. (at) dig, to thee, thee A. dig, thee.

Plural.

(Ni)y you.

G. Eder (Er,avEr),Yom of you. D. (at) Eder, Er, to you, you A. Eder, Er, you.

4.
Masculine.

Third person.
Feminine.

N. han, he G. hans, av honom, his (of him) D. (at) honom, to him, him A. honom, him.

N. hon, she G. hennes, av henne, her, of her D. (at) henne, to her, her A. henne, her.
Neuter.

Common

gender.

N. den, he, she G. dess, his, her D. (at) den, to him, to her A. den, him, her.

N. det, it G. dess (av det), D. (at) det, to it A. det, it.

its

(of it)

Plural
for all genders.

N. de, they G. deras (av dem), their (of them) D. (at) dem, to them, them A. dem, them.
In conversation 2V"u is used instead of I> and ansNote. wers to the English polite form you>. M> is also commonly used in narratives, novels etc. but it is not generally accepted as a mode The title or name of the individual addressed is of social address. more frequently used with the third person of the verb.
Ex.:

Huru mar grevenf How are you. Count? Har doktom varit i Paris? Have you
Paris, doctor?

been in

Du
like

Ar fru Smith sjukf Are you ill, Mrs. used between intimate friends, German ,,bu" and French tu.
is
//'

Smith? relatives,

5.
I.

B. Possessive (Agande).
Adjectival possessive pronouns.

My.
Singular. Masc. and fern. N. min, my G. min, of my (my) D. (at) min, to my,

Plural
Neuter.
for all genders.

N. mitt,

my

G. mitt, of my (my) D. (at) mitt, to my,

N. miiia, my G. mina, of my (my) D. (at) mina, to my,

my
A. min, my.

my
A. mitt, my.

my
A. mina, my.

The pronouns.

10^

6.
Singular.
Masc. and fem.

Our.
Plural
Neuter.
for all gender.

N. far, our G. vdr, of our (our) D. (at) vdr, to our,


our

A. vdr, our.

N. vdrt, our G. vdrt, of our (our) D. (dt) vdrt, to our, our A. vdrt, our.

N. vdra, our G. vdra, of our (our) D. (dt) vdra, to our,


our

A. vdra, our.

7.
Singular.
Masc. and fem.

Thy.
Plural
Neuter.
for all genders.

N. c?m, thy
G. cZm, of thy, (thy) D. din, to thy, thy

N. <ZzY^, thy G. ditt, of thy (thy) D. (dt) ditt, to thy,


thy

A. din, thy.

A.

ditt, thy.

N. dina, thy. G. cZma, of thy (thy) D. fa^:; cZwa, to thy, thy A. dina, thy.

8.
Singular.
Masc. and fem. N. eder (er), your G. eder[s] (er([s]),
of your, (your)

Your.
Plural
Neuter.
for all genders.

N. edert G. edert D. (dt)

(ert), your. (ert),

of

N. edra (era), your G. edra, of your,


(your)

your, (your)

D.

("d^j

ec?er fer), to

edert

(ert),

D.

your, your A. eder (er), your.

to your,

your

A. edert

(ert), your.

edra, to your, your A. edra, your.


("a^J

9.

His.

Her.
N. hennes, her G. hennes, of
(her) D. Ta^j hennes, her, her A. hennes, her.
her,
to

Its.
N. G.
c?ess, its
c?ess,

N. hans, his
G. /iaw5, of his (his)

of

its

(its)

D.

C<t)

^a?is, to his,
his.

D. fd^j dess,
its

to

its,

his

A. hans,

A. dess,

its.

10.
N.

Their.
c^eras, their

G. c?eras, of their, their D. (a^) deras, to their, their A. deras, their.

104

Lesson 20.

11.

Reflexive possessive pronouns.


Plural
Neuter.
for all genders.
fern.

Singular.
Masc. and

N. sin,
G. sin,
its

his, her, its

N.
G.

sitt, his,

her, its

N. sina,
their

his, her, its,

of his,
sin,
to

her,
his,

sitt, his, her, its

G. sina, of his, her,


its,

their
his,

D.

(at)

D. (at) A.

her, its

sitt, her, its

to

his,

D. (at) sina, to
her,
its,

their

A. sin,

his, her, its.

sitt,

his, her, its.

A. sina,
their.

his, her, its,

12. Sin^ sitt, sina are used in a subjective reflective sense, that is when they refer to the subject of the sentence, whilst hans, hennes, dess and deras are used objectively, that is when they do not refer to the

subject of the sentence.


Ex.:

Han
He

(gossen) dlskar sin broder (syster). (the boy) loves his brother (sister).
(flickan) dlskar sin broder (syster). girl) loves her brother (sister).

Hon

She (the

Det (bamet) dlskar


It (the child) loves its

sin broder (syster). brother (sister).


sitt

Han
He

(fadern) dlskar

barn.

(the father) loves his child.

Hon

(modern) dlskar sitt bam. She (the mother) loves her child. Det (fruntimret) dlskar sitt bam. She (the wife) loves her child.

De

(gossarne, Jlickorna, barnen) dlska sina broder. They (the boys, the girls, the children) love their brothers. Gossens fader soker hans bok (gossens bok). The boy's father is looking for his book (the boy's book). Flickans moder soker hennes bok (flickans bok). The girl's mother is looking for her book (the girl's book). Bamets broder soker hans bok (barnets bok). The child's brother is looking for its book (the child's
book).

De (gossames
They

fdder, jlickomas modrar, broder) soka deras bok.

barnens

(the boys' fathers, the girls' mothers, the children's brethren) are looking for their book.

II.

Absolute possessive pronouns.

These pronouns have the same forms as 13. the adjectival possessive pronouns and are declined in the same manner.

Tue pronouns.
Singular. Neuter. Masc. and fem.
Plural.

105

min,
din,
sin,

mitt, mine ditt, thine


sitt, his, her, its

mina, mine
dina, thine
sina, his, hers,
its

sina agree in gender and number with the possessed object whereas: is used when the object is possessed by a masc. noun. hans
sitt,

vdr, eder, er, Note. Sin,

vdrt, ours edert, ert, yours.

vara, ours.

edra

(era), yours.

hennes
dess

deras

>:> >>
C.

>

> >

fem.
neut.

plural

14.

Demonstrative (Utmdrkande). I. Conjunctive (Forenade).


Singular.

Masc.
N. cZew or denne, G. (dens) dess or denne,

Fem.

Neut.

den

or denna, dess or denna,


(at)

det or c?ef^<2, this dess or detta, of this,


this
(at) det or c?e^^a, to this, this

D.

(at)

den

or denne,

den
or

or

denna,

A. den or denne,

den

denna,

det or c^e^^a, this.

PZwraZ
.

(for the 3 genders).

N. G. D. A.

de or dessa, these cZeras or dessa, of these, these. (at) dem or dessa, to these, these. cZem or dessa, these.

Note. In conversation this is expressed by den liar, det Jidr by den ddr, det ddr, the following substantive taking the terminal definite article.

and

that2>

Ex.: den hdr gossen, this boy. det ddr barnet, that child.
II.

Absolute

(sjdlfstdndiga).

The absolute demonstrative pronouns have the same forms as the conjunctive ones and are declined in the same manner but take an s in the genitive,
whereas the conjunctive pronouns remain unchanged, the following noun only taking an s.
Ex.:

Denne

(conj.)

mans sjukdom dr
is

farlig.

This man's disease

dangerous.

Se hdr dessa

omf Jag

(conj.) tvd rosor! vilken tycker Ni bdttre tycker bdttre om dennas (abs.) fdrg men

jag tycker mycket

om

dennas

(abs.) doft.

106

Lesson 20.
See these two roses!
colour
(very)

which do you prefer?


but
I

of

this

one,

like

the

I prefer the smell of that one

much.

Words.
environment, surroundings intryck \in'try^k'\ impression ndrvaro \n8srpresence
[om'ji'vniT)]

omgivning

vdrme

[vser'md']

warmth

exterior yttre Yyttvd] kdnnbar l^en'bar] sensible

ddrstddes

[de'r-

there
stingy

va^roj]

mdtta

\mot'a^'\

measure,

mo-

sU^dds] mg:\ njugg [njugt]

deration

hdrdsint irdsir

id-

rough
tender
friendly

avbrott [a'vbrof] interruption

overgdng [0V9r-

transition

dm

sin't]

[oTw/]
\ven'lig^'\ {has-tig^']

Nordbo[nco'udbco^] Northerner alternativ [artdr- alternative

vdnlig hasiig

sudden
to

forbereda [fo'rbdre^da] _ fysisk [jy!sisk]

prepare

natHv] kold [gdltd']


hetta yhet'a^^

cold

heat
coolness to refresh

moralisk
lisk]

[M

physical

[mojra.'-

moral
alternately

svalka [sval'ka^^

uppfriska
jris^ka]

[up'\bil'-

skiftevis [fif'tdvi's]

bildande

formative
to lack, to be

ndrande
ran'dd]

[ns'-

nourishing

dan''dd\ sakna [sa*A;na']

mognande
[moj'ynan^dd]

maturing.

lacking

Reading Exercise
Nordens natur.

41.

Den yttre omgivningens maktiga intryck gor i norden sin narvaro latt kannbar. Naturen ar darstades Strang, ofta
njugg och hardsint.

Den kan ocksa vara om och

vanlig,

men

ar det da vanligen utan m^tta. Det hastiga avbrottet av vinter och var, host och vinter, genom ingen overgang forberedd, utan liksom smygande sig fram, ar just en bild av vad nordbon ar i sitt inre. I den fysiska som moraliska

varlden harska skiftesvis dessa alternativ av kold och hetta; det som ligger daremellan, den uppriskande svalkan, den det ar vad som saknas. narande, bildande mognande v^rmen

Conversation.

Hurudan ar naturen

norden?

Kan den ocks^ vara mild?


Hurudan ar Overgangen till de 4 arstiderna? Vad liknar nordbon i sitt inre? Vad saknas i norden?

The pronouns.

107

Words.
bird

swallow

stork bird of pas- jiyttfdgel [flyt'sage fo'g9n ndktergal \nk'tdrnightingale

fagel [foigdl] svala [sva'la'^ stork [stoxiU]

thrush field-mouse
siskin

trast [trasit]

dkerrdtta

[o'kdr-

gronsiska
sis'ka]

[gro'n-

cuckoo
pheasant
singing-bird

cage titmouse nest robin

ga'n bur [bm!r]

gok [i0-A:] fasan [fasa.^n]


sdngfdgel
fo'g9l]
[soif-

mes

[me's]
[fo'gdlbco^]

fdgelho

magpie
quail net

skata [ska'ta^]
vaktel [vak'tdV^

rotgel [rojtigel]

\ug'la^^ steglitsa [ste'glitsa] feathers (plu- fjddrar [fje'drar']

owl

uggla

gold-finch

ndt \nett\ fiyga [flyg'a^']


i

yesterday
to sing to chirp
twitter)
(to

gdr

\i

go'r]
[Juv'a,']

sjunga

mage)
female
partridge
lark

kvittra [kvit'ra^^

hona [hco'na'-] rapphona [rap'ho^na]

ugly
to destroy to build
to shoot

ful IfmtT] [stdira\ forstora [foer-

Idrka

\lseji'ka^^

bygga

[byg'a']

huntingsman jagTYidstare
[jeg'mes'tard]
snipe

to chatter

sndppa

l^snep'a^']

skjuta [/m'^a'] iprata [pra'ta^] [snattra [snat'ra^

Translation Exercise 42.


Birds.

Swallows and storks are birds of passage; they fly to Do you see this countries, when it becomes cold. nightingale? I caught it yesterday; it sings the whole day in its cage. The young tit-mice are chirping in their nest. The robin is a pretty little bird. These ugly birds are owls; however they are very useful, because they destroy field-mice. Your gold-finches and siskins are very beautiful; where did you buy them? Their feathers please me very much. The cuckoo does not build any nest; its female lays her egg in

warmer

My pheasants are greater than partridges have you shot? I did not shoot them; I caught them with nets. Larks are the first singing birds in Spring. When a man talks too much, it is said of him, that he chatters like a mag-pie . The sportsman has shot twelve larks, six quails and so many thrushes.
the nests of other birds.
yours.

How many

108

Twenty-first Lesson.

The pronouns.
(Continued).

D. Relative pronouns

1.

(relativt

pronomen).

The

relative pronouns are:

vilken

(masc. and fem.), who, that; vilket (neut.), which, that; vilka, who, which, that (for the three genders).
det,

S,

dem

^^^' ^^^^^^
\

^^^^

vad, which.

Singular.

Masc. and fem.


N. vilken, who, that G. vilkens, whose, that
1).

Neuter.

(at) vilken, to

whom,
that.

that

A. vilken,

whom,

N. vilket, which, that G. vilkets, of which, that D. (at) vilket, to which, that A. vilket, which, that.

Plural
(for the three genders).

N. G. D. A.

vilka,

who, which, that

vilkas, whose, of which, that (at) vilka, to whom, to which, that

vilka,

whom, which,
indeclinable

that.

and may be used for all Like the English relative pronoun that, <^som- genders. is never governed by a preposition. Ex.; 1. Mannen, som (vilken) star pa hryggan dr min
Note
1.

Som

is

fader.
2.

The man, who stands on the Gif mig kdppen med vilken

bridge, is
("not

my

father.

^som) du

slog

min hund.
3.

Jag kdnner

the stick with which you hit my dog. ej till flickan som Ni talar om. I do not know the girl that you are speaking of.

Give

me

the relative pronoun is in the objective the preposition connected with the pronoun is placed at the end of the sentence, the relative pronoun may be left out, as in English.

Note

2.

When

case or

when

The pronouns
Ex.

(continued).

109

Det vin, jag kopte dr icke goU. I bought is not good. Ben flickan jag talade om dr

The wine

gift
s.

(i.

s.

of:

om

vilken).

The
Note
3.

girl I

spoke of

is

married

(i.

of: of

whom).

Instead of the genitive, vilkens, vilkets, vilkas, vars (antiquated genitive of var) is often used. Ex.
:

Define konung, vars dygder man prisar sd mycket This king, whose virtues are praised so much
.

Note 4. The antecedent of a relative sentence generally drops the terminal article when the independent article is placed before it.
Ex.
:

De darner (damerna) som du


icke.
I

talar om, kdnner jag


of.

do not

know

the ladies you are speaking

are not very much used and are Note 5. Den, det, always used in the dative and accusative case.

dem

Ex.

De booker, dem jag kopte dro for min moder. The books that (which) I bought are for my mother.

E, Interrogative pronouns (interrogativt pronomen),

1.

2.

The interrogative pronouns are: vem? who? which is always used substantively > vad? what?
2.

and occurs only


3.

in the singular.

vilken? (m. and f.) who? vilket? (n.) sing, vilka? for the three genders

what? In the

4.

(what?) in the plur. and adjectively and is declined as the relative pronouns: vilken, vilket, vilka^ page 108. vilkendera? (m. a. f.) vilketdera? (n.) which of the two (these)?
vad for en? (m. of?
a. f.)

who? which? can be used substantively

5.

vad for

ett? (n.)

which kind

6.

hurudan ? (m. a. f.) hurudant ? (n.) hurudana ? plural for the 3 genders is always used adjectively and

means how
7.

is?

who? is obsolete or poetical language.


ho?

and only used

in biblical

110

Lesson

21.

3.

vem? who? vad?

which?

Singular. N. vem? who? N. vad? what? G. vems? whose? G. vars? of what? D. fdfj vem? to whom? D. faf) vad? to what?
A.

vew? whom?
Ex.:

A.
star

vad? what?

Vem

Who

framfor huset? stands before the house?

At vem giver du applet? To whom do you give the apple? Vad Jiar Ni sett? Intet.

What have you seen? Vilka hooker har han


Which
4.

Nothing.

last? books (has he) did he read?

mination

Vilkendera is declined like vilken, the ter-dera remaining unchanged except in the genitive which admits of an s.
Vilkendera af dessa
(tvd)

Idrjungar dr sjuk?
is ill?

Which of these (two) pupils Vad for fdglar dro dessa?

What

5.

(sort)

kind of birds are they?

Vem

is used for persons, vad for things. Vilken is used for persons and things.

F. Indefinite prononns (Obestdmda


1.

pronomen),

man, one, they, we, you (or passive voice). -ensj Dat. and Ace. -en.
nagoUf nagot, nagra^ any, some, somebody.

Gen.

2.

3.
4.

annan^ annatj andra(e)y other.


var och en
(ett) ;

en

(ett)

var(t), all

and every one,

each, every.
5.
6.

varje (indeclinable).

vem

heist;

vad

heist;

vilken

som

heist j

whoever,

whatever.
7.

bada and bagge^ both.


allj
alltj

8.
9.

alia, all.

hel, helt, hela,

whole, entire.

10.

mangen, manget, manga.,

many

a.

The pronouns
11. somliga^ some. 12. flere or flera, several.

(continued).

Ill

NB.

The

indefinite

pronouns admit of an s in the genitive

like the substantive.

G. Correlative pronouns. Declension.


Singular.

Masc. and
N.
G. D. A.

fern.

Neuter.

den, he, she dens, of him, of her (at) den, to him, to her den, him, her.

N. G. D. A.

det,

of ^he one (at) det, to it, to the one det, it, the one.

it,

the one

(for

Plural both numbers).

N. de, they G. deras, of them


D. (at) dem, to A. dem, them.

them

Observations.
a) This

pronoun

is

almost always immediately

follo-

wed by
Ex.
:

the relative pronoun ^som^. Den, som fruktar Gud, dr sail. He who fears God is happy. De, som dro rika, dro icke alltid de lyckligaste. They who are rich are not always the happiest.

b) It may also be used with a noun and then it becomes a determinative pronoun and drops the s
in the genitive case. Ex.: Den som, fruktar Gud dr sail. The man who fears God is happy.

man

Den mans dygder som


The
virtues of the

man who

c) In the dative and accusative cases dem changes into de' when followed by a substantive. Ex. Gud dlskar de man, som dro dygdiga.
:

God

loves the men,

who

are virtuous.

112

The deponent
meat
thirst

verbs.

113
tillsdtta [til'sst'a] drickbar \drik'-

mat
torst

[matt]
[toejitsti

to prepare

drinkable

Rhine-wine
eatable rancid
to

renskt vin {rsniskt


vitn\

ba'r]

sour
indigestible
I

dthar [e'tha^r] hdrsken [hed'skdn']


hdrskna[hx'skna']

become

am

thirsty

sur [smtr] osmdltbar [co'smeVtbar] jag dr torstig [jaig


setr tcex'stig']

rancid to harvest
to please

skorda
falla
i

[/(B'dda^]

to

quench
I

sldcka

[shk'a''

smaken
smaJkdn]
to use

[fal'a'' i

' j

nourishing

behaga [bdha'ga^] ndrande [n'ra7i'd9]

bruka [brw/ka^] hava for sed [ha'va'' for setd].

Translation Exercise 44.


Food.

Who
become

has sold you this butter?

it is

not eatable;

it

has

The wine that I have harvested in my vineyards pleases my customers. Brandy is distilled from wine. What meat do you prefer? I prefer beef to veal. What did
rancid.

you eat at luncheon? My luncheon usually consists of roast ham, eggs and a piece of cheese. In Germany they drink beer, wine and other beverages. Fresh eggs are nouAt breakfast we drink coffee with milk, chocolate rishing. or tea and we eat sandwiches. The salad is prepared with salt, pepper, oil and vinegar. This wine is not drinkable; it has become sour. Ham, sausage, and bacon are indigestible meat. I am thirsty; I will drink a little wine with water to quench my thirst. Eat this cake and drink a cup of tea. What sort of wine are you fond of? I am very fond of Rhine wine. After each meal my father used to drink a small glass of brandy and to smoke a cigar.
beef,

Twenty-second Lesson. The deponent verbs.


1. A deponent verb is a verb, which is conjugated in the passive form whilst having an active meaning.
Note
the supine.
1.

The deponent verbs form

their

compound

tenses with

Note
the
,9

2.

when

The present participle of the deponent verbs retains alone and drops it when followed by a noun.
g

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

lU
2.

Lesson 22.

The

four Swedish

conjugations contain de:

ponent verbs, of which the principal are


yst Conjugation, andas, to breathe. dagas, to dawn. hoppas, to hope.

2Qd Conjugation (cont^).

rddas,

to be afraid.

svettas, to sweat.

tdras, to weep.
vistas, to stay, to sojourn. avundas, to envy.

to be ashamed. synas^ to appear. tyckas, to seem. vdmjas, to be disgusted.

skdmmas,

2/vas, to boast.

5rd
hrn<i ^^^^

Coujugation.

2nd Conjugation.

* ressemble. \ \ to take after.

behovas, to want. dvaljas, to dwell.

^th

Conjugation,
is.

minnas,

to recollect.

bitas, to bite, ^/in-s (^(C?e;fj, there

Pronominal verbs.
The conjugation of the pronominal verbs is 3. formed with the help of the personal pronouns which are placed after the verb; the auxiliary verb is hava.

Example. Beklaga sig, to complain.


Indicatiye.
Present.
Perfect,
I

Jag beklagar mig, du beklagar dig,


plainest.

complain. thou com-

jag

liar beklagat

du har
hast

mig, I have beklagat dig, thou


73

han hon
det
vi

\
)

he beklagar sig, she


it
i

complains.

det
vi

''
\

it

beklaga oss, we beklagen eder, you de beklaga sig, they

complain.

hava beklagat
we

oss,

>

/ haven
they

beklagat eder, have


sig,

S o o

and so

forth.

you de hava beklagat

Words,
samtid [sam'ti^d] (contemporaneous) epoch; age

drottning \drot'niy']

queen

diadem

[di'ads.'m]

diadem
sceptre
election,

fomtidlfco'mti^d] antiquity
eftervdrld [ef'tdr- posterity vseUd] tanke {taij'kd^^ thought metal metall [metalt] sldkt [slekit^ generation storhet [stco'rhe^t] grandeur

spira [spi'ra^'] val [vaU]

choice

krona [krco'na'] fdrddmjukelse drag [drdtg^^


nedstiga\nedstVga]

crown
humiliation
feature
to

descend

The deponent
kejserlig [cej'Sdr- imperial

verbs.

115
to revolve, roll

rulla {rul'a^^

to

%']
enda

fullkomna

only [eWfZa'l (ful'- to achieve


satisfied, con-

senaste [se'nas'td] future


to explain tyda \ty da^'\ de dodlige [do'd- the mortals
lig'd]

kom'na] nojd [noj.'d]

tent,

pleased

nedldgga
leg^a]

[ne'd-

to

depose

umgds
ypperst

[um'go^s]
[yp.'djisfi
. . .

to

be enviro-

ned
prime
,

oinsom

omsom now

now

[om'som']

drva [asr'va'] to inherit vdrdig [vee'Mig^] worthy tilldga [til'leg'' d] to add the Most High den Hogste
\hdktst9^'\

stdmpla [stem'pW]
oforgdnglig
\a)-foRrJE7flig^

to coin

teckna sig [tek'na']


imperishable

to depict one's self

behova [bdhova^]

to need.

Reading Exercise 45.


Kristina.
Ej nojd att

Varje hennes tanke blir en bild, som, stamplad i en oforganglig metall, ruUar kring varlden och for de senaste slakter tyder hennes sjals storhet. Utan rike vill hon vara drottning; utan diadem den yppersta bland dodlige. Sedan hon nedlagt en arvd spira, vill hon genom val finnas vardig en annan; och hon nedsteg ifran tronen, da hon till den kungliga icke kunde lagga en kejserlig krona. I sjalva sin forodmjukelse infor den Hogste andas hon blott sin egen storhet. Du har gjort mig sa stor sager hon till Gud; att om du givit mig hela jordens rike, skulle du ej fornojt mitt hjarta. I detta enda drag tecknar hon sig sjalf sa talande, att jag till fuUkomnandet av hennes bild ej behover tillagga flera.
i

hon omsom

umgas med sin samtids yppersta forntiden, omsom i eftervarlden.

snillen, lever

Conversation.

Nojde

sig Kristina

med

att

umgas med

sin

samtids

yppersta snillen? Vilken var hennes livliga onskan? Varfor nedsteg hon ifran tronen? Vad sade hon till Gud? Vad bemarker detta sty ekes forfattar e angaende Kristinas
bild?

Words.
soul

116

Lesson 22.
rich

healthy

frisk

\^frisik}

amusement
play sadness
discourage-

forlustelse
lus'tdlsd^]

(foer'-

only

rik [ri'k] endast, hlott \m'-

das%
wise
careless to die
to

blot']

lek

[le.'k]

vis [vi's]

sorgsenhet [sorsenhe^t]

sorglos [sor'jle's]

do

[de!]
[to'la^]

modloshet
loshe^t]

[mcj'd[foert-

bear

tdla

ment
despair
(to

gay
to care for

munter {munitdv]
glad
[glcu'd]

fortvivlan
vi'vlan']
a)

hekymra
Qymtra
m'an'dd]

sig
siig]

[6a-

have

(hava) lust

[lus!t]

mind
pleasure

frdmmande
fomojelse
nojtdlsd]

[fri-

[f(r-

strange
unsettled
to grieve to discourage to
to

joy
action

glddje [gle'djd^] handlinglhan'dliy']

obekant [co'bdkan't] fordnderlig [foersn'ddrlig']

conduct
to encourage
to regret to

uppforande
foran^dd]

[up'-

bedrova [bddro'va] modfdlla [moj'dfd'a]

gov a modigljo'ra^
moj'dig^] dngra [oyra^]

gladden

uppmuntra

\up'-

something wish
continually

ndgot {no'gof] onska [^on'ska^]


stdndigt[stn'dig't]

do (a action)

mun'tra] bad begd [bdgo!]


tadelvdrd
vse^jid'].

blamable

[ta'ddl-

weak
poor

svag

[si'a!g]

fattig Ifat'ig']

Translation Exercise 46.


The sonl and
its faculties.

Man has always something to hope for and to wish. There are people who continually complain of their lot; the weak would like to become powerful; the poor envy the rich; the wise man only knows how to bear pains, troubles and cares, for hope never dies in his heart. The child is careless; when healthy it is always gay and lively; it does not care for the future; it thinks but of plays and amusements. Sadness, discouragement and despair are strange to it. When it Our impressions are cries it often has a mind to laugh. unsettled; the least pain, the least care grieve and discourage us, whereas the least pleasure and the least joy gladden and encourage us. When we have done a bad action, we are ashamed of ourselves and we regret our blamable conduct.

117

Twenty-third Lesson. The impersonal verbs,


The impersonal verbs are so called because 1. they are conjugated only in the third person of the
singular.

Example. Hagla, to hail.


IndicatiYe.

Present.

Imperfect.
(is

Det haglar,

it

hails

hailing).

Det haglade,
ling).

it

hailed (was hai-

Perfect.

Pluperfect.
has hailed

Det har haglat,

it

Det hade haglat,


(it

it

had hailed
,

(has been hailing).

had been

hailing).

Future
Det shall hagla,
will

I.
it

will hail

(it

Future II. Det skall hava haglat,


have hailed
hailing).
(it

it

will

be hailing).

will

have been

Conditional.
Present.

Past. would hail

Det skulle hagla,


(it

it

Det skulle hava haglat,


have hailed
hailing.
(it

would be

hailing).

it would would have been

Subjunctiye.
Present.

Imperfect.
hail
(it

Det md hagla, it may may be hailing).


Perfect.

Det skulle (matte) hagla, it might


hail
(it

might be

hailing).

Pluperfect.

Det

hava haglat, it may have hailed (it may have been


hailing).

md

Det skulle (mdtte) hava


might have hailed have been hailing).
it

haglat,

(it

might

Infinitive.
(att)

hagla,

to hail.

Participle.
Present.

Past,
hailing).

haglande, hailing (being

havande haglat, having


(having been hailing).

hailed

The
det det det det

chief Swedish impersonal verbs are:


det toar, it thaws. det dskar, it thunders. det haglar, it hails. det dngrar (mig), I repent.

regnar, it rains. snoar, it snows.


hlixtrar, it lightens. finns, there is.

118

Lesson 23.

I.

Interrogative conjugation.
The interrogative conjugation
cir

in English.

2.

is

formed as

Ex.:

jagf am I? voro vi? were we? dr bamet sjuktf is the child ill?

II.

Negative conjugation.
differs alto-

3.

The Swedish negative conjugation

gether from the English one; the negative particle is icke (ej, inte) and it is placed after the verb in simple tenses and between the auxiliary and the verb in compound tenses, the English negative forms do not and <^did noi should therefore never be translated literally.
Ex.: vi tola icke, we do not speak (we speak not). vi hava icke talat, we have not spoken. vi skola icke tola, we shall not speak.
Note. In subordinate phrases the negative particle should be placed before the subject and the verb.

Ex.: jag sade


I told

honom, att jag icke kunde gd pa teatem. him (that) I could not go to the theatre.

III.

Interrogative^negative conjugation.
4.

In interrogative-negative sentences the negaalways stands after the subject whether it is a noun or a pronoun. Ex. Skall jag icke se dig i dag f

tion
:

Har

I not see you to-day? barnet icke varit sjuktf Has not the child been ill?

Shall

Words.
vdrldshistoria
history of the [vai'ddshistco^ria] world remembrance minne [min'd'] virtue dygd [dyg!d]

foremdl
mo^l]

[fo'rd-

object,
life

aim

levnad [le'vnad^] verksamhet


[vasjb'ksamheH]

activity

statsman man']
egenskap

[stat's-

statesman
hero
quality

rdddning[rd"niy^] salvation

hjcilte [jel'td^]

dager [daJodr]

light

[e'gdn-

kunskap
ska^p]

{kun'-

science
social order

ska^p] personlighet[paer- personality


soj'nlighe^t]

samhdltsordning
[sam'helsoUdniy]

sdtt

\_St''\

way
great deed

drhundrade

[o'r-

century

hragd [bragdi]

hund'dradd]

The impersonal

verbs.

119

mod

courage [moxd] slaveri [^sla'vdri^ slavery

fdre7ia [fore'na^] to unite ovanlig [M'va^n- unusual

bildning

[bil'd-

culture

%]
dyrhar
\dyr'ha^T\^ dear

tillvaro \til'va^Ta)\ presence to leave efterldmna

andlig [a ~Mg [an'dJZt^'] spiritual vdrldslig [v^'j^ds- temporal


hdrlig
[h^'rlig'']

[^Ef'tdvUmfna]

dterkalla
kaVai]

[o'tdv-

to recall

splendid
final.

slutlig [slm'tlig^]
private

ensldld [e'nfiVdl^

Reading Exercise 47.


(xustav Adolf.

Fa manniskor hava i varldshistorien efterlaranat ett sadant namn som Gustav Adolf ett namn som aterkallar minnet
;

icke blott av alia den enskilda manniskans dygder, utan ock av snillets, statsmannens och hjaltens darmed icke alltid forenade egenskaper. Redan denna, lika ovanliga som alskvarda personlighet. skuUe gora honom dyrbar for varje hjarta; men annu mera har ban blivit det genom sattet varpa dessa egenskaper anvandes, genom den bragd, vilken blev slutliga foremalet for hans levnads verksamhet, namligen Europas Den harliga raddning fran andligt och varldsligt slaveri.

dager af samhallsordning, kunskap och bildning, som under dessa tvanne sista arhundraden gjutit sig over och ifran det nordliga Europa, har for sin tillvaro att tacka Gustav Adolfs mod och Gustav Adolfs svard.
Conversation.
Vilket namn har Gustav Adolf efterlamnat historien ? Vilka dygdep aterkalla hans namn? Vad gjorde honom sa alskad? Vilket var hans livsmal? Hurudant var Europa vid Gustav Adolfs tid?
i

varlds

Vad har Europa Gustav Adolf


Words.
weather

att tacka for?

120

Lesson 24.
to

to hail

to

pour

to clear to shine
to

up

Mama
dska

hagla [ha'gla'] osa ned [0'sa' ne.'d]


[kla'rna^]

seem

to destroy
to

synas [s^'nas'] forstora {foRrstotra] fiora [ho'ra^]

skina [/rna']
[os'ka^^

hear

thunder

bad
this

ddlig [do'Iig']

to lighten to freeze

blixtra \blik'stra'] frysa [frysa']

morning

morse

[moji'Sd^']

dark

to skate to

dka skridsko [o'ka''


skrUdskco] toa [if0*a']

thaw

[mcer!k] overcast betdckt, mulen \hdtekit, mm'ldn"]. (Contin. Page 123)


:

mork

Translation Exercise 48.


The weather.

What
it

has
is

sort of weather have we to-day ? It is snowed and hailed this morning; now^

bad weather
it

is

pouring.

dark weather. The sky is overcast, but it will soon The sun will soon shine and we shall have a It is very sultry It lightens it will soon thunder. and large rain drops are falling. It has lightened and thundered the whole night the weather was stormy. The streets were muddy and now it is slippery, for it has frozen very hard. The pond is frozen; we can skate on it. Now^ it is snowing and to-morrow at sunrise it will thaw the weather seems to become milder. It has hailed very hard; the harvest is almost destroyed. Do you hear it thunder? a storm is raging on the sea.
It

clear up. nice day.

Twenty-fourth Lesson.

Compound

verbs.

1. Compound verbs, that is verbs composed of a root- verb and a prefix which may be a noun, an adjective, an adverb or a preposition are divided into inseparable and separable verbs.

A. Inseparable verbs.
Verbs beginning 2. prefixes are inseparable:
anJ

with one of the following


sam-,

be-f

hi-,

ent-j

er-j for-j gen-, hdr-, miss-,

um-, und-, van-, reder-.


Ex.
:

vi forstd, we understand. jag erbjuder, I offer.

Compound

verbs.

121

B.
or an

Separable verbs.
are separable.

Most of the compound verbs composed of a n o u n

adjective
Ex.:

The separable

Domaren
Verbs

prefix is placed after the verb. tog del av brevet. The judge took cognizance of the letter.

4.

compounded with an adverb or a


generally

preposition
figurative
Ex.
:

are

inseparable
in the
translate.
I

in

the

meaning and separable


jag oversdtter (ins.), I jag sdtter over (sep.),

proper meaning.

overstep.

Note. It is difficult to give absolute rules on the composition of the verbs belonging to this class; they can only be learned by
practice.

Some
avhdnda^
anklaga,
to spoliate to accuse to dispossess

inseparable verbs.
nedgora,
to

overwhelm

tillhedja, to worship

frdnkdnna,

underldta,

fdregiva, to pretend inverka, to influence innebdra, to imply (infer.) tnotvdgay to counterbalance

to help from dkalla, to invoke dterspegla, to reflect back overgiva, to leave, to surrender.

Some
av-dela, to share frdn-taga, to carry

separable verbs.
ned-hugga,
pd-kldda,
(ejmot-taga, to receive to hurl down till-blanda, to bland
to dress over-ldsa, to read through.

away

hddan-jara,

to decease

in-packa, to pack up inne-stdnga, to shut in


:

Note. Some compound verbs composed of an adjective or a noun remain inseparable these are very few and will be better learned by practice. Ex.: Hvem hushdllar for honomf Who keeps his household?

Words.
kallelse [kal'dlsd^'] vocation strength, kraft [krafit^

befriare
fritard]

bd-

liberator

power
Ijus \_jmts] light frihet [/rr^e'^] liberty forsvarare [/ce^s- defender

tar [fo.V] skote [fo'td^]


ojffra

tear

bosom
to offer

[ofra']

egen [e'gdn'] framstd [fram'sto']

own
to to

come
fulfil,

forth
to

vdrv

[vseriv]

Mod

mission, task

\blojid^

fro [/V0/]

blood seed

fullborda
b(o''jida\

\_ful'-

achieve

krans \kranis\

crown

besegla [bdse'gW] to seal

122

Lesson 24.
noble
to

ddel

l^etddT]

skon [fe'n]

utfora vdga \vo'ga^'\ knytas \kny'tas^'\


protestantisk

beautiful \m'tfd^ra\ to accomplish


to venture

fukta {^fuk'ta^^ tacksam [tak'sam'']


akta [ak'ta^^ uppfostra [up'fajs'tra]

bedew

thankful
to regard to bring bless.

upon up

to be knotted

protestant

vdlsigna [velsiy.^na] to

[prco'testanftisk]

Reading Exercise 49.


Gustay Adolf.

Han var den, som inom eget brost kande kallelsen och kraften att framsta som Ijusets och frihetens forsvarare och han fullbordade detta heliga varv och beseglade det med sitt Vad stort, adelt och skont dessa landers hjaltar eget blod.
;

och snillen hava utfort, bildat och tankt, lag redan som fro den enda hjaltetanken att for Ijusets seger vaga bade sig sjalv och sitt folk och detta fro har efter bans dod utvecklat sig i eviga bragder i statens likasom i snillets varv, vilkas skonaste blommor ma knytas till en krans at befriarens minne, en krans, fuktad av hela det protestantiska Europas tacksamma tarar men mest av det folk, som aktades vardigt att i sitt skote uppfostra denne hjalte, att med honom offra sitt blod i den heliga striden, att med honom ga i valsignat minne till den senaste eftervarld.
i
;

Conversation.

Vilken kallelse kande Gustav Adolf inom sig? Vilka voro foljdema av bans regering? Som vad kan Gustav Adolf betraktas?

Words.
clothes

kldder \kletddr]
klddsel [kled^sdl]
overroc]4^0'vdrrok^] skrdddare [skrsd'ard']

stocking

strumpa
[stru7n'pa^'\

clothing overcoat
tailor

sock
linen necktie

halv strumpa
[hal'vstrum'pa] linne \lin'd^'\

trousers

byxor
vdst

benkldder
be'n-

[byk'sayr',

IcW'ddr]

waistcoat
Slipper

{vesif]

halsduk [hal'sdm'k] pair of braces hdngslen [heyishn] shoe maker skomakare [skco'ma'kard] sko [skcof]
stdvel [st0tv9l]

toffel [tofidl]

morning gown morgonrook


{mor'onrok'-^

shoe boot
half boot

chambermaid kamTnarjungjru
hat
felt hat straw hat

halvstovel [hal'vsto'vdl]

[karrfarjuy^frm] hatt \hat\

peasant
collar

fiUhatt [fil-thaf] halmhatt [hal'mhae]

cuff

bonde [bojn'dd^] krage Ikra'gd] manschett [man-

Adverbs.

123

shirt

slcjorta
skd']

{^foj'jiia^']

muddy
slippery

smutsig [smut'sig^]
slipprig [sUp'rig']

glove
fur
tight skilful

handske [han'dpals [peHs] trdng [troyf]


skicklig [jik'lig'] kvav (kva!v]

very hard

mild
is

raging

mycket StarJet [myk'df star'kt] mild [mil'd] rasar [ra'sar^].


Page 127)

sultry

stormy

stormig [stor'mig^]

(Contin.:

Translation Exercise 50.


Clothing.

have had warm clothes made. This overcoat is too I can hardly button it. He has tried on his tight for me new coat it suits him very well, as it was made by a skilful tailor. The trousers are too wide; the waistcoat is fashionable I will wear it with much pleasure. You see me with my slippers and morning gown, because I must keep my room. Has the chamber maid brushed my hat? Which hat? The felt hat. In winter we wear woollen stockings and in summer cotton socks. Take off your old coat and put on a new one. Dress quickly, for we are going to take a walk this morning. Have you folded up my linen ? Where did you buy these silk neckties? They are very elegant. This pair of braces is worn out you should buy a new pair. The shoe-maker makes shoes, boots and half boots. Peasants
; ;

We

The collars are too tight for usually wear wooden shoes. these shirts the cuffs old-fashioned and the gloves too dark. I will not have them. You must beat the fur; it is so Put on your woollen stockings because it is very cold dusty
; !

to-day.

Twenty-fifth Lesson. Adverbs.


1. Swedish adverbs are derived from adjectives Swedish adjectives may become adverbs by placing them in the neuter.
;

all

Ex.: Jiovlig, polite; hovligt, poHtely. trogen, faithful; troget, faithfully.

2.

Some adverbs end in -igen. Ex.: trolig, probable; troligen, probably.

The word ja answers to a question ex 3. pressed affirmatively and Jo to a question expressed


negatively.

124

Lesson 25.
Ex.:
Vill du dricka ett glas vin? Ja. Will you drink a glass of wine? Yes, I will. Vill du icke dricka ett glas vin? Jo. Will you not drink a glass of wine? Yes (certainly).

Degrees of comparison.

4.

Adverbs form

their

degrees of comparison
;

like the adjectives.


Ex.: hovligt, politely; 7^oi;%are, more politely
hovligast,

most

politely.

Note. The ^ in the positive form does not occur in the comparative and superlative forms.

Irregular adverbs.
hra, vdl, (good, well)

Adverbs.

125

ndstan^ almost, nearly

126

Lesson 25.

han kallade sin ogonsten, som han med sa mycken anstrangning forsvarade mot Wallensteins hotande svard: Niirnberg, som hade den hugnaden, att det var en av dess invanare, den unge Leubelfingen, vilken likasom ett ombud av stadens tacksamhet foljde konungen anda in uti dodsstunden; Niirnatt uppresa sin valgorares bildstod, fastan inre forandringar och yttre tvang sedermera hindrade verkstalligheten. En Gustav Adolfs ridknekt valtrade pa Liitzens fait en stor sten till det stalle, der det konungsliga liket blev

berg beslot

Stenen bar sedan bibehallit sin plats jamte nammet Schwedenstein, samt blivit omgiven av planterade trad och besokt av en var, som kommit till dessa nejder.
funnet.

Conversation.

Var Gustav Adolf alskad av tyskarne? Hum kallas rummet, som flackades av bans blod? Vilken stad beslot att resa bans bildstod? Vilken ung man foljde konungen anda in i dodsstunden? Varfor bar Niirnberg beslutit att uppresa bans bildstod ? Vad star pa det stalle, dar Gustav Adolfs lik blev funnet? Vad kallas denna sten?
Words.
The
British

Adverbs.
oldfashioned

127 wear on

gammalmodig
[gam'almoj'dig]

to

bdra

[bas'ra^]

[be'ra'']

dusty
to

dammig
. .

[dam'ig^]
[lo'ti^t

to put

have

Idtit

gora

taga pa sig poi si'g]

[ta'ga^

made
to button to try
to suit

jo'ra^]

to dress to

kndppa igen
{knep'a'
zjVtz.']

take

kldda sig \klE'da^'\ taga sig en pro-

walk
to fold
to

on

forsoka, prova
[fcersetka, proj'va^]

up

menad [proj'mdnaid] Idgga tillhopa


[leg'a' tiUhoj'pa^],

anstd, passa
[a7i'sto\ pas'a^l

buy

kopa
piska

to brush
to take off

borsta [bod'sta^] avtaga [a'vta'ga]

to beat

[ge'pa^] {^pis'ka^\

Translation Exercise 52.


The State and (xovernment.
British Empire is the greatest in the world. It comprises the United Kingdom (England, Scotland and Ireland which form the British Isles) India and many other countries and Colonies in the five parts of the world. It is

The

governed by a king. The legislative power is exercised by House of Lords and the House of Commons. At the opening of the first sitting the king delivers a speech, which is called the throne speech. In England Monarchy is hereditary the Salic law is not applied in this country, for wives may reign. England has had many celebrated queens. Queen Victoria's reign was one of the longest and most glorious during the last century. This great queen was beloved by all her subjects, respected and admired by all civilized peoples and very often received by all the Sovereigns of Europe. England may be proud of Queen Victoria whose remembrance will be imperishable.
the
;

Twenty-sixth Lesson.
List of the principal prepositions.
av^ of

bakom, behind
efter, after

enligt, according

emot, towards emellan, between

igenom, through innan, before inom, in, within med, with medelst, by means of
oaktadt, in spite of

framfor,
hos, at ibland,
.

before
.

omkring, about
pa, on rorande, concerning
sedan, since

frdn, from
.'s

among

128

Lesson

26.

under, under, during utan^ without


uti, in

at, to

anskont, notwithstanding
over, over.

utom, out

Words.
polhojd
[poj'l-

latitude

bergstrakt
idrak''t]

[bserj'-

mountainous
region
to stretch

hofd
olikhet
oj'likhe't] diversity

strdcka ut
[^strek'a^ vjuit]

Skdne

^sko'n9^]
[luf't-

Scania
climate

luftstreck
strek^]

gent emot [je^nt


emco't]

just opposite

kastanje[kastaniJ9\ chest nut(tree) mullbdrstrdd mulberry-tree


\imul'hjLstre''^^

mild [miUd] dkta [ek'ta^]

mild
real, very, ge-

nuine
[frco'das'] to thrive ovre [o^vrd] upper frodig [froj'dig^] luxuriant to be precious brddmogna

rag \rotg'\ rye-(seed) seed sdde [^SE'dd^^ mark [Lap '- Lappland Lapp

frodas

kom
fara

Tnajb^k^
\kojijin\

corn
risk,

[bro'dmoj'gna] danger

[/a'ra']
[bserj'-

frysa hort
[fry'sa'' bo'r't]

to freeze

hdrgning
niy']

harvest, crop

naturlig \natmtr- natural


condition

heskajfenhet
{hdskafidnhe't]

%]
betydlig \bdty'd- fimportant
lig^^

^Istring sformdg a ^Toductiweness


[al'striysfcer-

motas
lower

[me'tas']

[considerable to meet with

mo''ga]

verklig [vser'klig'] real

nedre [ne'drd]

nordisk [nojUdisk] northern.

Reading Exercise 53.


Sveriges natur.
Ett land som utstracker sig under sa olika polhojder, maste inoni sig visa manga olikheter. Skane gor till utseende och luftstreck en overgang till det gent emot liggande nedre Akta Tyskland, men har annu mildare vintrar an detta. kastanjen, mullharstradet, ehuru blott planterat, frodas i Skane. Husdjuren aro storre och frodigare. Ragsiidet behover blott halvfemte manad att mogna, ej langre, an i Tyskland och ovre Italien, da det daremot i Lappmarkerna (dar endast kornet bradmognar) behover halvannan sommar dartill,

med

fara att innan bargningen bortfrysa.

hastigare forandring i naturlig beskaffenhet och alstringsformaga finnes ej i Sverige, iin emellan Skane och Smaland. Detta kommer av det senares betydliga hojd over havet, som gor den smalandska bergstrakten nilstan till ett Norrland mitt i Gota rike. Den fran soder resande motes forst hiir av verklig nordisk natur.

En

Adverbs.

129

Conversation.

Vad ar Skane? Aro vintrarne i Skane mildare an


Vilka trad vaxa
i

i Tyskland? denna provins? Hum manga manader behover ragen for att mogna? Ar det stor skillnad mellan naturen i Skane och Smaland? Vad kommer detta av?

Words,
constitution

statsforfattning
[sta'tsfoRvfat^nixi]

length

langd

[Isy.'d]

councilors of statsrddsherre
state

[sta'tsrad'sh^rd]

steam ship dnghdt {oyhoH^ national edu- folkundervisning cation [fol'kunddrvi'sniy]


to

the execution lagarnes utforande of laws [la'gamd^s m'tfceran'-dd]


fleet

comply

villfara [vil'fa'ra]
[6a/aZ*a']

to

command hefalla
borgare
vdlja

kingdom
citizen

k(on)ungarike
[ko'nuyari'kd]
[bor'jar9^]
[je*-

fiotta

{flot'a''^

army
the Swedish
diet

hdr

\hetr]

den svenska

riks-

to

choose

[vel'ja']

dag en

[svsn'ska'

to carry out

genomfora
nomfo^ra] ansvarig for
\^an' sva''rig']

rik'sda'gdn]

chambers
diet-bill

kammare[kam'ar9'] riksdag sordning

responsible
for
to

the First

Forsta Kamm aren


Ifcer'sta'^

[rik'sdagso^rdniy]

be bound to forpliktad till [fcerplrktad'] to count anse for [an'se'']


to
to

Chamber
the Second

kam'a-

improve
read

forbdttra
bet'ra]

[foer-

rd^n]

Andra Kammaren
[an'dra^

Chamber
military service under the

to write
to respect to admire

Idsa [le'sa'] skriva [skri'va']

militdrtjdnst \mi'lite'rgen'st]

hogakta[h0'g ak^ta]

beundra
dra']

[bdun'-

under

s reto receive to

reign

gering
rdje!ri7)]

[uniddr

mottaga[mojt'aga^] be proud of vara stolt over


[stoltt]

reforms
railways

fdrhdttringar
[fcerbet'riy^ar] jdrnvdgar [jx'xnvs'gar]

imperishable oforgdnglig
[co'fcerjey'lig].

Translation Exercise 54.


The Grovernment of Sweden.
governed by a king. The king should comply with the
is

Sweden
of

It is

Constitution.

an old monarchy. The Coun-

cillors

state

are responsible for the

execution of laws.

The king commands the fleet and army. The Swedish Diet consists in two chambers. According to the Diet-bill of 1866 the first Chamber is composed of the richest and most learned men of the kingdom the second Chamber, of citizens chosen
;

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

130

Lesson 27.

In Sweden all citizens are bound Under the reign of Oscar II many remilitary service. forms were carried out in Sweden. Railways were stretched out and their length is now over 10 000 kilometers. The

from among the people.


to

fleet numbers over 1200 steam ships. National education was much improved and the number af those who cannot read nor write is less in Sweden than in any other

Swedish

country.

Twenty-seventh Lesson.
List of the principal conjunctions.
anting en
att, that
. .

eller, either ... or

men, but
ndmligen, namely och, and
ocksd, also if, whether sdledes, thus
(viz.)

hade

och, both

and

dock, though da, as, when ehuru, although eljest, otherwise


eller, or

om,

ty, for

an
as, since, for

emedan,

Jivarfore, why likvdl, nevertheless

... an, sometimes times dndd, however.

some-

Words.
bevis
\^b9vi!s]

proof

kalkgrund
grun'd^

\kal'k- calcareous soil

skdrgard {fas'r- archipelago goUd] skdrgdrds natur archipelagic

knappast
p'ast'l

[kna-

scarcely

[s natm'r]
sin like [si'n

nature

ovan
orolig likvdl

\o'va^n'\
[cj'rco'lig^

above
lonely,isolated

li'kd^] its like

enstaka [ensta'-ka]
[lik've'l]

bok [bojfk] lund [lun^d]


bolja [bol'ja^]

beech
grove, thicket

unsettled

equally

wave
fecundity

bordighet
dighett]

[bce'r-

bdda [bo'da'] utmdrkt [m't7nser^kt]


i

both remarkable

vattenomrdde [va- basin fdnom'rodd] sddesbygd [se'dds- cornfield


byg'd]

anseende

till

with regard to

an'sedn^do til]

hlandning [blan'd- miscellany


niy']

around mellerst [mel'dJLst] most central dessutom [dss'ui^- moreover

kring [kriy!]

torn]

bergsrorelse
[basr'jro'rdlsd]

mining

in-

gynna

[jyn'a']
[ve'l

to favour

dustry

lycklig [lyk'lig^]

happy, lucky
beneficial
rto astonish

forening [fo'rd- union


niy'] inflytelse [in'fly'tdlsd]

vdlgorande

influence

jo'randd] forvdna [foer


vo-'na]

bergig [bserjig']

mountainous

\to wonder vdxtlighet [vek'st- vegetation


lig^het]

vildhet \vildheH'\ wildness

Adverbs.

131

Reading Exercise 55.


SYeriges natur.
Foljer man fran Skane ostra kusten, sa visar sig i Blekinge det vackraste beviset pa Ostersjons mildare skargardsnatur och fran Karlskrona till Kalmar en strand, som pa sina stallen Ovan Kalmar vaxer i skonhet knappast har sin like i norden. smarre lundar och enstaka trad ga dock ej bokskogen mera
:

hogre. Vatterns

klara, men oroliga boljor skilja Vaster- och Ostergotland, tvenne av Sveriges fruktbaraste landskap, bada I anlikval utmarkta genom stora skillnader i bordighet. seende till sjalva landets bildning hor Vastergotland till Vanerns, Ostergotland till Vatterns vattenomrade. Kring sjoarne Hjalmaren och Malaren ar det mellersta

Sveriges storsta slattland


rorelse.

med harliga sadesbygder, dessutom gynnade genom en lycklig blandning av akerbruk och bergsDessas forening har strackt sin valgorande inflytelse
till

Varmland och Dalarne, utan att likval i dessa bada bergiga landskaps ovre delar hava kunnat besegra naturens borjande vildhet. Likval narer annu kalkgrunden kring sjon
aven
Siljan
(t.

ex.

Rattvik) en vaxtlighet,

som

forvanar.

Conversation.

Vilken natur har Blekinge? Ar stranden fran Karlskrona

till

Kalmar skon?

Vilka aro Sveriges fruktbaraste landskap? Vilka aro Sveriges storsta sjoar?

Words.
great powers stormakter
[stco'r-

at the

head

spetsen for
[spet'sdn]
[re'jd

makHdr]
cavalry

kavalleri,

rytteri

regiment

regemente

\ksLvaVdritj ryt'd-

captam
infantry

fotfolk,

infanteri
in'-

lieutenant

[fco'tfol^k,

fantdri^l
artilleri {^ctr'tihrii'] artillery horse-soldier ryttare [ryfard^] foot-soldier fotsoldat [fco't-

sergeant corporal cornet


garrison

menttd] kapten [kaptetn] lojtnant [loftnan't sergeant [s^rfanH korpral [korpra'l kornett \kornEti']

garnison
sajfTi]

[gar'ni-

soldaH]
victory seger [se!gdr] field-marshal fdltmarskalk

volunteer
recruit

frivillig [fri'vilHg] rekryt [rdkrytt]


\krig' sfoRrkMrirj]

declaration of krigsforklaring

troops
discipline

[fd'tmarfark] trupp [trup'] discipUn [di'siplUn]


overste [o'vdrstd^l^

war

capture of the m^^<2?2c?e (av en place plats) \intagandd\

dragoon
cuirass

dragon

\draga)tn^^

colonel

kyrass {kyrasi^

132

Lesson

28.

hjdlm Yjdim'] svdrd [sv^.^rd] gun gevdr [JdVEtr] cartridge-box patrorikok [pair congo'k]

helmet sword

lance
pistol to exercise
to to

laiis [lan^s]

pistol [pistojH] utova [m'te'va]

arm
equip

vdpna

utrusta

Xvsp'na^"] \m^trus^ta^^

haversack
to

mat-tornister
\ma't-tornisHdr\

to fear

to

disarm

keep

underhdlla ddrhoVa]

\un'-

to bear
strict

frukta [fruk'ta^\ avvdpna [a'vep^na] hdra [&'ra']


strdng
[streif);']

to fight to win to stand

kdmpa
vinna

[cem'pa^]
[vin'a']

obligatory

ohligatorisk
gatojirisk]

{ph'li-

std [sto']

compulsory
[foers-

tvingande
[tviyan'dd].

to defend

forsvara
va'ra]

Translation Exercise 56.


Army.
All great powers of Europe keep an army. An army consists in cavalry, infantry and artillery. The horse-soldiers and foot-soldiers fought bravely and won the victory. The field marshal commands the troops. In the German army The Colonel stands at the head of discipline is very strict. his regiment. Under the colonel stand the captain, the lieutenant, the sergeant and the corporal. Military Service is not The Comet defended bravely the obligatory in England. colours of the garrison. The volunteers and recruits will soon be exercised, equipped and armed, because a declaration of war is feared. After the capture of the place, the garrison was disarmed. Dragoons wear a cuirass and a helmet they defend themselves with the sword, lance or pistol. Footsoldiers bear a gun, a cartridge-box and a haversack. Officers

bear a sword.

Twenty-eighth Lesson.
List of the principal interjections.
ack!
alas!

ajf ay! o dear!

anfdicta! plague! gtid nd's! alas!


fy! fie! hva! hva sa!
hey!

st! hush! tag mot! look here! hvadan! what!

hm!
tro

ha! ha!

say! ah!
it!

topp! agreed!

lappri! nonsense!

mig! depend upon

min sann!

really! faith!

usch! oh!

Adverbs.

133

Words.

hem

\hemf\

134

135

Twenty-ninth Lesson. The construction of sentences. I. Order of the words.


A. Place of the subject.

a)
1.

The subject

is

generally placed:

Before the verb in affirmative and negative senEx.


:

tences.

jag laser

read

fadern sjong

icke, the father did

not sing.

b) After the verb in negative and interrogativenegative sentences. Ex.: Laser barnetf Does the child read? or is the child
..reading?

Alskar du icke din moderf

Do you
Note.

not like your mother?

When

word

manner
Ex.:

Hon

the interrogative is made with the help of the or Jw the subject should precede the verb. Mdnne de voro trottaf were" they tired?

dr ju nojdf she

is

Exceptions.

a)
1.

2.

The subject

is

placed after the verb:

When
:

the sentence begins with.

the object. Ex. Det huset har min fader kopt.

My
2.

father has bought this house has bought).

(this

house

my

father

an adverb or an adverbial expression or a conjunction.


Ex.:

Nu

are going to bed. I gar voro vi pa landet. Yesterday we were in the country.

Now we

skola vi gd

till

sdngs.

3.

an attributive adjective.
Ex.
:

Mdktig dr Gud! God

is

powerful! (powerful
is

is

God!)

b) When the principal phrase preceded by a subordinate sentence. Ex.: Om han vore rik, skulle han gora mycket gott. If he was (were) rich he would do much good.
c)

In exclamations. Ex.: Leve drottningen!

the queen for ever!

136

Lesson 29.

B. Place of the objective case. 3. a) The indirect objective case when used without any preposition precedes the direct objective
case.
Ex.:

Ldraren gav Idrjungen en hok.


The teacher gave the boy a book.

b)

When
Ex.:

the

indirect

objective case

is

preceded

by a preposition the direct objective case should immediately be placed after the verb.

Ldraren gav en hok


in

at Idrjungen.
to the boy.

The teacher gave a book


c)

Like

a noun is the noun.


Ex.
:

English the indirect objective case of placed in the genitive case and precedes

Min fader s
11.

hus,

my

father's house.

Order of clauses.
which bears the prinbe placed at the be-

4. a) Generally the clause cipal part in the sentence should

ginning of the sentence.


Ex.
:

Om

de icke dro skyldiga, skola de frikdnnas.


should be acquitted.

If they are not guilty they

b) The relative pronouns, the adverbs, conjunctions generally follow the nouns to which they refer. Ex.: Drdngen pa vilkens (vars) trohet jag rdknade har stuUt pengar frdn mig. The servant on whose faithfulness I relied has stolen money from me.

When a subordinate sentence precedes the prinsentence, both are generally united by the conjunction ^Sa which is not rendered in English. Ex.: Ndr hamet fick se sin moder, sd borjade det att le.
c)

cipal

When

the child saw

its

mother,

it

began

to

smile.

Words.
godhet
{^gojtdhet']

kindness
serving spirit

ro

tjdnsteande
[gen'stdan'dd]

rest, repose [me'dlem^] member vdrldsliv [vse'jids- world's life

[rojf]

medlem
li'v]

frid \_fri'd^ peace trevnad [tre'vnad^] comfort


rot \ro)it^ leende Ue'dn^dd]
root

naturliv [natrn'r- natural

life

im

gubbe

[gub'd^]

smile old man

gudsjruktan
\_gut'sfrukHan\

fear of

God

The
tapperhet
[tap.'dv-

construction of sentences.

137
to shoot earnest to bless
to

bravery
|

gro

{gra)f\
[aZ* va'r-

forhdllande /Ae^]j circumstance


[^foRrhol'cin^dd]

allvarlig

condition
to call forth
bitter

%]
viga
n/juta
[vrga^'l
\njwi'ta''']

framkalla
[^frara'kaV'a]

enjoy

hitter \hitt9r\

fdrkvdva [foerkV.'va]

to

choke up

Umiv] Jiembygd [hem


Ijuv
hyg'd;\

delightful native land.

Reading Exercise 59.


Hemmet.
och ordning, dessa himmelns tjansteandar pa jorden, framkalla overallt samma frid och samma trevnad. Ingen bitter rot far vaxa dar den vill gro, uppkommer alltid ett leende eller en tar, och i dessa ett ord av karlek att forkvava den. Karleken vakar over barnets vagga over gubbens ro, over var medlems val och trevnad for att vara hem. lycklig gar manniskan ur varldslivet Det star i livet sasom ett gronskande trad, vaxande allt hogre upp mot himmeln. Norden ar kail och allvarlig. Konsterna aga ej dar sin hembygd blommornas tid ar kort. Vill du se deras jord, se Italien, se Frankrike vill du se hemmets och familjens vigda jord, se Sverige se overallt bland fjallen och skogarna, dessa stilla gardar, der manniskan njuter ett foradlat naturliv, dar i skotet av heliga och Ijuva forhallanden utvecklas svenskarnes nationaldygder gudsfruktan och
;

Godhet

tapperhet.

Conversation.

Vad framkallar friden och trevnaden Hur forkvaves varje bitter rot?

hemmet?

Vilka aro karlekens forrattningar bland familjens med-

lemmar? Vad liknar hemmet? Vad motsvarar nordens hem

de sydliga landerna?

Var utvecklas och vilka aro svenskarnes nationaldygder?


Words.
fatherland
native

fddemesland
[frddmdslan'd] fosterland
[fcos'tarlaa^d]

glory patriotism

dra

[s'ra']

fosterlandskdrlek
[fcos'tdrlandsgse'rlek]

country
sacrifice

uppoffring
[up-ofriy']

sentiment
love

kdnsla karlek

[(gen'sla'''\

[f^rZe'fc]
[til'ji'-

native land

fosterjord
[fco'stdrjcoUd]

attachment

tillgivenhet

Vdnhet]

138

Lesson 29.

fidelity

troliet \tra)thet]

to protect

skydda Uyd'a'] "


i

devotion

hdngivenhet \h'ngi'vdnhet]

on

the

war

bt krigsfoi [kri'gs-

establish-

civil

danger duty

fara

[fa'ra']

ment
to contribute

medhorgerlig plikt
[me'dbor'jdrlig
plik't]

hidraga [bi'dra'ga]

prosperity
to require to prevail to unite to threaten

framgdng [fram'fordra [fco'rdra'] rdda [ro'cZa'] forena [/ore/na]


hota
resa
[hoj'ta''']

social duty

samhdlsplikt
[sam'helsvUk't]

to love dlska {el'ska^'] on the peace, pa fredsfot

establish-

[fred'sfoj^t]

to travel
to stay

[re'sa^]
[start' a'].

ment

stanna

Translation Exercise 60.


Fatherland.

ought to love, protect and defend our native country. our duty in time of peace to contribute to its prosperity and in time of war to defend it even at the sacrifice of our A brave soldier ought to fight and die for his native life. land when the glory of the nation requires such a sacrifice. Patriotism prevails in the hearts of all good citizens all are united in the same sentiment of love and attachment to defend their country when danger threatens it. Fidelity, love and devotion to fatherland are the principal civil and social duties. When we travel or stay in a foreign Country we are always thinking of our native land. Let us love our native country, because nothing is more beautiful and more worthy of our love^ than fatherland.
It is
;

We

139

Readings,
1.

En

frukost pa Medelhavet.

En hostdag ar 1869 hollo tvenne ekipager vid hamnen Marseille just dar de stora angbatarne ligga som i alia riktningar ploja Medelhavet. Ur det forsta stego en herre och en dam, bagge unga, med tre sma barn. Det var synbarligen wne famille tres-distinguee och de som akte i andra vagnen
,

tycktes tillhora uppvaktningen. Det var D.D. K.K. H.H. hertigen och hertiginnan av Ostergotland, som med sina barn skuUe resa till Nizza, for att dar tillbringa vintermanaderna.

Klockan var sex pa aftonen, den timman da, enligt annons, angbaten skuUe avga men ingen rok ur angskorstenen rojde, att man annu eldat pa, och vid sidan av angbaten lag en koldragare, som lastade in kol pa den forra. Den som ar van vid vara ordentliga angbatsturer forvanas over oordningen soderut, och man kan darfor ej undra pa, att de nyss
;

anlanda passagerarne syntes missnojda. Nar avgar fartyget? fragade en av prinsens uppvaktning kaptenen. Nar vi fatt kolforradet ombord, svarade denne tvart. Och nar sker det? Det vet jag icke. Det drojer kanske en hel timma? Det kan droja tva.

Tva? Omojligt! M kan hava ratt, det ser omojligt


tenen;
slippa vi

ut,

medgav kapanmarkte den

med

tre eller fyra

dag, ar det mer, an

jag vagar hoppas. Men det var

annonserat klockan sex,

uppvaktande forargad. Kaptenen smalog medlidsamt och vande ryggen till. Men det ar hoga personer ombord, anmarkte den
uppvaktande.
svar.

Kaptenen smalog, men bevardigade honom ej med nagot Ombord ar skepparen ensam konung, om ocksa alia Europas suveraner vore tillstades. Till nagon ursakt for angbatskonungen i fraga ma namnas, att den bat, han forde, mera var avsedd for gods an for
folk,

och gods ar en

talig

och tystlaten passagerare.

Emeller-

140

Readings.

sin hytt Men besvarligt klattrande over tunnor och balar. hertigen foredrog att vistas pa dack, avvaktande med latt begriplig otalighet stunden for avresan, vilken lange lat vanta
efter
ett

tid

hade H.K.H. hertiginnan med sina sma funnit

pa sig. Klockan var 11, nar angbaten stotte fran land. Natten var kolmork, men havsvinden vanlig och mild. Trots morkret trodde sig prinsen igenkanna nagra av de ogn.pper, mellan vilka angbaten gled fram, och han betraktade dem med den djupa rorelse, ett poetiskt sinne erfar, nar det aterfinner stallen, som det i yngre dagar skadat. Prinsen hade namligen en gang som yngling, och da i egenskap av lojtnant pa ett svenskt orlogsfartyg, gjort en resa over Medelhavet. Men sjon suger och Medelhavet icke minst. Fram emot
sig prinsen hungrig. Men ingen restauration Fartyg, som endast gora nattresor, aro beraknade for sovande, icke for atande. Prinsen gav sig i sam-

morgonen kande
fanns ombord.

kaptenen, men huruvida han da avkastade anonyVill Ni och Ert sallskap halla till ej bekant. godo med vad jag har att bjuda pa, sade kaptenen, sa ar Ni hjartligen valkommen. Min frukost vantar redan . Prinsen tackade forbindligt och intradde med sin kavaljer i kaptenens hytt, dar en frukost serverades, som visst icke var att forakta. Men det drojde icke lange forran en fjarde person visade sig i samma hytt. Det var en lang ung man, sotig och flottig fran hjassa till fot, men som icke desto mindre belt obesvarat tog plats bland de andra vid bordet och del-

sprak

med

miteten

ar

tog

med
For

Ni en ypperlig franska, yttrade kaptenen till prinsen. Vem har sagt Er, att jag ar rysk amiral ? fragade prinsen; jag har den aran vara svensk amiral och ar fullkomligt belaten darmed. Men att jag talar franska ar mindre underligt, nar jag i min slakt haft icke mindre an tva franska
marskalker.> Tva franska marskalker, upprepade kaptenen med en viss andakt, och vilka aro de? Eugene och Bemadotte! svarade prinsen. Bernadotte! upprepade anyo kaptenen och gjorde stora ogon, dem han oupphorligen flyttade mellan prinsen och maskinisten, vilken sednare ocksa fick stora ogon. 0m Ni ar en Bernadotte, tertog kaptenen, sa kan jag har p^ stallet presentera for Er en nara slakting, Monsieur De la Graise, maskinist pa min bat och sonson av en syster till marskalk Bernadotte.*

frisk aptit i frukosten. att vara rysk amiral, talar

De
mycket
i

bagge sysslingarnes ogon mottes.


ett
!

Det kan ligga

odets lotter

sadant dar omsesidigt betraktande. Huru olika Fr^n samma vra kommer man, den ene till en

Readings.

141

Det kan osa lika furstekrona, den andre till en angpanna. hett fran bagge och bagge kuna hava sitt stora ansvar for sig men i forhallande till fursten, blir val anda maskinisten en underordnad person, han ma befinna sig over eller under dack. Prinsen rackte likval vanligt den sotige och flottige franden sin hand, och som denne var en bildad img man, uppstod snart emellan dem ett livligt och underhallande samtal, som for det mesta rorde sig kring familjegrenar sa i norr som soder. Alia med namnet Bernadotte tillhora dock Namnet Bernadotte i sodra Frandrike ar lika ej samma att.
;

vanligt,

som namnen Bergstrom och Stromberg hos


tillfallet

oss.

Huru-

omsesidiga slaktbesok utlovades, kanner jag dock icke. Men frukosten om skeppsbord ar alDen unge maskinisten avlagsnade sig snart drig langvarig. och halade sig ater ned i maskinrummet. Prinsen fortfor att promenera pa dack, betraktande den av eldgnistor paljetterade stenkolsroken, som virvlade ur skorstenen. Han syntes tankfull. Kanske tankte han pa sin frande, som djupt darnere
vida
vid

nagra

stektes for det

gemensamma basta. Mahanda tankte han ocksa pa huru den, som av odet ar bestamd att foresta det stora maskineri, som kallas staten och
varav an fleras val och liv bero, jamval ofta nog far stekas vid sakta eld och mera an en gang torka sin panna.

August Blanche.
2.

Slaget vid Narva.

Karl den tolvte tog vid femton ars alder riket i arv efter En lang foljd av fredliga ar och en kraftfuU sin fader. styrelse hade da bragt Sverige till en valmaga, som det under hela arhundradet forut hade saknat, och utsikterna for framtiden voro lovande. Men det spordes snart, att den unge konungen tankte mera pa lekar och nojen, an pa allvarliga varv. Dock voro lekarne sadana, som tydde pa nagot ovanligt. Det var hans lust att pa en yster hast flyga fram over de farligaste stigar och forgaves sokte da hans faders gamle tjanare varna honom. Jakten var ock ett av den unge kung Karls huvudnojen; men det djur, som isynnerhet jagades av honom, var bjornen, och de vapen, som da anvandes, voro icke skjutvapen, utan hogafflar och pakar Da Sveriges grannar horde, att pa den svenska tronen satt en yngling, som endast roade sig, trodde de ratta tidpunkten var inne att utfora de fientliga planer, som de lange nart. I Ryssland harskade da en kraftfull furste, Tsar Peter, som gjort till sin uppgift att hoja sitt rike till en stormakt i Europa. Till det andamalet ville han berova Sverige dess be;

142

Readings.

vid Ostersjon, och i den atgarden liksom i varje annat Sveriges forsvagande voro Danmarks och Polens konungar av hjartat villige att deltaga. Sa borjade de tre makterna nastan pa en gang och utan skymt av rattvisa ett anfall
sittningar

mot

Sverige. Just nar konung Karl nojen vid Kungsor, kom

som

bast var sysselsatt med sina underrattelse om Danmarks och

Polens fredsbrott. Detta slog honom med harm och forvaning. Det forundrar mig, sade han, att mina grannar vilja hava Ma sa vara! Gud hjalper oss val; vi hava en rattkrig. fardig sak. Jag vill forst avgora saken med den ene sedan fa vi nog tala med den andre. Nu var det slut med nojena. Som en blixt stod Karl med sin krigshar pa Seland och foreskrev danske konungen en forodmjukande fred, och da han strax darefter fick underrattelse om Tsar Peters forraderi gick det lost emot Ryssland. Vid landstigningen pa Seland hade Karl, sages det, hort Vad ar det? sporde i luften ett underligt vinande Ijud. han. Kulorna, Eders Majestat, svarade en gammal krigare. Na val, sade Karl, detta skall hadanefter bliva min musik. Och sa blev det ock, ty fran den stunden var hans liv en oavbruten kedja av strider under mer an aderton ar. Tsar Peter
;

hade,

upprepade forsakringar om vanskap, gjort ett och forradiskt anfall. Med en ringa har seglade da hastigt konung Karl over till Ostersjolandskapen. Det gallde att nu forst undsatta Narva, som av Tsaren belagrades. I november manad ryckte Karl med sina fataliga trupper fran Pernau, dar han landstigit, till Narvas undsattning. Det vat ett forfarligt tag, som prcivade bade mod och krafter, ty i vinterkold och snoyra maste haren genomtaga ett alldeles ode och forharjat land, dar han pa sex dagars tid knappt fann ett spar av manniskor och dar han led brist pa allt. Och nar han antligen stod nara vid malet, sag han framfor sig den ryska harens sextio atta tusen krigare. Vid underrattelsen om svenska harens ankomst lamnade dock Tsar Peter befalet over de ryska trupperna at hertigen av Croi och begav sig sjalv pa vagen inat sitt eget rike. Karl daremot uppstallde sjalf sin har och beslot att angripa fienden och med inom hans egna forkansningar. Det var ej tid till att langre droja, ty noden hotade den svenska haren. Ryska forskansningarna strackte sig kring Narva i en lang halvkrets, med flyglarne stodda mot Narvaflodens strand. Svenska haren var for svag att angripa mer an ett par niirbelagna punkter. Dessa utsagos nara mitten av ryska linien. Ett par raketer skuUe vara tecknet, klockslaget tu-tiden, och orden med Gudshjalp* losen. Nu flogo de tva raketerna i luften, och under faltropet: Med Guds hjaip! drog den lilla
trots

Readings.

143

svenska haren framat. Konungen i sin enkla blaa rock befann sig ytterst pa vanstra flygeln, och honom foljde narmast bans drabanter, en utvald trupp av ett hundra femtio man, som anfordes av Arvid Horn. Nagot till hoger om konungen gick Magnus Stenbock med dalkarlarne ocb sa bela den
ovriga haren.
I

detsamma svenskarne ryckte fram, uppstod en

haftig

blast, som drev framfor sig ett tjockt, men enstaka moln med ett sa tatt snoglopp, att ryssarne, som hade detsamma mitt i ogonen, icke kunde se trettio till fyrtio steg framfor sig.

Nagra svenska generaler


Nej, skada darav.
gatt
forbi.

ville uppskjuta anfallet till ovadret sade konungen, vi hava mera gagn an

Ryssarne, som trott, att Karl dragit sig tillbaka, och som sedermera forblindades av det starka snogloppet, anade ocksa ingenting, forran svenskarne voro pa blott femtio stegs avstand fran vallarne. Da forsvann aven till alias forundran snomolnet med ens, och vid det ater frambrytande solskenet stortade svenskarne mot forskansningen. Gravarna fylldes av medforda risknippor, och vallarne bestegos. Ryska linjen brots och kastades at sidorna. Detta var gjort inom en fjardedels timma, och genom den tillvagabragta oppningen sprangde svenska rytteriet fram att understodja fotfolket.
I borjan sokte val ryssarne forsvara sig; men bestortningen over svenskarnes underbart hastiga anfall och deras utomordentliga mod spred sig allt, mer, och snart sprungo de som skramda far om varandra. Manga sokte pa sidan om svenskarne fly undan till skogs. Men da motte dem Karl sjalv i spetsen for drabanter och dragoner och jagade dem

tillbaka in
I

trangseln.

oordning stortade nu ryssarnes hogra flygel ner emot bron over Narva. Den brast, och tre tusen ryssar, sages det, funno sin grav i boljorna. Storsta delen maste saledes stanna vid stranden mellan floden och svenskarne. De ryska gardesregementena, som voro mer ovade och krigsvana, hejdade for en stund det svenska anfallet, och generalema gjorde allt for att ordna den ovriga massan. Men da borjade med ens ropas, att olyckan komme fran de forradiska tyskarne och fran andra utlanningar, som Tsaren dragit over sina landsman, och i fortvivlan borjade ryssarne nedhugga allt vad tyskt var, utan att akta nagot befal. Hertigens av Croi eget liv hotades. Da besloto han och tvenne av bans generaler samt nagra andra utlanningar att som fangar lamna sig i svenskarnes hand hellre an vara utsatta for ryssarnes raseri. Med adjutanter och betjaning sprangde de over till svenska sidan och stotte dar pa Magnus Stenbock,. at vilken de gavo sig till fanga.
vild

144

Readings.

Nu
slag.

intraffade

De

emellertid den haftigaste striden i detta vid stranden instangda ryssarne uppforde i hast av

trossvagnar och vad de fingo fatt en forskansning, och borjade de ihardigt forsvara sig. Svenskarne hade storsta delen bortskjutit de tjugufyra skott, varje soldat till medfort, och uppsokte nu nya ur doda Senders patronkok. Ett stort antal ryssar stupade, ock likval ville de aterstaende
liarifran

annu icke giva sig. For att fiendernas vanstra


hogra
till

flygel ej skulle komma den hjalp lat Karl erovra ett stort ryskt batteri, som lag pa en hojd mitt emellan bada flyglarne, varigenom han avskar dem fran varandra. Da forlorade ryssarnes hogra flygel modet och skickade ett par officerare att begara forskoning. Nu inbrot morket och blev sa tjockt, att striden ej langre kunde fortsattas, utan konungen lat giva tecken till dess upphorande. En var sokte nu vila, bast han kunde,

ingen fick avlagsna sig. Karl gick med annu genomvata klader till en vakteld, som gardessoldaterna uppgjort, och lade sig dar pa en kappa, som man utbredt over marken. Med huvudet i knaet pa en bland bussarne, tog han en kort och behovlig vila. Snart kommo tvanne af ryssarnes anforare for att underhandla. De anmaldes for Karl, dar denne lag vid vaktelden. Overenskommelsen uppgjordes snart. Ryssarne, utan kanne-

men

dom av verkliga forhallandet, tyckte sig ej nog fort kunna komma undan; svenskarne med kannedom av samma forhallande, tyckte sig ej snart nog kunna bliva av med dem. Man uppgjorde, att generalerna och overbefalet skulle stanna
som
krigsfangar. Kanoner, fanor, standar m. m. borde ock kvarlamnas, men alia trupperna genast over den snart upplagade bron taga hem igen med bibehallna vapen. Svenskarne hastade att laga bron i ordning, och redan klockan fyra foljande morgon, langt innan dagsljuset hunnit visa verkliga belagenheten, tagade fiendens hogra flygel over bron, och var och en skyndade till sitt hem igen. Ryssarnes vanstra flygel hade stridit med storre framgang. Men under natten kom bud, att hogra flygeln dagtingat, varigenom den befalhavande generalen pa vanstra flygeln fann sig tvungen att gora detsamma. Overbefalet Underhandlingen harom oppnades genast. skulle bliva krigsfangar men den ovriga skaran finge avtaga dock skulle alia lamna sina vapen. Det var ett markvardigt skadespel att foljande formiddag se tio eller tolv tusen man, bland vilka manga voro val vapnade, stracka gevar for knappt sex tusen svenskar, bland vilka manga voro uttrottade och sjuka efter den foregaende Bland mina sex hundra dalkarlar*, skrisvara medfarten.
;
;

Readings.

145
ett

ver Magnus Stenbock,

hade ingen
se

Men ban bad dem


stalldes
ut.
i

likval

modiga

ut.

en lang rad pa ett led for att huvud vandrade i en lang stracka ryssarne forbi svenskarne ocb nedlade infor konung Karl sina fanor och vapen. Det varade lange, innan alia hunnit forbi; men sa stor var skramseln bos ryssarne, att vid bron trangdes manga hundra i vattnet och drunknade. Sa slot Karls forsta falttag mot ryssarne. Efter denna forsta seger fattade Karl for dem ett djupt forakt och ansag dem foga farliga. Darfor lamnade ban dem ock snart och

enda skott kvar. Svenskarne upptaga sig nagorlunda

Med

blottade

tagade att straffa den polske konungen,

som

infallit

Livland.

3.

Karl von Linne.

bora utlanningar tala om vart fadernesland, dess natur och folk, dess samhallsskick och historia, kunna vi ofta ej annat an pa det bogsta forvana oss over den okunnigbet ocb de oriktiga forestallningar, som de i dessa avseenden lagga i dagen. Aven bildade framlingar gora sig bar vid ej sallan skyldiga till stora misstag, ocb manga av de verkligt store

Da

vi

man, som Sverige frambragt, aro for dem antingen till namnet okanda, eller ock anses de ej sallan bava tillhort nagot
annat folk. Det finnes dock ett svenskt namn, vilket for ingen bildad person inom hela varlden torde vara obekant, och vilket darfor mycket bidragit att gora Sverige kant ocb aktat i frammande land. Det namnet ar Linn6, och det namnet namnes med vordnad och beundran over hela jordklotet, var Da bor ock varje svensk heist bildade manniskor finnas. kanna detta namn ocb veta, vem den man var, som gjort det sa ryktbart. I en av sodra Smalands vackraste trakter ligger, ej langt ifran Skanes grans, Stenbrobults socken. Komministersbostallet inom denna socken beter Rasbult, och bar, i en ringa och oansenlig koja, foddes den 23 maj 1707 en gosse, som i dopet erboU namnet Karl. Fadern, en fattig komminister vid namn Nicolaus Linnaeus, vilken sedermera blev kyrkoherde i forsamlingen, var en stor alskare av blommor och anlade en for den tiden vacker tradgard, i vilken den lille gossen redan ifran sina spadaste ar inbamtade en livlik karlek for blomstervarlden en karlek, som sedan forskaffade honom plats bland varldens namnkunnigaste man, men tillika tillskyndade honom mangen sorglig och bitter stund. Detta fick ban redan som skolgosse erfara. Hos den unge Karl Linnaeus var bagen for naturens studium sa stor, att densamma bos honom borttog all lust for lasandet av de gamla

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

IQ

146

Readings.

latinska och grekiska forfattarne, vilka studerades i skolorna. Med desto storre iver sokte han daremot att lasa i naturens stora bok, i vilken han ansag sig inhamta kimskap om Skaparens allmakt, vishet och godhet. Da han till foljd harav

visade sig sasom en haglos och ingaluuda flitig larjunge i de iimnen, som i skolan foredrogos, och da dessutom naturvetenskaperna den tiden voro ringa aktade, sa var det ej underligt, om hans larare i Vexio skola ansago honom sasom oduglig Ocksa tillradde de hans fader att satta honora i att studera. skraddare- eller snickare-lara, pa det att han atminstone pa nagot satt skulle i en framtid kunna fortjana sitt uppehalle. Med biodande hjarta beslot aven fadern att lyda detta rad, och blott en tillfallighet gjorde, att gossen pa inradan av en doktor Rothman fick kvarstanna i skolan, varest han dock f*>rtfarande gjorde endast obetydliga framsteg. Darfor, da han lamnade Vexio gymnasium for att sasom student i Lund i'ortsatta sina studier, medforde han dit ett ingalunda vackert avgangsbetyg, i det att hans larare forklarade, att ungdomen liknas vid sma trad i en tradskola, dar det i skolorna kan under tiden, fastan sallan, hander, att unga trad icke arta sig val, utan pa allt satt likna vilda stammar, ehuru man pa dem anvandt den allra storsta flit; bliva dessa sedermera omflyttade i annan jordman, kan det handa, att de forandra
I

och bliva skona trad, som giva behaglig frukt. denna avsikt och ingen annan avsandes till akademien denne yngling (Karl Linnaeus), som kanske dar kan komma pa ett stalle, som kan vara gynnsamt for hans forkovran i kunskaper. Med ingalunda glatt mod begav han sig med ett sadant vitsord till Lund, varest han genast vid sin ankomst traffades av en ny motgang. Vid inresan i staden horde han namsin daliga art

ligen klockorna ringa till begravning, och till svar pa sin lorfragan, vem den avlidne vore, erhoU han den upplysningen, att det var en hans slakting, hos vilken han hoppats finna

skydd och hjalp. Den fattige, av alia forbisedde 3'nglingen hade mahanda varit nodsakad att snart lamna Lund, sa vida
en lycklig tillfallighet gjort hans synnerliga flit bekant for en doktor vid namn Stobseus, vilken snart fattade sadant behag for honom, att han ej blott lat honom fritt begagna sin stora boksamling, utan aven upptog honom i sitt hus och till och med lovade gora honom till sin arvinge. Emellertid var Lund ej en lamplig plats for att inhamta kunskaper i de amnen, som Linnaeus mest alskade. En sadan var daremot Upsala, varest den beromde Olof Rudbeck meddelade undervisning i naturens kunskap. Da Linnaeus dessutom, for att skaffa sig sin utkomst, hade beslutit att bliva lakare, var det for honom av stor vikt, att de baste lararne i medicinen funnos i Upsala. Han beslot darfor att lamna
ej

Readings.

147

Lund, varover hans valgorare Stobseus hogeligen fortornades. Det var om hosten 1728 han kom till Upsala. Har fick han dock snart kampa mot den storsta nod och de svaraste bekymmer. Den lilla penningsumma, som hans foraldrar kunnat lamna honom, var snart fortard, och da det den tiden ansags
vara nastan foraktligt att studera lakarevetenskapen, sokte han forgaves att erhalla nagot understod for sina studiers fortsattande. Noden gick sa langt att han med papper maste omlinda sina frusna fotter, pa det att de ej skuUe sticka fram ur de trasiga skodonen. Utan mat, klader eller penningar hade han knappast nagot annat beslut att fatta an att saga farval at Upsala och pa samma gang at studierna. Nu besannades dock ordspraket, att da noden ar storst, ar ock hjalpen narmast. Innan han lamnade Upsala, ville han namligen annu en gang besoka den botaniska tradgarden, varest han njutit sa m3'cken gladje vid betraktandet av en

mangd
sadan,

utlandska,

for

honom
ej

forut

frammande

orter.

En

stod dar nyss utslagen. I gladjen over den samma glomde han nastan sin sorgliga belagenhet och undersokte vaxtens delar med storsta noggranndet var ju ocksa, som han trodde, sista gangen ett het, sadant noje var honom beskart. Till sist ville han avbryta
forr

som han

skadat,

blomman
at

for att medfora henne sasom ett minne fran lyckligare dagar, da han annu vagade hoppas pa en framtid, agnad

naturvetenskaperna. Da hordes plotsligen en barsk stamma, som hejdade hans Da Linnaeus vande sig om, sag han framfor sig en hand. vordig prastman, doktor Olof Celsius den aldre, vilken efter nagra fragor snart uppskattade Linnaei stora insikter, och da han sjalv var sysselsatt med utarbetandet av ett verk om de i bibeln omtalade vaxterna och dartill ansag sig kunna fa god
hjalp av Linnaeus, sa upptog han honom i sitt hus, sa att den fattige studenten snart med gladje sag sig kunna fortsatta sina
studier.

Detta kan man saga vara en av vandpunkterna i Linnes underbara ungdomsliv. Genom Celsius blev han namligen bekant med den ryktbare professor Rudbeck, vilken ej allenast tog honom till sina barns larare, utan ock skaffade honom forordnande att, ehuru han blott var en ung student, under JRudbecks sjukdom undervisa de ovriga studenterna i ortkunsett uppdrag, som han med allmant kapen eller botaniken, bifall fuilgjorde, an da till dess en aldre universitetslarare aterkommit fran en utlandsk resa och da overtog denna underLyckan, som en tid gynnat Linnaeus, borjade nu visning. ater att vara honom ogunstig, varfor han beslot att for nagon tid lamna Upsala. Pa sin valgorare Rudbecks tillstyrkan foretog han darfor 1732 en vidlyftig och ofta livsfarlig

10*

148

Readings.

fard till Lappland, vilket land da var sa gott som alldeles obekant, och varest han hade ett rikt tillfalle att gora nya iakttagelser rorande detta egendomliga lands invanare, djur Med alia de dyrbara vaxter och ovriga naturforhallanden. samlingar, som han dar sammanbragt, vande han visserligen tillbaka till Upsala, naen snart finna vi honom ater i Dalarne, dels undervisaude i naturalhistorien (i synnerhet laran om stenarterna), dels undersokande detta landskaps naturalster. Har forlovade han sig med Sara Elisabet Moreea, dotter av stadslakaren i Falun. Annu hade Linnaeus ej blivit medicine doktor, och for detta mals vinnande ansag han det vara bast att begiva sig till Holland, i vilket land pa den tiden ej blott lakarevetenskapen, utan aven botaniken stod i storsta utveckling. Har vann han aven snart ej blott doktorsvardigheten, utan aven vad mera var allmant erkannande och anseende. En mangd arbeten, som han har lat trycka, vackte det storsta uppseende, sa att gamla hogt aktade vetenskapsman tavlade

med varandra
kande

i att visa honom sin vanskap, samt oppet erden unge svenskens larjungar; rika man tavlade att forstracka honom medel och gora bans vistande i Holland behagligt samt bekostade bans resor till England och Frank-

sig vara

olika land Frankrike, Holland, England, Tyskrike; kommo frikostiga anbud, om han ville nedland, Spanien satta sig darstades och undervisa ungdomen vid darvarande universitet. Men Linnseus var svensk och alskade for mycket sitt fadernesland for att lockas av frammande guld; han 1am-

Mn

nade

alia

franvaro
ara vid

till sitt

dessa lysande utsikter och atervande efter tre ars fadernesland och sin vantande brud.
i

Att en person, som


sin

frammande land vunnit


mottagas, sasom val kunnat vanta,

sa

stor

hemkomst

skulle

armar, hade man Utomlands overallt firad, blev dock ingalunda handelsen. han hemma sa forbisedd, att han knappast kunde livnara sig. Molnen skingrade sig dock efter nagon tid, och efter att f5rst hava fatt anseende sasom Stockholms skickligaste lakare, utnamndes han 1741 till professor i Upsala, vilken befattning han sedan innehade anda till sin dod den 10 januari 1778. Under hela denna tid var bans rykte i standigt stigande, och talrika voro de erkannanden harav, som kommo honom till Sa, erholl han titel av arkiater, utnamndes till riddare del. av nordstjarneorden (vilket den tiden ansags siisom en lika ovanlig som stor utmarkelse) samt adlades, varvid han antog namnet von Linn6. Sa stor var den glans, som var fast vid detta namn, att bans ende son f5re faderns dod utnamdes till Vi hava nu i storsta korthet bans blivande eftertradare. redogjort for bans levnadslopp, men det ^terstar att antyda,

med oppna

man sager, men sa blev

Readings.

149

vari det stora,


sa

som han iitrattat, bestar, och varfor ban blivit beromd bade inom och utom Sverige. Skada vi omkring oss, finna vi jorden kladd av trad och

andra vaxter av otaliga slag, vilka i skilda trakter av jorden aro hogst olika. Man kan med trygghet pasta, att pa jordklotet nu finnas mycket mer an bundra tusen olika arter. Manga av dessa tjana manniskan till foda, klader, lakemedel, och till andra nyttiga andamal, under det andra aro skadliga eller rent av giftiga. En noggrann kannedom av sadana vaxter ar for manniskan nodvandig; men ej blott dessa bor hon soka lara sig kanna, utan aven alia, som likna dessa och med vilka de kunna forvaxlas. Ja, varje annan vaxt, stor eller liten, ar val fortjant av manniskans uppmarksamhet, ty intet ar onodigtvis skapat; och darfor ma icke manniskan i sin kortsynthet anse sig for hog att betrakta och beundra det, som den allsmaktige skaparen ej ansett sig for stor och

hog

att

frambringa.

Kannedomen av vaxtvarlden bor darfor anses s^som mycket viktig for manniskan, men denna kannedom ar ock forenad med ej ringa svarigheter. Detta var i synnerhet forhallandet fore Linnes tid. Under manga arhundraden hade man visserligen forut gjort en mangd iakttagelser angaende vaxterna; men liksom anvandandet av husgeradssakerna inom ett hushall bleve svart eller omojligt, om de kastades i en hog om varandra, pa samma satt voro de om vaxterna gjorda iakttagelserna sa gott som oanvandbara, emedan ingen formatt att ordna de samma. Detta gjorde Linne. Han uppstallde nagra enkla, lattfattliga grander, efter vilka ett sadant ordnande kunde ske, och salunda erholl vaxtkunskapen genom honom en fast grund, pa vilken han ordnade alia de forr

gjorda iakttagelserna dessutom okade han dem med en mangd nya och hogst viktiga, av honom sjalv gjorda upptackter. Harigenom erholl Linn6 namnet botanisternas konung, vilket namn han an i dag utan motsagelse uppbar. Det var dock ej blott at denna vetenskap, som han agnade sin rastlosa flit och sitt genomtrangande snille, utan det samma galler i nastan lika hog grad laran om djuren eller zoologien, ty ocksa denna borjar fran bans upptradande en ny tidrakning.
;

Aven

laran om stenriket, liksom ock medicinen, ronte ett valgorande inflytande av Linnes ordnande ande. For att sprida kannedom om sina nya asikter och iakttagelser, mj\ste Linne naturligtvis upptrada sasom forfattare, och fa manniskor torde hava skrivit sa manga och dartill Sakert ar, att en person, som sa utmarkta bocker som han. blott ager Linn6s alia arbeten, m;\ste anses hava en ratt stor boksamling, och dessa bocker aro daruti olika flertalet av bocker, vilka snart forlora sitt varde och glommas, att de

150

Readings.

halla,

tvartom fortfarande hogt skattas for allt det utmarkta de inneliksom i allt manskligt nagra fel aven om i dem och oriktigheter hava insmugit sig. I dessa Linnes talrika arbeten finnas alia da for tiden kanda naturforemal namngivna, beskrivna och pa sadant satt ordnade, att en var latteligen kan med tillhjalp av dessa skrifter bestamma de naturforemal, som ban antraffar. Men darjamte sokte Linne att pa allt satt utreda och sprida kannedom om de sarskilda naturalstrens forekomst, levnadssatt, nytta ocli anvandande m. m., utan vilket allt naturvetenskaperna skulle hava nedsjunkit blott till en namnkunskap. Otaliga aro de nya upptackter och iakttagelser, som finnas nedlagda i dessa arbeten, och ej mindre viktiga aro bans vederlaggningar av en mangd oriktiga och vidskepliga forestallningar, som forut varit allmant gangse. Hartill fordrades Sa t. ex ej blott kunskaper, utan aven mangen gang mod. svavade till och med Linnes liv i fara, da ban i Hamburg visade, att en dar forvarad flygande drake med sju huvud, som blivit said for en summa av tio tusen mark, ej var annat an bedrageri, och att dylika djur ej finnas till 1 naturen, utan

i enfaldiga personers inbillning. Stor var utan tvivel Linne genom sina talrika verk, men ej mindre storartad var bans verksamhet sasom larare. Ingen professor vid vara hogskolor bar haft sa manga och sa hangivna ahorare. Att kallas Linnes larjunge* ansags for en aretitel, och derfor skyndade ej blott studenterna till bans forelasningar, utan en mangd av rikets fornamsta man infunno

blott

aven for att atnjuta bans undervisning. Ja, till och med danskar, tyskar, engelsman. schweizare, fransman, ryssar, islandingar och amerikanare infunno sig for att av homom bora tolkas naturens under sa, som endast han forstod det.
sig
till

Outtrottlig var aven lararen. Fran tidigt pa morgonen sent pj\ aftonen i fullt arbete, meddelade han ej blott pa forelasningssalen eller i botaniska tradgarden sin undervisning, utan ofta vandrade han ut i fria naturen for att lara sina talrika, vetgiriga larjungar att sjalva undersoka och utforska na-

turens hemligheter. Till ett antal av ett par hundra vandrade de ut tidigt pft morgonen, och efter en flitigt anvand dag int&gade de sent pa aftonen i Upsala, foljande under pukors och valthorns klang sin alskade larare till bans bostad. Och barunder vaxte aven de forut ringaktade naturvetenskapernas anseende sa. att de da av alia vordades nastan mer an nagon

annan vetenskap. Sa satt Liun6 som en vetenskapernas konung i Upsala. och bans blomsterspiras makt strackte sig over hela den bildade varlden. Jordens maktige furstar och furstinnor ansago det som en ara att sta i beroring med honom, och fran alia

Readings.

151

hitll insandes till honom skatter av naturalster for att bestammas och beskrivas. Sjalv utsande ban till varldens avlagsnaste trakter larjungar for att darifran hemfora dittills okanda

naturalster; manga bland dem folio val under sina resor offer for sjukdomar, modor och forsakelser, men sa stor var den

hag,

som Linne maktade ingiva alia, att standigt nya unga erbjodo sig till nya farliga farder. Varpa berodde nu denna ofantliga makt, som Linne utovade pa alia sina samtida, hoga och laga? Utan tvivel ar hon att soka i den snillrikhet, vanned han forstod att tyda naturens dunkla gator, och den glodande karleg, varmed han omfattade allt i naturen. Men i den i ej ringa grad torde hon val vara att soka aven odmjukhet, varmed han bar sin iycka. Val ar det sant, att

man

han ofta nastan barnsligt gladde

som kommo honom

de hedersbetygelser, han harleda sig Tvartom att i sina skrifter satta sig sjalv i forsta rummet. andas de alia den djupaste vordnad, den oinskranktaste undergivenhet for naturens herre; overallt soker han blott framvisa Guds godhet och allvishet. Da han gjort nagon viktig och storartad upptackt, forhaver han sig icke darover, utan utbristor i glad odmjukhet: Jag sag skuggan av Herren, den allsmaktige, svava forbi, och jag hapnade av vordnad och beundran. Hans valsprak, som han bokstavligen alltid hade for ogonen, inristat ovanfor sin dorr, lydde sa; Lev rattAr det underligt, om en sadan man radig, Gud ser dig^ vinner sin samtids beundran och karlek? Hundra ar aro snart forflutna, sedan Gustaf den tredje infor rikets stander klagade over den oersattliga forlust: som Sverige genom Linnes bortgang lidit, och mycket har sedan dess forandrats. Men det, som ej forandrats, ar den beundran, som av hela den bildade varlden agnas Sveriges storste vetenskapsman, Karl von Linne. Arligen fira naturens vanner i vitt skilda land arsdagen av bans fodelse, och otaliga aro de, som med odmjukt sinne stannat vid bans grav i Upsala domkyrka eller intratt i bans enkla boning pa Hammarby, nu tyst och undangomd, men for hundra ar sedan det stalle, varifran vetenskapens sol klart stralade over hela jorden. I vara barrskogars djupaste skugga doljer sig en liten vaxt, som fr^n en krypande stjalk hojer sina Ijusroda, klocklika blommor. Kar for alia ar denna blomma, Linnoea borealis, ty hon bar Linnes namn. Standigt friska och gronskande aro hennes blad, enkla och ansprakslosa hennes blommor, men dock tjusar hon alia och fyller den omgivande nejden vitt och brett med en mild vallukt. Hari kunde man se en bild av Th. Fries. Linne sjalv och bans ara.
sig at
till

del,

men

aldrig lat

Innocue

vivito,

numen

adest.

Poems,

Vagen.
Mitt liv ar en vag, Som rores en tid I svallande tag, Vid vindarnas strid.

Nar lugn blir pa hav, Och vinden ar tyst, Da somnar hon av Vid stranden hon kysst.

Hon

Till ro

lagger sig ner i det bla.

Hon synes ej mer; Men fins dar anda.


Af varldshavet ju En droppe hon ar, Och solen annu

Kan

spegla sig dar.

K. A. Nikander.

V&rylsa.

Nu
Da
D^

ar den Ijuvliga varens tid, grcinskas pa marken. Och luften flaktar sa varm och blid,
allt vill

Och ronnen blommar


gullstankt
fjaril
i

i parken, rosen gungar,

Och svanen simmar med Pa morkbla \kg.

sina ungar

Poems.

153

Pa fastet solen i hogan^ loft Den hela dag nu sitter, Och dricker daggvin och rosendoft, Och lyss pa faglarnas kvitter. Den glada goken fran lindens krona Sitt kiinda kuku pa nytt hors tona
I

gronan^ skog.
sig ror

Hvad lustigt liv, som i allt Och med zephirer blandas!

Vart lov kan tala, sjalf klippan hor Och blomsterkullarna andasDar grater kalian, dar suckar hacken, Dar sjunger vagen, dar spelar backen
Sin polska upp.

Kom min
Och
folj

mig ut

herdinna, rack mig din hand, i det grona!

Med hundratusende blomsterband


Och kransar skall jag dig krona. Och om du sedan en kyss mig unnar.
For barg och dalar jag hogt forkunnar: 'Nu ar det var.
C.

F, Dalgren.

Tradgardsflickan.

Blomman

ar

min van
an,

Svek mig aldrig Oskuld bor i hennes oga.

Blommor tusen slag, Nya med hvar dag


Dricka Ijus utur det hoga. Som en aldre syster vardar jag dem omt, Solen glommer \dem, men jag dem aldrig glomt.

Blomman

ar

min van,
I

Svek mig aldrig an, Oskuld bor i hennes oga.


Lilla

blomma

bla!

Larkan

pa, slar de Ijuva slagen. Lilla blomma rod!

Vakna upp! hor

Ar du redan dod?
obsolete form of the dative case.

154

Poems.

Det for

bitti

ar pa dagen.

An

star solen vanlig over dal och sjo, Lat den forst ga ner, och sedan kan du do. Lilla blomma bla!

Larkan

Vakna upp hor pa, slar de Ijuva slagen.


Sjalv en

blomma jag Vissnar ock en dag. Det gar mig, som eder andra. Varens dar forga,
Kort Lat OSS alska Svarta natten Glada lat oss
Sjalv

ar m,in ocksa. da varandra.

mulen kommer med

sin blund,

blomma an en liten stund en blomma jag


W.

Vissnar ock en dag Det gar mig, som eder andra.


C.

BUttiger.

Flyttfaglarna.

Sa hett skiner solen pa Nilvagen ner, Och palmerna ge ingen skngga mer.

Da
Och

griper oss langtan taget forsamlas.

till

fadernejorden,

Mot norden! mot norden!

Och djupt under fottren vi se som en grav Den gronskande jorden, det blanande hav, Dar oron och stormen var dag sig fornyar.

Men
Och Dar Dar Dar

vi fara fria

med himmelens

skyar.

hogt mellan fjiillen dar ligger en ang; nedslar var skara, der redes var silng. lagga i iigg under kyliga polen, klacka vi ut dem vid midnattssolen.

Ej jagaren hinner var fredliga dal, Dar halla guldvingade iilvor sin bal.

GrOnmantlade skogsfnm spatserar

i i

kvallen,
fjiillen.

Och dvargarne hamra

sitt gull in

Men

ater

pa bargen star Vindsvales son

Och skakar de snoiga vingar med dan, Och hararna vitna, och ronndrufvan gloder, Och taget forsamlas. Mot soder! mot soder!

Poems.

155

Till

Till

gronskande angar, till Ijummande vag, skuggande palmer star ater var hag. Dar vila vi ut fran den luftiga farden.

Dar langta

vi ater till nordliga varlden.

E. Tegner.

Martyrerne.

(Extract.)

Flavins.

Skon ar

du, nar

du beder.

Stralar glansa

Da i Som
I

ditt oga,

och

ditt anlete

skimrar
att bedja.

liljans

krona,

som en marmorbild

tempelsalen.

Lar ock mig


Perpetua.

Jag kan det ej. Det ord som skapte hjartat, Kan ensam lara hjartat bonens ord. Sa ogat ej av egen kraft kan se, Om dagen ej dess spada drag bestralar.
Ett underverk nodvandigt ar, Skall tala med sin Gud, och

om

stoftet
blott,

Anden

Den rena duva, som med silvervingar, Milt svavar over tidens mulna flod,
Lar vara brost den helga suckens genljud.

Kom

hit emellertid.

Jag

vill

dig visa,

Hur du till bonens nad skall dig bereda. Nar till ditt upphof med din kanslas offer Du amnar framga, tankarna da ropa
Fran varje jordiskt foremal tillbaka; Knapp sedan handerna, till vittnesbord Att dina sinnen du for varlden sluter; Boj sedan knan; for hela varldens Herre
Boj dina knan.
Blott till det laga sankes Det hoga neder. Bonens himlastege Star djupt i odmjukhetens blomsterdal.

Stagnelius.

Ur

rritjofs Saga".
!

Den

kvinna, kvinna forsta tanke,

nu Frithjof sade.
hade,

som Loke

Det var en logn, och han sande den I kvinnoskepnad till jordens man. En blaogd logn, som med falska tarar
Alltjemt oss tjusar, alltjamt oss darar, Hogbarmad logn med sin rosenkind,

Med dygd av

varis och tro av vind,

156

Poems.
I hjartat flarden

och sveket viska,

Och mened dansar pa lappar friska. Och dock, hur var hon mitt hjarta kar, Hur kar hon var mig, hur kar hon ar!
Jag kan Att hon
ej
i

minnas sa langt
leken
ej

tillbaka,

var min maka. Jag minns ej bragd, som jag tankt uppa, Dar hon ej tanktes som pris ocksa. Som stammar, vuxna fran rot tillsamman, Slar Tor den ena med himla-flamman, Den andra vissnar; men lofvas en, Den andra klader i gront var gren; Sa var yar gladje, var sorg gemensam; Jag ar ej van att mig tanka ensam. Nu ar jag ensam. ...
E. Tegner.

Appendix.
1.

Viirldsalltet.

The universe.
vattnet, the water on, the island havet, the sea ^/ow, the lake an, the river bdcken, the brook dammen, the pond dalen, the valley.

himmeln, the sky vdrlden, the world solen, the sun Ijuset, the light mdnen, the moon tjdman, the star jorden, the earth luften, the air
2.

Landet.

The country.
arrendegdrden, the farm trddgdrden, the garden kvarnen, the mill

bonden, the peasant


fdltet, the field dngen, the meadow 62/v^, the village hyddan, the cottage trakfen, the country skogen, the forest veden, the wood sldtten, the plain vinbdrget, the vineyard busken, the bush vdgen, the road landsvdgen, the highroad

spannmdl, corn
rdgen, the rye kornet, the barley t;e^eif, the wheat

halmen, the straw


skorden, the harvest ^06^, the hay plogen, the plough ladan, the barn grdset, the grass. Trees, fruits and flowers. boken, the beech
fir-tree

3.

Trad, frukter och hlommor.

dppeltrddet, the apple-tree dpplet, the apple

granen, the

pdrontrddet, the pear-tree pdronet, the pear


jikontrddet, the fig-tree fikonet, the fig valnotstrddet, the walnut-tree valnoten, the walnut korsbdrstrddet, the cherry-tree korsbdret, the cherry plommontrddet, the plum-tree plommonet, the plum smuUronet, the strawberry vinbdret, the currant hallonet, the raspberry

ektrddetj the oak-tree poppeln, the poplar rosen, the rose liljan, the lily
the vinterlofkojan tulpanen, the tulip. nejUkan, the pink
,

stockgilly-

[flower

violblomman, the

violet

the pansy fdrgdtmigejen, the forget-me-not

styfmorsblomman,

bldklinten, the corn-flower getbladet, the honey-suckle vintergronan, the periwinkle

158
4.

Appendix.

Fyrfotadjur.

hasten, the horse dsnan, the ass 0X671., the ox kalven, the calf fdret, the sheep lammet, the lamb geten, the goat svinet, the pig lejonet, the lion bjomen, the bear raven, the fox vargen, the wolf tigern, the tiger kamelen, the camel elefanten, the elephant
5,

Quadrupeds. hunden, the dog


hJ or ten, the stag rddjuret, the rose gemsen, the chamois haven, the hare

kaninen, the rabbit ekorren, the squirrel


katten, the cat rattan, the rat

musen, the mouse mullvaden, the mole


renen, the reindeer.

Faglar.

Birds.
vakteln, the quail sndppan, the snipe

omen, the eagle tuppen, the cock honset, the fowl rt^^e^, the egg kycklingen, the chicken pdfdgeln, the peacock gdsen, the goose ankan, the duck svanen, the swan dufvan, the pigeon storken, the stork ugglan, the owl papegojan, the parrot
0.

rapphonan,

the partridge

Idrkan, the lark


koltrasten, the black-bird trasten, the thrush ndktergalen, the nightingale sparven, the sparrow siskan, the siskin kanariefdgeln, the kanary-bird svalan, the swallow mesen, the titmouse goken, the cuckoo.

Fiskar, Insekter.

Fishes, insects.
the toad the lobster

torsken, the cod-fish gdddan, the pike laxen, the salmon


Zew, the eel karpen, the carp sillen, the herring

paddan,

grodan, the frog

hummern,

masken, the worm


larven, the caterpillar fjdriln, the butterfly ollonhorren, the may-bug wyran, the ant

sutaren,

,,

,^

forellen, the trout ostronet, the oyster musslan, the shell, muscle

spindeln, the spider

flugan, the

fly

6ie^, the bee

krdftan, the cray-tish


snigeln, the snail ormen, the snake
7.

getingen, the wasp odlan, the lizard.

Staden.

The towu.
tornet, the tower klockstapeln, the steeple

byggningen, the building kyrkan, the church huset, the house

domkyrkan,

the cathedral

Appendix.

159

tuUhuset, the custom-house sjukhuset, the hospital borseyi, the exchange


teatern, the theatre hotellet, the hotel

slottet, the castle

vdggen, the wall fdstningen, the fortress


platsen, the place, square
target, the market 6 oc^eTi, the shop gatan, the street pldstret, the pavement.

vdrdshuset, the inn posthuset, the post-office


kafeet, the coflfee-house
8.

Huset.

The house.
^a^'ei^, the ceiling golvet, the floor klockan, the bell spisen, the chimney koket, the kitchen kdllaren, the cellar

the door Z<2,9e^, the lock nyckeln, the key trappan, the staircase rummet, the room

dorren,

7nottagningsrummet, the parlour sofrummet, the bed-room fonstret, the window fonsterluckan, the shutter
9.

spannmdlsboden,tloLe

loft

granary

hrunnen, the well vindskupan, the garret.


Furniture.
vaxljuset, the wax-candle talgl'juset, the tallow-candle

Mobler.

bordet, the table


stolen, the chair soffan, the sofa spegeln, the looking-glass skdpet, the wardrobe dragkistan, the chest of drawers taflan, the picture vdgguret, the time-piece sdngen, the bed huvudkudden, the pillow lakanet, the sheet madrassen, the mattress sdngtdcket, the blanket mattan, the carpet Ijusstaken, the candlestick

Ijussaxen, the snuffers skeden, the spoon


gaffeln, the fork kniven, the knife koppen, the cup tallriken, the plate bordduken, the table-cloth handduken, the towel servetten, the napkin, serviette forhdnget, the curtain flaskan, the bottle glaset, the glass korgen, the basket.

10.

Kladning.

Clothing.

hatten, the hat (bonnet) mossan, the cap bonjouren, the frock-coat fracken, the tail-coat jackan, the jacket kdpan, the cowl nattrocken, the dressinggown vdsten, the waist-coat

tovlorna, the slippers skjortan, the shirt forklddet, the apron ndsduken, the kandkerchief halsduken, the neck handkerchief

kravatten, the cravat

benkldder, 7. .-^^ byxor,

? J

^ ^ ^^^ the trowsers


.

,i

handskarne, the gloves fickuret, the watch bandet, the ribbon slojan, the veil
spatserkdppen, the walking-stick paraplyn(et) the umbrella parasollen, the parasol
,

strumpan,

the stocking

sA:on, the shoe

stoveln, the boot

160

Appendix.
orringen, the ear-ring

pungen, the purse


ringen, the ring
11,

glasogonen, the spectacles.

Kroppen.

The body.
halsen, the neck skuldran, the shoulder

mdnniskan,

(the)

man

kuvudet, the head


the brain hdret, the hair pannan, the forehead ansiktet, the face ogat, the eye ndsan, the nose ora^, the ear kinden, the cheek

hjdman,

ryggen^ the back


brostet, the breast (chest)

lungan, the lung


hjdrtat, the heart
the stomach the arm handen, the hand fingret (fingern)^ the finger nageln, the nail ftene^, the leg kndet, the knee foten, the foot i(?2, the toe strupen, the throat.

magen, armen^

^nunnen, the mouth


Idppen, the lip tanden, the tooth tungan, the tongue

hakan, the chin skdgget, the beard


12.

Mat och dryck.

Eating and drinking.


kdlen, the cabbage potatisar, potatoes

frukost, breakfast

middag, dinner
kvdllsvarden, supper ftroc?, bread
wJoZ, meal, flour soppan, the soup
the vegetables

moroten, the carrot


drier, peas

honor, beans

fronsakerna, 0^^, meat


s^e/b,

kakan, the cake frukten, the fruit smor, butter


os^en, the cheese t-me^, the wine 67e^, the beer vatinet, the water kaffet, the coifee. ^ee^, the tea mjolken, the milk chokladen, the chocolate honingen, the honey timjan, the thyme korveln, the chervil persiljan, the parsley syran, the sorrel.

roast-meat

oxkott, beef fdrkott, mutton kalvkott, veal fldsk, pork

skinkan, (the)

ham

fisken, the fish saladen^ the salad senapen, the mustard oljan, the oil dttikan, the vinegar saltet, the salt pepparen, the pepper

VOCABULARY.
Explanation
of the signs and abbreviations used
in

the Vocabulary.

declensions of substantives are designated by the numbers 1., 2., 3., 4. and 5. followed by the terminal definite article in the singular and the flexion of the indefinite form in the plural. Ex. fana, 1. -n, -or flag (the flag, flags).
five
:

The

The
figures
I.,

four
II.,

conjugations III. and IV.

of verbs are

designated by the

Roman

The sign placed after the Roman figures means that the verb belongs to the third group of the strong verbs and is quite irregular. The sign -1~ means that the noun has no plural. The sign means, that the plural is similar to the singular. adv. adverb, conj. adj. adjective, conjunction, prep.
preposition, past part.

= =

pres.

present,
s,

imp.

past participle,

imperfect, singular, pi.

sup.

supine,

plural.

Swedish-English.
A
Ackja,
1.

allvarlig, adj.

\^al'va^rlig'], serious,

-an, -or [ak'ja^], ^ack[ade'ra], to addition -er {ad'itfojtri],

adder a,

I.

addition,
addition

3. -en,

solemn, grave alpstav, 2. -en, -ar [alpsta'v], alpenstock [duce alster, 5. alstret [^alistdr'], pro-n [aV1. alstringsformdga,

[a'cfZa'J, to aftonvard, 3. -en,

adla,

I.

ennoble
-er
[af'ton-

s^n7;s/cermo'^a],productiveness alunskiffer, 2. -n, ffrar [a'lunfif'dr], aluminous slate

va'rd], afternoon meal akta, I. [ak'ta'], to esteem, to consider, to regard upon (as) agg, 5. -ef, [a,gf], spite, resent-

amerikanare, 5. -n, katnard], American


amiral,
admiral
I.

[am'm-

3.

-en,

-er

[am'iraH],

ment
aldrig, adv.
\^al'drig^'\,

never

ana, [a'na'], to have a presentiment of, to surmise

all, adj. [alf\, all

anbud,
andakt,
andas,

alia, adj. (pi.) [aZ'a'], all alldeles, adv. [^al'de'lds], quite allenast, adv. [^ale'nasH'], only,

5. -et, 3. -en,

[an'bm'd'],
-er

offer

[^andat],

solely

devotion(s) I. [an'das'], to breathe ande [a], 2. -en, -ar [an'dd'],


spirit,

allmakt, 3. -en, -\- {aVmak't], omnipotence allmdn, adj. [^aVmen'''], general allmdnhet, 3. -en, -f- [^aVmenheH'],

mind

andlig, adj. [an'dlig'], spiritual anfall, 5. -et, [an'/aZ'], onset,


attack

commonness;
generally

in

general,

anfalla, IV.

{^an'faV'a'],

to attack to

anfora,

II.

[anfoe^ra],

lead,

allra

[al'ra'],

by
adj.

far (before a su[al' smek'tig'],

to

command
5. -n,

perlative)

anforare,

[arr/ce'rara],

allsmaktig, omnipotent

leader, conductor

alltjdmt, adv. [al'tjemH'], ever

(so).

angripa, IV. [an'gri'pa], to attack angdende, prep, [an'go^dndd], concerning, regarding

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

11

162

Vocabulary.
5.

anhdngare,
partisan

-?i,

\sLn'hifard\ +

arm,
art,
cies

2. -en,

-ar \artra\, arm


-er \^atdt\, kind, spe[a'dta^],
to

3. -en,
I.

anklaga,

I.

ankomst,
arrival

3. -en,

[an'kla'ga], to accuse [an'kom'st],

arta,

^si^J

assume
inheri-

anlete, 4.

-^,

anldgga,

II.

-n [an'le'td], face [^an'leg^a^ to put


to arrive
,

a certain quality ary, 5. -et (arven)


tance

\_ariv],

on, to establish

arvinge,
att
to

2. -n,

-ar

[ar'vir/d'], heir

anldnda,

11. [an'Zfn'cZa],

anmdla,
nqunce

II.

[aTi'm^'Za]

anob-

av

(before \aiv] [pi^v)], of


5.
-e^,

[a^.H, to

an

infinitive)

avhrott,
II. [ari*7Wr'fca], to

[^a'vhrot^ in-

anmdrka,
serve

terruption avhryta, IV. [a*i;6r2/'fa], to inter-

annan,

annat(n),

andra

(pi.)

rupt

[an'an', an'at', au'dra'], other annons, 3. -ew, -er [a?zo7?.'s], ad-

avdelning,

2.

-e?i,

-ar

[avc^e'Zoff

vertisement

m'l/], division [a'vgo'], to avgd. III.

annonsera,
vertise

I.

[an'o2;se.Va], to ad-

avgdngshetyg,

5. e^,

go [a'vgoys-

[an'ony'anonymitet, 3. -e/i, miYe/f], anonymousness

"bdty^g^ testimonial

avgora,
avkasta,

II.

[a'vjo^ra'], to settle,

to decide
I. [a'^Aras'^a], to throw off avlida, IV. [a^'Z^'(ZaJ, to decease avliden, adj. [a"i;Zi'cZ9/i], deceased avldgsen, adj. \^a'vlek^sdn\, distant, remote

anse.

III.

[ari'se'], to

look upon,

to consider

anseende,

4. -^, -\- [an'se^dndd], till, consideration, regard; i in consideration of

ansikte, 4.

-t,

-n [^an'sikHd], face,

avldgsna,

I.

[a'vUk'sna],

to

re-

countenance

move
avresa, avresa,
ture
II.
1.

ansiktsfdrg, 3. -en, -er [an'sikts/r'j], complexion ansprdkslos, adj. [a?i-sproA:sZ0's], modest, moderate anstrdngning, 2. -eri, -ar [an'streyHy], effort

[a'vre^sa], to depart n.-or [a'vre'sa], depar-

ansvar,

5. -ef,

+ [an"s?;aV],

avrdtta, I. [a*?;rf a], to execute avsats, 3. -eTi, -er [a'vsafs], layer, bed [view
arse,
III.

res-

O
4.

[a'vse'],
-f,
-ri

to

have in

ponsibility

avseende,
[awstJaW^'], res-

[a'vse'dndd],

ansvarig,
ponsible

adj.

antingen, conj. [an'^i^^'^n], either antrdffa, 1. [an-^r/'a],.to meet antyda, II. [an'Z^/'cZa], to point
out

respect, regard avsikt, 3. -en, -er [a'vsik't], intention avskdra,\Y. [a'vfse^ra], to cut off

avstdnd,
distance

5.

-ef,

[a*i;sfor?/cZl,

anvdnda, II. [awvewcZa], to use anvdndande, 4. -^, -j- [an'ven'anvdndning,


dandd], use, application 2. -en, -ar [an'vfn'cZ-

avsomna,
sleep

I.

[av's^m^na], to go to
[a'vsoi'cZa], to send

avsdnda,
off,

II.

to

forward
II.

nixi\, use, application apostel, 2. -n (apostlar) [apos.^tdl], apostle a/?^iY, 3. -en, 4- [aptUt], appetite arheta, I. [aroe'^aj, to work arhete, 4. -^, -n [ar'^e'^af, work arkiater, 2. -n ("ifrjar [ar7a.'^ar],

avsdtta, pose

[a't'Sf^'a],

te

de-

avkasta,
off

I.

[a'i^/cas'^a],
2.

to

throw

avsdttning,

-en,

-ar

[a't?5^*-

n%], deposition
avtdga, I. [a'v^o'^a], to retreat avvakta, I. [a't'-ya/c'^a], to await

physician

Swedish-English.

163

had, 5. hagare,

-et,

5. -n,

\hatd\ bath \ha'gard^'\, baker

begdra,
behag,

II.

[69j/ra],

to

desire,

to require
5.
-et,

[bdha'g],

plea-

bakom,

prep, [bakom'], behind

sure, ease, comfort

bal, 2, -en, -ar \ha:T\, ball bal, 3. -en, -er [6a/Z], bale balsamering, 2. -en, -ar [bal-

behaglig, adj. [bdha'glig],


fortable

com-

behova,

II.

[6a^0.'t*a], to

need

sa'meriyli,

embalming

bamburor, 5. -et, ro^r], bamboo


bana,
path,
1.

[bam'bmroad,

behovlig, adj. \bdh0tvlig'], necessary, needful

-n,

-or [6'na'],

way
5. -et,

band,

bekant, adj. [ftaA^an/f], known, acquainted bekosta, I. [69A:os.'^a], to defray

[6an/d],

1)

band

bekvdm,

adj.

[69A;z;.'m],

commo-

2) ribbon; 3) volume adj. [barba'risk], barbarisk,

dious, convenient, comfortable bekvdmlig, adj. [6aA:?;f.Wz^], con-

barbarous, barbary

barn,

5.

et,

venient,
filial,

commodious

[baUn], child
[fta'^nsZz^^'],

bekymmer,

barnslig, adj.
childlike

barrskog,
fir-forest

2. -en,

-ar [ftar'sArw^^],

5. -(Vje^, [^99^m!dr}, sorrow, care beldgen, adj. [^^Z^.'^an], situated beldgenhet, 3. -en, -er [bdle'gdn-

he't}, situation

barsk,

adj. [ftaj^'sA:], rough,


-e^,

rude
bat-

beldgga,

II.

[ftaZe^.^a],

to over-

batteri, 3. tery

-er [bate.'r{],

lay, to cover

bebygga,
on,
till,

II.

[&962/^'a'],

to build to

to cover with buildings, to cultivate


5. -n,

bebyggare,
inhabitant

\b^byg'ar^'^'\,
to

beldgra, I. [bdU.'gra], to besiege 6en, 5. -e^, [6e.^n], leg, bone bereda, II. [6are.^(Za], to prepare berg, 5. -e^, [ba3r!j], mountain bergart, 3. -en, -er [6r-Ja'^^],

rock, veinstone,

gangue

bedja, IV. to pray bedrift, 3.


feat,

\be'dja^\
-en,
3. -e^,

beg,

bergig, adj. tainous

[bxr'jig'],
3. -en,

moun{bser'js-

-er

Ibddriff],

bergstrakt,
trak't],

-er

deed
-er [bddre'gd-

mountainous
3.

tract, hilly

bedrageri,

ri.% deceit befalla, II. [6a/a?'a'], to to order

country bergsrorelse,
roe'rdlsd]

-n,

-r

[6^r-js-

command,

befattning,

2.

-en,

-ar [6a/af-

m??'], occupation, pursuit

hejinna, IV., sz^ [&a^na'], to be found, [to do, to be] befolka, I. \b9foVka^'\, to people befriare, 5. -n, Ibdfri'ard'],

bergds, 2. -en, -ar [bser'jo^s], mountain-ridge bero, III. [6arw.'], to depend (upon) beromd, adj. [bdrom^d], renowned berora, II. [6ardVra], to touch berova, I. [6ar0/ija], to bereave beroring, 3. -en, -ar [bdrce'riy],
contact

liberator

befdl,

5. -e^,

[bdfe'l],
-n,

befdlhavare,
Aa'?;ara],

5.

command [69/fZofficer

besanna,

I.

[basan^a], to confirm,

to affirm

commanding

begiva, IV.

begrava, bury begravning,


nf??'],

[SajziJa'], to repair II. (IV.) [bdgra'va'], to


2. -en,

besegla, I. [6ase.'igrZa], to seal besegra, 1. [69se.*i^raj, to vanquish besittning, 2, -en, -ar [6asiY/nz7/], possession

-ar [&a^ra*v-

beskaffenhet,

3.

-en,

-{-

[bd-

burial

begripkg, adj. [ft^^W-pZi^'J, conceivable, comprehensible

skaf!dnhe't] , nature , quality, condition [scribe IV. [bdskri^va], to debeskriva,

ll*

164

Vocabulary.
to

beskdra, IV. \hdfseira\,

bestow

upon
5. -et

besluty hesluta, I. heslaktad, adj. \hdslekttad\ kindred hestiga, IV. \hestitga], to ascend,
to climb, to

[bdslid't], decision [hdslvitta\ to decide

bland, prep. [&Zan.'cZ], among blanda, I. [6Zan*c?a'], to mixt, to blend blandning, 2. -e?i, -ar [blan'd7117)% mixture
blid, adj.
6Zzi;a,
feZias^,
[ftZiVcZ],

soft

IV. \bli'va^\ to become


2.

mount

-en,

-ar

[6ZiA:.'sf],

flash

bestrdla, I. [bdstroHa], to irradiate bestd, III. [bdstot], to consist

(of lightning)

blod,

5.

-ef,

-j-e^,

\blojid'],

adj. [69S^fm.'c?], definite bestdmma, H. [69S^f7?2.'a], to de-

bestdmd,

blodbad,

5.

blood

[6/a;'6?6a'6?],

massacre, slaughter

termine, to define

blomma,
blomster,
flower

I.

[6Z<i;Wa'], flower
-e^,

besvdrlig, adj. [6asr^.'r%], trou-

5.

[6Zo//s^ar],

blesome

besok, 5. -e^, [ftasa'/c], visit besoka, II. [6as0.^A:a], to visit bete, 4. -#, -n [be'td'], pasture
-ew, -f- [bdgenHy], waiting, service, attendance betrakta, I. [fta^ra/c'^a], to con-

blomsterband,
stdrban''d\

5. -e^,

[6Zom'-

blomsterdal,

2.

-en,

-ar [blom'-

betjdning,

2.

stdrda^l], flowery dale

blomsterkulle, 2. -n, -ar [blomstdrkuVd], flowery hill

sider

blomster spira,
(4. -^, -|-),

I.

-n, -or

\bhm'-

betraktande

[bdtrak!-

tandd], consideration betraktelse, 3. -n, -r [bdtrakUdlsd], observation

stdrspi'ra], flowery sceptre bloss, 5. -et, [bios!'], torch blott, adv. [blot'], only, simply

blottad, adj. [6ZD^'ac?*], bare

betydlig, tant

adj. \b9tyidlig\

impor-

blund,
bldna,
blue

3.

-e7z,

-f-

[6Zi/n.'c?],

wink

bid, adj. [5Zo.'], blue

beundra, I. [bdun!dra], to admire beundran, 1. [69i^n.'(^raw],

+
,

1.

[6Z0W3'], to blue, to turn[blo'sa'], to


-671,

admiration
bevis, 5. -e^ [SatiVs], proof bevdrdiga, I. [bevse.'rdiga], think worthy of
tain, to

bldsa,
to

II.

6Zs^, 3.

-\-

blow [bhsU], wind

bibehdlla, IV. [6r&a7ioZ'a], to re-

keep on
{biblay) \bi':bdl\ bible

bldogd, adj. [ftZoo^^cZ], blue-eyed bldnka, II. [ftZf??'^^^*^']? to twinkle bloda, II. [ftZof'tZa], to bleed blodande, adj. [ftZo'cZan'c^^], bleeding
60, III. [6w/], to dwell

bibel, 2.

-?i

bidraga, lY.lbi'dra'ga], to contribute


bifall, 5.
&i7c?,
-e^, -j- [fti'/aZ'],

3.

-en,

-er

approval [bWd], image,


to

bok, 2. -en, -ar [bcoik'], beech 60A:, 3. -en (backer) [bcoik], book

boksamling,

2.

-en,

-ar

[Z)(^cA:-

picture bilda, I.

[bilda%

form

bildad, adj. [ftz'/'^^ac/^], educated bildande, part. [6i7'da?2'c?9], formative, civilizing


-en, -ar [6i7"d'i2;'], bildning, formation, education bildstod \bildstoj^d\, statue biskop, 2. -en, -ar [ftis'/coj?'], bishop
2.

sam^liy], library (books of a..) bokstauligen, adv. [bojksta'vligdn], literally

boning,
bard, board; borgare,
5.

2.

-en,

-ar

[ft^^'m?;'],

dwelling

om
5.

-e^,

-n,

[Z>w.W],
,

[am.']

on board [bor'jar9^\
to

table,

burgher, citizen

borra,

I.

bitter, adj.

[6iY.'9?'],

bitter

bort, adv.
freeze

[bor'a'], to bore [Z>o.i^.'Zl, away, off

bjorn, 2. -en, -ar [ft/ce.'^n], bear blad, 5. -ef, [blaid], leaf

bortfrysa,

IV. [boji'tfrg^sa],

up

Swedish-English.
II. [bo.t'tfoh'a], to

165
break in
to

bortfora,

lead

bryta in [bryta'

m.'], to

away
bortgdng,
departure,

2. -en,

+ decease

brddmogna
\bod'tgo7)'\

[bro'dmco^gna],

ripen early brost, 5. -et^


(belly)

bortskjuta, IV. [bod-ffm'ta], to shoot away, to put-off borttaga, IV. \boji'tta'ga\ to take

\brds'.t\ breast 6wA:, 2. -en, -ar [bm'Jc], stomach

buss,

2. -en,

-ar

\busf\,

fellow

away
bosatt,
settled
adj.
3.

soldier

[6&>-saf],
-en,

residing,

boskap,
cattle

by, 2. -n, -ar [%'], village bygd, 3. -e/i, -er [byg!d], country

[&<^"s^'p],

%^^5,

II.

[byg'a'],

to

build,

to

cultivate
3. -en,

boskapsskotsel,

[bco's-

kapsfot'sdl], cattle breeding bostad, 3. -en (stdder) [bco's^acZ'], habitation 4. -n [fttcCsff'Za], -f, bostalle,

byxa, 1. -n, -or \byk'sa'\ trousers bdda, adj. [6o*c^a'], both bade [bo-da^], both 6Z, 3. -en, -f [&o/Z], trunk
bar,
2.
2.
-e?2,

-ar

[fto.'r],

barrow

dwelling place bosdtta, II. [6c(;,Sf a], to settle

-en, -ar [bekt], brook bar a, IV. [dtfe'ra'], to bear

back,

botanik, 3. -en, -4- [6w^'ani'A:], botany botanisk, adj. \b(jotainisk'\, botanic(al)

bdrgning,

2. -en, -ar [&r;;m7;'], harvest, salvage 66'<ieZ, 2. -r (bodlar) {betddl],

executioner

botanist, 3. -en, -er [ftw^'amV^], botanist botten, 2. bottnen, bottnar [bo^.'an],

&Qya, bolja,

II. 1.

\bdj'a^\ to bend
-n, -or [6oZ:yV]

wave

soil,

ground
[brag'd], feat,

3. -en, borda, 1. -n

bon,

-er [bon], prayer

-or [6oe'^c?a'], burden


[6ce*^^i^'],
fertile,

bra, adv.
ftra^ftZ,

[Jra.^], well

bordig,
fruitful

adj.
3.

3. -en, -er

deed brant, brant, brasa,

bdrdighet,
adj. [&ran/^], steeply
3.
1.

-en, -er [6ran.'f], steep -n, -or [6rasa'], fire


[ftre-'cT],

-en, he't], fruitfulness I [boe'rja^], ftorja,

+
to

[bce'ddigbegin,
to

commence
borjan, 1, -|- \b(B'rjan''\ at the beginning
(in)

bred, adj.

wide, broad
to

breda, 11. [6re'^a'], to widen, spread out bredvid, prep. \bredviid\ by bringa, IV. [6rJ7;*a'], to bring brinna, IV. [6rma'J, to burn

C
civiliserad,
civilized
adj.,

[si'vilise^rad],

brinnande
burning
Z)ris^,

[6nn*an'c?a],
-er [brisH],

ardent,

3.

-en,

want,
2.

lack
brista, IV., bro, 2. -n, -ar [brcof], bridge broder, 3. -n (broder) \brcj'ddr% brother brud, 2. -en, -ar [ftrm.'c?], bride

p
-e?i, -ar [c?a/^], day dag, dager, 2. -n (dagrar) \datgdr\

wf

[6ns*i^a'], to burst

day-light
c?<3^^^,

2.

-en, -}- [c?a^.^,


-ef,

bruklig,
usual il

adj.

[5rm'A:%'], used,
-ar
[ftrwn.'],

daggvin, 5. winy dew

dag si' dagsljus,


2. -en,

5.

-e^,

dew \dag'vi^n\ \dag'sjuL^s\


to capi-

brunn,
&r?/^a

well
off

bryta, IV. ay

[ftri/'^a*], to

break

day light dagtinga, 1


tulate

\dagti'r)''a\

/ram

[bryta''

framt\

to

break forth

dal,

2.

-en,

-ar [dail]

valley, vale

166

Vocabulary.
-ar [dalkar^l],

dalkarl, 2. -m, Dalecarlian

dam,

3.

-m, -er [da'm], lady


2. -en,

damm,

-ar [cZam-], pond,

dricka, IV. [c?nA:a'], to drink driva, 1. -n, -or [dri'va^], drift driva, IV. [(iri'ya'], to drive droppe, 2. -n, -ar [cZrop'a'], drop drottning, 2. -en, -ar [cZro^'m'T;'],

dansa, I. \dan'sa^\ to dance dansk, adj. [dan'sk], Danish, Dane decimal, adj. [de'simaH], decimal decimalsystem. 5 -et, -[~ [^esima'lsyste'm.], decimal system del, 2. -e?2, -ar [deH], part, portion c?eZa, I. [de'la^], to divide deltaga, IV. [iie'Z^a'^a], to take a share (part.) dessutom, adv. [cZ^szi^fom], besides
destillera,
I.

queen

drunkna,
drowned
droja, II. be long

I.

[<i^rw2?*/!:?ia'],

to

be
to

[fZroj'a'],

to delay,

2. -men, -mar \drdm!:\ dream duva, 1. -n, -or \dvi'va''\ pigeon dunge, 2. -n, -ar [duy'd'], thicket dunkel, adj. {durjikdV] dark,

drom,

[c?es'^z7e.Va], to distill

gloomy, dingy dvdrg, 2. -en, -ar

[cZi^c^r/;],

dwarf

diadem, 5. diadem

(3.), -et,

-er [di'ads^m],

dygd,
dJ^ZzA:,

3. -en, -er [dyg.'d], virtue

adj.

dividend, 3. -en, -er [di'vidsn'd], dividend dividera, \di'videira'\, divide division, 3. -eri, -er [cZ{'viya>/?i], division [visor divisor, 3. '-?i, -er \divi'sor^\ diI.

[^'Zz'^], like, similar

dyr, adj.

[cZ^Z-'r],

dear

dyrbar,
cZa,

adj. [t^^'r^aV], dear

adv. [do'], then cZan, 5. -et, -f" [^^-^^1^ roaring


cZara, I. [cZo'ra'], befool
to infatuate, to

c?/wp, adj. [im.'jp], deep, (profound)

djupsinnig, profound
djur,
5. -e^,

adj.

[jmpsin'igl,
animal

5. -et, [dek'], deck ddrefter, adv. [cZ^.'rf/rar], there-

ddck,

after
[jtnir],

djurgdrd,

2. -en,

-ar [jm'rgo^jid],

ddrfor, adv. [<Zr.^cer], therefore ddrihland, adv. [d^.'riblan'd],

zoological garden

doktor, 3.-71, -er[(Zoyfc/^Qr], doctor doktorsvdrdigket, 3. -e?2, -|- [cZ^A:*torsvas'rdighet], doctorate cZow, 2. -en, -ar [^<i>.'m], judgment, sentence dam, 3. -en, -er [dom% dome,

among
ddrigenom,
thereby
adv.

\dsetrije'nom\

ddmere,
there

adv. [dsetmerd],

down

ddrpd, adv. [d.'rpo], there upon


ddrstddes, 2A^\d,setrsted9s'\, there ddrtill, adv. [cl^.'r^i'Z], thereto ddruppe, adv.[cZ.Vwjp'a], up there cZo, IV. [(?0.^, to die
^ocZ, adj.
cZocZ,
[cZ0.'cZ],

cupola

domkyrka,
domstol,
dap,

1. -n-or[c?om*pGer'A:a], cathedral, minster

2. -en, -ar [<Z6;*ws^6;'Z], tribunal, court

dead
[cZe.'cZ],

5. -e^,
3.

2. -en,
I.

-ar

death

[c?&;/^],

baptism,

cZocZa,

r^0*cZa'], to kill
3.

christening

dodlig, adj. [do'dlig'], mortal


-en,

drahant,
satellite

-er

[dfra6an/^],

dodsstund,
s^wn'cZ],

-en,

-er

[docZ'.s-

\dratg\ feature draga, IV. \dra'ga^\ to draw dragare, 5. -n, [dra'gard% draught animal, beast of burden dragon, 3. -en, -er [dragojin], dragoon -ar 2. drake, -n, [c^ra'/ca'],
<^ra/7, 5. -et,

hour of death
[d?aZ'./a'],

dolja,

II.
II.

to conceal to

doma,
dopa,
dorr,
<ic>^;,

[(iom'a'], to judge, condemn, to sentence


II.

[dopa^
-ar

to baptize, to

christen
2. -en,
[dfajr.'],

door

dragon, (paper-)kite

adj. [dotv],

deaf

Swedish-English.

167

efter, adv. [ef'tdr^ after

efterldmna [ef'tdrUm'na], to leave


behind
eftertrddare,
/]fermWcZ,
5. -n, ^r^'cZara], successor

3. -er [/a&nVfc], -en, manufacture, works fa(de)r, 3. -n, fader [/acZar'],

fahrik,

[Ef.tdv-

father

faktor,

3. -ti,

-er [/afc.'for], factor

2.-672, -|-[^/*^9^''v^*^,

posterity, future

e^en, adj. [e'^an'], own egendomlig, adj. \e'gdndojmHig], peculiar

folia, IV. [/aZ'a'], to fall falsk, adj. [/aZ.'sA:], false familj, 3. -eTi, -er [/amiZ/;], family fana, 1. -w, -or [/a'Tia'], flag,
colours /a?'^, 1- -n, -or [fa'ra% danger fara, IV. [fa'ra'], to go, to drive

egenskap,

3. -e/i, -er [e'^snsAra'p],

property, quality

ekipage, 5. -t, (r) [ek'ipaJf], equipage 3. -n, -er [ekva'tor'], ekvator, equator eldgnista, 1. -n, -or [eZ'cZ^nw'^a], spark eZcZ2^, adj. [el'dig^ fiery, ardent stdder {^eVdeldstad, 3. -ew,

farhro(de)r
farfa(de)r,

3.

-n,

broder

[faribrojr], uncle
3. -n, fader [far!/a^], grandfather farfordldrar [far.fcerel'drar], grandparents farlig, adj. [/(^'rZz^'], dangerous

sta'd], fire place


eZeA;^or, elector
3.

-n,

-er

leUk'tor^X
[fairy
elf,

2. -n, modrar farrao(de)r yjartma)r\ grandmother

eller, conj. lEV.9r\ or


cZi;a,
1. -n,

fartyg,p.-et,
/^J-^'^^Z

ifa-rty'g\ vessel
[/a'ryfZ],
^ tj firm, solid

-or faZmj [Zi;a],

mterj.

good

ewieZZan, prep. [em^Z'an'], between emellertid, adv. [smtZV^zV^Z], ho-

"y

j.

r/*

^t

vever enda, adj.


e7i(Z.9Z,

/asZer,
[en'cZa'],

/*^^ adj. [/a^.Z], 2. -n (fastrar)

[fasttdr\
,

alone, one
,

adv.

[e/i'cZas'Z]

only,

simply enfaldig, adj. [enfal'dig], simple


enhet,
-er [en.'^eZ], unity mkel, adj. [e?;/A:aZ], simple, single enligt, prep. [e'wZi^r'Z], according
3.
-e72,

fastland, 5. -et, (lander) [fas land], continent

^ ^V?*

,..

,r^

./

t-

fastdn,
fatta,
I.

conj. [/as'Zm^], although [/aZ'a'j, to seize, to com-

prehend
fattig, adj. [/aZ'i^'], poor

to adj. [e'nsam'], sole, alone enskild, adj. [e'ri/zZ'cZ], private

fattigdom,
poverty
5. fel, fault

'i.-en, -\-

[fal'igdcom%
mistake,

ensam,

-eZ,

[/e/Z],

cnsZz^, adj. [e'wsZ/^' J, lonely, alone enstaka, adj. [e'nsta'ka], isolated,


solitary

fiende,

3. -n, -r

[fl'dndd^ enemy
hostile,

erbjuda, IV. [e'rZym'da], to offer erfara, IV. [e*r/aVa], to learn, to hear


e>^hdlla, IV. [e*rA>Z'a], to receive

fientlig, adj. [Jien'tlig], inimical

^n,

adj. [fi'n'}, fine

finger,

2. -n, (gret, grar) [A'^^J? finger

erA:a7iwawcZe,4:.-Z,-7i[e-r^m'ancZa],

acknowledgment
erovra, I. [e'ro'vra], to conquer, to overpower
evig, adj. [e'vig^], eternal

^/iwa, IV. [Jin-a'], to find ^nnas, IV. [fn-as'l to be (found)


fira,
I.

[T^'^a'],

to

celebrate,

to

solemnize

exempel, 5. example

-eZ,

fsk,

[ffcs^m.'paZ],

fiskare,
fisher

2. -en, 5.

-ar [fs!k], fish


-w,

[^s'fcara'J,

168

Vocabulary.
5.

fiske,

-t,

-n [jis'kd], fishing,
-t,

fot, 3. -en, (fotter) [fojtt],

^fishery
jiskldge,
fjdll, 5.

fotfolk,
4.

5.

-et,

foot

\_fojttMkl

-n

[Jis'kh'gd'],

infantry

fisher village
-et,

frambringa,ll. 0[fram'briy'a],
[/jsl'],

mountain

to bring forth, to

yjdUmark,d.-en,-er[fJl'mar'k], mountainous soil


fjdrdedel,
c?e'Z],

framgd,

III.

produce
to

[fram'go%

2. -en,

-ar [fjce'rdd-

fourth

advance, to step along framgdng, 2. -en, -ar [fram-goy% success

flera [fle'ra'], several


flertal, 5. -et, jority

framkalla,
maframsteg,

[fle'rta^T]

I. [fram'kal^a\ to call forth, to cause, to occasion

5. -et,

[fram'ste'g],
[fram'sto'\
to

flicka,
flit,

1. -n,

[3.] -en,

-or [Jiik'a^], girl


[fli't],

progress

diligence,

framstd,
appear

III.

application
flitig, adj. [fli'tig'], diligent

flod, 3. -e?i, -er [.)?<y.'6?], river flotta, 1. -n, -or [flot-a'], fleet flottig, adj. {^flot'ig'X fatty, greasy " "
j^2/j

III.

[.^2/-'Jj

to flee

framstdende,Sidj.[fram-sto^dndr)], eminent, leading framstdllU, II. [/ram's^^/'a], to expose, to represent framtid, 3. -en, -er [fram'ti^d],
future

fiyga, IV. [flyga'l to fly ^2/^eZ, 2. -71 (flyglar) iflg'gdl'], wing, aisle ^2/^(2, IV. [^i/-^a'], to flow
flytta,
1.

framtrdda,
appear

II.

[fram'tre'da], to
[/ram^;^'sa j forth
,

framvisa,
evince, to

I.

to

[j?2/^*a'],

to

remove, to

show

wander
flyttfdgel, 2. -n (glar) [flytfo^gdl], bird of passage flyttning, 2. -en, -ar [flyt'niy^],

Frankrike
franska,

1. -n,

[fraykri''kd], France [fran-ska'],

wandering
fldcka,
fidkta,
to
I.

Ifls'ka'],

to
to

blot,

to

stain, to spot
I.

lfre.'d], peace fredlig, adj. [fre'dlig'], peaceful 5. fredshrott, [/rec^'sftrof], breach of the peace

French fred. 3. -en, -er

\^flek'ta%

breathe,

blow (gently)
3.

^*rrf,

-en,

/oZA:, 5. -eZ,

+
3.
-e^,

[flseUd], vanity
-en,

[foUk], people
-er
[/bZ'A:-

fri, adj. [/nV], free frid, 3. -n, {friid'\, peace, [calm] frihet, 3. -en, -er [/nV^e^], liberty

folkmdngd,
folkslag,
nation
5.

/WA:os%,
frodas,

adj.

[/rrA:os'%j, liberal

m2?*^], population

frisk, adj. [/nVA:], fresh, healthy

[fol'ksWg],

fritt, adv. [/rzY.^], freely 1. [/rc<>'c?a5'], thrive


adj.
[/rfo^'tZz^J,
prolific,

fordra,

I.

[/oj'rcZra'], to

demand,

frodig,

to claim

luxuriant
-er [/<wrnZrc?],
[/(W'^^/a'ra],
to

fomtid,
fortfara,

3. -en,

antiquity, past

/rw, 2. -n, -ar [friat'], wife frukt, 3. -en, -er [/rwA:/Z], fruit

IV.

frukthar,
frukttrdd,
fruit-tree

adj. [/rwA:"^6a'r], fruit5. -e^,

continue

ful, fertile

fortfarande, adv. {fco'jitfaWandd\, continually, continuedly

[/rw^"^^r'],

fortsdtta,

II.

[foj'jitsefa],

to

frukttrddgdrd,2.-en,-ar[fruk'ttre'^goM], orchard

continue, to pursue

fortsdttande[foj'd,tst^andd],continuation

frysa, IV.

[frt/'sa*], to freeze

frysa
2.

fortsdttning,
sef'ni'ij],

-en,

-ar

[fcj'jut-

continuation

bort, IV. [frysa'' bod't], to freeze away frdga, 1 . -n, -or [fro'ga''], question

Swedish-English.
to

169

frdga,

I.

[/ro'^aj,

ask,

to

fdltrop,
parole
^

5.

-et,

question

frdn, prep, [froin], from [/ro'7ii;a'rwJ, frdnvaro, 1. -n,

5. fdlttdg campaign

-e^,

[fEl'trcxj'-p],

[/f^'^^o'^],

absence

/arc^,
2. -en,

3. -en,

-er [fasUd], journey,

frdmling,

-ar [frem'tiy^],

ride, drive

(foreigner) stranger

fdste, 4.

-t,

-n, [fes'td],

firmament

frammande,
frdnde,
/ro,

adj.

[frem'andd],

strange, foreign 3. -ew, -er [fren'd9^'\, re^^''^ / .. 4. -(e)t,


I.

foda, foda,
to,

1. -n, -\II.

[fo'da^], food [/0*c?a'], to give birth

to be born

^ -n r^ n seed [froil /wA:^, adj. [/?/A:.'^], damp, moist

fulda,

[/i^A:-^a'],

to

wet,

to

moisten
/wZZ, adj.

/o^eZse, 3. -tz, [/^-f^aZsa'], birth y^^^ ifo'Q^'l little foija^ n, [/oZ'/a'], to follow foljande, adj. [fol'jandd'l folio-

[fuHlMl
I.

wing
foijd,
3. -en,

-er,

fullborda,

[/wZ-6co-^c?a], to terminate, to achieve, to accomII.

[fdmi

result

y^v^^ n.

[/ce-ra'], to conduct, to

^?5''^ fullgora,
7-

TT

^ O
^-

r^

-c
7

-,

lead /^'^^ bort[fce'ra' boMt], lo lead

[/wZ'jo'ra],

to
1

away
/oVwi^i>[/os-ra'w2)/], toleadup fdra over [fce-ra' o.'vdr], to lead over
/6Vafcj5, 5.
-ej^,

^m^^ fullkomlig,
complete

adj.
I.

r^7

<7-

[ful-Jcom'hgl
to

fullkomna,

[fuVkom'na],

perfect, to accomplish

Ifmrakit], con-

fullstdndig, adj. [ful'sten'dig], perfect, complete furste, 2. -n, -ar [/w.i*sf9'], prince furstekrona, 1. -n, -or [/w.x*s^a/([:rcc'wa], princely crown

tempt forakta, I. [/cera/c/fa]., to despise foraktlig, adj. [fcerakUlig], disdainful

forarga, I. forbereda,

[foerar^ja],
II.

to

anger
to
i

[/cer6are.''c?a],
,.

furstinna,
princess

1. -n,

-or [fuj^stin- a'l

forbindhg,
obliging
fill

^..P^^.P^f.

r^

i.-

^^7-

adj.

[fcerbin^dhg],
to
to

furstUg, 3idi.[fud'sUig% princely


/2/ZZa, II. [/|//-a'], to

/^ra

[/^/'ra'J, four

/a

fgsisk, adj. [fy!sisk], physical [/o/], few

III. [f(B'rbise'l overlook, to omit I. [fcerblin!da], forblinda, dazzle

forbise.

fd. III. O [/o/], to get, may fdgel, 2. -tz, -ar [fo!gdl], bird

fordjupning,

fdnga, I. [/b??'a*], to catch fdnge, 2. -n, -ar \_foj)'d^'\, prisoner fdngenskap, 3. -eri, [/oT^'an-

2. -eri, -ar [foerjmipniy], deepning, cavity, hollow

foredraga, IV.
prefer

[/ce'rad^ra'^a], to

s^a'p], captivity

/r,

5.

-et,

foregdende,

adj. [/ce'rajgo'anc^^],

/aZaZz^, adj. portant

[fotrl sheep [fo'ta'ligl unim[/f*-

forekomst,

...P^f^dent

3. -en, /r^m'sZ], occurence 3. -en, Us^nir)], lecture


5.
-ei^,

[/os'ra-

fddernesjord,

2. -en, -ar ddrndsjco'jLd], native soil

foreldsning,

-ar [/ce'ra-

fddernesland,
/aZ^, 5.
-e^,

5. -eZ, [/f*^9^ndslan^d], native land (country)

foremdl,

[fce'rdmo'l],
to unite
[/cere.':

object, subject

fdltherre,
general

2. -n,

[/H'Z], field -ar ifel'thxr'd],

forena, I. [/cere/na], forening, 2. -en, -ar union

170

Vocabulary.
III.

forestd,

[fce'rdsto^],

to
to

fornya,

I.

[fcemy.'a], to renew

govern, to

manage
[jce'rdstel^a], to represent,

forndm,
uished
to

adj. [foeme'Tn], disting-

forestdlla, II. place before, introduce

forndm st, adj.


distinguished

[fcerne.'mst], most

forestdllning, 2. -en, -ar [foR'r9image, performance, sterniy'], representation notion foretaga, II. [/ce'rafa'^a], to undertake forfatta, I. [fcerfaHa], to compose forfattare, 5. -n, [/cer/a^/ara], author IV. [foerflytta], to flow forjiyta,

forndja,

II.

forordande,

[foerndj.'a], to satisfy 4. 4, -f [/cer^j'^-

dan'd9], recommendation 4. +, -|- [fcero'ddnan^dd], order forra [fceva^], former forre [/osr'a'], fonner

forordnande,

forraderi,
treason

3. -e^,

-er [/cert'^eW.^,

forrddisk,
torous

adj. [/ce?'f/dzsA:], trai-

away forfrdga,
quire

I.

[f(Krfra!ga], to in1.

forrdn,

forfrdgan,

+
,

forsakelse,
[foerfro'-

conj. [/osr^/n], before 3. -ti, -r \f(Brsa.^kdlsd],


2.
-e?i,

self denial

^aTi], inquiry, question forgd^ III. [/cer^o.'], to pass, to slip away, to disappear, to

forsamling,

elapse

[/osr[cure /orsA;a^<2, I. [/cersAra/'a], to proforskansning, 2. -en, -ar [fcer-

-ar

samUiy], meeting

forgdves [fcergs.^vds], in vain forhand, (pd) [ foerhantd], beforehand

forhdllande,

4. -^,

-n [foerhDl'an-

skanisniy], intrenchment 2. -en, -f- [foersko'm'l;], exemption, forbearance forskriva, IV. [/o2rsA:riVt;a], to

forskoning,

dd], circumstance

prescribe

forhdva,

[foRrhefva], to boast, to brag, to be proud of forhdrja, I. [fcerhe.'rja'], to deII.

forsld,

III.

forstrdcka,

II.

[/cersZo.'], to suffice \^f(Brstrikta\ to

vastate, to ravage

forklara,
plain;

I.

[/cer/i:Za.'ra],

to ex-

advance, to stretch forstd, III [/cersto.*], to understand

ndgon for
IfoRrkUidaX

(helig) [guise

helgon [no'gon'
nonize

he'lig^], to ca-

forsvar,

fdrsvaga,l.[f(Brsva!ga],tOYfeaiken 5. -et, -\- [/cersva.V], defense

forkldda, forkovra,

II.
I.

to dis-

[/cerA:o/i;raj, to im1.

prove, to perfect

forkovran,
ko^vrari],

-|-

[fcer

improvement

forkola,
stifle

I.

forkvdva,
forlora, forlust,
loss
I.

[foerko.'la^, to charr to il. [foerkv.^va\,


to lose [fcerlco'ra'j, -en, -er [/asrZi/s/^],

5. -n, [fcersva^rard], defender IV. [foersvin'a], to forsvinna, disappear forsdkring, 2. -en, -ar [fcerseikriy], insurance, assurance /orfj^'na, I. [/cer^f.'na], to deserve fortjdnt, adj. [fcergen't], deserved

forsvarare,

fortvivlan,
Za7i],

1.

+
,

[foertvitvto

3.

despair
II.

fortdra,

[/cer^.'ra],

con-

forlustelsestdlle, 1. -if, -n [/cerlusitdlsd], pleasure ground formiddag, 2. -en, -ar [foermid'da'g], morning, forenoon fbrmd, III. F/cerma.'], to be able

sume

fortoma,
fend

I.

[/cer^ce.Vna], to ofI.

forundra
to

sig,
1.

[/cBrw7i/c?ra],

wonder

fdrnitftig,&ai.[foemuf.'tig},Te&sonable

forundran,

dran], wonder,

+ [foenin'astonishment
,

Swedish-English.
to

171

forvdna(s),
astonish

I.

[fcervo.'na],

giftig, adj. {jif'tig^\ poisonous giva, IV. [^ji'va^\ to give

-ar [fcervo'forvaningj niy], astonishment


2. -en,

givande,

forvdxla,
mistake

I.

{^fc&rvEkisW]

to

adj. [jrvan'dd], fertile, productive ^;w^a, IV. \^jui'ta% to pour (forth)

foradla, 1. [foRre'd'la], to ennoble foranderlig, adj. [fcereniddrlig], unsettled, changeable

glans, dour
glas,

2. -en, -j- [^Zan.^s], splen-

fordldrar,
parents

pi.

/cereZ/^rar],

5. -e^, [^^a-'s], glass gles, adj. [gle!s~\, thin ^ZicZa, IV. [^Zi'^a'], to glide, slide

to
to

to I. [foeren^dra], change, to alter fordndring, 1. -en, -ar [/cerenidrirj], change, reform

fordndra,

^ZtWa

/ram

[gli'da' framf],

glide

forodmjuka,
to

I.

[fce'rodmjm'ka],

humble forodmjukelse, 3. -w, -r [/ce'rddmjmtkdlsd\ humiliation foroka, I. [/(}sr'0.'A:a], to increase, to augment forokning, 2. -en, -ar [fcere'kniy], increase, augmentation
ri

glddja, II. O [^ZfcZ'ja'j, to rejoice, to be glad glddje, 3. -n, [gUd'jd^], joy gloda, II. [^Z0'cZa'i, to make red to glow hot,

glodande, wing

adj. \^gl0-dan^dd\,
II.

glo-

glomma,
god, adj. godhet,

[^to.*cZ],

3.

[^Zom'a'], to forget good, kind -en, [^6;/(Z^ef],

goodness, kindness

godhjdrtad,
goodhearted

adj.

[^(y*<Zj^./-'^acZ],

gaffel,

2.

-w,

(gafjiar) [gaf'dl],

godo
^ods,
gosse,

(till)

[gco'doj^], in favour

fork

5.

-et,

[gojt!s],

goods

^a^n,

5. -et, -\- [gay.^n], profit

gammal,
ganska,
entirely

adj. [^am'aZ'], old adv. [^an*sA:a'], quite,

grad,

2. -n, -ar [^os"a'], boy 3. -en, -er [^ra/d], grade

gram, 5. gramme
granne,
hour

-me^,

[^raw/],

gardesregemente,

4. -^, -n \^ga'jiddsre^jdinenHd], regiment of life-

2.-n,

-ar[gran'd% neigh5.

guards gata, 1. -n, -or [^a'^a'], street

grannland,

-et,

(Idnder)

gemensam,
mutual

adj.

[jame/nsam],

[^ran'/an'tZ], neighbouring country grav, 2. -en, -ar [^graiv], grave

general, 3. -en, -er [je'ndrail], general genius, -ien, -ier [jeinius], genius genljud, 5. -et, [je-nljm^d], echo

grekisk, adj. [^re.'A:isA;], greek ^ren, 2. -en, -ar [gre!n], branch gripa, IV. [grrpa^], to seize gro. III. \_gra)t'], to shoot forth [^rwn.'cZ], ground grund, 5. -eZ,

genom, prep. [je/nD/n], through genomtrdnga, II. [je'nomtrey^a],


to penetrate

grund,
tive,

3. -en,

-er [^ri^n/cZ],

mo-

reason
II.

grundldgga,
to

[^rwn'cZZf^'a],

genomtdga,
genomvdt,
through

[j'e'nom^o'^a], to traverse, to go through, to cross


I.

found
-or [^rm'va'], mine IV. [^ro'^a'], to cry, to
1. -n,

gruva,
grata,

adj. [,;e"n3mz;o.'^],

wet

gentemot
gevdr,
rifle

[je'ntemco^t], in front of
5.
-et,

opposite,

weep grdns,
tier,

3.

-en, -er
I.

[^r^s],
to

fron-

boundary, limit
[^r^n"sa'],

{^jdvtr\

gun,

grdnsa,
(on) to

border

be bounded by

172

Vocabulary.

grdnmqiitlad

[gro'nman^tlad],

harm,

2.

-en,

covered with a green mantle gronskande, adj. \^grdn'skan^dd], green gubbe, 2, -n, -ar [gub'9^], old

[^ar.'w],

dis-

pleasure

harmoni, 3. harmony
hast,

-ctz,

-er \har'mojni:\

man
gud, 2. -en, -ar [gm!d], God gudfruktig, adj. Igm'dfruk'tig],
pious

2. -en, -\- \hastt\ hast hasta, I. [^asta'], to hasten hastig, adj. [/^as'^i^'j, sudden ^ay, 5. -et, [ha'v], sea

gudsfruktan,

1.

havsvind,
-|~

2. -en, -ctr [Aa"?;si-z/i'<f],

[gut's-

sea-breeze

fruk'tan], fear of God (of the Lord)


gul, adj. [gm.'l], yellow

hedersbetygelse,
ddrsbdty'gdlsd],

3.

-n,

marks

-r [^eof honour

guld, 5. -et, [gul-d], gold guldvingade, adj. [gul'dviy^ad], with golden wings adj. gullstdnkt [^wZ*s^f?y'A:^],
,

hedning, 2. -en, -ar [he'dniy'], heathen hejda, I. [hej'da^ to hold back hel, adj. [^e.'Z], whole
helgedom., 2. -en, -ar[hel'gddcom% sanctuary helgeflundra, 1. -n, -or [hel'gdflun'dra], halibut helgon, 5. -et, \hd'gon% saint helig, adj. [^e'%'J, saint, holy hem, 5. -we^, [hemf], home hemfbra, II.[^ew/ce'ra], to bring

yellow stained

gunga, gynna,

I.

[^W7?*a'],
adj.

to

swing
favour
fa-

I.

[j'^/wa'], to

gynnsam,
vourable

[ji'^/n'saTw'],

^,

III.

[gof], to go;
;

[upi] till, out

upp up to ut [mtt],
-ar [goy^], passage,

gang,

2. -en,

home hemkomst,
hemlighet,

3.

-e)i,

[^e^'"

way
-ar [goUd], farm gdta, 1. -w, -or [go'ta^], riddle ^az;a, 1. -ri, -or [go'va^], gift, donation [to be worth gdlla, II. [jfZ'a'], to be in force, gdngse, adj. YJeysd''], usual
2. -en,

Ar^wsif], return
3.

(home)
-er [hem'lig-

gang, gdrd,

-en, -er [goy-], 1 [ffoy!], time

3.

-en,

he't], secret

hemma,
hemvist,
herre,

adv. [Aem'a'],
5.
-e^,

home

[Aem'i'z.s-'^],

dwelling, domicile
2. -n,

-ar [A^r'a'], gentle2.

man
hei'regdrd,
hertig,
-en,

gdrna,

adv. [j^'^na'l. willingly

-ar

^oA:, 2. -en, -ar [^joiTc], cuckoo gomma, II. [jom'a'], to hide

[hssr'd-

go\id\ manor, mansion


2. -en,

^ora,

II.

[jce'ra'],

to

do to

-ar [^^r'fz^'], duke

make

H
{^haik\ notch chin ^aZa, I. [Aa'Za'], to haul halv, adj. [AaZ.'v], half halvo, 2. -71, -ar* [hal'vo^], peninsula hals, 2. -en, -ar [haHs], neck hamn, 2. -en, -ar [Aam//i], port,

hak,

5. -e^,
1.

^aA:a,

[Aa*A:a'],

hertiginna, 1. -n, -or [hser'tigin'a'], duchess hes, adv. [^e/s], hoarse het, adj. [Ae/^], hot to be called /ie^a, II. [Ae'^a'],

(named)
heita,
1.

-n, -|- [Ae^'a'],

heat

himmel, 2. (himmeln or himmlen, himlar) \him'dl^\ heaven


hindra,
I.

[^m'(?ra'], to prevent,
to, to

harbour

hand, 3. -ew, (hdnder) [han'd], hand handling, 2. -ew, -ar [han'dliy^],


action, deed, act

impede hinna, IV. [^m'a'l, to get fram {^framt\ reach;

to hinder, to

to at-

tain
hiss, 2. -en, -ar [7V], lift hissa, 1. [/its"a'], to lift

Swedish-English.

173

himlajiamma,

l.-n, -or[him'la-

flam''a], fire of

heaven

himlastege^ 2. -n, -ar [him'laste'gd], heavenly ladder


historia,
history
3. -ien, -ier [histoj!ria],

AarcZ, adj. [hod'd], hard hdftig, adj. [hsf'tig], violent AaZ/f, 3. -en, -er [heW], half hdmta, I. [y^fm'Za*], to fetch;

m
[

m],
3.

bring

in,

go and fetch, to to take in


to
-n,

historisk, adj. [histoj.'risk], historic(al) hjord, 2. -en,

hdndelse,

-r

[A^^i.cZaZsa],

occurence, event

-ar [jcoUd], herd,


[jel'p], help
[y'fZ'^a'],

hdngiven,

adj.
3.

[Afn'jz'z;an],
-f-

de-

flock

voted (sunendered)
2. -en, -\-

hjalp,

hdnsyn,
nished

-en,

[A?i*52/'n],

hjdlte, 2. -n, -ar

hjdrta,

4. -^,

-n

[j^j.'ta''],

hero heart
hearty,

respect (in this) hdpna, I. [hep'na^],

to

be asto-

hjdrtlig, adj. heartily

[jasj.-tlig'],

-or [i^sa'], crown (of the head) holme, 2. -?i, -ar [/ioZ'???a'], islet

hjdssa,

1.

-72,

hdr, 2. -en, -ar [A^.'r], army hdr, adv. [A^.'r], here


hdrlig,
adj.
I.

[A^'rZz^'],

magnifi-

cent, splendid

heap [hop'], hope Aopp, 5. -et, hoppa, I. [^op'a*], to leap, to skip hoppas, 1. [Aopas'], to hope
/lopa,
I.

[hco'pa'], to

hdrska,
hdst,

[Aars/ca'],

to rule, to

dominate

hdstbdr,
litter,

2. -en, -ar [AesfZ], horse 2. -en, -ar [Afs*^5oV],

hota, I. [^oj'^a'], to threaten hov, 2. -en, -ar [^&>/y], hoof hov, 5. -ef, [ho.'v], court

barrow

ho,

5.

-(^e)^,

[ho!],

hay

Ao^, adj.

[AoZ/gr],

high

hugnad,

3. -en, -er [^w?;"7iacZ'], satisfaction, consolation 2. -en,

hogldnd, adj. [Ao'^Z^ti'cZ], highland hogskola, 1. -n, -or [ho'gskoj'la],


highschool hogtidlighet, 3. -e?i, -er [Ao'A;tidlighet], festivity hdja, II. [Aot;"*a'], to raise hdjd, 3. -en, -er [AojVcZ], height Aora, II. \hoR'ra^\ to hear horsel, 3. -n, -j- [Acer'saZ], hearing Aos^, 2. -en, -ar [liosit], autumn hostdag, 2. -en, -ar [hds'tda'g],

humlegdrd,
go'.id],

-ar {hum'h-

hopgarden
-en, -ar \]iuntd\ adj. [^w?;'ri^'],
5.

hund,
Alts,
5.

2.

hungrig,

-e^,

husdjur,

dog hungry house [hmtii], [Am*sjm.V], do-

mestic animal

husgerddssaker, pi. [hui'sjdro'dssa'kdr\ utensils hushdll [hm'shoV], housekeeping huvud, 5. -e^, [hui'vu'd], head huvudsaklig, adj. [huivudsa'k-

autumnal day

hovding,

2.

-en,

-ar

[A0'a;(^i2?'],

chieftain

%ZZa, %ZZa,

[%Z'a'], shelf [%/'], to do homage, to swear allegiance


I.

lig], chiefly 1. -n, -or

hylsa,
A.?/sa,

1.
II.

-n,

-or \hyl'sa''\ husk

\hy'sa'], to preserve, to

iakttagelse, observation ihland, adv.


z^A:a;
1.

3.

n. r. [raA:to*^aZs9],

[zftZan/cZ],

among
to to re-

entertain
hytt, 3. -e?z, -er \hyt^, cabin /la^, 2. -en, -|- \hotg\ mind, spirit

[icZ'A^a'],

to

exercise,

carry on

igenkdnna,

II. [ijen'gen^a'],

hdglos, adj. [/io'^/e's], lazy,


dolent hdl, 5. -e^,
hdll, 5.
-et,

in-

cognize, to know again ihdrdig, adv. [i'hmr'-dig],

per-

hdlla, IV.

[^c>Z"a'],

hdr,

5. -e^,

[y^o.7],

hole

severing

[hoU], side
to

inhillning [in'bWniy], fancy, imagination

hold

[ho.'r], hair

inhjuda, lY. [in'bjm^da],

to invite

174

Vocabulary.
3. -en, -er meridicu'n], meridian

inhryta^ IV. [in'hryHa], to break


in

jordmeridian,

[jV^>'.i<Z-

inbyggare^

5. -n,

[in'hyg^ard],

jordmdn,
ground

3. -en, -er [jco'jidmo^n],

inhabitant, dweller

indela, I, [mtZe'Za], to divide infalla, IV. [m'^aZ'a], to invade infinna, IV. [m'Jfn'na], to appear infiytande, 4. -^, -j- [in'fly^tandd], influence
infiytelse,
3. -r^,

just, adv. [^its/Z], just

-r [in'fly^tdlsd],

influence

ingen, adj. [iy'dn^], nobody ingenting^ pTon.liy'dntiy^ nothing irihdmta, I. [in'hem'ta], to bring
in

jdgare, 5. -n, [jtgard'], hunter, sportsman jdmforelse, 3. -n, -r[Jm'fd'ralsd], comparison jdmn, adj. [jtm/n], even jdmte, prep, [i^m-ifa'], with jdrnvdg, 2. -en, -ar [y^'u-nt'c'^],
jo/iceZ,

railway (railroad) 2. -n, (joklar)


glacier

[jo'kdr],

[in'dha^va], to possess innehdlla, IV. [m'^T^oZ^a], lo contain

innehava

K
/caA:a, 1. -n,
/caZ/c, 2. -en, kalk, 2. -en,

innesluta, [m'asZm'Za], comprise, to include inom, prep, [m'om'], within

IV.

to

+ -ar

-or [ka'ka^], cake [kal'k], quick-lime


[^'aZ/A:],

cup,

inre, adv. [m*ra'], interior inrista, I. [mrzs'^a], to engrave

chalice

inrddan,

1.

-f"

[iw^o'San],

advice insikt, 3. -ew, -er [in'sikH'], notion,

5. -et, \kaVkgrun'd], calcareous soil kalksten, 3. -en, -ar [kal'kste^n^^

kalkgrund,
lime-stone

idea

kail, adj. {kalf], cold


to creep
to lock
/caZZa, 1. \kaVa'\, to call [upf], to call up
;

insmyga, IV. [in'smy'ga],


in

upp
vo-

instdnga,

II.

[m'sZ^^^'a],

kallelse, 3. -n, -r [/caZ'aZsa'j,


cation, calling, appeal

(up), in intryck, 5. -e^,

[in'tryk'], im-

kanon,
.

3.

-en, -er [A:anco/n], can-

pression

non, gun

intrdda,

II.

[tw^rf'^Za], to

come

in

intrdffa, I. [m'Zr^/'^a], to meet intdga, I. [m'Zo'^a], to march in is, 2. -en, -ar [iVs], ice ismassa, 1. -72, -or [i'smas'a], mass of ice

kappa,
tain

kanske, adv. [kan'fd% perhaps 1. -n, -or [kap'a^], mantle


kapten,
I.

3. -en,

-er

[A:a_pZe.^n],

cap-

islanding,
Icelander
iver, 3. -n,

2. -en,

-ar

[rsZe/i'cZzT/],

kasta, kastanj, 3. chestnut


kavaljer,
cavalier
A:ecZja,
1.

[kas'ta^], to

throw
[Ara^Zan.ji'],

-en,

-er

3.

-en, -er [A:ai;'a^e.V],

[^Vi'^?'],

zeal

-n,

-or [ge'dja'],

kejserlig, perial
A:Za<7a,

adj.

[^fi's^rZigr'],

chain im-

A:m(Z, 3. -en, -er [fiTj/dT], cheek I. [kla'ga'], to complain


[ArZa^//],

jaga,
jcuct,

I.

[./a'^a'], to

hunt
[jakif],

A:Zan^, 2. -en, -j-

sound
cliff,

3.

-en,

-er

hunt,

hunting
jorcZ, 2. -en, -ar [jcoUd], earth

klar, adj. [A:Za.V], clear klippa. 1. -n, -or [^Z^pa'], crag

jordisk, adj. [jw.'^disA:], earthy jordklot, 6. -e^, [ja>*^dA:Za>'f], globe

klocka, klockslag,

1 .-n,-or[A:ZQA:'a'],

5. -eZ,

clock,bell

[A:Zo/c'sZa'^J,

stroke of the clock

Swedish-English.
bell-

175

klocklik,

adj.
5.

[klok'lik%

shaped
kloster,
tdr],

(klostret),

[klos.^-

monastery

3. -en, -j[ko'dtsynHJiet], shortsightedness kraft, 2. -en, -er [kraf!t], power, strength

kortsynthet,

kldcka, II. [klsk-a'], to blow forth kldda, II. [ZcZf'cZa'i, to dress kldder, 3. (pi.) [A:Zf/c?ar], clothes

kraftfull, adj. [kraf'tful% powerful

kldmma,

II.

squeeze in, kldttra, I. [fcZf^'ra'], to climb 2. -en, -ar [klo'v], hoof A:Zoi7, (claw) knapp, 2, -ew, -ar [knap.^], button knapp, adj. [A:nap/], scarce

m- [A:Zfm'a'], to hem in

to

krans, 2. wreath

-en, -ar [A:ra7z.'s], crown,

krets, 2. -en, -ar [kret's], circle krig, 5. -e^, [kri.'g], war krigare, 5. -n, [kri'gard^], warrior

2.

krigsfdnge,

-en,

-ar [krig's-

J^2?'9], prisoner of

war

krigshdr,2. -en, -ar[krig'shw'r],

knappast
barely

\knap'asH\

scarcely,

army
krigstdg,
5.
-e^,

[krik'sto^g],
ac-

knekt, 2. -e^i, -ar \knekit], soldier kniv, 2. -en, -ar \knitv\, knife knyta, IV. [/^n^/'^a'], to lie, to knot knd, 4. -t, -n \knst\ knee koja, 1. -n, -or [ZcaJ'a'], hut kndppa, II. [/cn^p'a'], to button

military expedition

krigsvan, customed

adj. [Zcn^'.sfa'rz], to war

kring, prep. [jfcnV], around kristen, adj. [A^Ws'^an'], christian

koldragare,

[ko'ldra^^araj, collier (coalheaver) 5. -et, kolforrdd, \ko'lfcero''d\ stock of coal


-n,

5.

kristendom,

2. -en,

[A;ns'fari-

dcom^], Christianity Kristus \kristus''\, Christ

kolmbrk,
dark
fco?^,
2.

adj. \ko'lm(e,Uk'\, pitch

krona, 1. -n, -or [A:rr^na'], crown kropp, 2. -en, -ar [krop'], body krypa, IV. [A^r^-pa*], to creep krypande, adj. [kry'pan^de], creeping, reptile

-en, -ar

[fc^Z.'^],

frock

komma, IV. [A:am'a'], to come; upp [up.'], to come up

komminister,
nisitdr'],

2.

-en, -ar [A:3m'24.


-^,

krona, II. [/t'r0'na'], to crown kubera, I. [kmbe'ra], to cube Z^i/A:w (interj.) [A:w/cw'], cuckoo
/mZa, 1. -n, A:w/Ze, 2. -n, kulregn, 5.
-or \km'la'\ ball -ar {kuVd^], hill
-ef,

curate

komministerhostdlle,

-n

{kom'inis'tdrhaj'sUld], rectory konst, 3. -en, -er [A;on.'s^], art konstndr, 3. -en, -er[kon'stn%'r],
artist

[A;wZ*rf?;'n],

shower of balls kung, 2. -en, -ar [A:w?;.'], king kunglig, adj. [A:w7;*Zta'], royal

konstsamling,
art

2. -en, -ar [A:on*s^ sam'tiy], collection of works of

kunna, I. kunskap,
kusin,
sin
3.

[A;wn'a'J, to be able

3. -en,

-er [kun'ska^p],

knowledge
2.

konung,
king

-en, adj.

-ar

[A:o'nw2;'],

-en, -er [A:msiVn], con-en, -er [A^z^s/^], coast


I.

konung slig,
royal

[ko'nuy^sUg],
[Aror.^],

kust,

3.

kvadrera,
-en,
-e^,

[ A:z;acZre.Va ]

to

korg,

2. 5.

-ar

kom,
corn

basket
barley
[A:3r',s-

square

[kcoirn],
-n,

kvarldmna,
leave over

I.

[kva'rUm^na], to

korsfarare,

5.

kvinna,
A:?;o^,

1.

-n,
-^,

/a'rara], crusader Acor^, adj. [koUt], short korthet, 3. -en, -|- [Acau^^e'^J, shortness

kvitto, 4.

-or [)fct;m'a'], wife -n [A:v2^*^'], receipt

3. -en, -er [A:;t6>.^^], quotient ArvaZZ, 2. -en, -ar [A:?;fZ.'], evening

kylig, adj. [gylig], cool

176

Vocabulary.

kyrka, 1. -n, -or [goeska']^ church kyrkoherde, 2. -n, -ar [gcBji'kcohe'jidd], vicar

ledig, adj. [Ze'dfi^'], vacant,

open

leende,
ZeA:,

2,
I.

-n [le'dn'dd], smile -en, -ar [le'k], play-game


4.
-^,

-knen, -ar [goeu,-kojsok^dn], parish kdta, 1. -n, -or [ko'ta'], Lapponian tent kdlla, 1. -n -or [gd'a*"}, source

kyrko socken,

2.

ZeA;a,

[Ze"A:a'],

to play

leva, II. [Ze'va'], to live lever, 2. -n, -ar [lek'dr], liver

levnad,

3.

-en, -^ [Ze'rnacZ'], life


5. -e^,

levnadslopp,

[le'vnads-

kdmpa,

I.

[gem'pa^],

to struggle,

lop^], course of life (career)

to fight

kdnd, adj. [gsn^d], known kdnna, II. [^^wa'], to know, to feel kdnnbar, adj. [gen-ba^r], sensible

levnadssdtt, 5. [Ze*?;na6ZssZ'], customs, ways and customs lida, IV. \lida'''\, to suffer
4. -?z -^, [ZrcZan'^Za], suffering, suffrance IV. [Z2^*a'], to lie ligga,

lidande,

kdnnedom,

2. -en, -\-

[gen'ddojm'],

knowledge
kdnsel, 3. -?z, -1- \_Qnis9l\^ feeling kdnselverktyg, 5. -et, {(gon'sdlvse'rktyg], organ of (feeling) touch kdnsla, 1. -n, -or [gen'sla'], feeling kdr, adj. [geir], dear

Ilk,

5.

-eZ,

[ZiVA:],

dead body,

corpse
Zi/c,

adj.
I.

\liik'\,

like

kdrlek,
^'d7,
2.

3. -e/i, -f- [grrle^k], love

-en, -ar [co^l], keel

A:o76Z, 3. -en, [gol'd], cold A'ora, II. [fo'ra'], to drive

resemble liknande, adj. [ZrA:nan'(Za], resembling liksom, conj. [Z^^s^?n'], as, as if likvdl, adv. [ZrA^vf'Z], however ZmtZ, 1. -en, -ar [Zm'cZa'], lime-tree,
likna,
[Zi'A:na'], to

korsbdr,
cherry

5.

-e^,

linden-tree
linje, 3. -n, -r [Zm.^'9], line
liten, adj. [ZrZan'], small little livsfarlig, adj. [Zrtvs/a'rZz^], dan-

[pcer's&^V],

gerous
livlig, adj.

[ZrvZi^'],

lively, alive

laga, I. [Za'^a'], to get ready, to prepare

livndra, II. [Zrt-n^^'ra], to to nourish


Ijud, 5.
-eZ,

feed,

laga

ordning

\la.ga''

it

o'jid-

nir)^\ to put in order

^/ws, 5. -eZ,

[jm.'d],

sound
light

[,/m/s], light

lampa,

1. -n, -or \lam"pa^\ lamp land, 5. -et {lander) \lanict\, land, country

Ijusrod, rosy

adj.

[jm*sr0'<Z],

landskap,

5. -e^

\lan'dska^p],
[Za^i'cZ-

landscape landstiga, IV. land

Ijuv, adj. [jn^'v], charming, sweet locka, I. [Z^^"a'J, to entice (away), to seduce
lott,
3.
I.

[lan'dsW'ga^,

to

-en, -er

[ZoZ.'],

lot,

fate

lova,
sing

[Zo'ra], to

promise

landstigning, 2. -en, -ar sW-gniij], landing

lovande, adj. [Zovan'cZa], promiluft, 3. -en,

landstdlle, 4. -^, -ti [Za/i'cZs^fZ'a], country-house lapp, 2, -en, -ar [lapf], Lapp lappuiark, 3. -en, -er [Zap 'mar' A;],

luftstreck,

5. -eZ,

[Zw/'Z], air
[luft'strek''],

lufttom, adj.
void

[Zi^jf^ZZwrn'],

vacuumair-tight,

Lapland
Za.s^a,
[

I.

[Zas'^a'], to

in],

latinsk, adj.
ZecZ,

5. -et,

load; [laWnsk], limb


in
[le!d],

in

lufttdt, adj. [Zw/'ZZf'Z],

hermetical

latin

lugn, adj.
to

leda, II. lead

[Ze'cZa'],

to conduct,

[Zw^^-^n], rest, quietness lukt, 3. -en, -er \luktt], smell f-erj [ZwA:Zluktorgan, 5. -eZ, (?r^a'n], smelling

Swedish-English.

177
to facilitate

lummig,

adj.

[lum'ig'],

thick,

Idtta,

I.

[Ist-a'],

tufted, bushy, thick-spreading

lund, 2. -en, -ar [lun^d\, grove lunga, 1. -w, or [Zt^?/a'], lung


Zws^, 3. -en,

latteligen, adv. [Ut'dUgdn], easily Idtffattlig, adj. [Utfaflig], easily understood, easily sible

lustslott,

5.

pleasure castle luck Igcka, 1. -n, [^^^'^'l?


lycklig, adj. [lyklig'], lucky

+ +
-e^,

[Zi^s.'^],

mind

comprehenonion

[Zws'^sZo^'],

lok,

2.

loseii.

Zoy, 5.
Zoi;as,

+
-e?z,
,

-ar

[/0.'A:],

[lo'san],
[Z0.'?;],

watch-word
leaf

-e^,

I.

[Z0-vas'], to leaf, to cover


2.
-eri,

lyda,

II.

[Z2/'<^3'],

to

obey

with leaves

lyfta^ II. [lyf'ta% te raise Zi/sa, II. [Z2/*6'a'], to light;


[wp.*],

upp
[lo'g-

lovskog,
leafy

-ar [Zo-vsfc<w'^],

wood

to light

up
bright

lysande, adj.

[Zt/'san'cZa],

maka,
makt,
malm.,
I.

Z^, adj. [loig\ low

Idgland,
Zan'cZ],

5.

-e^,

(dnder)
long
[Zqt^'s'],

-n,

-or [ma'ita'], wife


-er [ma,k!t], power -er [mal'm], ore

lowland
[Zo2?.'j,

Zaw^, adj.

3. -e?i, 3. -e/i,
2. -ew,

Idnga,
Za?2^s

1.

-ti,

-or

cod-fish

malm,
wan,
3.

[loy's'],

along slow
[ZoT^'va'ri^], long-

ar [maZ.'m], suburb (mannen, man) [man^],


-ew,

Idngsam,

adj. [Z7;'saw'],

man
mark,
3.

Idngvarig, adj.

-er
3.

\marik\

soil,

lasting Za^a, IV. [lo'ta'],

ground
to
let (to

have

with an infinitive) Idgga, II. [Ug'a'], to lay Idkare, 5. -n, [Zf/car^'], phy-

-er marmorhild, morhiVd'], marble statue


-en.

[mav-

marskalk,
marshal

2. -en,

-ar [marfaUk],

sician

Idkarevetenskap,

3. -en,

-er

[Zf'-

mask, mask,

2.

-en, -ar [mas.^k],

worm

kardve'tdnska^p], medicine

Idkemedel, 5. -e^, [Z^'Arame'cZaZ], medicament, remedy

3. -e72. -er [was.'^A:], mask maskineri, 3. -e^, -er [ma/'manV],

Idmna, kvar

I.

[lemna^

to leave;

machinery maskinist, 3. -en, -er


machinist

[maf'inis.^t],

[kva'r],

to leave

behind
proper,

Idmplig,

adj. [Um'plig'],

convenient

Idngdmdtt, 5. -e^, long measure

massa, 1. -n, -or [mas'a'], heaj), man, block mat, 3. -en, -1- [ma't], food
me<^,
2.

[ZfT^'^^mo^'],

-en,

-ar [we/cZ], runner

(of a sledge)

Idnge, adv. [Z?/'a'], long Idngs, see: Zan^s [^^??'^J? along

Idngtan, 1. [leytan^ long, longing Zopp, 2. -en, -ar [Zrp.'], lip Idra, 1. -n, -or [Ix'ra], doctrine,
,

meddela, I. [me'cZcZe'Za], to inform, to communicate; undervisning [un'ddrvi'sniy'], to teach Medelhavet [me'ddlha'-vdt], the Mediterranean Sea medfora, 11. [me'cZ/o'ra], to bring

apprenticeship Idrare, 5. -n, [Ise'rard^ teacher lard, adj. [Z^u^/(i], learned

(take) with

medgiva, IV.

[me'cZji't*^], to agree,

Idrjunge,
Idrka,
Zasa,
1.

2.

-n,

-ar

[Z"rjw7;'a],

pupil, scholar
-n, -or
[Ise'rka'], lark
II.

acknowledge medicin, 3. -en, [me'cZzst/n], medicine

to admit, to

Idsande, ding

[Zrsa'J, to read 4. -^, -J- [Zf'san'da], rea-

medlem, member medlidsam,


2.

-men, -7nar [me'cZZem^], (of a society)


adj.

[me'cZZzcZ'sam],

compassionate
easy
mellerst, adj. [m^'Z/arsZ], middle

ZaZf, adj. [Uti],

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

12

178

Vocabulary.

men, conj. \metn\, but mened, 3. -en, -er [me'ne^d],


oath, perjury

multipUcera,
false
to multiply

I.

[rtiuVtipliseira\
-en, -er

muUipUkand,

3.

[muV[muV-

metall,

'6.

-en, -er \metali\, metal

[me''4dr], metre meter, -n, midnatt, 3. -en, -\- [mi'dnaf], midnight midnattssol, 2. -en [-ar] [mi'dnatsco^l], midnightsun mild, adj. \miV.d\ mild

tiplikantd], multiplicand multiplikation, 3. -en, -er

stiplikafoj!n], multiplicsition; tahell, 3. -en, -er [ta'hel% multiplication table multiplikator, 3. -n, -er [mid'-

tiplika'tDr% multiplier

miljon,
million

3.

-en,

-er

[mU'joj'n],

minnas, II. [wnVas'], to recall, to remember minne, 4. -^, -n \min'd'-'\, remembrance

munter, adj. [munitdr], gay musik, 3. -en, -j- [muisi'k], music myteri, 3. -ef, -er [m^'^arz.'], mutiny

mdhdnda,
haps maZ, 5.
-ef,

adv. [mo'Jien''da\, per-

minst, adj. [mm.^s^], (the) least minst, adv. [mm/s^], at least minuend, 3. -e^i, -er [mi'nmenid],

man, 3. mdnad,
month
tw^z^^,

3.

[wo.^Z], aim, goal -er [mo.'/i], measure -er [mo'/iacZ'j, -e/i,

missnojd,
satisfied

adj.
5.

[mzs'Tzoj'cZ],

dis-

5.

-et,

\mott],

measure
to

misstag, mistake

-e^,

mdtta,
\mis'ta''g],

1.

-n,

-f-

[mo^'a'j,
to

be

able (may)

mdkta,
-j-

I.

[??2eZc*fa'J,

be

able

mitt, 3. -en, centre

\mitr\,

middle,

(can)

mod, 5. -et, [mco.'d], courage moder, 2. -?2 (modrar) [mco'ddr^],


mother

mdktig,

mdngd,
tity

adj. [mek'tig'"'], powerful 3. -en, -er [mey'd], quan1.

mdnniska,
adj. [m(>j*4/"Z'<^],
dis-

-?2,

-or [mHi'i/a'], hu-

modfdlld,

man
mdnsklig,
adj.

heartened, discouraged

modig, adj. [mccCcZi^'], courageous modlos, adj. [mw&'s]. dish eartened

man

[mn'sklig%

mdrkvdrdig,
remarkable

3id].

[mssrkvser^dig],

mogna,

I.

[m<z-^na'], to ripen

[mo/.^7i], cloud moln, 5. -e^, moralisk, adj. [m<z>r<2.7isA:], moral morfader, 2. [w(wr'/a'c?ar], grand

moda, 1. -7^, -or [wioc^a'], trouble morda, I. [mceu^a'], to murder


mor/c, adj. [mcer/A:], dark

marker,

5.

-e^,

-f-

[mcer.'^-arj,

father^

obscurity, darkness
2. -en,

moster,2.-n,-ar\mojsttdr\2i\mi^

motgdng,
adversity

morkbld,
blue

adj. [7wcer^'6/o'],
II.

dark

\m(x)'tgo7)''\

mbta(s),
adj.

[w0*^a'(s')],

to

meet

motsvarande,

[mw^sv'jr

ra?i6Z9], corresponding motsdgelse, 3. -n, -r [mw tsf '^aZse],

contradiction

nagel,
to
re-

2.

-n,

-ar

[7ia.'^9r|,

nail

mottaga, IV. [mwf^a'^a],


ceive

naken,

adj.

[n<2*/:b>n'],

mulen, adj. [mm'ldn% gloomy mullhdrstrdd, 5. -e^,

overcast,

[mwZ*-

name namn, 5. -ef, [namJn^, namngiva, IV. [nawryi'i^a], to name namnkunnig, adj. [nam'wArwn'i^],
famous

naked

6rs^r*], mulberry-tree
^

by the mother's

side.

Swedish-English.
-en, -er [nam'nkun^skap], nation, 3. -en, -er [natf(o!n], na-

179

namnkunskap, 3.
tion

nationalmuseum,
national

8.

(museet),

[nor'a% north -ar [nco.'s], nose, snout nu, adv. i e^^ nw [nmf\, in a twinkling nunna. 1. -n, -or [ni^n'a], nun

norra,

adj.

nos,

2. -en,

i-museer) [natfcona'lmmse^um],

museum
-or
[nat're^sa],

nunnekloster, 5. -e^ khs''tdr\ nunnery

[nwn'a-

nattresa, 1. -n, night journey

natur, 3. -en, -er [natm'r], nature [natui'rnaturalster, 5. -et, als'tdr], natural product 5. -et, [natm'rnaturforemdl, fo'rdmol], being, body 4. -t, -n [nanaturforhdllande,

ny, adj. [n^/.'], new nyhet, 3. -en, -er [nyihef], news ?i2/ss, adv. [n?/s/j, recently nytta, 1. -n, -4- {nyt'a''], utility, use nyttig, adj. [nyt'ig''], useful na, interj. [no.'], well! nd. III. [no/], to reach, to attain

tui'rfcerhorande], natural condition

ndd, 3. nddig,

-en,

[^o/c?], grace,

mercy

adj.

[no'cZi^'J,

merciful,

clement

naturlig, adj. [natuc'rlig], natural naturliv, 5. -et, -\- [natwi'rli''v\,


natural
life

3. -en, -er [natm'rfo'-nhet], natural beauty naturvetenskap, 3. -en, -er[na-

naturskonhet,

ndgorlunda, adv. [no'^orZwn'tZa], somewhat ndmligen, adv. [nm'%an'J, namely

ndmna,
nar,
rish

II.

[n^m'na'], to

name
nou-

II. [nse'ra''],

to feed, to

tWj'rveHdnskap, natural science

nedanfor, prep, [ne'dan^for], below, beyond nedgdng, 2. -en, -ar [ne'dgoy^ descent [down nedhugga, IV. [ne'dhug^a], to fell II. O [ne'dleg''a], to nedlagga,
put down nedre, adj. [netdrd], under

ndrheldgen, ndrvaro,
presence
1.

adj.
-n,

[nr6aZ^^an'],

neighbouring
3.

[nas'rva^rcj],

-n, -or [ni'sa^], nose ndsa, ndstan, adv. [n^stan'J, nearly na^, 5. -e^, \nEtt], net

nedsjunka, IV. [ne'dfuy^ka],


sink

to

[nit^, nice nocZ, 3. -en, -\- [notd], need,


na^i^, adj.

down

nodsaka,

1.

[no'cZsa'A^a],

to

want com-

nedsld, iV. [we*c?sZo'], to cast down nedstiga, IV. [ne'dsti'ga], to descend


nejc?, 3. -en, -er [nej.'d],

pel, to necessitate

nodvdndig,

adj.

[no'cZvfn'cZi^].

country

njugg,

adj.

[njug!],

avaricious,

eager, niggardly njuta, IV. [njui'ta% to enjoy noggrann,2idj [ti W^raTi'], accurate
.

necessary nojd, adj. [nojVd], pleased, satisfied noje, 4. -^, -n {noj'd''], pleasure not, 3. -en (nbtter) [noit], nut

noggrannhet,
het],

3. -en, -j-

[nco'gran'-

accuracy
3.
-eri,

nomad,
nomad

-er

[ncoma'd],

oansenlig, adj. [wansen'Zz^], unimportant

7iord, 2. -en,

[nojUd], north nordbo, 2.- fejn, -(a)r[noj-j.dbco% northerner


7iorcZisA:,adj .[n<z.Uc?zsA:], north[erly]

oanvdndhar,
inapplicable

adj. [6(;*an?;n'c?5ar].

adj. [(Wai?6rm'^9n], unintermitting o6eA;an^,adj. [(^6aA;an'^], unknown

oavbruten,

]S/ordsjdn [na)'d,df0^n], the North

obesvdrad,
free,

adj.

[fccSast'^'racZ],

Sea

unconstrained
un-

Nordstjdrneorden [noj'xdfmrndD^rddn], orden of the polar star

obetydlig, adj. [co'bdtyd^lig], important


12^

180

Vocabulary.
3. -en,

ocean,

-er [co'sda'n], ocean

operahus,
ore?,
5.

5. -e^,

[oj'pdrahco^s],

ock, conj.

[okfj, also

opera house
-e^,

oeksd, conj. [ok'so], also, likewise odla, I. [w<^/3'], to till, to cultivate

[^^/^tZ],

word

odlingshar,
arable

adj.

[M'dliifshar],
unfit,

[oxdrn'tlig], orderly (properly) ordna, I. [oVKi/ia'], to set in or-

ordentlig,

adj.

der
adj.

oduglig,

[oj'dmg^lig],

ordnande,

4.

-^,

-tz

[o"u,cZnan'cZ9],

useless, unsuitable oemotstdndlig , adj.

[o^'emoj"^ ston^dlig], irresistible

arrangement, organisation ordning, 2. -e?i, -ar [o'rdniy^


order, arrangement

oersdttlig, adj. [w^rs^-^'/t^], irreparable, not to be replaced ofantlig, adj. [oj'fan'tlig], enor-

ordsprdk,
organ,

5. -ef,

[<i>V(Zspro'A:],

proverb, saying
5. -e^ [orga.'n], organ oriktig, adj. [wriZc'^], incorrect oriktighet, 3. -e?z, -er [oj'rik^tighet], incorrectness

mous, huge

[5>/'ar], sacrifice offer, 5. -ef, officerare [ofisetrard], officer sacrifice Oj^?^a, I. [of'ra^], to

o/i(a, adv.

[of'ta'''],

often

oforgdnglig,
perishable

[cj'fcerjey'lig],

imun-

ogunstig,

adj.

[orgun^stig],

[oj'roj'], agitation oro, 3. -91, orolig, adj. [6;-r6;'Zi^], agitated, unsettled orsak, 3. -en, -er [6;*rsa'A:], cause osa, I. [co'sa'], to smell

favourable

oinskrdnkt, adj.
unlimited

[wiwsA:r??7t'^],

otalig, adj. [<w'?^a7z^], innumerable otdlighet, 3. -e?i, -f- [<^*to7f^i^e^],

okunnigliet, 3. -e?i, het], ignorance

+ [co'kunHgunknown

impatience

oM^, adj. \o)'t''t\, not tight oupphorlig, adj. [<:j*Mj)Ace'r%],


continual
outtrottlig,Si,d]. [co'iatrofUg'], in-

okdnd,

adj. [^^'f^n'cZ],

olik(a), adj. [<z>'/z'/[;a], unlike olikhet, 3. -ew, -er [tocZfMe^],


difi'erence

defatigable

olycka,

1.

-w, -or

[<^>-Z2/A:'a],

mis-

ovan, adv. prep. [6f;*ra'w], above ovanfor, prep, [coi.yan'/cer], above


oval, adj.
[(i;?;a/Z],

fortune

ombud,

0. -et,

oval

[om'6m'c?], deto

puty, messenger omfatta, I. [am'/a^'a],

com-

prehend, to comprise

ovanlig, adj. [66'i;'nZz^], extra[der storm ordinary thun\(xJ'vi-''ddr'\, evader, 5. -eZ, odndlig, adj. [wfn'dZi^], infinite

omflytta,
nij)},

I.

omgivning,

[om'flyt^a], to remove 2. -en, -ar [om'ji'v[om*ji't*a],

environs
to

omgiva, IV.

sur-

round, to encircle

omkring, adv. [om'Arn'T;'], around omrdde, 4. -^, -ti [om'ro'da], district, domain
omtala,
sible
I.

paljett, 3. -ew, -er [paZJeZ/], tinsel paljetterad, adj. [ paljete'rad^], tinselled paZm, 3. -en, -er [paZ/m], palm

panna,
head

1.

-n,

-or [pa'na*], fore-

[om'te'Za], to report
[ct>'7no[/Zz^],

papper,

5.

-e^,

6.

[per [pa'par'], pa

omojlig, adj.
2.

impos-

onkel, -n, -ar [oyikdl], uncle onodigtvis, adv. [toi'Tie'di^^m],


unnecessarily

_parA:, 3. -en, -er [pax'Ac], passa, I. [pas'a'], to suit; [po], to pay attention

park

pd
^

passagerare,

-n,

[^Jas'a-

fe'rard], passenger
-f- [oj-oj.dni'o^],

oordning,
disorder

2.

-e?i,

patronkok,

5.

-eZ,

[patroj'n-

ge^k], cartridge-box

Swedish-English.

181

penning sunima, 1. -tz, -or Yjpsn'iysum^a], sum (of money)


person,
3.

raseri,

3.

-ei(,

-J- [ra'sdrii],

mad-

ness, fury

-en,
3.

-er
-en,

[psersoj^n^
-er

person personlighet,

rastlos, adj. [ras'ZZo's], restless rec?a, II. [re'da^], to prepare

[pser-

redan, adv. [re'dan'], already

sco'nlighe't], personality piano, 4. -t, -n [piahico], piano-

redogora,
to report

II.

[^^e'cZiyjce'ra],

plan, plan,

5. -et, 3. -en,

[cross bar

[pla!7i'], plain, flat

regel,, 2.

-?i,

-ar

[re'g9l%

bolt,

-er

{plain'],

plan,

design plats, 3. -en, -er {platts], place plocka, I. [plok'a,'], to gather

re^eZ, 3. -n, -er [re'igr^Z'j, rule regent, 3. -en, -er [reji'fn.'f], regent religion, 3. -en, -er [re'Z2^i(^.'n],
religion

ploja,

II.

[j9?cy'a'], to

plotslig, adj.

plough [pZofsZ/o'], sudden


poetic(al)

poetisk, adj.

[p6o>e.^^^s/c],

ren, 2. -en, -ar [re/n], reindeer ren, adj. [re/n], pure, clear rent av [reint aiv\, candidly

polhojd,
latitude

3.

-en, -er

[porlhoj'd],

renlav,
lichen

2.

-en,

-ar

[re'?iZa'i?],

polsk, adj. [pqZ.^sZc], Polish polska, 1. -7i, -or [?)DZ'sA:a'], polka predika, I. [^^ra^zVAra], to preach pressa, I. [pre^s'a'], to press; samman [sam'an"'], to compress prins, 2. -e/i, -ar [_prm/s], prince

resa, 1. -n, -or [re'sa'], journey,


travel

resa,

resande,
rest,
3.

II. [re"sa'], to travel, to raise 5. -n, [re'san'cZa],

traveller
-en,

-er [resif],
3.

rest re-

produkt,

3.

-erz,

-er [projdukit], -er {prco'md-

produce, product

maining restauration,

-en -er [r^-s'Zo-

promenad,

S. -en,

natd], walk, walking

promenadplafs,

3. -en, -er

[proj'

ra/c'j.^n], restaurant riddare, 5. -n, [rid'ard']. knight ridknekt, 2. -en, -ar [ri'dknek''t],

mdua'dplafs], walking place


protestantisk, adj. [prco'testan.'tisk], protestant

groom

(soldier)

7Hk, adj. [riik], rich nA;e, 4. -t, n. [rrZ:a'], realm

pryda, II. {pryta^], to adorn prdstman, -nen, -man [pres'tman'], priest

rikedom,

2. -en, -ar [rr^'acZ^f^m'], riches, wealth

prova,

I.

[pro'va^
-71,

to test

[rik'sdagsriksdagshus, 5. -e^ hm's], Swedish parliament

puka, 1. drum
punkt,
pasta.

-or [jjm'A:^'], kettle-

riktning,
direction

2. -en,

-ar [rik'tniy'],
[W?;.'],

-er [pwT^/A:^], point [po's^o'], to maintain, to assert


3. -e?z, III.
2.

ring,

2. -en,
I.

-ar

ring

ringa. II. ringakta,

[n*?;-a'],

to ring [ri7;'a/c'Za], to disdain,

-en, -ar [po'va'], pope pals, 2. -en, -ar [p^Z.'s], fur

pave,

to despise

pdronformig,
pdrontrd,
pear wood

adj.

[p^'ron/br'-

rinna, IV. risknippa,


fagot

[n'n'a'], to flow
1. -n,

-or [ri's/cjzip'a],

mz^], pear shaped


4. -eZ,
5.

-n [pse'rontre^],
-ef,

WsZa,

I.

in

pdrontrdd,
^rf'],

[p^'ron-

pear tree

rest ro, 2. -n, [rco*.'], roa, I. [rjwa'], to amuse rock, 2. -en, -ar [rok!], dress-coat

[ris'ta^], to

engrave

ropa,
ros,

I.

[rcocpa'], to call

1. -en,

-or

[rojis], rose

R
racZ, 3. -en, -er \ra^d], line,

rosenkind, 3.-en,-er [rco'Sdncin'd], rosy- cheek

rank

raket,

3.

-en, -er [raA:e.^^], rocket

rosendoft, 3. -en, -er [rorsdndofH], perfume of roses

182

Vocabulary.
[rojtt], root lrul-a^\ to roll 5. -met, [rwm/], room,
I.

rot, 3.

en (rotter)

S
saga,
sak,
1. -n,

rulla,
rtira,

space

-or [sa'ga^], legend, cause

\ryk'a% rycka, rygg, 2. -en, -ar [ryg!], back


rykte,
4. -^,

II.

to pull, to tear

tale, fable 3. -en, -er \sa!k], thing,


I.

-n \ryk'td''\ reputation,
5. -e^,

sakna,

renown rymdmdtt,

[sa'kna^], be in need of

to

miss, to

[r^m'd^wo^'],
fly

cubic measure

sakta, adj. [sak'ta^], soft, slow saZ, 2. -en, -ar [.9a.7], hall, room, saloon
saltsjo [sal'tfo^^, saltsea samhdlle, 4. -t, -n [sam'hel^d],
society

rymma,

II.

[ryma'], to

[rys'lan^d], Russia rytteri, 3. -ef, -er [ryt'drit], cavalry rdd, 5. -e^, \rotd\, counsel advice

Eyssland

samhdllsordning,

2.

-en,-{-[sam'-

rddsherre,
councillor

2. -n,

-ar [rod'shse'rd],
rye

hdso'rdniy], social order samhdllsskick, 5. -et, -\- [sam'-

rag,

2. -en,
I.

[ro.^.^],

rdka,
rdcka,

[ro'A^a'], to get, to prove,


II.

hlsfik% social condition samla, I. [sawZa'], to collect,


assemble

to

to turn out

\rk'a^\ to pass, to give


I.

reach,

to

samling,

2.

-e/i,

-ar [samdiij^,
adj.

collection

rddda,
liver

\rd'a%
2. -en,

to save, to de-

sammanhdngande,
her)''aiidd\,

[sam'an-

continuous, connected,
II.

rdddning,

-ar \rEd'ni7)^\ salvation, deliverance rdkneord, 5. -et, {rek'ndOjUd],

coherent

sammanldgga,
Ug'a], to place

O
O
to

[sam'antogether

(to put),

numeral rdknesdtt,
rule

(adjective)
5. -et,

[rsk'ndsd'],
[r^:^/],

sammansdtta,
sefa],
to construct

II.

[samancombine,

to compose,
5. -et,

rdtt, 3. -en [+], -er

right,

samsprdk,

[sam' spo^k],

law
rdtt, adj.
[r^if'],

conversation

right (righteous)
[r^^'a'], to

rdtta, std

till

rdtta

be

samt, conj. [sam.'^], (with) and samtala, I. [sam'^a'Za], to converse

sued at law rdttfar dig, adj.


righteous, just

\ret'fse^rdig\

samtid,
age

3. -en, -er [sam'ti^d],

the

we

live

in

(our

contem-

rdttrddig, adj. {rEt'ro^dig}, right, honest


rdttvisa,
1. -?2

up-

poraries)

[vet'vi'sa], justice

rod, adj. [roid], red


rdja, II. reveal
[roiy'a'],

to disclose,

to

rok,

2. -en,
II.

rona,

row?!, 2. T07^a, II. [rcB'ra'], to

-ar [re^k], smoke experience -en, -ar [ron!], roan-tree


[reiia.'], to

samtida, adj. [sam'ti'da], contemporaneous sandhed, 2. -en, -ar [san'dhe'd], sandy heath sandsten, 2. -en, -ar [san'dste'n], sand stone sandds, 2. -en, -ar [san'd'o's], sand ridge
sann, adj. [san'], true schweizare, 5. -n, [fvJ'sa'rd%

move,

to con-

cern

rorande [rceran^dd], concerning


rorelse, 3. -n, -r
[?'oe'raZ.99'],

Swiss
se. III

mo-

O
[se.'\,

[.se.^],

to see

vement, motion

se ut

to look

sedan, adv. [se'dan% since sedermera, adv. [se'^armeVa],


since, afterwards

Swedish-English.
seger, 2. -n, -ar [setgdr\ victory segla, I. \se'gla% to sail sen, adj. \^sein\ late serrera, 1. [sasrveira], to serve sic?a, 1. -71, -or [srdd% side
si7Z, 2.

183
IV.

juta,

[/^a^a'],

to

shoot;

hort [holW], to shoot away sonder [sdntd9r\ to off;

shoot to pieces

-en,
4.

-ar
-t,

[silf],

herring:
[sil'Jis^k9],

skjutvapen, 5. -et, [fm'tva^pdn], fire arm skodon, pi. [sA:6;"d^Qn'], shoes


sA;o^, 2. forest
-e?!,

sillfiske,

-n

-ar

[skco.'g],

wood,

herring-fishery silver, 5. -et, -|- [siltvdr], silver silvervinge, 2. -ew, -ar [s^7'v^r?;%'a]. silver- wing

simma,

I.

[sm"a'], to
-^,

swim

3. -eri, -er [skorgsmar^k], woodland skola, 1. -n, -or [skoj'la'"'], school skolgosse, 2. -??., -ar [sA^f^'Z^Qs'a],

skogsmark,

[sm'9'], sense sitta, IV. [sz^'a'], to sit


.9m?ze, 4.
-7z

pupil, scholar
sA:o^^, 5. -ef,

[sA:>^/],

shoot

sjukdom,
disease

2. -en,

-ar [/m*A:6?&;m'],
to

skrapa, I. (avj

[s/cra'pa'], to scrape

sjunka,

ned [neid\, to sink down sjdl, 2, -672, -ar \fetT\, soul s?o, 2. -n, -ar [fhf]. sea skada, 1. -w, -or [.9A;a*6?a'], damage, injury skada, I. [sZ^a'c?a'],
to

IV.

[/w?;*A:a'],

sink;

skrift, 3. -en, -er [skrifH], handwriting

skrdddare,
tailor

5. -n,
II.

[sA^r^c^'ara'],

skrdmma,

[sA^'/'^m'a']

to

damage

frighten, to startle skrdmsel, 3. -n, -}- [skremtsdl], fright

skadlig, adj. [.sA:a-^%'], injurious, prejudicial, pernicious skaffa, I. [skaf'a!''], to procure

skugga, 1. -n, -or [sA:w^'a'], shade skuggig, adj. [sZcw^'i^^'], shady skiddra, 1. -n, -or [sA:itZ't?ra'],
shoulder
sA:wZZ,
.
.
.

skaka, I. skapa, I. skapare,


creator
.9A:a^f, 3.

[sA:a'A:a'], to

shake

[sZca'^a'], to create
5.
-?i,

/or
sake
5.

skull [skult],

for

[s^'apar^'],

skydd,
-en, -er [skat!], tax, duty,

-et,

[/^/c?'],

shelter,
guilty,

rate,

impost
I.
]^

refuge skyldig,
obliged,

adj.

[fyl'dig'l
[y^m."^^],

skat' 81% to tax .9A^e, III. [j'ef\, to happen, to occur, to take place skepp, 5. -et, [fepi], ship

skatta,

bound
-ar

sky7nt,

2. -en,

shimmer

skeppare,
shipper

5.

-ti,

skynda, I. [/2/^*c?a'] to hasten skada, I. [sA:o'cZa'], to look at


skddespel,
5. -ef,

[fep'ard^],

[s/tJo*c?aspa'Z],

sight, spectacle

skeppsbord
board

[fep-sb(o-j,d\,

ship-

skick, 5, -ef, [/lA:.'], condition skicka, I. [/zVt^'a'], to send skicklig, adj. [fik'lig'-], clever, convenient, suitable adv. [/^/'^^,9v^'s], alterskiftesvis,
nately, reciprocally skilja, II. [ /z7:;a'], to separate skillnad, 3. -en, -er [/z7??ac?'], difference

Skdne [sA^o'na'], Scania skdgg, 5. -ef, [A^-'], beard skdrgdrd, 2. -en, -ar [fx'rgo''rd\

archipelago (near the sea side)

skon, adj. [fo'n], pretty skonhet, 3. -en, -er [/o'n^e'f], beauty


skote, 4. -f, -n [fo'td''], bosom slag, 5. -et, [sla'g], battle, spe-

cies

slaveri, 3.

-et,

-\- [sla^vdri!],

sla-

skimra,
skingra,
skinn,

I.
I.

[/?m"ra'], to twinkle [y^2?ra'], to disperse,

very slippa, IV. [sZzp'a'], to escape, to


get

to scatter
5. -e^,

away

[/m.'J, hide

slott, 5. -et,

[slotr\,

castle

184

Vocabulary.
a few,

2. -en, -ar [slus^], sluice slut, 5. -et, [slm!t], end sluta, I. [slm'ta^, to finish, to end

sluss,

somliga, pron.

[si?7n'Zz^a'],

some souimar,2.-en (somrar) [som:ar%

sluta, IV. [slm'ta^], to lock slutlig, adj. [s/m'fZ(^'], final slufligen, 3idY.[sluL'tkgdn% finally slutta, I. \^sluta'\ to slope

summer sommarhostad,

2.

-e??.

(bostdder)

[som'arbco'stad], sonson, 3. -en (.


so'nj,

summer house
.

soner) [so^n-

sluttning,
slope
sZa, III.

2. -e?^,

-ar [sZw^'ni?;],

grandson

O ut [udt],

[slo!], to beat, to

throw; to strike out, to beat

sldde, 2.-71, -ar. [sh'dd^], sledge, sleigh sldkt, 3. -en, -er [sUJdt], race, fa-

sorg, 3. -eri, -er [sar.^*], sorrow sorglig, adj. [sor*J%'], sorrowful so^i^, adj. [stoi'^i^'], sooty sova, IV. [so'z;a'], to sleep

sovande,

mily
sldkte, 4. -t, generation

-n Yslek'td^l, race,

adj. [so*7;a7i'cZa], sleeping spegla, I. [spe'^Za'], to reflect I. [spe'Za^], to play spela, spets, 2. -n, -ar [spe/^s], point,

top,

head
1. -n,

sldkting,
lative

2. -en,

-ar

[^sUk'tiif)'''],

re-

spira,

-or [spi'ra^], sceptre

sZaY^, 3. -en, -er [sUtt], plain sldttland, 5. -e^ f. . . lander)


.

sprida, IV. [^spri'da'''], to spread springa, IV. [spr^'a'], to run springhrunn, 2. -e?!, -ar [s^jW?;"6rwn'], fountain

\slt'la!'nd], plain smak, 2. -e?i, -f- [sma/A;J, taste

sprdk,
sprdnga, up
s^ar,
5.

5.

-e^,

[spro'k],
to

smaka,

I.

[sma'fca'], to taste
[s77ia.'Z],

language, tongue
II.

.9ma?, adj.
to slink

narrow

[sprey'a'],

blow
trace,

smygain, IV. [sm^/'^a'], to smuggle,


smd,
adj. [smof\, small, little smale. III, [swo'Ze'], to smile

-e^,

[s^o.V],

smdvdxt,
sized

adj. [smo'vfA^'s^],

under-

way-road spdrvagn, 2. -en, -ar [spo'rvay^n], tramcar


track,

spdd,

adj. [spe'd],

tender, gentle

smdlta, II. [smf/'^a'J, to melt; hort [hortt], to melt away snickare, 5. -w, [sm/c*a?"a'],

spdnna, II. [spen'a\ to bend spdnne, IV. [sp?i*9'], buckle spdnning, 2. -en, -ar [spr?i'%],
tension

joiner
snille, 4.
-^,

-n

{snil'9''],

genius

sporja,
s^ac?,
3.

II.

[s^^cer'ja']

to

snillrikhet, 3. -e?i -\-[snil'rik''het], ingenuity sno, 2. -n, -\- [snof], snow

question

-en
5.

(stdder)

[sta:d],

town

snoglopp,
snowdrift

5.

-e^

-f

[s^0'^Zoi3'],

snogrdns,
limit of

2. -en, -er

[sno'^ren's],

stadsldkare, -n, [stad'sUkard'], town physician s^am, 2. -men, -war [.9fam/],


stem, race

snow

snomassa, 1. -n, -or [sno'mas'a], mass of snow snomoln, 5. -e^, [sn0moZ'n], cloud of snow

standar,
standard

5.

-e^,

[s^ancZa.V],
stay, to to re-

stanna, remain

I.
;

to kvar \kva^r\
[s^an'a'],
[^starik],
3.

snoyra, storm socken,


sol, 2.

1.

-n, -f- [s7i0*2/'ra],

snow-

main
stark, adj.
strong
stat, 3. -en, er [s^a/^], state

2. -en,

-ar

[soAr/an], parish,

district
-e?i,

-ar [sojU], sun

solsken, shine

5. -et,

-nen (-mdn) [sta'tsstatsmann, Tnan'], statesman


sun{steig^\ steg steg, 5. -e^, s^e^e, 2. -n, -ar [s^e'^a'], ladder

[sco'lfe^n[,

Swedish -English.
steka, II. [ste'ka^'], to roast steUf 2. -eiif -ar [ste-^n], stone stenart, 3. -en, -er [ste'naUt], species (kind) of stone

185

I. [sZm'pa'], to fall styrelse, 3. -n, -r [s^^/'^^Zsa'j, administration, government

stupa,

stenkol,
stenrike,

5. -et,

[stenko^T],

coal,

sZ^/v, adj. std, III.

[s^2/'^])

stiff
; ;

jtof], [.9Zo.'], to stand

ut

pit-coal
4. -n [ste'nri^kd], -t, mineral kingdom sticka, IV. [^stik'af], to stick, to

[iM-t], to stand (out) stdt, 2. -en, -f- \^stoit\

pomp

stdtlig, adj. [sZoZ'Zigf'], pompous stddse, adv. [sZf "cZsa'], steadily, conftdlla,
ifantly II.

sting, to prick stig, 2. -en, -ar [stiig'], path stiga, IV. \^sti'g^a\, to mounj^o

[sZfZ'a'],

to place;

ascend, to put up (at hotrfsetc.)


stilla, adj. [sfrZa'J, quiet, peaceful

?/pp [wp^J, to set up, to erect stdlle, 4. -t, -n [stel a'], place, spot stdllning, 2. -en, -ar [s^fZ*?z%*],
position

stjalk, 2. -e/i, -ar ifeltlc], stalk stjdrt, 2. -ew, -ar [/^x^^], tail

stockholmare, 5. -??, hol'mard], Stockholmer

[s^r^Zc"-

stoft, 5. -e^, [stofH], dust s^oZ, 2. -en, -ar [stojU], chair .9^0 Z^, adj. [stol't], proud
.92^or,

-or [sZfm'a'], voice [sZfm'pZa*], to stamp stdnder, pi. [sZn.'Sar], states general

stdmma,

1. -n,
I.

stdmpla,

adj. [sZoj.V], great adj.


[sZtocra'^tZacZJ,

storartad,

stdndig, adj. [s^an'cZz^^], constant stora, II. [sZo'ra'], to trouble stora, I. [sZo'ra'], to prop stdta, II. [sZ0*^3'], to push, to
hurt, to thrust

grand, magnificent storhet, 3. -e/i, -er [stco'rhe't], grandeur, greatness storlek, 2. -en, -ar [stco'rle*k],
size

subtrahend,
hen.'d],

3. -en, -er
I.

[sub'tra-

subtrahera,
subtract

[sub'trahe!ra], to
[si<Z>'-

storm, 2. -e?z, -ar [sfor.'m], storm stormakt, 3. -e?2, -er [sZ^'rmaA:^], great power
3. -en, strdnder [strantd], shore, strand strax, adv. [s^ra/t'.'s], presently sZrzcZ, 2. -en, -er [stri'd], strife,

subtraktion,

3. -en, -er trakfco.'n^, subtraction

straffa, strand,

I.

[sZra/'a'], to

punish

suck, 2. -en, -ar [sukf], sigh sw^a, IV. [sm'ga% to suck

summa,
sund, 5. suverdn,

1. -n,

-or [si/m'a^],

sum

swni, adj. [sun^d], healthy


-et,

[sun.'d], strait

dispute strida, II. [sZrrcZa'], to fight, to quarrel, to dispute stripig, adj. [strfpig'], shaggy strdla, I. [stro'la^], to beam

-er [sm?;ar/n], sovereign svag, adj. [sva.^^], feeble weak svan, 2. -en, -ar [sva/n], swan svart, adj. [sva.^.'^^], black
3.

-en,

svartaktig,
blackish
st-eA^,

adj.

[s?;au-'ZaA:'Zz^],

strdcka, II. [sZrfZ:a'], to stretch ut [mtf], to stretch out strdnga, I. [sZr:7;'a*], to string student, 3. -en, -er [sZmcZfn/Z],

5.

-ef,

-|- [s?;e/A:],

deceit

svenska, 1. -n, Swedish lady

-or

[si'fn'sA:^*],

student
[sZmcZe.Va], to study studie, 3. -n, -r [stmtdid], study

Sverige
I.

{sv$Rrt{i)jd\,

Sweden

studera,

studium, 3. studiet, studier [stm^dium], study stund, 3. -en, -er [sZwn/cZ], moment stundom, adv. [j^^wn'cZo^n'j, sometimes

svika, IV. [svi'ka'], to deceive svdr, adj. [svo.V], difficult, heavy svdrighet, 3. -en, -er [sz;o*W^^e'Z],
difficulty

svdrd, svdva,

5.
I.

-eZ,

[svse^id'],

sword

[st'f.-ya'J,

to hover

sydlig, adj. [s^'<:Z%'], southern S2/n, 3. -en, -er \^sytn\ view, sight

186

Vocabulary.
IV. \ta'ga% to take; hort \hodit\ away fatt

synas, II. {sy'nas% to seem, to appear synharligen, adv. [synbarligdn^],


visibly

taga,

\_fati\

catch,

to seize;

in
i

synnerhet,

synnerhet

\_syn'9r-

he't], especially, principally

synnerlig, adj. [^syn'drlig*\ especial

\taik\ roof speech tala, I. \ta'la'\ to speak, to talk talande, adj. [ta'lan^dd], exprestak,
tal, 5. -et,
\tatT\,

\ini], to 5. -et,

take in

syskon, pi. and sisters


sysselsdtta,

\^sys'kon^'\,

brothers

sive
taZriA:, adj.

II.

\^sys'dlst'a], to

be occupied
syssling, 2. -n, -ar [sys'liif], son of cousin-german
syster,
2. -n,

\talri^k\ numerous tand, 3. -en, tdnder [tantd], tooth tanke, 2. -en, -ar [tay'kd*], thought tankfull, adj [taykful^ thought.

ful

-ar

[^sya'tdr^],

sister

sdlunda

Yso'lunda^], so

sdngldrare, 5. -n, singing master

[soy'Wrard],

tapper, adj. [tapidr], brave tapperhet, 3. -en, -\- [tap'drhe't], bravery


tecken,
5.
I.

-eZ,

[fe/u^n], sign
tile

sdra, I. [so'ra^], to wound sdde, 4. -^, -n Ise'dd'], seed sdker, adj. [s~/A:ar], certain, sure 5a^a, II. [sE'ga,% to say sdllan, adv. [sfZ'ari'], seldom
sdllskap,
5.
-ef,

teckna,

[ZeA^'na'], to sign

^e^eZ, 5. -e^,

2.

[te.'g9l],

Zerm,
ZzcZz^,

3.

-en, -er [txrtm],

term

Zid, 3. -en, -er [ZzVcZ], time adj. \ti'dig^, early

company sdndebud,

5. -e^,

[sfZ'sfca'p],

tidrdkning,
nf?;], till och

-en,

ar

[Zi'cZr^'A;-

era

[sf?2*(^a&m'6?],

med

\tili

messenger sdnda, II. [s^n'^a*], to send smi^, 2. -671, -ar [se??.'], bed sdnka, II. [s?;"A;a*], to sink
sdrskild, adj.
different
[,9^'r/VZ'cZ],

tillhaka,

adv.

[ZzZ"6a^A:a],

okt me'd], even back,

ago
{tiVhriifa'], to tillhringa, II. bring; to spend, to pass (of time)
tillfdlle,
4. -t,

various,
diffe-

-n [til'fsVd],

oc-

sdrskilt, rently
sdtt, 5.

adv.

[5'r/VZ'^],

-eif,

[s-f.'],

way

sdtta, II. [sf:^"3'], to set; [m!t], to set out, to expose

cassion, opportunity tiUfdllighet, 3. -en, -er [tiVfeVighet], casuality

ut

tillgodo,

hdlla

med ndgot

till-

soder,

3.

soder southward sodra, adj. [so'cZra'], southern


soka,
II.

-n, -\- [so.'ddr], south ut, adv. [soiddr ui't],

godo

be content with, to be put up with


[til'goj'doj], to

out [up;]f sot, adj. [soH], sweet

[s0A:a'], to seek

u upp

tillgdnglig, adj. [til'jy'lig'\, accessible, susceptible [tiVjeVp'], tillhjdlp, 2. -en, help, cooperation

tillhora, II. [til'ho'ra'], to belong tillika \til'li*ka'\, at once, conjointly

tack, 2. -en,

+
3.

tacka,

I.

[ZaA:'3*],

[tak^], thank(s) to thank

tillrdda, II. [Zi7'ro*(Za], to advise, to counsel

tillskynda,

I.

[Zz'Zy^n'cZa]

to

tacksam, adj. [^aAr'sam'], thankful tacksamhet, 3. -en, -|- [tak'saTnh&t], thankfulness

cause, to occasion

tillstyrkan, 1. kan], advice


tillstddes
[(to

+
, ,

[til'styu*-

tacksdgeUe,

-n, -r [tak'se^gdl-

[til'ste'dds]

present

Sd], thank(s)

be) inj

Swedish-English.

187

tillvaro,

3.

-n,

-f-

{til'va^rcJ],

presence
tillvdga, adv. (to bring) tillagg, 5. -et, tillagga, II.
\til'VE^gd\,

about

trdng, adj. [troT)!:], narrow trdd, 5. -et, [tr!:\ tree trddgdrd, 2. -eri, -ar [^r^'^o'u-c?],

{tiVUg^ addition
[tiVleg^a], to

garden trddskola,

1. -?2,

-or

[^r^-'s/cct^'Za],

add

timma,
titel,
2.

2.

-n, -ar [tim'a,^ hour -en, -ar [tit!dl], title


[fitfsa'], to

tree-nursery trdffa, I. [^r/*a*], to meet

trdng a,
throng

II.

[Zr7;'a'],

to press, to

tjock, adj. [gok!], thick


;^y?/sa,
I.

charm

ijdna, I. [^^'na'], to serve -ijdnare, 5. -n, IgCnard*], servant


tjdnst, 3.
-e?2,

trdng set, crowd


trotta,
I.

3.

-n,

-\-

[treyisdl],

[ZroZ"a'], to tire, to ex-

haust

-er

[cn.''s^],

service

tjdnste ande, 2. -?i^ -ar [gen'stdan'dd], ministering spirit tolka, 1. [tol'ka'], to explain, to
interpret

tu [tia!], two tunga, 1. -ti, -or [ifw?;'a*], tongue tunna, 1. -ri, -or [tun' a'], tun tunnel, 2. -n, tunnlar [tundli],
tunnel

tona, topp,

I. [^Co>"7i3'],

to sound, to tone
[topi],

2.

-en,

-ar

top

Turkiet

[tur'ki'df],
[^t;z?;"a*],

Turkey
to

toppmossa,
torka, torsk,
I.

1. -n,

-or [fj)p"m0s'a],
to dry

tvinga, IV.

pecked (night)-cap
[^D.fyfca'],

tvivel, 5. -ef,

[tvitvaT],

compel doubt

2.

-en, -ar [tojJsk], cod

tvdng, -et, -fcompulsion

[^vo??.'],

constraint,

country trapp, 2. -ew, -ar [^rap.'^J, trap trappa, 1. -n, -or [^rap'a'], staircase

^raA^f, 3. -e?i, -er [fraL'^],

^-yar, adj. [tvseir], blunt,

hasty

tvdrtom. adv. [^v^^TZom*], on the


contrary
ty, conj.
[Z2//],

trappsteg,
stair

5.

-e^,

for,

as

[trap'ste'g],

tycka,

II.

[si'g],
3.

[%A:'a'], to like to think;

om

sig
[omi],
to

trasig, adj. [^ra'si^'j, shabby

trevnad,

-en,
5.

to like, to

be fond of
to

\tre'vnad%

tyda,

II.

[ty'da'].

point,

comfort, wellbeing

trevdningshus,
high trippa,

-et,

signify
\tre'-

i:oni7)shm's], house three stories


I. [trip'a*],

tysk, adj.

[Z^/s.Vt:],

German

Trjskland [tys'klan^d], Germany


tyst, adj. [tys.'t], still tystldten, adj. [tys'tlo^tdn],
taci-

to trip, to trot

tro, 3. -n, -|- [^rw;], faith tro, III. [frw.^], to believe

turn

trogen, adj.

[^roj'^9?i'], faithful

trolig, adj. [^r&;*Z{^'], probable trolos, adj. [^rc^^'Zo's], faithless ifroTi, 3. -en, -er \trojin\, throne trossvagn, 2. -en, -ar [tros'vay'n],

[Zo.^^], train ^%, 5. -eZ, Z%a, I. [to'ga^], to march,

to go

tdga,

[to'ga'], fibre ifaZa, II. [ZoZa'], to stand, to bear,


1.
-71,

-or

to support
tdlig, adv. [to'lig% patient tar, 2. -en, -ar [to.'r], tear tdcka, II. [ffA;"a'j, to cover

luggage-waggon, convay

trupp,
tryck, sion

3.
5.

-en, -er \trupt]. troop


-e^,

\tryki],

impres-

tdcke, 4.
^aZZ,
5.

-^,

trycka, II. [iryka% to punt, to press trygg, adj. [tryg!], sure, secure
tryggJiet, 3. -eri, -f- [tryg'he't], surety, security 2. -en, -ar [tro'd], thread ^r<|d^,

-eZ,

tdnka,
tic(al)

II.

[tsUt], tent [Zf??"^^*]; to think

-?2

[tk'd% cover

ZaZ, .adj.

[teU],
-e>i,

close,
[ZfZ/ie^Z],

hermeclose-

tdthet, 3.

ness

188

Vocabulary.
to emulate,

tdvla,
torriy

I.

\tv'ln*\

to

contend
2.
II.

universitet, 3. -eri, -er [rn'mvaersit9't], university

-men, -mar

\tdint],

rein

universitetsldrare

5.

-??,

tora,

[^ce'ra'J,

may,

(shall)

[m'niv8ersitd'tsWrard\ university teacher, professor

unge,

2. -n,

U
umgds,
quent,
to hide
III,

upp och ned


and down uppdrag, 5.

-ar [uy'd^l, young one [up! ot ne:d\, up


-et,

[up'dia^g],
li-

[um'go^s], to freto have intercourse with


II.

mission, task

uppehdlle,4. -t,-\-]up9-hrc)],
velihood, living

midangomma,
under,
vel,
5. -et,

[un'danjom'a],
[un'ddr], mar-

uppenbara,

I.

[up'dnba^ra],

to

wonder
2. -en,

under avdelning,
underbar,
derful
adj.

-ar [un'-

manifest, to reveal uppfart, 3. -en, -er ascension, ascent

[up'fa\(f],

ddra'vdelnii)], subdivision

[unddrba^i^], won3. -en,


-\-

I. \up'fms^trH\, to bring np, to educate uppfriska, I. [up'fris^ka], to refresh, to revive

uppfostra,

undergivenhet,

[un'-

uppfylla,

II.

[up'fgl'a], to

lill

up

ddrji'vdnhet], resignation

uppfora,
uppfftfi^

II.

[w^'/ora], to erect,

underhandla,
to negotiate

I.

\un'd9rhan'dla].
2. -e?2,

to establish

underhandling,

-ar

[wrz'-

uppgora,
range

3. -en, -er [up'jif't], task II. [up'jce'ra], to ar-

ddrhan^dliij], negociation

underjordisk,
disic],

adj.

[?/?i'c?arjf6;'u--

upphora,

II.

[Kip*^03Va[, to cease
[wp*Z?/"sa'J, to light

subterranean
[^f7^c?9rZ^^'],

underlig, adj.

won-

upplysa, II. upplysning,


niij],

drous, strange

2. -en, -ar [up'lys'information, explanation

underordna,
underrdttelse,
rfif'aZsa],

I.

[un'ddro^rdna],
-r [t^n*c?9r-

to subordinate
3. -n,

uppmana, I. [wp'ma'na], to exhort [wp uppmdrksamhet, 2. -en,

mag'rksamhet], attention, attentiveness

news
5.
-e^,

under stud,
te

[i^n'cZar-

sto^d], support

upprepa, uppvesa,

I.

[upre^pa], to repeat
[ttjp're'saj, to erect 4. -^, -j- [itp'^e'^Jicfe],

II.

understodja,
support

II.

[unddrsto^dja],
[un'ddrso^ka], to

uppseende,

stir; sensation;
II.

supervision

undersoka,
examine undervisa,
teach

uppskatta,

I.

[w^*sA:a^'a], to value,

to appreciate
I.

[wwcZarvz'sa]
2. -ew,

to

uppskjuta,
postpone

IV.

[wp*/m'^aj,

to

undervisning,

[w7i'c?ar-

uppstd,

III.

O
II.

[lip-s^o'j, to

stand
to

vis'nii)], tuition

up, to arise

undkomma,
escape

IV. [wn'cZArom'a], to

uppstdlla,

[up'stel'a],

undra, I. [wwdfra'], to wonder undsdtta, II. O [wn*^.9^'a],


relieve (a garrison)

to

undsdttning,
712*2;],

2. -en,

-ar [wwcZsfi'-

relieving

?/n^, adj. [uv'l young ungdom, 2. -ew, [w2;*t?<^m'],

draw up, to range [up'sy^n], look, uppsgn, 3. -en, mien upptaga, IV. [wp'^a'^a], to take up upvteckna, I. [wp'^eA^'na], to write down, to record upptrddande, 4. -t, -f- [w^j'frf^-

youth

dandd], appearance

Jwedish-English.
-er [up'tsk't],

189

upptackt,
discovery

3.

-en;

utsikt, 3,

-e/i,

uppvakta, I. [up'vak'ta], to wait uppvaktning, 2. -en, -ar [up'vak^tnirj], attendance, waiting

i^^sZa, III. to bloom, to

-er [m'tsik^t], view [m'tslo% to blow,

open

utsdnda,
out

II.

[urtsen^da], to send

ursprungligen, adv. [ucrspruifursdkt,


ligan], originally 3. -en, -er [ui'rsek'-t], excuse, apology
4.

utsdfta, II. [m'fsf^'a], to expose uttrdtta, II. [m'^ro^'a], to tire out

utarhetande, -t, -\- [ui'tar'betandd], working out II. [m'thre''da\, to spread uthreda, utbrista, IV. [m'tbris'ta], to break
out

utvald, chosen utveckla,

adj.
I.

mtva'ld],

select,

utforska,

I.

[ut'tfor^ska], to search

utfoT, adv. prep. [iu,':tfcer], down utfora, II. [m'j^/ceVa], to execute,


to carry out

develop utveckling, 2. -en, -ar [m'ifveA:'Z%], development utvidga, I. [m'ifufcZ'^aJ, to expand, to enlarge, to extend utvisa, I. [m'^fz'sa], to turn out, to expel; to show, to decide

[m'^veAr'Za], to

utgora,

11.

m'J^jce'ra], to

make
vacker, adj.
[vak.'dr], pretty
-{-

up, to amount, to constitute

utgoras, av
sist

[uL'tjoe,'ras\

to con-

vadmal,
vagga,
i;a^?z,

of
3.

-en, coarse stuff


1.

[va'd'ma''T\,

-\- [m'tkom''st\ income, (getting out) 5. -et utlopp, {m'tlop''], mouth, estuary I. [m'tlo''va], to promise utlova, utldnning, 2. -n, -ar [la'tlenHy],

utkomst,

-en

2.

-n, -or {vaga^^ cradle -en, -ar [z;a?;.'n], carriage

vaksam,
vakteld,

adj. [?;<2'/csam*],
2.

awake

-en,

-ar

[?;aA:'^eZ'cZ],

foreigner

watch-fire val, 5. -eif, [va/ZJ, choice, election vail, 2. -en, -ar [val% wall

utldndsk, adj. [m'tUn'dsk], foreign utmatta, I. [vi'tTnafa], to weary, to wear out, to exhaust

vallfdrda, I. [i;aZ*/^^<^a], to make a pilgrimage valsprdk, 5. -ef, [i^a'Zspro'A;],

utmdrka,
tinguish

II.

\uftmser^ka\, to dis3. -n,

device

utmdrkelse,

-r [la'tmasr^-

valthorn, 5. -e^, French-horn


van, adj.
[i;ain],
1.

[val'thcjUn],

kdlsd]. distinction

accustomed

utndmna,
abroad

II.

[ui'tnem'na], to apadv.

vandra,

[van'dra% wander

point, to nominate

utomlands,

[uiHomlands],

vanlig, adj. [va'nlig'], usual vanligen, adv. [^>anZ^^^n'], usually vanligtvis, adv. [ya'nZz^^vi's],
usually
[?;a.'p9n], weapon vapen, 5. -e^, rara, 1. -n, -or [t;a"ra*], goods

utomordentlig

adj.

[m'tomorfit

dsnHlig], extraordinary utreda, 11. [mtre^da], to


to clear

out;

up
[if^'^rf^'aj,
-?^,

utrdtta,

I.

to

perform

t;ara, I. [va'ra"], to last f A y vardagsgdst [vardagsjes^t],

utsaga,

1.

-or [ui'tsa^ga], destatement,


to look, to

claration,

assertion,
[ut'tse^],
-/i

deposition utse, III.

O
4.

every day's guest (h^)varest, adv. [?;a'rfs'^], where f^V^-an^enom,adv.[z;a.Vije'nom],

whereby
(h^)vass, adj. [vas/], sharp

appear utseende,

-^,

[m'tse'dndd],

appearance, look
^)

varna, I. [fa't/na'], to warn vatten [vaitdn\ water

old orthography

190

Vocabulary.
I. [z;ir'r/a*], to [visa''], to show;

vecka, 1. -n, -or [vek'a^], week vederldggning, 2. -en, -ar {veddvUg^nirj], refutation

(h^)virvla,
t'lsa,
I.

whirl /ra?n
wis-

verk, 5. -et, [vsertk], work verka, I. \vserka^]y to work verklig, adj. \vserklig^\ real, virtual

3.

Yframf\, show, to exhibit


vishet, 3. -en,
-|- [vrs^e'if],

dom
viss, adj. [vzs.^], certain, sure

visserligen,
-en,
-|-

adv.

[i?zs*9rZi'^an],

verksamhet,

[vser'k-

samhe't], activity verkstdllighet, 3. -en, -j- [^?cerA:steVighet], effect ve^a, I. [?;eta'], to know vetenskap, 3. -ew, -er [ve'tdnska'p], science

surely vistas, I.

[-yzs'^as*],

vetenskapsman
ence, scholar

3.

-nen,

-man
of sci-

vitsord, 5. -ef, testimony vittnesbord, 5. -e^, bce'rd], witness vrida, IV. [vri'da'], wrest
vrd,

to sojourn
[viY'sC'>W],

to

[vit'ndstwist,

to

[ve'tdnskapsman*],

man

2. -n, -r [uro/],

corner

vuxen,
vdga,
vdr,

vetgirig, adj. [ve'tji'rig], desirous of learning vida, adv. [vida'], wide

adj. [t*itZj'sa?i'], grown (up) I. [vo'^a'J, to dare

2.

-en,
I.

-ar [vo.VJ, spring


to nurse, to

vdrda,

[uo'^c^a'],

vidga,
sive

I.

[i;rc?^a*], to

extend

take care of
vdris, 2. -en, -ar [vo'ris], nal ice
ver-

vidiyftig, adj. [z;r^/?;/'%], exten-

vidskeplig, adj. [vrdjep'lig], superstitious fi^, 2. -en, -ar [i^zVA:], bay z;zA;f, 3. -en, -er lvik.'t], weight

vdrvisa, 1. -n, -or legend of Spring


II.

[yo'rvisa],

viktmdtt, 5. -et, weight measure


viktig,
adj.

awake vdcka, {vek'a% vdg, 2. -en, -ar [ctg\ way


to

\viktmot%
weigthy,

[vik'tig^'],

important
(h^)vila, I. \vi'la^\ to rest 3. vildhet, -en, -f[vil'dheH],

va^a; II. [r^"^a'], to weigh vdgg, 2. -en, -ar \veg:], wall vdgra, I. [t;r^ra'], to refuse vdlgorande, adj. [r^Z'^ceVancZa],
beneficial

vdlgorare,

5. -n,

[ffZ'Jce'rara],

wildness

benefactor
3. -en, -e?' [z;27'c:?war'A:],

vildmark,
viYZa,
1.

vdlkommen,
welcome
3.

adj.

[yZ'A;o?>?/c>nJ,

wild country
-n,

or \vil'a% cottage

villig, adj. \vil'ig^\ willing

(h^)vina, IV. [vi'na'\ to whistle t'lnd', 2. -en, -ar [i;m/dl], wind iringe, 2. -en, -ar [z/Zj?'^'], wing vinna, IV. [vm'a^]. win

-en, vdllukt, [^;^//M^*^], pleasing odour vdlsignelse, 3. -n, -r [vfZsiV^/sa], blessing vdltra, I. [-ufZ'^ra^], to roll (out) vdn, 3. -nen, -ner [vent], friend

-er

vinnande, winning

4. -^,

-f-

[?;m'an'^9],

vdnda,
apply

II.

[vrn't^a*],
3.

to turn, to

vinst, 3. -en, -er [vinist], profit

vdndpunkt,

-en,

-er

[vm'c^-

vinterbostad, 3. -en, -stdder \vin'tdrbco'stad], winter-house


vinterkold, 3. -en, coVd], wintercold

punk^t], turning point

Vdnern

[ve'ndd'n], the
2.

Vaner

[tm'^ar-

vdnlig, adj. [i;n"%'], friendly

vdnskap,
vdnta,
J.

-en, -|- [ven's/ta'p],


to await,
to

vintermdnad,

3. -en, -er [vin'tdr-

friendship
[v?i"^a'J,

mo'nad], winter-month vippa, J. [vip'a'], to wag


old orthography

expect, to wait for

Swedish-English.
to

191

vapna,

I.

[v]p'na'']y

arm

dngpanna,
sten], flue

1.

-n,

-or [oypan^ajf

vdrd, adj. [vas'dd], worth vdrde, 4, -t, -n {^cse'ddd^ value vcirdig, adj. [vx'j^dig'], worthy
i;arr, 5. -et,

steam-boiler

dngskorsten,

2. -en,

-ar [oyskor'-

[v%r'v], mission,

dngslup,

2.

-en,

-ar [oy'slm^p],
year
cen-

task

vdrld, 2. -eTz, -ar [vw!rd], world vdrldshistoria, '6.-ien,-ier\vse\idshistcoWia], history of the world
vdrldslig, adj. [vce'j.dslig'], ternporal vdrldsliv, 5. -ef, ["y^'-t^sZz'y],

steam-sloop ar, 5. -et,

[o.'r],

drhundrade [o'rhun^dradd],

temporal

life

vdster, 3. -n, -|- [vs/^ar], west Vdttern [vsHdrn], the Vatter -yacca, II. [vek'sa \, to grow t/aaj^, 3. -en, -er [vektst], plant vdxtlighet, 3. -e?i, -|- [vek'stlig^het], vegetation

tury drligen, adv. [otZi^^ti'], yearly drsdag, 2. -e?z, -ar [o'rsda'^], anniversary dsikt, 3. -e?2, -er [o'sikH'\, opinion dterfinna, IV. [o*^9r/i7i'a], to find

again dterkalla,

I.

[otarZcaZ'aJ, to recall
fo'^arX'^^m'a],
[o'tdrse'],

dterkomma, IV.
return, to

to

come back

dterse,

111.

O
O

to

see

vdxtvdrld, 2.-en, -ar [vsk'stvae'^td], world of plants

vorda,

I.

vordnad,

[vce'd,da], to venerate 3. -ew -j- [voe'j.dnad%

veneration

Y
yngling,
2. -ew,

again dterstod, 3. -en, -er [o'tdrstco^d], remaining, rest dterstd, III. [o"i(ars^o'], to remain, to be left dtertaga, IV. [o'tdTta''ga\ to retake

dtertvdnda,
-ar
[^/wZi?;*],

II.

[o'tdTven''da'\,

to

youth

return, to

come back
-e?i,

?/pper%,

adj. [2/p'ar%'], excellent

dtgdrd,

3.

-er

[o'tj%'jid\y

ypperst, adj. [^p/^rs^J, extreme yppig, adj. [2/i>^^'], luxuriant


2/s^er, adj.
[g/s.'^ar],

measure, step

dtminstone,
at least

adv.

[o'ifmm'sfowa],

fierce,

yta,

1.

ytmdtt,

-n, 5. -e^,

-or

[y'tmof],
[y'ta'"'],

wild surface

dtnjuta, IV. [o'tnjm'ta], to enjoy

square

measure
ytterst, adj.
[^/if.'ars^],

utmost
ddel, adj.

A
a^a, dgg,
noble ['ga% to possess, to 5. -ei^, [eg^], egg o^Tia, I. [syna'], to devote
[^/dJaZJ,

yttra,

I.

[2/^*ra'],

to utter

yttre, adj.

[^/^.'ra],

exterior

II.

own

d, 2.

-71,

-ar
5.

[of],
-?2,

dhorare,
dka,
II.

small river
[o'^o'rara],

genuine dlska, I. [^Z'5A;a'], to love [fZ's/cara'], lover dlskare, 5. -rz,


aA;te, adj. [ek'ta],

auditor, listener
[o'A:a'], to drive

dlksvdrd,

dkerbruk, husbandry dlderdom, 2.


age

5. -ef,

+ [o'kdrbrm'k],
[oZcZ'ard^wm'],
[o?;*6o'^],

dmna,
dmne,

I.

4.

adj. [fZ'sArv^'rcZ], lovely [fw'na'J, to intend -?i [em'nd'] , stuif, -^,

material
-e/i, -[-

dnda, 2. -w, -ar [m'c?a'], end dnda, adv. [fri'cZa*], to, up to,

dnghdt,
boat

2. -n,

-ar
3.

steam-

dndamdl,
object

5.

-ef,

till

[7^'cZamo'Z],

dngbdtstur,

-eri,

-er [oy'bot-

stm^r], short voyage on a steam boat

dndligen, adv. [?^(ZZ^^'9?^], at last ari^, 2. -en, -ar [eij'], meadow dngel, 2. -n, -ar [ey'dl], angel

192
5.

Vocabulary.

dppeltrdd,
apple-tree

-et,

[p'9ltre%

omsom,
nately

adv.

[om'som'],

alter-

ara,

1.

-n, -t [^'ra'],

honour

dretitel, 2. -n, title of honour

-ar [^'rdtit'dl],

aria,

1. II.

-n,

-or

[%rla%

wagtail

drva,

[^r'va%

to inherit

dta, IV. [s'W], to eat


dtt, 3. -en, -er
[et!],

oppen, adj. [op'an'], open oppna, I. [op'Tza'], to open oppning, 2. -en, -ar [op'wi?;'], opening [ce'rZo^sorlogsfartyg, 5. -e^, fa^rtyg], man-of-war

race, family

or^, 3. -en, -er

os^er, 3. -n,

[oRjitt],

[os-'^^rj,

herb, plant eastern

o, 2.

-92,

-ar

[0.'],

isle,

island

ode, 4. -t, -n [0'dd^], lot, destiny ode, adj. [e'c^^'j, desert, waste, desolate

Osifersjon[o6'tar/0'n],theBalticSea ova, I. [0''ya'], to exercise ovad, adj. [0''yac?'], exercised overavdelning, 2. -en, -ar [o'vdra'vdehiiy], over subdivision
overallt,

[o'dmjm'k], humble -eri, [o'dmjm'het], humbleness oga, 4. -t (ogon) \o'ga'], eye ogonsten, 2. -en, -ar [0*^D7is^e'?i],

odmjuk,

adj.

adv.

[o'vdrart],

every-

odm-jukhet,

3.

where
overbefdl,
5. -e^,

[o'vdrbdfe^T],
-?i,

supreme command overenskommelse, 3.


overgdng,
transition
2.

-r [0'ver-

eye-ball, apple of the eye ogrupp, 3. -en, -er [o'grup''],

dnskom''9ls9], accord
-en, -ar [0*'y9r^o?;'],
I.

archipelage

oka,

om,

I. [o'ka^], to increase adj. [o7?2/], tender

overmanna,
overcome

[o'Vdrman^a],

to

omsesidig,

adj. [omsdsi^dig],

mu-

tual, reciprocal

overtaga, IV. [0*var^a'^a], to overtake, to take possession.

English-Swedish.
apple-tree, dppeltrdd,
[ep'eltrs*]
5.
-et,

action, handling, [han'dliy*]


to admire,

abroad, uioralands [m'tomlan^ds], -ar 2. -en,

afternoon,
age,

beundra, I. [ftawn/cZra] eftermiddag, 2. -en, -ar Uftdrmida'g] ^

to apply, anvdnda, II. {an'vimida] April, april [aprilt] arm, arm, 2. -en, -ar [ar/m] arm-chair, Idnstol, 2. -en, -ar
to

alder, 2. -n (dldrar) {oV.ddr] [om*agent, omhud, 5. -e^,

arm, vdpna, I. [vfpna*] [va^^pdn] arm, vapen, 5. -e^, army, Aar, 2. -en, -ar [has^r]

artillery, artilleri, 3. -et, -er [ar'-

air,

Zw/i(,

3. -en,

take
alive,

air,

+ hdmta

tildrH]
[Zw/'Y];
to
as, conj., sd,

frisk

luft

to

ascertain,

likasd [so/] utrona, taga reda


2.

[hxmta* frisik

Iv/f.'t]

pa
assets,
ass,

[ui'tro'na]

levande, vid liv [le'van' dd\

_ asparagus, sparris, 5P'

-en,

-ar

Alp, alp, 3. -en, -er [aZ/p] always, adv., alltid, stddse [al'ti^d]

[spar'is^]

aktiva [aktiiva]
1.

among,

prep.,

ibland [iblan!d]

animal, djur, 5. -et, apartment, rum, 5. -met,

dsna,

-n,

[rum.']
[JKi^ir]

she-ass,

dsninna,

-or [^'sna'j: 1. -n, -or [os-

nm'a']

English-Swedish.
3.

193

attachment,

tillgivenhet,
II.

-en,

blast-furnace,

masugn,

2. -en,

-ar

-\- [tiljiv9nhe't\

to attend, folja,
attic,

vindskammare,
augusti

[fol'ja^] 2. -n,

-rar
or

[ma-sup'n] blind, adj. blind [bUn.^d] bloom, hlomma, 1. -n, -or


m'a']

{hloj-

[vin'dskam'ard]

August,

[acogustti\

blossom,

hlomma,

1. -n,

-or [hlco-

[ogusiti\

m"a*] (hlomster b.)

U
back, rvgg, 2. -e?i, -ar [r:?/^.'] bacon, Jtdsk, 5. -et, [fles'k] to bake, baka, I. [ba'ka"]

body, kropp, 2. -en, -ar [krop!] book, SoA:, 3. -en, booker [boj.'k] boot, stovel, 2. -n, -ar [ste/u^Z]

bound,

adj.

fbrpliktad

[fcer-

plikttad]
braces, hdngslen, pi. [^7;/sZ97i[

ball,

kula, [km'la']
bassdng,

1. -ti,
.

-or, klot, 5. -e^,

brandy, konjak, brdnnvin, [kon'jak, brm'vi'n]


brass,

-et,

the Baltic Sea Ostersjon [os'tdr-

/0'n]
basing skdl,
2.

breakfast,
-en,

massing, 2. -en, -f- [mf.9*z??'] frukost, 2. -en, -ar

-ar [sko'l],
[5as2/.'J
-t,

[frukos*t]

3. -en,

-er

bathing-place, badstdlle, 4.
[fta'Ss^f^'d]

-n

breast, &rosZ, 5. -et, [hrosit] to breathe, andas, I. [an'cZas'J

bay, havsvik,
^J^'^']

2.

-en,

-ar

[Tia'vs-

British, adj. britisk [britHsk] to brush, borsta, I. [6or*s^a'] to build, bygga, II. [&2/^'a']

bean, bona, 1. -n, -or [JonaH to bear, fordraga, IV. [/cer-

building,

byggnad,

3.

-en,

-er

draiga]

beard, skdgg, 5. -eZ, [/^^-'J beautiful, skon, fager [fetn] 2. -en, -ar [sf?;.'] bed, sang,

[62/^nacZ'J bull, ^jwr, 2. -en, -ar [^m.V] but, conj. men {menf\
butter, smor, 5. -et, [smotr'] to button, kndppa, II. [fcn^p'a'J to buy, kopa, 11. [go'pa']

bed-room, sovrum, 5. -Tne^, [so'vrum'] beef, oxkott, 5. -e^, [oA:'fdY'] to begin, borja, I. [6cer'ja*j

C
cabbage, kdl,
calf, A:aZi;,
2,

behind, prep.,

bakom, bakpd

[ba-en, -}" [^o/Z]

komt]
being, varelse, 3. -n, -r [va'ralsd*] to belong, tillhora, II. [^I'Z'Ao'raJ beloved, dlskad, omtyckt [el'skad^, om'tyk't]
best, adv.,

cake, A:aA;a, 1.
to call,

-?z,

2. -en,
I.

kalla,

besoka,

bast

[bss.'t]

for
cape,
-et,

11., [bdseika], att trdffa [tref'a*]

komma
-en,

-or [ka'ka^] -ar [kaHv] for \kal'a%

between, prep., emellan [omd'an^] beyond, prep, utover [mte'vdr]


bill (of

udde,

2.

-ar,

kap,

5.

[ud'd', ka.'p]

exchange), vdxel,

2.

-n -ar

[veJdsdl]
2. -n, -ar [/o/^aZ] ; ~ of passage, jiy\ttfdgel, 2. n, -ar [flyt'fo^gdl] n, \jlytfo'gdl\ bit, bit, 2. -en, -ar [biW] ]

bird,

fdgel,

captain, kapten, 3. -en, -er [kapZe/n] care, omsorg, 3. -en, er [om'sar^j]

'_

bitch,

hynda,

1.

-n -or {Jiyn'da^^
1.

sorglbs [sor'^lo's] , carpet, matta, 1. -n, -or . , [mat'a*'\ carriage, vagn, 2. -en, -ar [varjt [t;a?;/nj carrot morot, 3. -n, -rotter [mo)'careless, adj.,
, ,

black-board, svart tavla, -or [srar/Z Za't^Za]

-n,

rw'Z]
to carry,

genomfora,

II.

[je'nom5.
-eZ,

blamable,

adj.

tadelvdrd
I.

[ta'ddl-

fb'ra]
cartridge-box,

vee'rd] to blame, tadla,

[ta'dla']

patronkok,
I3

[patrco'ng0*k]

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

194

Vocabulary.

cash-book,

kassabok,

3.

-en,

coal, kol, 5. -e^,

[koil\

-backer [kas'abco'k] cashier, kassor, 3. -en, -er [kasd!r]


cast-iron,

cock, ^wp^, 2. -en, -ar \tupi] code, lagbok, 3. -en, -booker

gjutjdrn,

5.

-et,

[la'gbo/k]
coffee, A^a^e, 5.

[jm'tjas^rn] cat, katt, 3. -en, -er [kat]


to csitch, fatta,
I.
;

collar,

krage,

cold, [fat a'] forkyla, IL, sig [fcergyUa] cauliflower, blomkdl, 2. -en, -|3. -et,

colonel,
std']

-f, [A:a/-a'] 2. -n, -ar [A;ra"^9'J overste, 2. -n, -ar [o'vdr-

colony,
V'Dnit'\

koloni,
5. -e^,

3. -en,

-er

\kd-

\bla)m'ko^l] cavalry, rrjtteri,

colt,

fhl,

[/0.'q

-er

[ry-

to

tdrif\ ceiling, tak, 5. -et,

(i ett

rum)

command, befalla, II. [fta/a/'a] to commence, borja, I. [6cer*Ja*J House of Commons, Underhus(et)
[un'ddrhia's(dt)] competitor, medtdvlare, 5. -n, [me'dtevla'rd]
;

[tatk]

chain, kedja, 1. -n, -or [ge'dja'], of mountains, bdrgskedja,

1.

chair,

-n, -or [bserjsge'dja] stol, 2. -en, -ar


2. -en,

[stco.'l],

Idrostol,

-ar[l3R'rcostoyi\
2. -en,

compliance, samtycke, 5. -^, [sam'tyk'd] in compliance with, i enlighet med [i' e'nlighe't
we.'d]
to

chamber,

kammare,

-mrar

ftyk'a]

[kam'ard']

chamber-maid, kammarjungfru, 2. -n, -r [kam'arjuy'frm\ chandelier, Ijuskrona, 1. -n, -or


[jm'skroj'na]
to chatter,

comply, samtycka, II. [sam'to comprise, innefatta, I. [ma/a^'a]

compulsory, tvingande, [tviij' ande', tvoys-^


to

tvdngsI.

prata,

I.

[pra'ta*]

conduct,
-yaZ/^aj

forvalta,

[/cer-

cheap, adj. adv., billig(t) [biVikH] cheek, kind, 3. -en, -er [gintd] cheese, ost, 2. -en, -ar [(x)stt\
cherry-tree,
chieftain,

to consist, bestd. III.

korsbdrstrdd, 5. -et,
2.

[bdsto:] constitution, statsforfattning, 2. -en, -ar [statsfoRrfat'niij]

[gcerbertrs']

hovding,

-en,

-ar

[ho'odiy']
chin, haka, 1. -ri, -or [ha'ka*] to chirp, kvittra, I. [&i;iY'ra']

continent, fastland, 5. -et, -lander [fas'tlan'd], kontinent, 3. -en, -er [A:on'^mn.'q continually, oupphorligt [oj'upto

chocolate,

choklad,

3.

-en,

-|-

hoe'rlig] contribute,

bidraga, IV. [6rfp'ar^]


-f- [^32. -e?i,

dra'ga\
to choose, va(/a, II.
citizen,

O
-n,

[vd'ja^]

borgare,

5.

copper,

[^Qr*-

koppar, 2. -en, copy-book, skrivbok,


-booker
[skri'vboj'k']

jara'] class-room,
to clear,

klassrum, [klasrum']

5.

-me^,

corner, horn, 5. -e^, [hoRUn] cornet, kornett, 3. -en, -er [/cornf^.']

3.

klarna, I. [A:?a'rna'] clerk, kontorist, 3. -en, -e>" [A:an'climate, klimat,


5. -e^,

corporal,

korpral,

-en,

-er
2.

[A:.^rpra.7]
[A:Zz-

correspondence,
councillor,

brevvdxling,
2. -?i,

cloth, tyg, 5. -et'

the
ka',

I.,

-en, -j" [bre'v-vek'sliy]


[ty^g]

to lay

rddsherre,

-ar

duka,

bordet [dm'-

b(oUd9t]
3.

clothes, kldder, pi. [kUfddr] clothing, kldder, pi. klddsel,


-n,

[rod'sha2r'd] to count, rdkna, II. [rf'A-na^ 5. lander /an^i, country, -et, [lanJdl ; in the country, pa lan-

\kUdtsdT\

det [poi laniddt]

English-Swedish.
3.

195

cousin,
sitn]

kusin,
3.

-en,

-er

\kui-

dining-room, [?na'fsa7]
dinner,
d.^a^]

mat sal,
2.

2.

-en, -ar

cow, ko,
vi'va] creditor,

-n, -r [kco!]
1. -n,

middag,

-en, -ar [wz-

cow-slip, gullviva,

or[gul'-en,

borgendr,

3.

-er

to dip, doppa, I. [dfap'a'J director, direktor, 3. -e7i,

-er

[bovjdnas^r] crop, skord, 2. -en, -ar [fodtdd]


to cross,

[dirsktce^r]
to disarm,

avvdpna,

I.

korsa, I., -dver\kor'Sct'] cuckoo, gok, 2. -en, -ar [je'k] cuff, manschett, 3. -en, -er [mankyrass,
3. -en,

discipline,

disciplin,

[a'v-vfp'na] 3. -e?z, -er


3. -en,

[cZzs'zpZzVn]

discouragement, modloshet,
-f-

fetf] cuirass,

[mofdlosheH]

-er \ky-

rasi]

cup, kopjp, 2. -en, -ar [kopf] customer, kund, 3. -en, -er [kunid]

[/-'^] dish, /a^, 5. -eif, to divide, dela, I. [d^e'Za*] to do, gora, II. [ia?-ra*]

dog, hund, 2. -en, -ar [hun!d] anidomestic, adj.^ws- [hm's]; [hm'smal, husdjur, 5. -et,

jm'r]
damage, skada, 1. -n, -or [ska'da^ damp, adj. fuktig [fuk'tig*]
dark, adj. mork [mcej.'k'] danger, fara, 1. -n, -or [fa'ra'] day, dag, 2. -en, -ar [da.^g]
deaf, adj. cZov [<^0/v] dear, adj., dyr, dyrhar [dy.'r,

door, dorr,
to

2. -en,

-ar

[(^cer.^

knock at the door, knacka pa dorren [knak'a' poi do&rtdn] dormitory, sovrum, 5. -met
[so'vrum*^^ double, adj.,
gojin]

dubbel

[dub.'dl]

dyr-er
-er

dragoon, dragon,

3. -en,

-er [dra5.

ha^r] debitor,

gdldendr,

3.

-en,
-en,

drawing-master, ritldrare,

[jel'ddnseW] decanter, karaffin,


[kar'afitn]

-n,

[ri'tU^rard]

3.

drawing-room, formak, 5. -et, [fo'rma^k]] salong, 3. -en, -er


[sahyf]
to dress,
drift,

December, december [ddsem'bdr] declaration, forklaring, 2. -en, -ar


[fcerkla.'riy]
to

deep, adj. defend, va!ra]

djup

[jui'p]
I.

kldda, II. sig [kle'da'] driva, 1. -n, -or [dri'va^] to drink, dricka, IV. [c?r/A:'a']
drinkable, adj., drickbar [drik'ba'r] ductile, adv. [uttdnjelig, tdnjbar
[mt-teij'jdlig\ ten'jba'r] dusty, adj. dammig [dam'ig'] duty, plikt, 8. -en, -er [pZiA;.'^] to dwell, vistas, I. &o, III. [vis'tas']

forsvara,
I.

[foersI.

to deliver, befria,

overldmna,

[&a/nVa] desk, pulpet, 3. -en, -er [pulpe't] despair, fortvivla, 1. -ti, -f- [/cerifto

despatch,

avsdnda,
II.

11.

[a'l;-

to destroy,

forstora,

tillintet-

gora,

II.

dwelling-place, hemvist, 5. [he'mvis't]

-et,

[/ce.xsfce'ra]
-e?i,

devotion, hdngivenhet, 3.
[AfTi'iz-yariAe'^]

+
earth,

E
each, varje [var'jd'] ear, ora, 4. -t oron [o'ra^] early, adj. adv., tidig(t) [ti'dig^t]

dewdrop, daggdroppe,
[c^a^'tZr^p'a] to die, do, III.
diet,
[^Ze.'J

2.

-w, -<2r

jor^,

2.

-en,
2.

-ar [jojUd]

riksdag,

2.

-en,

-r [rik's-

Easter,

pdsk,

-en, -ar [pos.7:]

da'g]
to dig,

to eat, dta, IV. [6*^a']

grdva,

II.

[^r^'ua*]

eatable, adj.,

dtbar

[e'tba'r]

13*

196

Vocabulary.
2.

education, underinsning , -\- [un'ddrvis^niij]


egg, cigg, 5.
electric, adj.,
-et,

-en,

fear,

fruktan,

1.

2.

-\-

[fruk'-

[egt]

tan^] feather,

fjdder,

-7i,

-drar

elektrisk [elEkHrisk] empire, rike, 4. -t, -n [rrkd^] to employ, sysselsdtta; II.

[fje'ddr] February, februari [fe'bruia^ri] 3bruary,


feeling, kdnsel, 3. -n, -t [genisdl]: kdnsla, 1. -n, -or [gen'sla*]
felthat, filthatt,
2.

[sys'dlsefa]
to encourage,

uppmuntra,

I.

[up'1.

-en, -ar [fiV-

mun'tra]
encouragement,

that']

uppmuntran,

female, hona,
fertile,

1.

-n, -or [hco'na*]

~\~

[up' mun^ trail]

frukthar, h ordig [fruk'fadj.,

English, adj., engelsk [e7)tdlsk'\\ the (language), engelska (sprdket) [eyidlska] to enjoy, njuta, IV. [njm-ta*]

ba^r]
fictitious,

finger ad

[fi'yjet-

rad]
trohet, 3. -en, -\- [trcoihet] field-marshal , fdltmarskalk , 2.
fidelity,

to enter,

intrdda,

II.

[in'tre'da\

envelope, omslag,

5. -et,

sla'g] (kuvert b.) equator, ekvator, 3. -n,


tor'] to equip,

[om'+ [ekva'-

field-mouse,

[fel'tmarfaVk] dkerrdtta, 1. -n -or [o'kdrrofa]

-en, -ar

utrusta, I. [t^^trws'^a] European, adj., europeisk [mt'rojpeHsk]


evergreen, adj., alltid

to fight, kdmpa, I. [gem'pa^] figure, bild, 3. -en, -er \hil.d]


finger, finger, 2. -n,
fire-side,

-grar [fiy'dr]
-ar [ha3!d,d] : vid brasan,

grbnskande
allt
[al'tiy',

hard,

2. -en,

[gron'skan'dd]
everything,
al't]

by the

fire-side,

allting,

vid den husliga harden [vi!d

brasan*]

execution,
dd],

utforande [la'tfo'ranlagligt utfdrdande [lu'tI.,

fleet,

flotta,

1.

flock,

hjord,

2.

-n -or [flot'a*] -en, -ar [juUd^

fse'rdandd]
to exercise, ova,

flood, fiod, 3. -en, -er [flcoid]

utova,
II.,

I.

[e'va',

vi'to'va]
to export,
I.

golv, 5. -et, [gol^v] blomstertradgdrd, flower-garden, -- floor,


.

utfora,

exporter a,

en, -ar [blcom'stertregoUd]


to fly, fiyga, IV. [fllyga^] . . ga, ifilyga'] to fold, Idgga tillhopa [leg' a*] illhopa \l

[lutfo'ra, ek'sporteira\

eye, oga, 4. 4, ogon [o'ga', egon'] eye-ball, ogonsten, 2. -en, -ar

[0gonste'n\
eye-tooth,

food, foda, 1. -n, -\- [fo'da^ footsoldier, fotsoldat, 3. -en, -er


[foj'tsolda't]
footstool,

ogontand, der [o'gontan'd]

3. -en,

-tdn-

pall,

2. -en,
1.

forehead,
n'a']

panna,

-n,
2.

-ar [pal'] -or [pa-en,

form,
face, anlete, 4. -t,

skolbdnk,

-ar

faculty,

formdga,
(pi.

-n [an'le'td] 1. -n, -{- ^fcer-

[skoj Iberfk]
to freeze,

frysa, IV. [fry'sa^

mo!ga]

formogenheter)

French,

adj.,

fransk

[fran,'sk]

to fall, falla, IV. [fala'] far, by far, aZZra (before a superlative) [al'ra']

fresh, adj., jfrisk [frisisk]

Friday, fredag, da'g]

2. -en,

-ar [fre-

fashionable, adj., nymodig \ny'moj'dig], modern fatherland, fddemesland, 5. -et,


-\-

friend, van, 3. -en, -ner [vehi] ramfor [fram'front, in of,

fo'r]
fruit,

[fE'denidslan^d]
adj.,

favourable,

gynnsam

[jyn'-

fruit-tree,

frukt, 3. -en, -er [frukit] frukttrdd, 5. -et,

sam']

[fimk-ttre*]

English-Swedish,
2.

197

fur,

pals,

-en, -ar [pelts]


hair,

H
hdr,
5. -et,

fusible, adj.,

smdltbar [smeltba'r]

[hotr]

ham, skinka, 1. -n, -or [fiyka'' hand, hand, 1. -en hdnder[han^d'

game, vildt, vUlebrdd,


viltt]

5.

et,

-ar

to hang, tapets'^a,d. [tap'etsetra' hard, adj. [hdrd [hotjid]

garden,

trddgdrd,

2.

-en,

harvest, skord, 2. -en, -ar [foetjid] to harvest, skorda, I. [foR'dda^] hat, halt, 2. -en, -ar [hatt]

[tre'go'dd]

gardener, trddgdrdsmdstare, b.-n, [trs'goxdsmes'tard] garrison, garnison, 3. -en, -er

haversack, mat-tornister, 2. -n, -rar [mat-tornis'tdr] head, huvud, 5. -et, \hm'vm*d]

at

the

head

of,

spetsen for
5.

[gar'niscotn] gay, adj., munter [munitdr] German, adj., tysk, tyska \tysik,
tys'ka^] glad, adj.,
to gladden,

[spettsdn]

headmaster, forestdndare, [fo'rdston'dard]

-n,

glad [glatd] glddja [ghd'ja']

glass, glas, 5. -et, to glide, glida, IV.

healthy, adj., frisk [fristk] to hear, hora, II. [hora*] hearing, horsel, 3. -n, -f- [hortsdl]

[glats] [glrda']
2.

glory, dra,

1.

-n, -\-[ce'ra]

glove,

handske,

-n,

-ar

[Iian'dskd'] to go, gd. III. [got] gold, guld, 5. -et, -{- [gultd]

heart, hjdrta, 4. [j^r'ta^] heavy, ^i^np, st?ar [fw??/, svotr] height, hojd, 3. -ew, -er [hojtd] helmet, hjdlm, 2. -en, -ar [jeltm]

hemisphere, halvklot,
-or

5.

-et,

goldfinch, steglitsa, 1. -n, [ste'glifsa] goldfish, guldfisk, 2. -en,

[hal'vkWt] hen, hona, 1.

-w,

-or [7i0"na*]

-ar

[guldjis'k]
good-bye,
rajetra]
interj.,

farvdl [farveil]
I.

hereditary, adj., arv- [artv-] hill, kulle, 2. -n, -ar \kul'd*] hoarse, adj., lies \hets] hoe, hacka, 1. -n, -or [hak'a']

to govern, styra, regera^

[sty'ra^

holiday, ferier, pi. [fetridr] hope, hopp, 5. -e^, [^op/J


to hope,

government, sty r else, regering [styrdlsd', rdje'riy']

hoppas,

I.

[y^^p'as'J

grammar-school, Idrdomsskola, 1. -n, -or [Ise'rdcomsskoj^la] grand-daughter, dotterdotter [dogrand-father, far-far , [fcirfar^, mojr'far']

horse, hdst, 2. -cti, -ar [hestt] horse-radish, pepparrot, 3. -e?2, -rotter [pep'arrco't] horse-soldier, ryttare, 5. -n, [ryhot, Ae^ [hett] ft'ard']

morfar

hound, hund,

2. -en,

-ar [huntd]

grand-mother,
grand-son,

farmor

mormor
sondotter

hour, timme, 2. -n, -ar [tim'9'] huge, adj., ofantUg [cjfanHUg]

[far.'mcor, mcortrriMr]

huntsman, ja^are, 5.-7z,

[je'gard^]

sonson,

[so'nso'n, so'ndot'dr]
to greet, hdlsa, I. [helsa'] to grieve, smdrta, I., sorja,

I
II.

[smer'ta'] ground-floor,
vo'nir)]',

to illustrate,

upplysa,
adj.,

11.

[up'ly'-

jordvdning

on the , pd nedre hotten [pot netdrd hottdn] gun, gevdr, 5. -et, [jevsetr]

[joj'dd-

sa]

imperishable,
to import,
I.

oforgdnglig
importera,

[ojfoerjsiflig]

infora,

II.,

[m/oVa]

198

Vocabulary.
learned, Idrd [IseUd] Idmna, I. [lem'na*] ledger, huvudhok, 3. -en, -backer
to leave,

to

improve, fovhdttraj

I.

[/osr-

indigested, adj. indulgent, adj.,

osmdlt [M'smeVt]

skonsam

[skco'n-

sam']
industrious, adj. flitig [Jii'tig*] infantry, infanteri, fotfolk \in'fantdri.', foj'tfol'k] infinite, odndlig [M'en^dlig'] infirmary, sjukhus, 5. -et,

[jiufviadbolc] ben, 5. -et, \bein^ legislative, adj., lagstiftande [la'gstiftandd] legislative power , lagstiftande
leg,

{fwi'khia^s] inkstand, bldckhom,

5.

-et,

makt [ maktt^
lenght, Idngd,
letter,
3.
-et,

-en, -er [liif.d]

brev,

5.

1.

\bretv]

[bhk

hoj'jin]

skulder, pi. [skul.'ddr] lieutenant, lojtnant [Idj'tnan't]


liability,

invention,
iron,

uppfinning,
5. -et,

2. -en,

-ar

[upfiniy']

jdrn,

[gt]

to lighten, blixtra, to lighten, Idtta, 1,,

gora

[blik'stra'] I attar e

[jseUn]
2.

[ht'a', jo'ra* let'ara'']

iron-plate,

jdrnpldt,

-en,

-ar

Ijxdjiplo't]
island, o, 2. -n, -ar
isle,
[0.']

like, adj., lik, lika [li.% li'ka'] limb, lem, 2. -men, -mar [lem']

0,

2.

-n,

-ar

liver, lever, 2.

long, adj.,

&^

-??,

levrar [le'var]
-ar [^^r-'a*]
-ew,

[lov-]

January, januari [jan'uiatri\


joy, glddje, 3. -n,

lord, herre, 2. -n,


loss,

-{ [gUdjd']

forlust,

3.

-er

[/cer-

July, juli [jmili]

June, juni [juiini]

loud, adj., Ijudlig [jm'dlig]


to love, dlska,
1.

[Z"5A:a*]

K
to keep,

love kdrlek, 2. -e?2, -|" [^^'^'^e'^*] love-apple, kdrleksdpple, 4. -^, -ti


{cdB'rleksep^ld] (tomat,
2>.)

holla, IV. \hol'a% underhdlla, IV. [un'ddrhol'a]


-et,

kind, slag, 5. -er [sla!g]

lowland,

Idgland,

3.

-et,

-lander
2. -en,

sort, 3. -en,
4.
-t,

\lo'glan*cl]

kingdom,

kungarike,

-n
2.

luncheon, andra frukost, -ar [an'dra' fruk'osH']

[kuy'ari'kd] kitchen-garden, kokstrddgdrd,

-ar [gok'stregoUd] knife, kniv, 2. -en, -ar [kni'v] to knock, knacka [knak'a*]
-en,

M
main land, fastland, 3. -et, -lander [fastlan^d] man, mdnniska, 1. -n, -or [men'ifa']

man-of-war,
lake, sjd, 2. -w, -ar [/of] lance, Za?is, 2. -en, -ar [lan!s]

orlogsfartyg,
3.

5. -et,

[oi-rlogsfa'rtgg]
-er?,

landscape, landskap, 5. -et, \lan'dska^p'\ language, sprdk, 5. -et, [spro^k]

manager, disponent,

-er

map, karta, 1. -n, -or [fcavfa'] March, mars, [mar's]


mare,
sifo,

lark,

Idrka,

latest, adj.,

1. -n, -or [Iser'ka'] senast [se'nas't]


-ef,

4.

-e^,

-ti

[sff(>/]

lead, ftZy,
leaf,

5.

Zov, 5. -e^,

master, mdstare,
tard*]

5.

-w,

[?7?fS'-

[W-]
[lo^v]

leap-year, skottdr, 5. -et, o'r]

[skot'-

May, ma; [wi^y-l meadow, dng, 2.


meal, mdltid,

-en,

-ar

[ey.']

3. -en,

-er [mo'lti'd]

English-Swedish.
5. -et,

199

meat, Wtt,

2.

[Qoti]

napkin, servett, 3. -en, -er


vett]

[sser-

member, medlem, [me'dhm^]

-men, -mar

mercantile fleet, handelsfiotta, 1. -n, -or [han'ddlsflot'a] merchandise, handelsvaror , pi. [han'ddlsva'rojr] merchant, Tcdpman,^d. -nen, -man

native country, fosterland, 5. -et, -\- [fcos'tdrlan'd] nature, natur, 3. -en, -\- [natmtr] navigation, sjofart, 3. -en, -\- [fo'-

faUt]
navy, fiotta,
1.

-an, -or Yflot'a^'\


-t,

[gop'man*] mercury, Tcvicksilver,


[kviTc'sU'vdr]

5.

-et,

+
[me

necktie, slips, 3. -en, -er [sliyts]


nest, ndste, 4.
net, ndt, 5. -et,

-n

{nS'td*'\

[neif]

metal, metall, [taV

3.

-en,

-er

of, middle, mitt [miti] in the mitt i [miti it] mild, adj., mild [milid] military, militdr-, Tcrigs- [mifi;

night, natt, 3. -en, natter \natt^ nightingale, ndktergal, 2. -en, -ar

[nek'tdrga^l] no, nej (icke) \nejt^ noise, Ijud, 5. -et,


-et,

larm,

5.

-f-

Ijmtd, lartm]

t'r-f Tcrik's-]

milk, mjolk, 2. -en, -\- [mjoltk] mind, tanke, 2. -n, -ar, lust, 3.
-en, -jto

northern, adj., nordlig [noj'rdlig^^ nose, ndsa, 1. -n, -or [ns'sa^] nourishing, adj. ndrande \nBe'-

[tayW]
to,

randd']

have a mind

hava
-en,

lust att

[ha'va^ lus.'t att]

minute,
to

minute,

3.

er [mi-

nmtt] miss (thre train), Icomma, IV., for sent till [kom'a' foe.'r senit
tilf]

November, november [ncovsmtbdr] and then, now, adv. nu [nmt] da och da [dot okt dot] nowadays, nu for tiden [nmt
;

foetr titddn]

mixture,

hlandning,
adj.,

2.

-en,

-ar

obligatory,

adj.

obligatorisk,

[blan'dnip']

modern,
dig]

nymodig [nymo/-

Monday, mdndag, 2. -en, -ar [montdag] monkey, apa, 1. -n, -or [a'pa']
month,
nad^]

tvdngs- [ob'ligatcjtrisk\ tvoys-] [vse'jidsocean, vdrldshav, 5. -et, ha^v], ocean, 3. -en, -er [oj'sdatn] October, oktober [oktojtbdr] oil, olja, 1. -n, -or [ol'ja^]

old, adj.

gammal
adj.

[gam'aV^

mdnad,

3.

-en, -er [mo'-

oldfashioned,

gammalmodig

[gam'almco'digl
onion, lok, 2. -en, -ar [lotk]
;

morning, 7norgon, 2. -en, morgnar [mor'on] this morning, i morse [moMSd'] morning-gown, morgonrock, 2. -en, -ar [mor'onrok'] mother, moder, 2. -n, -modrar
[moj'ddr']

opening, oppning, 2. -en, -ar [dp niy^] orchard, frukttrddgdrd, 2. -en,


order,

-ar [fruk'tregoUd] ordning, 2. -en,

mountain, berg,

mouth, [munt]
to

mun,

5. -et, [basdtj] 2. -nen, -nar


I.

niy^],

uppdrag,

dra^g],

[o'jud5. -et, [up'bestdllning, 2. -en, -ar


3.

[bdstsl'niT)']

move, flytta,
adj.,

[flyt'a']

orderbook, orderbok, -boker [o'rddrbco^k']


ore,

-en,

muddy,

smutsig [smut'sig']

malm,

organ, verktyg, 5.
nail,

3. -en, -er organ, 5. -et,


-et,

[mdtalt] [orgatn],
[v^rkty'g]
2.

overcast, adj. betdckt [bdtektt]

nagel,

2.

-n, -lar [natgdl]


5.
-et,

name,

namii,

overcoat,

overrock,

-en,

-ar

[namtn]

[0V9rro]

200

Vocabulary.
to plough, ploja, II. [pZo/'s'] plumage, fjddrar, pi. [fj-drar^

owl, uggla, 1. -n, -or \ug-U^] ox, oxe, 2. -n, -ar [cotsd^]

to

pl)^,

Tcryssa,

1.

[krys'a']

p
M. (latin: post meridiem), eftermiddag [eftd^wiida'g'] pain, smdrta, 1. -w, -or [sm^.fP.
fa^]
^

polite, adj.

hovlig [he'vlig-]
2. -ew,
-e??,

poor, adj. fattig [fat'ig']


port,

/lamn,

-ar

[7ia??L-n]

-er [pos.'t] post-card, hrevkort, 5. -ef r6re*vpost, posf, 3.


Tco/jit]

painter,
lard']

mdlare,

5.

-w,

[mo'-

paper, papper, 5. -ef, parents, fordldrar,

[_29apar']
pi.

postman, brevbdrare, [bre'vb^^rard] post-office, postkontor,

5. -n,
5. -ef,

[fcerel^-

drar]
park, park, 3. -e/i, -er [_par/fc] parsley, persilja, 1. -w, [p^^-

sif.^'a]

partridge,
patriotism,

rapphona,

1.

-?2,

-or
3.

[pos'tkontco'r] post-paid, frankerad [frayke^rad] post-paper, postpapper, 5. -ef, -j[po5"fj3ap'ar] postage, porto, 4. -f, -ti [por'fw*] postage-stamp, frimdrke, 4. -f, -ti
[fri'mseju^kd]
postal, post- [postt] to pour, osa (ned) {osa' ne.'d]

[rap'/iO^Tia]

fosterlandskdrlek,

-en, -\- [fces'tdrlandsgse'rlek] to pay, betala, I. [bdta'la']

peace-establishment,

fredsfot,

3.

-en, -f- [fre'dsfco't] pear, ydron, 5. -ef, [p^Tori'] peasant, bonde, 3. -w, bonder

[bco'ndd'] pen-knife, pennkniv,

power, makt, 3. -e?i, -er [wafc.4]; the great Powers, stormakterna \stoj-rmat\ powerful, adj. mdktig \mktig^ precious, adj. dyrbar [dy'rba'r] to prepare, bereda II. [Z>9?'e.'(^a]
to prevail, rdda. III. [ro'cZa'] to print, trycka, II. [fr^fca']

2.

-ew,

-ar
-or

[pm'fcm'v] pencil, blyertspenna, [bly'dMspm'a]

1.

w,

professor, professor, [projfes'or^]


profit

3.

-/i,

-er

peninsula, halvo, 2. -n, -ar [haVro'J people, folk, 5. -et, -man \foltk'\ pepper, peppar, 2. en, -\~ [pe-

and

loss,

vinst och forlust

[vintst oki fcerlusU]

par']
pheasant, fasan, sa!n]
3. -en,

framstdende adj. prominent, [fram'sto'dndd] properly, adv. vederborligen {ve'ddrboe'rligdn]


prosperity,
to protect,

-er

[fa-

vdlgdng
skydda,

[ve'lgoy']
1.

piano-forte, piano, 4. -f, -n [_p^Vnco] picture, mdlning, 2. -en, -ar

[/yd

a']

[mol'niy']
piece, sty eke, 4.
pistol, pistol,
-f,

-n [styk'9']
-er [pistcoU] -ar [faZnfc']
I.

proud, adj. stolt [stol't] to punish, straffa, I. [straf'a:] pupil, Idrjunge, 2. -n, -ar [Ix'rjuy'e]

3. -ew,

plate, tallrik, 2. -e?i,

platina, platinum,
-|-

platina,
I.

-n,

Q
quail, vaktel, 2. -n,

[pla'tina'] to play, Zefca II., speZa

[le'ka\

-ar

[vafc'faf']

speZa^]
pleasant, adj. behaglig [hdhaiglig] to please, behaga I. [fta/io-'^a] pleased, adj. beldten, nojd \bdloitdn] pleasure, noje, 4. -f, -w [noj'd']

quarter, fjdrdedel, 2. -e7z, -ar [fjx'rddde'l] to quench, sldcka, II. [sZffc'a'J quick-silver, kvicksilver, 5. -ef,

[kvik'sil'vdr] quiet, adj. sfi7/a [sfi'/a^j

English-Swedish.

201

R
radish, rddisa,
1. -n,

rosy, adj., rosig, [rco'sig*]

-or

\re'di''-

round, adj.,
Russia,

rund

[run'd]
[rys'lan^d]

sa\
to rage,

Ryssland

rasa,

rail-way,

[ra'sa,^] jdrnvdg, 2. -en,

I.

-ar

rust, rost, 3. -en, -J- [rostt'\ rusty, adj., [rs*%']

ros%

[je'j,nv^g'\

rain-drop, regndroppe, 2. -n, -ar

\rey ndrop^d]
rake, rdfsa, 1. -n, or [ref-sa^] rancid, adj. hdrsken \J^8eJ:sk^n'^'] reading-book, ldseboTc,2.-n, -bocker
sacrifice,

uppoffring,

2.

-en,

-ar

[Itsdho/lcl reasonable, fornuftig [fcernuf.tig^


receipt, Tcvitto, 4. -t, -n \hvit'a)^)^ to receive, (ejmottaga, IV. [mco't-

[up'ofriy'] sadness, sorgsenhet, Sdnhe^t] sailer, seglare, 4. -n,


sailor,

3.

-en [sor'j[se'^Zara']

sjoman,

3.

-nen,

-man

ta^ga]
to recover,
recruit,

ffriskna']
tillfriskna, rekryt, 3. -en,
2.
I.

[/0"man'] salic, adj., salisk


salt,

[sa:tlisk]

[til'-

saZ^, 3. -et, -er [saltt]

-er
-en,

[rd-

krytt] reform, forhdttring,

-ar
[re'I.

sandwich, dubbdlsmorgds, 2. -en, -ar [smor'go's] Saturday, lordag, 2. -en, -ar


[lce.'rdag]

[foerbd^riy] regiment, regemente,

4. -t,

-n

jdmenitd]
to
register,

scarcely, adv., knappt [knap't] school, skola, 1. -n, -or [skoj'la']

rekommendera,
I.

[re'komendeira'] to regret, beklaga,


regular, adj.

[bdklatga]
[re'gdlI.

regelmdssig
I.,

mssHg]
to reign,

r eg era,

hdrska,
-ar

[rdjetra, hse'dska^]

schoolmaster, skolmdstare, 5. -n, [skoj'lmes'tard] school-room, skolrum, 5. -met, [skoj'lrum^] to scold, grata, I. [^rrZa'] to scrape, skrapa, I. [sA^ra'jpa'] [Ao/y] ; on the sea, Aav, 5. -e^,

reign, regering, 2. -en,

[rdje.'-

sea,

vid havet [vi'd

ha.'vdt]

riy];

under the reign of, under ...s regering [un'ddr' ... ]


framstdlla,
II.

to represent, forestdlla, II. [fo'rd-

stsVa],

[fram'I.

season, drstid, 3. -en, -er [o^s^^'c?] to seat, sdtta, II. s^ [sf^'a']; take a seat! sitt nedf [sit! netd] second, sekund, 3. -en, -er [se-

steVa]
to require,
to respect,

A:wn.'c?]

begdra,

II.,

fordra,

seed, fro, 4. -e^, -n [/r0/]


to seem,

[69J.V3, foj'rdra^]

synas,

II.,

tyckas,

II.

hogakta,

I.

[hogak'ta]
[an'sto sell, 5a^;a, II. [sel'ja'] to send, sdnda, II. [srn'cZa'] out,
;

responsible, adj., va^rig]


to revive,

ansvarig
I.

rich

adj.,

kvickna, W/c [nVA;]

[A:!;{A:*wa']

utsdnda,

II.

[m*^s?i'<^a]

ripe, adj.,
river,

mogen

[morgdn^']

sense, sinne, 4. -t, -n [sin'd'] sentiment, kdnsla, 1. -n, -or


[^fn*s?a']

a, 2. -w, -ar, ^ocZ, 3. -en, -er [jiojtd] roast-beef, oxstek, 2. -en, -ar [cok'ste^k] robin, rotgel, 2. -w, -^Zar [rot'gdr] rocky, adj., klippig [klip'ig^']

September,
bdr] sergeant,

September [septemi3.

sergeant,

-en,

-er

[s^er/an.^^]

room, rwm,
root, rof, 3. to root out,

5.

-we^, [rumt] -en, -rotter [rojtt]

service, tjdnst, 3. -en, -er [gn.'st] to set, saY^a, II. [set'a'j

rose, ros,

1.

utrota, I. [la'trco^ta] -en, -or [r(i>/s]

several, Jlere [fle'rd'] severe, adj., strdng, hard [strey!

hoUd\
13**

202

Vocabularj^
sovereign, suverdn, 3. -en, -er [smv'drstn'] to sow, sd, III. [so.' J spacious, adj. rymlig [rym'lig^] spade, spader, 1. -n, [spatddr] to speak, tala, I. [ta'la^] , speech, tal, 5. -et, talformd-

shady, adj. skuggig \skug'ig^] sharp, adj. vass [vast] sheep, far, 5. -et, \foir\ to shine, skina, IV. [fi'na'^ shirt, skjorta, 1. -n, -or [fco'dta^]

shoe, sko,

3.

-n, -r [skojt]

shoemaker, skomakare, 5. -n, [skoj'ma'kard] to shoot, skjuta, IV. [fui'ta,^]


short, adj. sick, adj.
sick,

ga, ga];

1.

-n, -\- [tail, ta'lfczrmo^-

speech
5.

from
-et,

kort [kD!d,tli the sjuk [fmfk]', de sjuka [det fm'ka']

trontal,

the

throne,
(ett)
II.

[troj'nta^l];

to deliver a speech,

hdlla

tal [hoVa^]
to

sight, syn, 3. -en, -er [sy!n]

sign, tecken, 5. -et,

spend (time), tillhringa,


[tiVhrirj^a]

[tektdn]

silk, silke, 1. -f, -n [sil'kd^] silver, silver, 5. -et, -{- [sil'vdr]

similar, adj. dylik [dylik'] since, conj. sedan [se'dan'] since, allt sedan [altt

ever

spina ge, spenat, 3. -en, -\- [spdnaii] spoon, sked, 2. -en, -ar \fetd'\ square, adj. fyrkantig [fyr'kan^tig]

sjunga, IV. [fur)' a'] singing-bird, sdngfdget, 2. -en,-ar


to sing,

square measure, ytmdtt,


[ytmot^']

5. -eZ,

[sov'fo'gdl]

stamp, frimdrke, 4.

-t,

-n [fri'-

singing-master, sdngldrare, 5. -n,

[so'0'l9e''rard\

siskin,
sister,

gronsiska,
2,

1.

-n,

-or
[sys'-

to stand, std. III. [stot] state, stat, 3. -en, -er [sZa/Z] station,

[gre'nsis'ka] syster,

hangdrd,
stanna,
I.

2.

-en,

-ar

-n,

-ar

[&a'n^o'.7.cZJ

tdr']

to stay,

to sit, stYifa, IV. [sit'a^] skate, skridsko, 1. -w, -r [skrid's-

steamer, dngare,

1.

[sZan'a'J -n, [^?;'a-

ko/]
skilful, skicklig, adj. [fik'lig'] sky, himmel, 2. -n, -ar [him'dV]

steel, .sZaZ, 5. -eZ, -j- [sZo/Z] still, adj. sZt'ZZa [sZz'Z'a'J

to smell, lukta, I. [Z^6^'^a*] smell, ZwA:^, 3. -en, -f- [Zwfc/^] to smelt, smdlta, II. [sm^Z'^a']

stock, forrdd, 5. -eZ, [/cero.'cZ] ; to take stock, inventera, I. [m'i;fnZe.Va]

stockbook,
stocking,

smdle, snipe, beckasin,

to smile,

III.

[smo'Ze/] 3. -en, -er [&f-

lagerbok, -hooker [la'gdrho/k^

3.

-e?i,

strumpa,

1.

-n,

-or

[strum'pa^]
snout, nos, 2. -en, -ar [nco>/s] snow, sno, 2. -n, [sn0/] sock, halvstrumpa, 1. -n, -or

stomach, mage, 2. -n, ar [ma'g'd'stork, stork, 2. -en, -ar [sZox'/c^ storm, storm, 2. -en, -ar [sZor.W
stormy, adj. stormig [sZor'Tnza'J story, herdttelse, 3. -n, -r [Z>9rettdlsd]
strait, ,9wncZ, 5.
-cZ,

[hal'vstru7n^pa]
sofa,
soft,

so#a, 1. -n, -or [sofa^] adj. miw/c [mjiaik]


syra,
adj.
1.

to solder, ZocZa, II. [lo'da']


sorrel,
-n,

-or

-or [syra'^

sorry,
I

sorgsen [sor\jsdn^]; sorry, tZeZ gor mig ant [det: joe!r miig ojntt]

straw-hat, halmhatt, [y^aZ'wAaZ']

2.

[suntd] -en, -ar


[.^co.'cZ]

am

stream,
street,

./ZocZ,

3.
1.

-en, -er
-n,

gata,

[aa'Zri'j

soul, sjdl, 2. -en, -ar [felt] sour, adj. sur [svitr]

strict, adj.

strdng

[strey.]
-n,

study,

southern, adj. sydlig [sy'dlig^]

siuderkammare, 2. -kamrar [stut'ddrkarn'ard]

Swedish-English.

203

subject,

under sate,
5. -et,
I.,

2.

-n,

-ar

tight, adj.

fran^

\un'ddrsoHd\
sugar, socker,
to
suit,
-{-

time, tidpunkt,

[^ro??'] 3. -e?i, -er [ti'd-

[sok!9r}
III.

puy^kt]
tin,
fe?27i,

passa,
an'sto']

anstd,

o.

-et,

-|-

[^en/]
5.
-ef,

[pas'a,',

tin-plate,
2. -en,

jdrnbleck,

sultry, adj.

kvav [kva'v]

[j*./-ri6Zeit']

summer, sommar,
[som'rar^]

-somrar

summit, topp, 2. -en, -ar [top.^] Sunday, sondag, 2. -en, -ar [son'-

tit-mouse, mes, 2. -en, -ar [we/s ] to-day, I dag [i! datg] tongue, tunga, 1. -n, -or [two'a^

sprdk,
tdta'l]
tool,

5. -et,

[sprotk]
-et,

dag]
sunrise,

tonnage, Idstetal,

5.

soluppgdng,

2.

-en,

-\-

[soj'lup^gorj]

redskap,

5.

-et,

[red's-

\ls'-

supper, kvdllsvard, 3. -e7i, -er [kvEl'sva'dd] surface, yta, 1. -n, -or [y'ta'] to surround, omgiva, IV. [om'ji'va]

ka^p] tooth, tand,

3. -en,

-tdnder[tan!d]

swallow, svala, 1. -n, or [sva'la^] Swede, svensk, 2. -en, -ar[sven.^sk] Swedish, adj. svensk [svm^sk] to swim, simma, I. [sim'a,^]

torpedo-boat, minbdt, 2. -en, -ar [mi'nbo^f] tough, adj., se^ [se.'^] town, stad, 3. -en, -stdder [staid]
tract, strdckq, 1. -n, -or tradesman, liandlande,
[s!(reA:*a^] 5. -n,

sword, svcird,

5.

-et,

[svaUd]

[^an'6?/an'c?9] train, ^a^, 5. -e^ [^o/^]

transatlantic,

adj.

transatlantisk
I.

[tran'satlanttisk] to transplant, forflytta,


table,

[/cer-

bord,

5. -et,

^2/^.^a]

table-cloth,
tailor,

bordduk,

2.

[bojUd] -en, -ar

travel, resa, 1. -n,


traveller,

resande,
5.
-e^,

-or [re'sa'j 5. -n, [re'-

[b(o\iddui'k]

skrdddare,

5. -n,

[skre[s??^.^A:]

san^dd] tree, ^ra5,


tributary,

[tre!]

d'avd^] to take, taga, IV. [fa'^a']


taste,
tea,

sma^,
3.

2.

-en,

biflod, 3. -en, -er [bi'flco'd] troop, trupp, 3. -en, -er [^rt/p.'j


adj. (river),

te,

-ef,

-er

[fe.']

trouble,

bekymmer,

5.

-et,

Idra, II. [Z^'ra^] teacher, Idrare, b.-n, [Ise'rarQ^I 2. -en, -er telegraph, telegraf,

to teach,

[bdgymidr]
trunk, 6dZ, 2. -en, -ar [6o.7] to try, forsoka, II. [/cers6VZ:a] tulip, tulpan, 3. -e?i, -er [^wi'_pa/n]

[te'ldgraif] to tell, berdtta,

I.,

saga,

II. [&9-

Tuesday, tisdag,
temperature, vdrmegrad,
-er [v^-rmdgra^d]
to thank, tocA^a, I. [tak'a^] to thaw, smdlta, II. [sm^Z'ifa']
3.
-e/i,

2. -en,

-ar

[^zV.s--

dag]

U
ugly, adj. ful [fm'l] uncle, onkel, 2. -n, -ar \pykdV],
to unite,

therefore,

ddrfor [dmrfdir]
2.
-e?i,

thirst, ^ors^,

[^cex^s^]

thirsty, adj. torstig [toex'stig^'\ to threaten, hota, I. [^<y'^a']

thrush, trast, 2. -eTz, -ar [^i^as/^] to thunder, dska, I. [os"A:a']

Thursday,
[toMi

torsdag,

2.

-en,

-ar

farbror, morbror [far'bro/r] forena, I. [fcere.'na] United Kingdom, Storbritannien och Irland

universal, adj.

allmdn

[^al'ms^n]

204

Vocabulary.

universe, vdrldsallt, 5. -et, [va^'ddsaVt] unsettled, adj. orolig [o)'roj''lig\ to use, bruka, I. [brui'ka^]

water, vatten,
water-lily,

5.

-et,

1.

[i-at:dn\

ndckros,

-en,

-or

[nek'rco^s]

watch-dog, gdrdvard, 2. -en, -ar [go'rdva^xd] to wear, bdra, IV. [&?'']; out, slita, IV. w^ [sU'ta^ m!t]
weather, vdder,

value, vdrde, 4. -t, -n [v^'ddd^] vase, vas, 3. -en, -er [^vcu's] veal, kalvkott, 5. -et, [kal'v-

Wednesday, onsdag,

5. -et, -}- [vi'ddr] 2. -en, -ar

got']

vegetables,

gronsaker,
b.-et,
2.

pi.

[gro'n-

sa'kdr]
vessel,

weed, ogrds, 5. -e^, -|- [^j'^rs's] week, vecka, 1. -n, -or [vek'a'] wet weather, vdtvdder, ruskvd[?;o'^t'f^c:?arJ der, 5. -ef, wide, adj. vid [vi!d] window, fonster, 5. -et, [fon:-

fartyg,

[fa'rty'g]
-ar [setgdv]

victory, seger,
ba^rtj]

-n,

vineyard, vinberg,
vinegar, dttika,
violet,
1.

5. -et,

[vi'n-

-n, -\- [etika'^]


1.

violblomma,

-n,

-or

stdr] wine, vin, 3. -e^, -er [vi!n] wine-bottle, vinbutelj, 3. -en, -er

[vi'ojlblojm'a], viol, 3. -en, -er

besok, 5. -et, to visit, besoka, II.


visit,

[vi'nbm'telj]
wire,

[bsso^kl

telegram,

5.

-me^,

[^e'-

[&as0.^A;a]

volcano, vulkan, 3. -ew, -er [vwZ-

ka!n]
volunteer, friviUig [fri'vilHg]

Z^^raw.'] wise, adj. vis [viis] to wish, onska, I. [on'sfca']


[w??.'c?9r] wonder, under, 5. -ef, to wonder, undra, 1. [wn'c?ra'] 2. -671, wool, ull, [uU]

waist-coat, vast, 2. -en, -ar [vsH] walk, promenad. 3. -en, -er [prco'mdnaJd]; to take a walk,

woollen, ylle-, ull- [yl'd-, ul'-] [coUd] word, ord. 5. -e^, writing-master, skrivldrare, 5.-n,

[skri'vU^rard']

taga sig en
wall,

promenad
3.

[ta'ga'

vdgg,

2.

-en, -ar [vegf] -en,

walnut,

valnot,

-notter

[va'lno't]

year, dr, 5. -et, yesterday, i gar

[tV

[o!r]

gotr]

Printed by

J.

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Heidelberg.

Educational Works and Class-Books

^^s

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer FOR THE STUDY OP MODERN LANGUAGES.


PUBLISHED BY JuLIUS GrOOS, HeIDELBERG.

With each newly-learnt language one wins a new soul.* Charles V. At the end of the 19'^ century the world is ruled by the interest for trade and traffic; it breaks through the barriers which separate the peoples and ties up new relations between the nations.* William II.
yytTulius &roos, Publisher, has for the last fifty years been devotmg his special attention to educational ivories on modern languages, and has published a large munbe?- of class-booJcs for the study of tJwse modern languages most generally spoken. In this particular department he is in our opinion unsur-

passed by any other German publisher. The series consists of 290 volumes of different sizes which are all arranged on the same system, as is easily seen by a glance at the grammars which so closely resemble one another, that an acquaintance with one greatly facilitates the study of the others. This is no small advantage in these exacting times when the knowledge of one language alone is hardly deemed sufficient. The textbooks of the Gaspey - Otto - Sauer method have, within the
last ten years, acquired an universal reputation, increasing in proportion as a knowledge of living languages has become a necessity of modern The chief advantages, by which they coinpare favorably with thousands life. of similar books, are loumess of price and good appearance, the happy union of theory and practice, the clear scientific basis of the grammar proper combined with practical conversational exercises , and the system, here conceived for the first time and consistently carried out, by which the pupil is really taught to speak and write the foreign language. The grammars are all divided into tivo parts., commencing ivith a systematic explanation of the rules for pronmiciation, and are again subdivided into a number of Lessons, Each Part treats of the Parts of Speech in succession, the first giving a rapid sketch of the fundamental rules, which are explained more fully in the second. The rules appear to us to be clearly givefi, they are explained by examples, and the exercises are quite sufficient. To this method is entirely due the enormous success with which the Gaspey -Otto -Salter textbooks have met; most other grammars either content themselves with giving the theoretical exposition of the grammatical forms and trouble the pupil with a confused mass of the most far-fetched irregularities and exceptions ivithout ever applying them, or go to the other extreme, and sifuply teach him to repeat in a parrotlike manner a few colloquial phrases without letting him grasp the

real genius of the foreign language. The system referred to is easily discoverable : 1. in the arrangement of the grammar; 2. in the endeavour to enable the pupil to understand a regular text as soon as possible, and above all to teach him to speak the foreign language; this latter point was considered by the authors so particuto distinguish them them from other wvrks of a similar kind Conversational Grammars, The first series comprises manuuls for the use of Englishmen and consists of 54 volumes.

larly characteristic of their ivorks, that they have styled

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer
for the study of

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Our admiration for this rich collection of loorUs, for the method displayed and tlve fertile genius of certain of the authors, is increased whe}i ive examine the other series, ivhich are intended for the use of foreigners. In these iwrJcs the chief difficulty under ivhich several of the authors have laboured, has been the necessity of teaching a language in a foreign idiom; not to mentio7i the peculiar difficulties ivhich the German idiom offers
in ivriting school-booJcs for the study of that language. We must confess that for those persons who, from a prdctical point of view, wish to learn a foreign language sufficiently well to enable them to ivrite and speak it with ease, the authors have set down the grammatical rules in such a way, that it is equally easy to understand and to leai'n them. Moreover, we cannot but commend the elegance and neatness of the type and binding of the booJcs. It is doubtless on this account too that these volumes have been received with so much favour and that several have reached

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willingly testify that the whole collection gives proof of much care to the aims it has in view and the way. i7i which these have bee^i carried out, and, moreover, reflects great credit on the editor, this collection being in reality quite an exceptional thing of its Jcind."

We

and industry, both unth regard

t.

(Eoctract frotn the Literary Meview.)

All books bound.


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.
.

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.

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....
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v.

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Schiussel dazu v. Harder.

Aufl
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Schiussel dazu v.
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v.

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....

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dazu v. Seidel Kleine chinesische Sprachlehre v. Seidel Schlttssel dazu v. Seidel

v.

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2

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. .

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/

^0N9
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'^W^?
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n^

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LD21A-60to-6,'69 (J90968l0)476-A-32

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