& Co. 16 West 33rd Street. A. STEIGER & BOSTON: RITTER & FLEBBE. 149 a Tremont HEIDELBERG. C... MARSTON & NEW DYRSEN THE NEWS G. 57-59 Long Acre. formerly C. CO. . W..METHOD GASPEY-0TT0-3AUER ELEMENTARY SWEDISH GRAMMAR COMBINED WITH EXERCISES. W..STECHERT & CO. 100 Southwark Street. Fifth Avenue and 27th Street. E. II SECOND EDITION. KOEHLER Street. 25 Park Place. SAMPSON LOW. 37 Soho Square. 151-155 West 25th Street. E. i9n. E. S. CO. YORK: BRENTANO'S. READING LESSONS AND CONVERSATIONS HENRI FORT. DAVID NDTT. LONDON.ITJ® OROOS. & PFEIFFER (CHRISTERN'S). INTERNATIONAL COMPANY.. aTJ]L. DULAU & CO. 83 and 85 Duane Street.

I am thankful for communications relating to these matters. The text-books made after this method are incessantly improved. Heidelberg. All rights. especially the right of making new editions. Julius Oroos.pr> sill nil The method of Gaspey-Oito-Sauer is my own private property. and the right of translation for all languages. having been acquired by purchase from the authors. Imitations and fraudulent impressions will be prosecuted according to law. . are reserved.

The second edition of this "Elementary Swedish Grammar" has undergone many alterations in the text of the exercises. of London. The chief features of the second edition consist in the adaptation of the phonetical ciation phonetique internationale" system of the "Assoand the application of the new Swedish orthography in accordance with the Royal Circular of the 7tli of April. Gr. H. Fort. most of which have been taken from the best class-books used in Swedish schools. no mention being made of the "melodious" accent. December. Priest. Special care and attention have been devoted to the phonetical transcription of the sounds and to the accentuation of the words occurring in the text. of Berlin. W.Preface. ivi249302 . Millberg. Cognac. those who much pleasure in thanking Mr. 1910. but it should be remembered here that each word has been treated individually and accented accordingly. 1906. which is improvement over the first. The author hopes a great that the second edition. E. will meet all with the favour of and prove useful to begin learning the Swedish language. who revised the manuscript of the English part. who had the He has great kindness to read the Swedish part and helped him with her valuable advice. which would be quite out of place in an elementary book of this kind. and Miss A.

conjugation. 23. Reading Lesson: Gruvan The adjective (contin. 18. III. The alphabet Accentuation Pronunciation of the letters Vowels Consonants Swedish writing 1. Read. declension » » . : 18 20 22 23 26 28 32 35 38 41 46 51 12. » » » » 10. Read. » V. Reading Lesson: Nordens natur The pronouns (contin. IV. » The indefinite article The terminal definite article The independent definite article Declension of substantives. 4. Reading Lesson: Gustav Adolf : 92 95 101 : : : 108 113 117 120 123 127 (contin. II.) List of the principal prepositions. 26. » » I. Swedish-English English -Swedish . 27.: yiS'rm^es/bZA: The numerals.). » » » » » » » » » » » » » Vasas ungdom The adjective. The impersonal verbs.) List of the principal interjections. Reading Lesson Sveriges natur List of the principal conjunctions. 28. IV. Read. 25. » » » » II. Less. 24. . 2. Reading Lesson Adverbs. 9. : : 130 132 Hemmet 29. 80 Kinnekulle Slag et vid Poltava 84 . 20. Read. 11. » » » » » » III. Read. Less. » » » » 3. 7. conjugation. Reading Lesson: 135 139 152 157 161 192 Hemmet Reading exercises (contin.). 1 2 2 2 8 Lesson. 6. Svenskt metersgstem The pronouns. I. Less. Reading Lesson: Gustav » .: Stockholm . Page Pronunciation. II.). > The construction of sentences. Less. . : 54 59 64 69 75 15. . Read. Gustav Adolf Compound verbs.IV Contents. Fisket i Sverige The auxiliary verbs. Auxiliary verbs (contin. ^nsfma (cont). Reading Lessoa: Sveriges natur (contin. 17. Reading Lesson J^m^ma The deponent verbs. 19. 14. 22. . Reading Lesson » » » » » » : /S'^ocA:^oZm (cont. 16.) . Lesson yiS^ocMoZTTis hlodhad The verb. Read. » . . 5. 21. 13. . Less.) » » » » Reading Lesson: Gustav Adolf (contin. Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns The gender of substantives Remarks on the nouns. 8.) Poems Appendix Vocabulary: I. . Less. .

. letters. The Swedish alphabet consists of 29 1.Pronunciation. § 1. The Alphabet. which are represented and named as follow: Character.

2) a) bada [ba'da% to bathe. Ex. I. all (pi. Ex. to distill. 4) „ „ weak accent secondary weak this accent. A. Vowels. walk. Phonetic transcription: Ex. b) sfcada [ska'da']. damage. Phonetic transcription: a. product. is consonant that the preceding vowel short.: a) alster [al'stdr]. Swedish a 1) In is pronounced: man long syllables like «a» in «father» like Ger«o» in «^ttte» and French «a» in «ame». 4) b) destillera [des'tildra]. poor. § 3. maturity. b) packe [pak'd^]. 1. 2) In short syllables it has no equivalent sound in English.\": * I '- .). 4) a) promenad [prco'radnatd]. when placed. It nearly resembles English «u» in «fun» and corresponds to German «tt» in «33lott» and French «a» in «capital». package. c) a. Accentuation. well. 3) ' „ y. bath.: a) c) apa [a'pa% monkey. .: 1) a) bad [ba'd]. docka \dok-a% doll. These signs. 1) b) all [al^l all. 3) a) mogenhet [mco'gdnhe't]. § following signs: 1) ' * 2. is The Swedish accentuation represented by the 2) ' which indicates the strong accent „ mid-strong accent „ „ » r. 2) b) alia [d'a']. a) after a b) after a vowel indicate that vowel is long. bra [bra. Pronunciation of the letters.•\ '• Pronunciation. 3) b) fattig [fafig'].'].

Phonetic transcription: [^os'a'j. monastery.: a) b) /9) verk [vBevtk]. -er. pen. Swedish 1) in e is pronounced: long syllables nearly like «a» in «name» and «ai» in «sail». b) fag el [fotpdl]. a) gosse c) kloster [klosttdr]. c) hageri. feast. : « carry ». in «hair» in all Phonetic transcription: Ex. German c in «@affe» and final «e» in French words such as «porte» after the pronunciation used in the South of France. has nearly the sharp sound of «i» in «middle».: Phonetic transcription irra [ir'a']. German «e» in «fe^(en» and French «^» in «bl6». : and «2lU e. b) minska [min'ska% to decrease. E. hemma. Ex. penna [pen'a^]. Phonetic transcription: Elx. bird. German French «al» in «traltre». work. ee. « there » 3) like «e» in other cases. boy. : in -e. [ba'gdrif]. -el. 2) in a) like «a» in «c» in «2Scrf» and short syllables «man». 2) in short syllables like «i» a) in i «miss». i. to err. ]prga. Phonetic transcription: e.% maid. : Swedish 1) in i is pronounced long syllables like «ee» in «meet». fest [festt].: a) ek [etk]. in 3. mistake. 3 2. like «e» in «better». b) piga. in the final syllables Ex. «parish». bakery. b) fel [fell]. : a) isa [i'sa% to ice. svedd. : (as above). herr [hBer^^ sir. a. oak. Ex. 1* . Phonetic transcription: Ex. : Except when it a few words such as ett. I.Pronunciation.

4 Pronunciation. in «door» in a few words before -rl. unknown. -or. y) like o. son. [staj!i\^ ro [roj!]. o is pronounced: long syllables: a) nearly like «o» in «go» or «oa» in «gfOat» in a few words of foreign origin ending in -oh. corridor. sova etc. -of. «oa» in «broad5> /9) like «o» in «more». b) order [o. order. 2) in short syllables: a) like «o» in «clock» in Ex. korridor [kor'ido!r]. co. epoch. alcov [alkoiv\ alcove. Phonetic transcription: word. at the end of a short syllables and in the plural termination -or.: ord stol [ojlrd]. symbol [symbo'l]. -ofiy 'op. chair. Phonetic transcription: o. -ok. -I Phonetic transcription: Ex. and «oo» and -v. b) ollon [ol'on% mast. -om. Phonetic transcription: «oo» in «book». curl. son [sotn\ son. sova [so'va% to sleep.'rddr]. Jilosof [fiVosotf]. -OS. ekonom [ek'onotm]^ economist. wardrobe. dialog [di'aloig\ dialogue. murmur.: garderob [gar'ddroth]. most cases: o. symbol.'rl]. . microscope. «oo» in «too» or «u» in at the end of a long syllable and at the beginning of a word when forming a syllable of its own.: a) lock [loki]. metamorfos [me'tamorfots]. «o» in «to lose». 0. epok [epotk'l. «u» in «put» in a few /9) like monosyllables. rest. polygon.: a) sorl [so. -rd. 4. mikroskop [mik'rosko. -ovy -log and in some other words such 1) in Swedish as: kol. kol \kotl]^ coal. polygon [pol'igoin]. philosopher. «rule» in many monosyllables Ex.'p]. obekant [co'bdkan't]. Ex. broder [bra>'ddr% brother. metamorphose.

[ojstt]. f) rum [rum!]. Phonetic transcription : u. [gmtd\ god. fact. wonder. This sound is obtained in rounding the lips as closely as possible and pronouncing i whilst with drawing the tongue and the lower lip backwards. schools. rowing. customer.B. hjuda to invite.: a) rubin [rmbi'n]. 6. e) watch. «ou» in «could» or German «tt» in «ittng». u. has a somewhat more open Ex. (for) sale. ruby. cheese. room. U. .: a) under [untddr]. d) vokal [vcokatl]. 5. dolls. b) c) kund stund [kuntd]. [sfun!d].Pronunciation. d) e) faktum [fak'tum% furstinna [fudstin'a% princess. Swedish u has two 1) In different sounds. Swedish 1) tj has: in long syllables a close sound nearly like French «n» in «dune» or German «tt» in «3tt9el». N. rodd [rcodt]. It is not unlike French «u» in «pure» and German «u» in «fu^ren». 2) in short syllables it has also a sound peculiar to the Swedish language and which is nearly like English «u» in «pat». sound : In unaccented syllables. b) (till) salu [saUui]. e) skolor f) dockor [dok-ajT% [skco'lajr^]. kvitto [kvit'a)% receipt. Phonetic transcription: Ex. clock. it has a sound peculiar to the long syllables Swedish language and has no equivalent in English. Phonetic transcriptions: Ex. vowel. (bjiti'da^\. moment. two.: a) ost b) c) co. Y. [hmis\ house. Ex. ur [mtr\ gud hus d) tu [tui^.: a) b) c) ui.

hy [hyt\ village. gdma ^) in all in «hair». b) dka [o'ka^]. other cases like «e» in «there» or «ai» .: a) b) c) yra myra [y'ra''\ whirl.V]. Ex. like «o» in «clock» and Gero. trdd [tro. jdrn lice!jin]. A. Ex.^d]. o 7.: a) c) dska [os'ka% thunder. Phonetic transcription: y. Ex. thread. [o. song. is pronounced: long syllables: a) before r followed by a consonant like «a» «parish» but longer and German «d» in «9efa^rlid&». \my'ra% ant. Phonetic transcription: Ex. [mot!]. b) sdll d) e) matt sdng sieve.: a) dr. [soy!]. [sol!]. «oa» in «coat» and German «ii» in «BQ^n». c) pdse [po'sd% bag. 2) in short syllables «o» in «3Sol!». Swedish a is pronounced: 1) in lonj? syllables like «o» in «go». year. rat. to drive. e) o. A. Phonetic transcription: y. man Phonetic transcription: Ex.: a) ynka [yy'ka^ to pity. rdtta [rot'a% 8. «rustre» and German in like «tt» in «f(uftern».6 Pronunciation. [jag'jina% willingly. short syllables an open sound nearly 2) French «u» in «lustre». Swedish a 1) in in Phonetic transcription: «. b) syster [sys'tdr% sister. to go. iron. measure. d) gd [go!].: aria [$s'rla% wagtail.

9. c) mdrke [mier'kd']. for. Ex.y«hat» or German «c» in «2Bcrf». b) morda [mce'rda']. [l0'pa% to run. ^) in all other cases like «e» in «tbere» or «ai» in «liair».: a) drr [sert\ scar.: a) dpple [ep'h']. Idmpa [l€m'pa% ' to apply. Ex. f) 2) in short syllables: a) before double r or r followed by a consonant like «a» in «c8p».: a) e. Swedish 1) in 6* is pronounced: long syllables: «) before r followed by a consonant nearly like «i» in «bird». apple.% to posess. It corresponds to German «(i» in «®iitter». c) lordag [lceUda(gJ]. d) Idra [U'ra^ to teach. f) in all other cases Phonetic transcription: Ex. Phonetic transcription: Ex. Ex. 0. It has also the broad sound of French «oeu» in «c(»ur». '^ om /?) before simple r (followed by a vowel or at the end of a word) nearly like «e» in «her». c) d) fora [fd'ra% smor [smo'r]. b) ora [o'ra']. Tend \kn€f\^ knee. dga b) dta {e'ga. ce. eagle. 7 Phonetic transcription: Ex. ^ e) tra [trei]. to bear. b) hdst [hes't] horse. ear. 0. mark.: a) for [/oVr]. [€'ta% to eat. to lead. c) €.: a) Phonetic transcription: [ceUn].: a) oga b) [0'ga.Pronunciation. .']. d) Idrka [l%rka% lark. to murder. Phonetic transcription: o. Saturday. wood. b) drt \8erit\ pea. c) hdra [he'va'-]. butter. Phonetic transcription: %. and before r in the plural of a very few words ending in 6 like French «eux» in «deux» or German «ii» in «©B^ne». lopa eye.

swift. 2) in short syllables: nearly like «i» in «first» or Phonetic transcription: ce. b) cirkel \sir'kdl'-\ circle.: a) bild [biUd].: snabbt [snai?'. II. B. German Ex. a) before r «o> in «6rter».: a) ost [ds!t] east.. d) e) snabb [snabf]. staff. c) j3) dorr [doer!]. Consonants. c) kabel [kaibdll cable. c) hon [h0in\ prayer.^r]. c is pronounced y. cedar. 2) like English «p» in «pot» before t in the «snabbt» (neuter of: snabb) and s.^]. klubbslag [lclup'sla. 11. bubbla [bub'W].Pronunciation. thirst. man «ii» in «r5ften».sound. Ex. b) rosta [ros'ta']. like English «h» in «ball». soft vo- and Phonetic transcription: a) ceder [seiddr]. 10. b) torst [toed. d) /^c* {fr0t\ seed.^st]. image. maids. c) cylinder [sylin'ddr]. c) mossa [mds'a']. : Swedish wels Ex.: a) ort [ceUt]. blow with a club. Ex. 1) like English «8» in i «8ense» before the s.: e. b) stab lsta. door. bubble. Phonetic transcription: p. Swedish 1) b is pronounced: Phonetic transcription: b. swift. word Ex. c. cap. e) mor [mo.'g]. tall hat. in all other cases like «e» in «her» and GerPhonetic transcription: o. to vote. plant.^b]. .

not.) djup djur [juiip]. etc. god. a) at the beginning of words. 3) Swedish d is not audible at the beginning of words before j. i 2) like English «k» in k. In the new orthography k is substituted for c. is Ex. 2) like English «t» in «take». 12. derived syllables beginning by s.) and Phonetic transcription: k. bada {ba'da']. to rad [raid]. 13. Note. the end of some foreign words. : Swedish f 1) like is pronounced English «f» in «frui£». Phonetic transcription: Ex. guds (fruktan) [gut's-]. kompass [kDrnpas!].^ra]. /9) before Phonetic transcription: Ex.: a) och [oki]. D. [jyuiir]^ animal. Swedish d 1) like pronounced: English «d» in «duck». girl. kurtisera [kur*tise. r) at /?) before s and t.: a) b) t. and. b) jiicka [fiik'a% c) icke [ik'd']. «chef>: a) before h (except in French words such as etc. line. Ex. Phonetic transcription: d. «cuif». fear of gods (dgare) [gcot's-]. . Such kanon \kano/-n\ cannon. (See page 12. are now spelt with k. F. words as: d) lycka [lyk-a% luck. a) before s at the genitive case followed by a vowel. day. which were formerly spelt with to court. deep.: a) b) j.Pronunciation. c. etc. The combination dj is sounded like j. See page 11. bathe. «kill». compass. landlord.: a) b) c) dag [da'g].

frag a [froga^] question. b) svalg [si [svaUj]. b) giva Wva']. to give. 2) like English «v» in «voice». jilosof [fiVDsotf\ philosopher. a and o. Uf[Wvl bref life. the new orthography / is replaced by v in above cases.: v. 1) like pronounced: English «y» in «year». a) loft [loftl loft.syllable. c) gyckel [jykidl]. colour. ^ P j \ a) farg [fier!j]. 2) like English «g» in «get». liv in stead of lif brev in stead of bref tavla in stead of tafia. b) rofsa strof [rejf^'sa']. -u and a. : I a) b) c) a ! ( fara [fa'ra% danger.: ( ' Swedish g is j. b) c) fotograf [fcof cograif]^ photographer. After tafla [ta'vla% table. Phonetic transcription: Ex. throat. a) at the end of words (except foreign words ending in -grafj -strof -sof and those ending in -mf). See page 18. G. e) gora [jor'a% to do. Ex. air. jest.10 Pronunciation. i/. d) gdst [jes't]. strophe. ^) after I and r in the same root. /?) in the ^ Phonetic transcription: Ex. e and after i in short unaccented final /9) before syllables. silfver [sil'vor]. a) [stro!f]. goat. a) before the hard vowels a. a) get [je't]. [bre'v]. c) luft [luf't]. 14. Jikon [Jl'kon% fig. . middle of words (except before «s» and «^»). rake. guest. a) before the soft vowels: e^ i. silver in stead of silfver. Phonetic transcription: /. -o. silver. letter.

street. Swedish 1) like h is pronounced: in English «h» «hold» before vowels. good. Phonetic transcription: k. ^ ^ 3) like ] a) lag [lo. [hdk!st].: gjort [jojj. gjuta [jm'ta'']. In the combinations «^j». . 11 y) before a consonant.: geni [fenif] genius. b) c) avldgsen [a'vhk'sdn].!t]^ made. 15. Note. b) lag [latg]. law. Ex. Ex. Ex. «ng» in «finger» between a short vowel and Phonetic transcription: y. H. /. ^ r f a) I b) f grata [gro'ta% to weep. \ d) [got]. S) at the end of a syllable (except Phonetic transcription: g. before final syllables in -set.Pronunciation. bashfulness. 4) like English n. -sen and sera.'gl low. /3).'st]. b) fattigt [fat'ik% poorly. to gladden. said a) hlygsel [blyk\sdl]. bog sera [bok'setra]. the Ex. 5) like English «sh» in «sbade» before Phonetic transcription : -e- and -i in foreign words. gud gd [gmtd]^ god. poor. a) before s /9) and the t. highest. to rain. highest. logi [lofit]. g is mute. prdgla [pr€'gla% to coin. looking-glass b) fattig [fat'ig^]. b) fdgna [feyna'']. to tow.: ( a) c) [hdk. [fat'ikHl hogst ~ )gst sagt [sakit].: ( J a) gata [ga'ta% b) c) god [gcoid]. 1. to go.: a) regna [reyna']. to found. a) spegel [spe'gdr]. lodging. Ex. English «k» in «keen». remote.

12

Pronunciation.

Phonetic transcription: h.
Ex.: hagla Uia'gla^], to hail. hehag [hdhatgX pie [hdhat

2) before the

consonants j and v \

«/i» is

quite mute.

Ex.: hjul [juitl]^ wheel. hjdlp [jeltp\ help. hjdrta [J8Br'ta% heart. hjord [jojUd]^ flock.

16.

J.

Swedish j
1) like

pronounced: English «y» in «.year».
jord
Phonetic transcription: J. [jcoUd], earth.
to invite.

is

Ex.

:

a)
c)

b) Jul [jut- 1], yule.

bjuda [bjm'da%
koja
[koj-a^], cot.

d) bjorii [bjoe'rn], bear,
c)

2) like

English «8h» in «bush», derived from French.
Phonetic transcription
Ex.:
a)
:

«shame»
/.

in

words

projeJd [projfektt]^

project,

b)

jurnal

[furna.'l], journal.

17.

K.

pronounced: like English «k» in «kid». 1) a) before the hard vowels a, o, u, and a. the soft vowels e and i in unaccented /?) before
final syllables.
f)

Swedish k

is

before and after a consonant (except j),

d) at the end of a word or e) in some loan words.
Ex.:
f

a syllable.

a) b)
c)

kap [ka'p], cape. kopp [kop'], cup.

kull [kul'], brood. d) kdl [W'l], cabbage.

^ r
^

j
\

a) rike

[rrkd% kingdom.
before

b) trdkig [tro'kig^\ tedious.
this
letter
y,

after the

Words formerly beginning with h drop new orthography.
h]i-ad [vatd], what.

h\varje [i'ar'jd% each. li\vem [vemt\ who.

Pronunciation.

13

a)

b)
c)

klocka [khk'a'], clock. krig [kri'g], war.

prakt
skola

[prak!t], magnificence,
[sk(o'la'\, school.

rid)
e)

minska
rysk
tak

[min'ska.''], to decrease.

f)
a)

[rys!k], Russian.
[ta'k], roof. [o'ka^], to drive.

^{

b)

dka

a) b)
c)

m^kiv [arkHv], archives. anarki \an'aTkit\ anarchy. bankeft [baykef], banquet.
in «9}idb$en»

2) like

German «b^»

and [nearly

like

«t-y» in «don'(t-y)ou» popular.] a) before the soft vowels e, i, y (except in cases

mentioned at

1, /5,

<^,

page

12) a

and
c.

o.

^) before j.
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.:
[

a)

kedja

[ge'dja'], chain,

b) kil

[gitl],

wedge.
cold.

a

\
I

c)

kyla [cy'la'\

d)
e)

kdr
kol

[getr],
[co.'Z],

dear.
keel.

I

Note: ko \ko.%

cue.
dell.

A
Swedish
and
«call».

a)

kjusa [cia'sa%

b) kjol [qojU], petticoat.

18.
I

L.
like

is

pronounced

English «1»
Z.

in «loan»

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) lag [la'g]. law b) sval [sva:l], cool.
c)

kalla [kal'a'l to
is

call.

Note.

L

mute before j and

in the

word <ivdrld*.

Ex.: a) Ijus \.jm!s], light. b) Ijud ljm!d\, sound. c) vdrld [v^j,!d], world.

19.

M.
in

Swedish
«main».

w

is

pronounced like English «m»

Phonetic transcription: m.
Ex.: a)
b)
c)

matta [mat'a^

carpet.

palm
lampa

[pal.'m], palm.

[lam'pa''\ lamp.

14

Pronunciation.

20.

N.

Swedish n
1) like

pronounced; English «n» in «none» generally.
Phonetic transcription: n.
nature.

is

Ex.: a) natur
b)
c)

[natui.'r]^

panna
organ

[pan'a'J, forehead. [orgatn], organ.

2) like

English «ng» in «sing» before k and in a few words loaned from French.
Phonetic transcription;
y.

Ex.: a) vink [vir)tk\ beck. b) linka [liij'ka^], to limp. c) annons [ano7)ts\ advertisement.

3)

n

is

mute

in the

words:

lugnt

[luytt], peacefully.

ndmnt

\nemtt\ named.
is

The combination ng
1) like

pronounced:
«sing» and

English «ng»
e,
i,
?/,

in

German «ng»
it

in

«6ringen».
a) After tal sound.

a and a whereby
it

has a pala-

/?) after a, o tural sound.

and u whereby

has a slightly guty.

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) engelsk [ey.'dlsk], p]nglish. b) ingen [iy'dn'], none. c) yngling [yy'Uy'l youth. d) dnga [oy'a,^], steam.
e) cingel hy'dl'], angel.

f) g) h)

rang [ra,y.% rank. halkong [bdlkoy:], balcony, lunga [luya,% lung.
is

2)

In the combination gn, g
a) like

pronounced:

English «g» in «guest» at the beginning of words: (It is then never mute as English «g» in «gnaw».)
Phonetic transcription: g.
Ex.: a)

gnat [gnatt^ quarrel. b) gnista [gnis'ta], spark. c) gno [gn(jjt\ to rub.
d) gncill [gnelf], whimpering.

Pronunciation.

15

/^)

like

English «ng» in «siiig
Phonetic transcription:

+ n»
7)71.

at the end of

words.
Ex.: a)
,b)

vagn

ugn

[vayiri], carriage. [ur)tn\ oven.

21.

P.
like

Swedish j9
Ex.
:

is

pronounced

English «p» in «peep».

Phonetic transcription: p.
[pojtT\ pole. b) lojpjp [loA course.
a)
c)

pol

apa [a'pa% monkey.

22.
Is

Q.
like
it is

replaced in the

k by which always pronounced new orthography:
etc.

now

(qvist) kvist [kvis.% branch,

23.

R.

Swedish
1) nearly

r

is

pronounced:
it

English «r» in «room» but be vibrated with the tip of the tongue.
like
Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a) [rco't], root. b) [broj'd9r% brother.
r.

should

2) before -n, -d,

-s,

-t

it is

almost quite mute.
,i

Phonetic transcription:
Ex.: a)
b)
c)

(also: r).

ham

[hajbtn], child.

lard [lsedtd\ learned. forst [foRdtst], first.
[

d) hevars

L^j^^^

[h^va^t|\ God forbid!

24.

S.

Swedish

s is

pronounced like English «s» in «seat».
Phonetic transcription:
s.

Ex.: a) stund [stuntd], moment.
b)

c)

resa \re'sa% to ros [ro)is\ rose.

travel.

d]^ poet. -z/. to shoot. y) after all vowels at the end of words or syllables. b) pension [payfojtn]. skj- and stj- are also like «8h» in «sliip».: «) skriva [skri'va^\ to a) skald [skaV.: a) mission {mifcotn]. b) skicka [fik'a% to send. scarlet. 2) like English «sk» in «de8k». in the following a) words: b) c) marskalk {7nar'fal'k]. Phonetic transcription Ex. mission. u and a. a) before a /5) consonant. sea. these two consonants have the same sound as in the root-syllable before «e> and «i». ci kusk {kustlc]. the combination nounced like English «sli» in «ship». harvest. tail. c) j3) skord [Jcedkl]. d) skagg [feg!]. sj-. b) sjo [/0. pension. Sk. d) skdjp [skoi-p]. -i. shine. a) rask [rastk'].% shawl. easter. man. Phonetic transcription: sk. Note. : Phonetic transcription /. skarlakan [farlaikan]. The combinations: pronounced sch-. c) skur \skm:r\^ shower. -e.: a) schal [fa. root-syllable . e) pdsk [postk].: a) sken [fe!n]. b) fisk [fisikl fish. c) sky \fy!l sky. coachman. cupboard. The 1) like combination sk is -a pronounced: English «sh» in «ship». 0. Ex. crop. marshal. Note. In words ending in -sion. : «si> is pro- /. c) skjuta [Jm'ta']. beard.I. Ex. 1 b) skog [skoj'. mdnniska [me'nijy]. d) flask Xflisik]^ bacon. swift. In derivatives and in the various inflections of words the of which ends in «s/L'». a) before and -0. a) write.16 Pronunciation. before the hard vowels a.gX wood. Ex. d) stjart [j^d!t].

convalescent. Ex. Swedish 1) like t is pronounced: English «t» in «tip» in most words. b) rdtta [rot'a^].'t] [kon'valesen^s]. Phonetic transcription: Ex. c) mat [ma-'t]. 17 Ex. The combination «b^» in «3)idb4en». nation. These words may also be pronounced: [kon'vales£n. : Phonetic transcription /. Phonetic transcription: tf. in -Hon preceded by a consonant. jUask-et (iiom flask) fles'kd^t]. share. T.: a) aktie [ak'tsid]. i followed by the vowels a or Phonetic transcription: Ex. 2) like English «s» in «8un» in the following words : seen [se'n]. The combination a) like ti is pronounced: In foreign words ending : «8h» in «ship». like German Phonetic transcription: Elementary Swedish Grammar.Pronunciation. jiskeri f from fisk) [Jis'kerif]. in «gets» before ts. fishery. The combination 1) like -scent. sceneri ]s€^ndrif]. Ex. convalescence. fiaskig ^from fjask) [fJES'kig% bustling.: nation [natfojtn].: a) tacka [tak'a^ to thank. b) initiativ [in^itsiati^v].: lektion [lekfcotn]. b) konvalescens [kon'valefen's]. Note. scenery. Phonetic transcription y*. -scens sc is pronounced: «8hip» in English «8» in words ending in and -scion. tj is pronounced c. t. scenisk [se!niskj. 2 . rat. Ex.: disk-en ('from disk) [dis'kdn''^ the counter. scene. scenic(al). the bacon. food.: a) konvalescent [kon'valefsnH]. 2) like English «ts» i. initiative. /5) like ending in -tion English «ch» in « church » in foreign words preceded by a vowel. 25. lesson.

to tax.: zink z is pronounced like English «8» Phonetic transcription: s. X.: reflexion [re'flekfcoin]. Swedish three genders.18 Pronunciation.: taxera \takseira]. persons and countries. «. Ex.: a) vagn \vaytn\. Phonetic transcription: ks. V. and the There are in neuter (det-kon) genders. § 1. 27. Phonetic transcription: Ex. § 4. sweet.\ picture. Note. J ©^ U. This letter only occurs in some names of towns. W. [siy. zinc. It is pronounced as v (26 -v) and never as English «w». like Swedish v is pronounced English «v» in v. viz: the masculine (han-kon). In words ending in -xion the combination nounced like: kf. . in «sit». reflection. the feminine (hon-kon). Swedish writing. Ex. c) Ijuv [jiiitv]. «cci» is pro- 29.voice». of the little The Swedes make use and their handwriting differs Latin characters from the English handwriting. b) tavla [ta'vla. Swedish Ex. v_^ Ky i^x^j (y ^ and '? Preliminary remarks.'k]. carriage. 26. like Swedish x is pronounced English «x» in «fix». 28. Notice the following letters : ©yf U. Z. The genders.

19 The study of the genders in Swedish is an important and one for Englishmen. (artikel). (flertal). difficult § 2. The parts of speech. but it should be observed that it is sufficient to distinguish the neuter nouns from the masculine-feminine group which are followed or preceded by the same articles. The numlbers. The interjection (utropsord).Pronunciation. The conjunction (bindeord). The adverb (omstdndighetsord) The preposition (forord). sin- The Swedish language has two numbers: the gular (ental) and the plural § 3. or substantive The adjective (egenskapsord) The pronoun (ersdttningsord). The parts The article The noun ord). . . their inflections remaining always the same. Swedish are the following: The verb (hdndelseord). of speech in (ting. Note.

hon har [hojnt — ]. definite the article. det har ^dett — ]. it has. en Jiicka (fern.: dr fadern godf hava de en fader f Have they a father? to have.). articles.) § 2.). I haven ii ha'vdn% you have.First Lesson. Ex.: en gosse (masc). ett which is used before neuter nouns. vi hava vii ha'va% we have. and independent definite I. the terminal definite indefinite article. he has. she has. The indefinite article is equivalent to the English article a or an and has two forms: 1. etf barn (neut. de hava dii ha'va% they have. § 3. 2. en which is used before masculine and feminine nouns. the wagtail bird fdgel U'oigdJ] hamen[ha'JLndn'^] [the] children [le'rlan^] drlan stjdrt [fxjitt] liten \li'tdn^'\ tail little mask [masth] worms . a boy. The § 1. Words. Hava [ha'va% Jag har [jatg hatr\ I have. thou hast lian har Vhani — ]. du har {duit — ]. Interrogative sentences with the auxiliary' verbs „hava"^ «to have» and „vara" «to be» are formed as in English: Is the father good? Ex. a child. a girl. articles: the inarticle There are in Swedish three article. (you have). The (Obestamd artikel.

as trippar [trip'ar^] ambles. sj sina [si'na^] its. 21 ungar munter Idng [i«?. is ambling omkringlomkriyf about plockar [plok'ar picks up henne [hen'd'] som [som^ vippar [vip'ar^] ihland [ihlanta\ that. Hon har en lang styv stjart.The articles. for itself tycka mycket [tyk'a'' om are very fond like myk'df it of. Barnen tycka mycket om henne. Ibland gungar hon pa en stjalk. Hurudan ar arlan? Ar hon en livlig fagel? Se alia henne garna? Vem tycker mycket om henne? Hurudan stjart har hon? Vad gor hon. pupil Idrjungellse'rjuy'd] school-master skolmdstare [skco'lmes'tard''] the teacher chair the desk(s) Idraren Idrostol stoj'r] [U'rardii^] [le'rco- school skola man class-room man [man^ klassrum [skoj'la'''] pulpet(ema)[pulpeit] (neut. da [do^ when. Arlan.) maps blackboard [klas^rum^] kartof' [ka'rtcor'] svart tavla [svaM't ta'vla"] [pen'skaf^t] copy-book hldckhorn (neut.) [hUkliojUn] skrivbok [skrrvbco'k] forms skolhdnkar[skoj-lbey^kar] reading book Idsebok [U'sdbo/k] . Conversation. da hon trippar omkring? Vad plockar hon at sig och sina imgar? Pa vad gungar hon ibland? Words. trippar omkring. which wags sometimes./] pretty lively [m.*ar'] yoimg ones stalk iitjalk [fel'k] vem ?' [vemf] vadf [va!d] styv [sty!v] who ? what? stiff mitt [nkf] livlig [li'vlig^] [Zo?. gay dr [%!r] or [e^r] is dro[x'roy]or[8'rco^] are. hurudan?[hia'rm how? what? Reading Exercise 1. now and then gungar dan^] [guy'ar' swings pa gor och [poi] [jotr] [oki] on does and.unitdr] merry. da hon Hon plockar mask at sig och sina ungar. Hon ar munter och livlig. Arlan ar en liten natt fagel.) penholder inkstand pennskaft (neut. Alia se henne garna. som vippar upp och ned. like to see all wpp och ned ok: ne'd] long [upt up and down segdma[setjse'rTia'] hon [hconf] [ott si'g] at sig [she] it. alia [aZ'aJ everybody.

and 5'^ of the I'S Ex. sits [is] flere [fle'rd'] det jinns[dett fints] sitter [sitidr] speaks English Swedish behind each I hakom [hakom^ varje [var'jd^] see jag sei^ [jatg setr]. the news . Our school-master is a learned man. the bakers. Second Lesson. a copy book and a I am a pupil.: myteriet. 3'*^ Singular. The terminal definite article. article «the». (Slutartikel. It plural. ^ See lesson 3 and the following (4. 't or -et 4^^' for the neuter nouns declensions. hagai^ne.'g goir i skoj'la^] talar [ta'lar'] engelska [ey^dlska] blyertspenna [hlyeMspen^a] learned in lard [lasUd] i [if] several there are. the boys. a pencil. the baker. the table. . and 5*^ Ex. : declensions. -n or -en for the masculine and feminine nouns 2°^^. the boy . the girl hagaren. II. The Each pupil has a teacher sits in a chair behind a desk. nyheten. and forms. svenska [sven'ska^] Translation Exercise 2. Plural. form and a desk. I reading book. This article consists of a letter or a syllable It answers to the affixed to the end of substantives. go to school. § 4. viz.^ . 5.: gossarne. gossen. the sedition.) § 1. -we for the 5*^ masculine substantives ^ of the 2'''^ and declensions. the buckle. flickan. The class-room. a black board. ^ belonging to the 3'"'^. What do you see on the desks? I see a penholder. he speaks English and Swedish. spdnnet. an inkstand.22 Lesson 2.: has four forms in the singular and in the § 3. English § 2. In a class room there are several maps. hordef. Ex. 6 and 7). pencil I am go to our I jag dr [ja'g e^r] vdr [vo'r] school jag gar iskola[ja.

(Fristaende artikel). the tables.the Baltic Sea fo'n] sade [sa'dd''] ingen [%*a?i'] no come \komi] Tidrska [hsev'ska''] rule samlade[sam'ladd''] assembled. being it will be treated in lesson 12. : flickorna. came mtt] till honom [til! to him hon'om^] (4. the boys nyheterna.The -na article. 5. The study of the independent definite article connected with that of the qualifying adjective. ^ Ex.people bodde [bojd'd'] dwelt hette [het'd^] (neut.^ Ex. .) ^ vidgade [vid'gadd'] extended vdxte ut [vek'std'' grew to.) [ri'kd'] kingdom the side other grdnserlgrentsdr] borders. the children. . . the news. III.) \lantd] country ordning [o'ddni'^'^] order army ^dr [heir] Ostersjon [os'tdr. be- See lesson 3 and the following 6 and ^ 7). hamen.: spcinnena. [det e'rco^] Words. The independent definite article. bounds i grundlade seglade [se'gladd^] sailed founded [grun'dladd''] vdrlden ddn] [it vssU. the seditions. mustered. -en for the Ex. the buckles. gathered pd andra sidan on [pot an'dra' si'dan'] rike (neut. myterierna.: of the 5^^ declension. 23 for the substantives of each gender belonging to the P% 2^*^ and 3^*^ declensions. ambassador(s) [sen'ddbia^d] hovding av [atv\ sedan [sedan] storsta [stoRJitsta] folket kdt] (neut.) Ryssland Russia [rys'lan^d[\ kommo kom [kom'oj''] was called.in the world grannland neighbouring [gran'lan^d] country mdktig [inek'tig^] powerful (neut. whose name came [was said land (neut. 2 pd 800 talet [po' in the ninth 800 taildt] century stort [stcotdt] great fertile fruktbart [fruk'tbauH] vdrt [votjbt] I 8ver(i)ge svsmrtjd] [ii in Sweden our of since greatest [he'vdiy'] chieftain sdndebud (neut. § 5. det dr [dett J thou art vi dro [vit troj'"'] I am is — it is we are he she I is dren de dro ]ii s'rdn'] you are they are.) messenger(s). jag dr [ja!g et du dr [diai _ han dr ^an' ] hon dr [hojni — ] — — "Vara [va'ra^] to be. dtta hundra.) [foU. borden. -a for the neuter nouns neuter nouns of the 4^^ declension. the girls gossarne or gossarna.

Jsed'tat'] mouth hair munnen hdret eivdm] [mun. seglade over over OSS.24 Lesson from osf\ 2. legs fingers nail mag en \ma'gdn^] sidoma [si'dcom a*] annar [avmar^] ben [betri] ansiktet [an'sikHat] forehead pannan pan'an'] ogonen p'gondn^] eyes ears fingrar [fivgrar'] cheeks [o'ronan'J kindema [gin'ddr713*] oronen the limbs the chin very. Kom darfor och harska Da samlade Rurik en stor har. Conversation. ledema [te'dama^] hakan \ha'kan'] mgcket [mgk'dt^] fomuftigf [fcernufitikt] nagel [naigdt] much the nose the lips the beard the neck the teeth the tongue the breast ndsan [ne'san^] Idppaima [lep'arna'] reasonable consists of skdgget U'egtdt] halsen [haUsdn] belong to we hear bestdr av [bdstoir] tillh ora [til'h o'ra] vi hora [trei'^ tdndema na*] [vit ho'ra'] [ten'ddr- two three four five tvd tre [t}:oi] tungan brostet [tuy'an^] [brds. som sedan vidgade sina granser och viixte ut till ett av de storsta i i Ryssland och sade: varlden. talet Till bodde i Sverige en maktig hovding.'n did datg\ one day [we] know then. . frdn [frohi\ over us ddrfbr [dser^foer] therefore hdr [h%tr or heii^ here over OSS [oivdr gjorde en ^a^ [jco'jdd'] [e. som han Words. kdnna [vi] [c€n'a!'\ ' c?« [dot] Reading Exercise Rurik. Pa 800 hette Rurik.) [vetsdn] human Tnd'nniskokroppen [men'ifcokrop ^dn\ body the head the the the the the the huvudet d'9t] [hia'vu- the the the the the the the back heart liver ryggen levern rygidn] [I hjdrtot.*]. Vem Vad bodde i Sverige pa 800 talet? hette denne (this) maktige hovding? i Vem kom till honom? Vad sade sandebuden fran folket Vad gjorde Rurik da? Vad heter (what is the name of) grundlade? Ryssland? det rike. Det riket kanna vi alia.'dn] [hotrdt] stomach sides trunk face hdlen [bo!hn] arms leg. 3. det ar vart grannland: Ryssland.'tat] fyra [fy'ra''] fefin [/f???. fran som fol- honom kommo en dag sandebud ket „Vart land ar stort och fruktbart. men det finns ingen ordning dar. [the] man mdnniskan vdsen M \men'i- being the (neut.'* Ostersjon och grundlade pa andra sidan ett rike.

a Nouns ending in s. : is the terminal definite article is affixed added to the article and not to the noun. the nose. s in the genitive indefinite article. When the gossens. The Swedish language has five declensions 2. the forehead. of schools. A man has four limbs: two arms and two legs. Man. (revhenen) belong to the trunk. the boy's 2. The heart is in the breast. The human body consists The different parts of the head. skolors. the plural by adding : to the nominative. (bdjningar) 1. the chin. ett barns. replaced by an apostrophe or the substantive . the mouth. the lips. the eyes. Ex. . of the schools. which are varied by four cases: the nominative answering to the questions: who? or what? the genitive answering to the questions: whose? or of which ? the dative answering to the questions: to whom or to what? the accusative or objective case answering to the questions: whom? or what? § 2. of the head are: the face. the teeth. The heart. 4. x and z take no indefinite form. the substantive is preceded by the indefinite article the genitive case is formed by adding s to the substantive and not to the article which remains unchanged. the stomach the back and the ribs the mouth. The tongue and the teeth are in the beard and the neck. Formation of the genitive. The lungs and the liver are also in the breast. Note When Ex. § 1. is child's. the ears. We have two hands and each hand has five fingers. The genitive is formed in the singular and s . fathers 1. Declension of substantives. the trunk and the limbs. of a flower. a reasonable being. Man is Third Lesson. the cheeks.Declension of Substantives. Each finger has a nail. The is s of the genitive left unaltered. 3. that is when preceded by the 3. to faders.: en Note of the blommas. Note noun the s Ex. 25 Translation Exercise 4. skolornas.

N. you had de hade. I. G. flowers [ha'dd^]. they had. of flowers D. . a flower G. she had sjdar had det hade. A. D. First Declension. the flower blomma. blomma. blommoma. movement tributary djup \jmtp] imt [leti] deep easily rorelse [ro'rdlsd^j tillflode [til'Jio'dd] svdr sjo [svo!rfo!] rough sea ganska ka' litet [gan's. of a flower D. blommornas. first comprises all feminine nouns in § 4. I N. thou hadst han hade.it\ bottnen [bottndn'] bottom motion. it is used in Swedish with all sorts of nouns. the flower. en en en en Singular. to the flower blomma. N. blommors. girl flickor. a flower Plural. blommor. I Words.ever so little li'tdt'] stream tusen [tmtsdn] thousand dar [o'ar'] rivers ndgra hio'gra'''] some greater. § 5. [fo'ar^] lakes mdngd [me'O-d] quantity Vdnern Malar en Vattem oar [0'ar'] fatten (neut. flowers.'d] ger smaller . blommor. lar- lander [leniddr] countries storre [stcerta] pa jorden jo/dddn^] [pot on earth smd'rre [smoer.. The -a. blomman. Whilst the genitive case is used in English with nouns denoting animate objects and sometimes with nouns denoting time and space. The : sion is formed Ex. blommor. to flowers A. it had we had haden.) [vatidn] isles. VI hade. a prince's castle. he had hon hade. blommoma. Note 4. Indefinite Example. whether they indicate animate or inanimate objects. blomman. blomman. G. The terminal definite article is -n in the sin- gular and -na in the plural.2Q Ex. Haya. plural of nouns belonging to this declenby changing -a into -or. § 6. G. blommans. declension § 3. Jag hade [ha'dd'] or du hade. N. D. Definite Form. Lesson : en jprins or en prins slott. the flowers of the flowers to the flowers the flowers. flicka. A. to a flower A. mdrkvdrdigf [maer'kvse'rdikt] remarkable mdrkvdrdigaste islands most remarkable clear [mderkvcx'rdigastd] water klart \kla:. Form. of the flower blommas. girls. blommoi^na.

27 quite. very .Declension of substantives.

28 .

of a yard gdrd. a yard. to the yard A. the yards gdrdamas. boys') of the boys (the D. Singular. gdrdama. of the boy gossen. of yards D. gdrden. gossar. en en en en gosse. A. Yara. the boys. gossar. G. A. D. en en en en gdrd. gossen. properly speaking. Sul)stantive8 ending in -e. G. to the boy gossen. of a boy (a boy's) gosse. to a boy gosse. gdrdar. gdrdar. the boys (boys'). gdrdars. D. I. gossarne. Plural. G. a boy gosses. gdrden. yards. Lappama p'ama'] ansiktsfdrg siktsjagr'j] [la- [the] Laplan- toppmossa mos'a] [top'- peaked cap ders [an'- complexion trousers coat hoskap [hoj'ska^p] cattle cattle boskapsskotsel [bco'skapfofsdl] feeding pla- hyxor [hyk'sa)r^'\ kolt [koUt] vadmal [va'dmal] drugget(coarse stuff) hostdder ste^ddr] [ho)'- dwelling ces trakt [traktt] region renar [re'nar'] skinn [fin'] pals [pd's] reindeer skin fur dkerhruk [o'kdr- husbandry hrm'-k] hjordar[ja)'jidar'-] herds . of boys D. N. Singular. the boy. to yards A. N. boys.Declension of substantives. the boy gossens. (the boy's) N. to a yard gdrd. gossai'S. Plural. A. but the use of the article -na for mascuis line nouns becoming more and more general. § 4. to the yards gdrdama. boys G. D. the yard. D. Words. the terminal definite masculine nouns. N. Substantive with various terminations. A. gardens. 29 Note. gossarnes. Jag var [vair] I was du var thou wast han var he was hon var she was det var it was vi voro \va>'ro/] I we were voren you were de voro they were. G. Examples. gdrdar. II. N. N. Form. a yard gdrds. the yards. G. of the yards gdrdama. gossatme. gdrden. Definite Form. N. article for The article -ne is. to boys. of the yard D. to the boys A. the yard G. gossarne. yards G. Indefinite Form. A. gossar. a boy. N. Definite Indefinite Form.

30 .

We myself with my cousins during the easter holidays. by the father's side. I hope she will be better to-morrow (i morgan). 31 aunt cousins easter holi- j faster [fasitdr] I moster [mcos^tdr] spent kusiner [kmsiindr] pdskferier [pos'kfe'ridr] days garden trddgdrd [tre'goUd] \morfar''[m(or:far] armor ^ [far'mojr] -. they go to school.) German Swedish teaches tyska [tys'ka^'] svenska \svEn'ska^'\ Idr. Our grandfather will tell us nice stories and our grandmother will bake good cakes for us. I have a brother and two sisters. vid [snui'' it liv litvdt vitd under vis ar .z? skoj'la le'ka^] to tell (Son grand daughter \ \ ^ dottev [sow berdtta [bdrd'a] dot'er] to bake baka dlska [ba'ka'] [el'ska'] dotterdotter [dot'dvdot'ar] like French franska [fran'ska^] my my still (pi. [for- speaks sar talar if\ [ta'lar'] Translation Exercise 8. shall play in my grandfather's garden. he speaks French. The Family. ^ grand fatherZ-^^-^r'!/*^^-^?. My mother plays on the piano and sings beautifully. for they are very kind to me. a teacher in My our parents are school.^ tillhragte {til' brak^td] several years j^ere dr [fie're'' otr] plays spelar [spe/lar^] sjunger [fuy'dr'] sings de gd [di! go'] they go kind to me goda mot mig [gorda' mojtt mi'g] stays will grand mother stories j f stannar to \mormor^[ma>rima>r] come skola tilf] komma [stan'ar'] till sagor [sa'gojr^] us oss [skorla" kom-'a' cakes kakof [ka'kcor'] grand isonson [son'son^] \dotterson [dot'dr8071'] enjoy myself roa mig [rwa' mi!g] we shall play vi skola leka [z. My little sister stays at home to-day. He spent several years in France. Their grandsons and granddaughters like them very much. I love my parents with all my heart (av alt mitt hjdrta).Declension of substantives. Germany and Sweden. ^ by the mother's side. . \l£tr alive min [mi'n] mina [mi'na'] dnnu i livet. My father is grammar He teaches modern languages. i Wv] beautifully un'ddrvi^- fdrtrdffligt treffliktj. German and Swedish very well. because she is ill. still alive. My I shall enjoy Uncle and aunt will come to us at Easter.

•er in dam (fem. -is and. tdnder.). Ex. printing-offices. a) in the singular: -n for the feminine -en for the 2. months. III. viz: 1. § 2. printing-office. ending in -eum and -ium drop the syllable before taking the plural termination. Third Declension.32 Fifth Lesson.: museer. Ex. events. This declension contains: the masculine n o u n s ending in -ac?. ^ § 1. The nouns ending in -and and -dug change a and a into a. Ex. a great as: of monosyllabic nouns of each gender and with various terminations. movement. Note 3. tryckeri. salt (neut. the -en -ik^ and masculine nouns ending in -at. rorelser.the feminine nouns ending in 4. lady. the -het. plur. teeth. the neuter nouns which end in -eum and -ium and are derived from Latin. 1. 3. which come from a foreign language and have the accent on the last syllable. tang. -ion 5. -um Ex. Nouns. and -ur. hdndelser. -t.: mdnad. the polysyllabic neuter nouns in -eri. Note 1. pincers. tdnger. -sfj -and and -ang .: tand. The words in -else drop the final-e before taking the plural ending. substantives ending in -e. tryckerier. The terminal definite article of the § 3. in -an. such priest. substan- . museum. month. mdnader. -ant^ -ass. motion. 6. feminine nouns ending -else. 2. third declension has four different forms in the singular and in the plural. event (occurrence).). salt etc. pincers. r or else. -nad^ -skap -d. number prdst (masc).: hdndelse. and -ndr . movements. tives masculine and feminine ending in a consonant.: museum. The substantives of the third declension take the plural. tongs etc. tooth. Note 2.

en konstndr. Definite Indefinite Form. . b) in the plural: -na for each gender. spinneriers. artist Indefinite Definite Form. a spinning-mill G. a spinning-mill. mill to the spinning- A. of spinning-mills G. konstndrer. Ex. to the artists A. Examples. the spinning-mill G. an G. konstndrer. -mm drop the syllable -um. the museum. Form. spinning-mills Plural. N. spinneriema. Neuter Nouns. artists. konstndrers. spinnerier. N. ett spinneri. A. N. Note. the (the artists') artists G. to spinning-mills D.Declension of substantives. the spin- A. D. the artist G. the spinning- Words. ning-mills mills. spinneriet. the spinning-mill. Neuter nouns in -eum and before adding the terminal definite article. konstiidren. mill to a spinning- D. II. konstndr ernas. konstndren. ett spinneri. konstndrerna. -et for the neuter substantives. 33 3. en konstndr.: museet. spinneriema. artists G. I. Plural. §4. konstndrer. spinnerier^ spinning-mills. of artists D. the spinningmills. an artist N. spinneriema. the artists. Singular. spinneriemas. the artist. spinneriets. Singular. to an artist A. to artists A. spinneriet. en konstndrs. of a spinningmill N. ett spinneri. of the (the artist's) artist D. en konstndr. of the spinningmill D. konstndrens. spinneriet. Feminine and Masculine Nouns. A. N. to the artist A. G. konstndrerna. ett spinneris. konstndren. (an artist's) of an artist N. of the artists D. Form. N. ning-mills of the spinto D. konstndrerna. spinnerier.

'r m't] goes out serve tjdna [ge'na'] bredas [bre'das'] are spread out pa marken [pot on the floor varigenom madtkdn] skaffa [skaf'a'] ej blott [eji blotf] [bo. ackja. ut som en liten bat.' j€m. varigenom roken fran eldstaden gar ut till sovplatser tjana renskinn.the Lesson 5. Lappama bo i kator.^ when to it dett b (Br'jar'] bred [bretd] Idngs [l€7j.sleeping plat^Sdr] foda [fo'da'] ces bo [bcj'] dessa dro £'rco'] [des'a' dwell these are food clothes dragareldra'gard'] beasts of bur- kldder VkUiddv^ den flyttningama Iflyt'niyama. som de skrapa upp ur snon med sina klovar. ar utan medar med en bred kol langs mitten och rymmer natt och jamt en (one) akande. (continued). Da .'l] runners keel rein bdra [be'ra'] spdnnas [spen'as'] ser ut [setr m!t] begins procure not only bear are put to torn [tomf] looks like da det b orjar [do. det borjar bli kallt om hosten. dar (where) renarna leva av renlav. flytta de ner i skogarna.'t] down dkande [okan'dd'] kor [Qd:r] kallt [kalit] driver drives cold.scrape up ddn] sovplatser [so'v.through which je'nom] gar ut [go. Dessa aro ett slags talt ay vadmal med hal i taket. flytta lapparna om hosten? Varav leva renarna? Huruledes (pa vad satt) skrapa de upp renlav ur snon? Vari bo lapparna? Beskriv (Describe) lappamas bostader? Vartill tjana renarna? Vad kallas lappamas siadar? Vart Hum ser en ackja ut? .'dr] ochjdmt [net' just hos'tdn] to move flytta ner [ne'r] leva av [leva' a'v] live on out of ur [iii'r] ok. som vid flyttningama bara bans saker. fire place pla- skrapa upp pa' up'] [skra'. som bredas pa marken. Denne ser vintern spannas de for ett slags slade. de aro aven bans dragare.'t] medar kol ime'dar^] [go. Om Conversation.'] the movings things ackja (a kind of sledge) boat saker ackja bat [sa'kdr] [ak'ja'] [va'ri. vilken kor renen med endast en tom.'s] broad along holds om bli[va] [bli'va^] hosten [om! in become autumn rymmer ndtt [rym. Renarna skaffa lappen ej blott foda och klader. Eeading Exercise Lapparua 9.34 eldstaden[el'dsta'.

Behind the house there is a large orchard with plenty of fruittrees: cherry-trees. violer [vico. § 1. roses. kndn. dew-drops. 35 Words. in -e. Fourth Declension.Declension of substantives. The house. In summer we reside I like our (dwell) in the country and in winter in town. This declension contains: all all 2.'ldr] Translation Exercise 10. 3* . apple-trees and pear-trees. tulips and many other beautiful We flowers. have two dwelling places. IV. (most monosyllables) the root of which ends in a vowel. In our flower garden we have plenty of violets.he7nvist[he7n'vis^t] ces in the country water lilies ndckrosor rcL>''sojr\ {nek'- pa i landet [poi lani- cowslips roses gullvivor [gul'vi'vcor] ddt] in town staden[i' sta'ddn] rosor [rco'sojr] summer house sommarbostad[sDm'arbo/stad] hill dew-drops tulips daggdroppar [dag'drop'ar] park orchard fruittrees kulle [kul'd'] park [par!k] tulpaner ndr] vi [tulpat- frukttrddgdrd [fruktre^godd] we 1 reside. Sixth Lesson. fager faigdr] many manga andra [moy^a' an'dra']. knee. It stands on a small hill in the middle of a shady park. knees. 1.: knd. dwelling pla. summer-house very much. neuter nouns neuter nouns Ex. cowslips.r'sh€^rtr€\ stands det star [deit sto^r] in the middle mitt i [mitt it} it apple-trees pear-trees dppeltrdd tre'\ [ep'dl- shady plenty of in front of skuggig [skug'ig'] manga [moy'a'] pdrontrdd[pe'rontre'] framfor [framt- flower garden hlomstertrddgdrd [blojm'stdrtre^gdrd] among swim beautiful for] ibland [iblantd] simma other [sim'a^] [jo.'n. basin gold fishes violets bassdng Jis'kar] [bas€7j'] guldfiskar[gul'd' skon. bo [vi' bco^] (dwell) like frukttrdd [fruk'tre'\ jag dlskar (tycker om)[ja'g eV'skar'-] cherry-trees korshdrtrdd [Qce. In the flower garden in front of the house there is an oval basin in which many gold fishes swim among water-lilies.

'dr] till beautiful vetenskap [ve'tdns. § 1. Ex. to the fourth spdnnen. buckles. declension form their plural in -n.science ka'-p] uppgdr hogt [up'- comes up stand [on a] to art konst lkon!st] vdrlden [vae'jddn^] the world gor' til!] std [sto!] (adv.) [hok!t] [sairu't] high skolor intager {skoylcjr^] schools [level] [in'ta''gdr\ occupies samt . The terminal definite article is: -t in the singfular. buckle.'t] Jioder [Jioj'ddr] strdnder [stren.the North Sea north norra [nor'a^] grdnsar till [gren'. to the kingdom riket. ett rike.36 Lesson 6.^v] Nordsjon fo'n] the side sea [nco'rd. the buckle. ett rike. Plural. jHkena. to kingdoms A.: spdnnena.renowned da'] folkmdngd [fol'kmey'd] population stolta over [stol'ta' proud of [miVjoji.: spdnnet. Singular. the kingdoms G. Words. Indefinite Example. emot [moj. D.: spcinne. Definite Form. N. G. ett rike. riken. to a kingdom A. Tyskland lan'd] [tys'k- Germany Europe vetenskapsman men of science Europas pas^] [mo'rco. N. N. the kingdom. 2. kingdoms.% towards emco. riket. a kingdom. of the kingdoms D. -a in the plural. of kingdoms D. rikenas. of the kingdom riket.borders upon sar^] sluttar [slut'ar'] Idngsamt the slopes rivers [lon^g- slopes slowly sluttningarna [slut'niyama^] sam't] mot. rikena. Form. § 4. the kingdoms. kingdoms G.banks ddr] utfor [uittfor'] rinna frm'a'] down flow skonhet {J'enihet] [tys'- beauty the tyskama karna'] Germans learned [men] Idrde [Ix'rdd'^] flow flyta [flyta'l beromda [bdrom'. ett rikes. riken. the kingdom rikets. a kingdom G. the buckles. to the kingdoms A. 3. A. Ex. of a kingdom J). rikena.millions miljoner ridr] oivdr] vacker \vak.artists nerdr^] fastland lan^d] continent endast \endas''t] only sidan [si'dan'] hav [ha. rikens. riken. N. The substantives belonging § 2. Ex.of [fas't- [ve'tdnskapsme^n\ konstndrej^lkon'st.'.

) [ge. on the ground floor pa nedre botten bed rooms valley sovrum [so'vrum'] rooms sitting rum (neut. Vetenskap och konst sta i hela Tyskland mycket hogt. .'k] three weeks [inom' k-cor'] ve- en trappa upp [ent trap' a' upf] on the second tvd trappor [tvo. Tyskland ar ej sa mycket storre an Sverige.) [rumi room vardagsrum (neut. Storst av dessa ar Rhen. my father's study and the kitchen. Conversation. Tyskland. Ar Tyskland Till vilka ett stort land? hav gransar det at norr? Vilka aro Tysklands storsta floder? Vilken ar Tysklands storsta och vackraste flod? Varfore ar Rhen beromd ? Hvarfore aro Tyskarna stolta over denna flod? Ar Tyskland mycket storre an Sverige? Hum manga invanare har Tyskland? Sta vetenskap och konst mycket hogt i Tyskland? Words. On room. stddse [al'- ste'dsd'] out at (of) the utgenomfonstren [m't jetnomfontstrdn] pleasant loft windows trevligt [tre'vlig't] loft [loft]. 37 Reading Exercise 11. intet land i varlden har sa manga skolor av alia slag samt sa manga vetenskapsman. dess strander aro mycket beromda for sin skonhet och tyskarna aro mycket stolta over denna sin (their) vackra flod. ti'd. Translation Exercise 12. men dess folkmangd uppgar till over 60 miljoner. larde och : konstnarer. Landet sluttar langsamt mot havet och utfor sluttningarna rinna manga stora floder. The House (continued).) [va'rdagsrum^] [po' neidrd hottdn dal [daU] inthe morning pa will morgonen [po! va'ra'' mor'on^dn] be over skola vara forbi [skoj'la'' dining room study matsal [ma'tsal^] studerkammare [stm'ddrkam^ard] in (within) fcerbH] inom tre veckor tre' kitchen on the floor floor kok first (neut.^ trap'cor'' upp up'] to breathe andas [an'das'] the fresh air frisk luft [fris'. the ground floor there are four rooms: the sitting the dining room.k attics vindskammare [vin'dskam'ard] luftt] alltid. till Nordsjon Elbe och Rhen. Tyskland intager mitten av Europas fastland. Till Ostersjon flyta Weichsel och Oder.Declension of Substantives. Endast pa norra sidan gransar det till hav Ostersjon och Nordsjon.

the table. The § 3. declension includes: The fifth a) all 1. masculine nouns in -are.38 Lesson 7. the baker. the tables: barnen.: bagarne. -et neuter nouns in the singular. Ex. The substantives of the fifth declension re- main unchanged in the plural. ending in -e Note. The substantives terminal definite article. -ne in the plural. -en in the plural. § 1. nouns Ex. Fifth Declension. It is ning. and second floor there are six beautiful bed Our house has also a loft and two attics. 2. Seventh Lesson.: bordet. Ex. 2. child and children. in -ande. b) the names of substantives in -er. Ex. . barnet. terminal definite article for this a) for masculine -n in the singular. verdant valley. move to The town I should like to dwell always in the counso pleasant to breathe the fresh air in the morholidays will be over in three weeks and we shall again. V.: borden. Except the neuter nouns in -eum and 4um derived from Latin which belong to the third declension. drop it before adding the b) for 1. try. that slowly flows in a the first On rooms. the children. c) all peoples and the foreign (loan) neuter nouns : ending in a consonant.: hagaren.: barn. § 2. the bakers. declensions is: 1. 2. the child. Ex. Out at the windows you can see the Rhine.

underneath fcer] become hliva [hli'va'] arise dalar \da'lar''^ fordjupningar depressions uppstd [up'sto^] hogre [hotgrd] hinner [hin'dv'] fidlstdndigt [ful'sten^dikt] hranterna [fcerjm'pni7)ar''] [hran'. to a table A. N. the table G. G. A. teacher's) D. hordet. D. of teachers D. N. N. ett hords. II. A. the teacher.the steeps higher succeed fully tdma^] tryoket [tryktdt] the pressure hortsmdlta[hor'ts. ett hord. Masculine Nouns. hord. en Idrare.gathers lar^ si!g] nedanfor gren'sdn] snows vales [ne'dan'. the tables.to melt away hopade [hoj'padd^] heaped up snomassor [sno'. N. hordets. tables hords. N. a teacher G. teachers') Idrarne. Words. h or den. teachers G. the table. to the tables horden. tables. Idraren.the limit of samlar sig [sam'. Singular. to the table A. teachers.^s] compressed li'ga] [prss'as^ sam'an^] till is [tiU dret into ice om [otvdt omt] [e'vig''] through the year eternal. the teacher N. of the table D. Idrarne. Idraren. Idrames. N. of the teachers (the D. Form. en A. hordet. the tables hordens. I. Plural. Plural. en IdrareSy of a teacher (a Indefinite (the D. the teachers G. Definite Form. ett hord.bulks of snow mascor'] meVta] utan {m'tan'^ kvarligga [kvairis but remain pressas samman i. Idrarne. hordet. Idraren. to the teacher A. Singular. of tables hord. to tables hord. to the teachers Neuter Nouns. of the tables h orden. N. A. a table. Examples. a teacher. to a teacher Idrare. D. a table G. of a table D. to teachers A.Declension of substantives. fjdllen [fjel'dn''] the mountains drifts glacidrer s'ie'r&r] [gla- glaciers driver [dri'vcor'] dret [o. ever- ismassor sojr'] [i'sma- bulks of ice glaciers evig joklar [jo'klar^] som [som. Idrare. of the teacher G. en teacher's) Idrare. ett hord. Form. G. Idrares. Idrarens.'] lasting as . the teachers. Idrare. Definite Indefinite Form. Idrare. 39 §4.'rdt] tdcke [tek'd'] the year cover [coat] the top toppen [tDp!dn] snogrdnsen [sno'.

som man kallar joklar eller glaciarer. Ar det kallt pa de hogre fjallen? Hinner snon fullstandigt bortsmalta om sommaren? Var ligger den eviga snon? Vad kallas sammanpressade snomassor? Words. Conversation. att snon ej hinner fullstandigt bortsmalta om sommaren. som man kallar den.synH] bocker [boktdr] hord china exotisk [iksojitisk] porslin [porslitn]. . sasom ett sammanhangande tacke over hela toppen ett sadant fjall sages na over snogransen. uppsta stora ismassor.'a'] in narrow lidT Sjisetr] sd such starkt startkt] [sot- [t]here so strong sddant [sotdant] Reading Exercise Fjallen.40 Lesson called 7.'vdr over the whole he'la'] most mesta [mes'ta^^ i trdnga [zV fro?. Mesta snon samlar sig i tranga dalar och fordjupningar nedanfor fjallbranterna. 13. Pa de allra hogsta fjallen ligger denna evig sno. Sa . (man) kallar (den) it is sages [se'gds''] is said sdsom [so'som^] like nd over na Ino"] \no. att snon pressas samman till is. utan stora driver ligga kvar aret om. Pa de hogre fjallen ar det sa kallt. och har kan trycket av de hopade snomassorna bliva sa starkt. drawing-room formak [fd'rma^k] sofa newspapers ceiling tidningar [tid- arm-chairs chairs foot-stools soffa [sof-a'] Idnstolar [hn'stcj'l] chandelier tak [ta^k\ fniyar^] Ijuskrona [jm'skrco'na] stolar [stco'lar^] every corner plants vases flowers varje horn hcerhi] [var'ja'' the walls pallar [palar^] vdggai^na [veg'ar?ia'] vdxter {vek'stdr"'\ vaser [va'sdr^] [hloj- papers on the floor tapetei^ [tapet'dr'] hlommor ni'ojr^] pa golvet [pot goltVdt] rosy rosenrod ro'd] [roj'sdn[tap'dt- mattor [mat'cor^] carpets the pianoforte pianot [matnojt] the door dorren [doRrtdn] the window fdnstret[fontstrdt] pictures hung with represent illustrated tapetserade se'radd^] framstdlla [fram'stel'a] mdlningar [moVniyar'] mdlare [mo/'ara'j illustrerade stre'radd'] [iVii- painters landscapes table rare landskap ka^p] [lan'ds- bloom between exotic blomstra emellan [blojm'stra'] [emel'an^] books [h(oird] sdllsynt [ssl.\ i}^ ^^ h^yoiiiA 1 to reach above sammanhdngande hanging [sam'anhey'andd] over hela [o.

trade-mark varulager etc. § 1. : such as anor. ending in -e they are masculine. shade. mdnniskokdrlek. philanthropy. ancestors matvaror. of the final The following nouns drop the vowel syllable before taking the plural ending: . sale-price salutorg. skugga When or skugge. but skuggor in the plural. On a small round table you can see several books and illuA beautiful chandelier is hanging from strated newspapers. Some compound substantives which have preserved their ancient form of genitive in -o and -u. the ceiling. When Ex. 2. Second declension. skuggen. victuals bannor. man-eater salupris. Certain nouns that are used only in the plural. 3. estate. chiding flavor. Some feminine nouns which end as in -e. This declension has no irregular plural forms.. such as: 2. The Drawing-Room. warehouse. bowels dthavor etc. gestures. 41 Translation Exercise 14. indlvor. In six chairs Eighth Lesson. skuggan or the shade. First declension. our drawing-room there are a sofa.Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns. but contains : 1. market varumdrke. Every corner of the room is garnished with rare plants and exotic flowers are blooming in china vases. four arm-chairs..: Note. walls. Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns. mdnniskodtare. Some pictures made by renowned painters are hanging from the Most of these pictures represent English landscapes. and so many foot-stools. manners. § it 1. in a as well ending in -e they are declined according to the second declension in the singular but follow the first declension in the plural. The walls are hung with rosy papers and the floor is covered with red carpets.

thought etc. clubs spader. timman. father 3. evening morgon. towns ndtter. bokstdver. feet son. letters stdder. goats and van. w. son bot. daughter four nouns indicating the colours of cards are unchanged in the plural: hjdrter.: timme or timmar timma. morning djdvul. books ^ ledamot. mornings djdvlar. statutes mo. sonant before taking the plural termination: fot. statute stadgar. cow so. spade. somrav. make. member. notter. book. maiden '^-^™{hf4ewife ko. hour. but in the plural they are declined according to the second declension. husband. Ex. nouns modify their root-vowel: modrar. stad. in the plural. root fotter.42 Lesson 8. A few masculine and feminine nouns modify the but do not double the letter root-vowel. breath. Some nouns that end in -e as well as in -a in the singular. cows sor. fine soner. get. and a form by adding mor. The masculine and feminine nouns their plural in -a. summers aftnar^ evenings morgnar. 1. rotter. members. fathers. ledamoter. vdnner. thus belonging to the first and the second declensions. roots. sons boter. sommar. walnuts. friends. drop. but Such are: ande. devils. fines. droppe. walnut. friend. Third declension. mothers ddttrm% daughters. diamonds Jdover. spades. getter. hearts ruter. summer afton. sow ^-''•{ hir/ewives kor. -o. stadga. not. -e. Two The moder. mother 3. goat. moon. night fader. foot rot. devil 2. Notice the plural of: bok. 4. Several masculine and feminine nouns modify the root-vowel and most of them double the final con§ 3. bocker. sows . tanke. mane. the hour. town natt. nights fdder. dotter. 2. the plural: final consonant in bokstav. maidens -r. club.

toe rdr. business drende. ears. 1. -i form their plural qvalite. inhabitants in frdnde. quality. prisons regemente. has two plural endings: 2. boards tdckelsen or tdckelser.: drenden or drender. theories.: teori. countrymen fiender. or brdden The word: oga. yards sldr. ladies. man and manner. — ^ Only in compound words: socken- . qualities. eyes. poppies bonder. rod td. theory. 2. The word: finger. viz: fruntimren (fruntimrena and fruntimmerna). man. covering ode.Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns. board tdckelse. Fifth declension. rods tdr^ toes sko. man (unchanged). 4. 1. inhabitant vallmor^. bor parishioners etc. ear. § 4. ^ Or vallmoblommor. -e and relatives. odes regementen or regementer. ten thousand men. enemy bo. Note. viz. 43 rd. when denoting a group of persons forming a whole. is both neuter and masculine and takes the following endings when used with the definite article in the plural: fingren or fingrarne. qvaliteer. gularly. The word: fruntimmer. oron. shoes vallmo. poppy bonde. regiment 2. brdder. Fourth declension. re- Ex. § 5. Ex. To this declension belong six nouns which are declined in the plural according to the third and fourth declensions. countryman fiende. finger.: ogon. yard sld. eye.: tio tusen man (soldiers). teorier. man. 1. shoe skor. coverings oden or oder. has three different plural forms when used with the definite article. prison brdde. Ex. enemies bor^. The word man. relative The foreign nouns frdnder. have an irre- gular plural. men. business fdngelse. regiments. ode fdngelsen or fdngelser. in a general sense. and om.

besegrade dem och tvang dem De visste likval icke mycket om den att mottaga dopet.^ Erik samlade 15. Reading Exercise Erik den Helige. som da annu voro hedningar. Da Erik atervande till Sverige. Words. som hyste agg till honom. Forst uppmanade ban finnarna att lata dopa sig. Han landsteg i trakten av Abo. kristna laran. som dar predikade kristendomen och darfor blivit kallad Finnlands Apostel.' omvand [en' a catechumen compelled tvang [tvay'] mottaga [mort-ta'.was called kal'ad'] [an'gri'to attack predikade [predi'.crusaders hyste [hys'td'] \ had (a spite agg the Fins till f against) finnarna [ jin'arhedningar [he'd- heathens landsteg [lan'ste'g] landed. at lata dopa sig? .'pdt] Jm^an [h-ran'] [the] doctrine Finland Finland [/in'lan'd] lata [lota'] to let to christen dopa [do'pa'] [de' de vdgrade ve'gra'dd] they refused biskop [bis'kop''] bishop Christianity Kristendomen [kris't9ndoj^m9n] besegrade se'gra'dd] [ba- vanquished apostel [aposttdl] apostle en ny ny. korsfarare fa'rara] [kod's. i Sverige en har av korsfarare och Kung seglade med den ut for att angripa finnarna.preached ka'dd] angripa pa] mordades da'dds] [mod'r. men de vagrade. Biskopen mordades dock snart av en ny omvSnd finne.was murdered.44 Lesson 8.to receive kristen [krns'tan'] christian dtervdnde [o'tdr.exhorted ma'nadd] [the] baptism dopet [doj.. Vad gjorde Erik den Helige for att angripa finnarna? Var (where) samlade han denna har? Voro finnarna annu hedningar? I vilken trakt landsteg Kung Erik? Voro finnarna villiga att lata dopa sig? Vad gjorde Kung Erik niir de vagrade Vad hette Finlands Apostel? Av vem mordades biskopen Henrik? the Holy. Conversation. kvarlamnade han darfor biskop Henrik.came back ven'dd] om'ven'd] spite left agg [ag-] kvarldmnade blivit vit'' [kva'TUm^nade^ kallad [blr. Da angrep han dem med sin har. went on shore uppmanade [up'.

. book-case bokskdp verk (neut. a My father's study is ruler. penholders. blotting-paper.) typewriter the use skrivmaskin [skri'vmafi^n] [boj'ksko^p] works writers [vwr. French and Russian authors and poets.'d] provided mthforsedd med [for'sed^ me!d] stationery ) inkstands ink blotter bldckhorn [blek'- hco^m] black [bhk!] portfolj [podtfoHj] linjalej' [linjaildr\ rulers {pldnpapper[plo'nblotting] paper pap^dr] \l(iskpapper V pap^dr] \les'k- necessary full nodvdndig ven'dig] [no'd- writing-paper skrivpapper [skri'vpap'dr] post-paper brevpapper [bre'v- of uppfylld med [yp- jyVd me!d] red black rod [ro'd] [sva'ji't] pap'dv] penholders pencils svart pennskaft [ pen's- now a days nu for tiden [nm:- kaft] blyertspennor fo. as my father is a lawyer.dd^] ma. a letter-weigher. On writing-paper.Irregularities in the formation of the plural of nouns. In the bookcase there are many bound and stitched books. the one full of black ink and the other full of red ink.iskrivmaterialier [ jewels family simple elegant juveler [jmveUdr] familj [jmniUj] enkel [eyjkdl] elegant [e'legayit] terials [skri'mnat^eriailidr] bound books bundna backer [bun'dna'' bdk.n!d] [la'g- a safe steel bills ett kassaskdp [polymer [voly-mdv^] lagbocker bok^dr] [kas'asko'p] stdl [stoil] vdrdepapper [v^'rddpap'dr] lawyer writing-table sakforare fo'rard] [sa'k- money [skri'v- penningat^ [peiriyar^] skrivbord boj'rd] green cloth writing gront kldde[gr0nH kh. ^ volumes codes (laws) band [ba. Most volumes are on law. a blotter. Among his various books you can see many works w^ritten by Svredish. 45 Words. pencils and a little table stands a typewriter. The Study. simple but elegant.'r trddn'] much spread mycket spridd [myk'df spridf] preserves [bly'drtspen'cor] letter-weigner brevvdg [bre'vvotg] forvarar [foe'rvarar''].'dr] stitched books ^a/if«c?e backer [hef'tadd^] Russian rysk [rys!k] covered with betdckt med [6atekH me. Translation Exercise 16.'k] begagnandet ga7)'nan''ddt] \bd- skriftstdllare [skrif'tstel'ard] copying press kopiepress [kco'pidpr€S^] poets skalder [skalddr'] I „. The writing table is covered with green cloth and provided with all the necessary writing materials (stationery): two inkstands.

-dom. Ex.: handlande. countryman. The nouns ending Ex. lordag. 7. love. 8. cock. victory. merchant. property. Ex. boy. Ex. -er (Plural -ar or Ex.46 Lesson 9. The gender I. Ex. Ex. 11.: konstndr. b) forests. month. -e 5. tupp. 2. money and the family jewels. -ande (names of persons). -lek. My father preserves in it all sorts of bills. 4. Nowadays Here is the use of typewriters is much spread. -el (Plural -ar). 6. days and sommar. 'ndr.: barndom. -skap (Plural -er).: mdlare. artist.: taming.: Idrare. . of substantives.: seger.: of the seasons. Ex. difference. frdmlingj stranger. -are. 12. -er). -ing (concrete nouns). Masculine are: a) All appellations of men and male animals. the copying-press. Ninth Lesson. teacher. 9. mdnad. Ex. -ling. The names Ex.: axel^ axe.: -ad and -nad. The safe is in the corner. Masculine. childhood. months. Ex. it is made all of steel. 3. bonde. die. painter.: egenskap. Ex.: gosse.: kdrlek. skillnad. Ex. (Plural -ar). in: Saturday. summer. : 10. c) 1. Ex.

statsrdd. The words: tree . -else. hdrad. Feminine are: a) All female Ex. Ex. anchor. esteem. The words: fjdder. feather. factory. konst. ankare. hand. altare. . avsikt. are feminine.: borjan. Swedish rivers and the names b) of trees and the nouns in -and and -ang which modify the final vowel in the plural. hona. fire.: varelse. flicka. The substantives in : -a (Plural -or). beginning. action. tem- Ex. 3. Feminine. The titles ending in -hud and -rad which are neuter. piga. Ex. -het (mostly abstract). birch-bark. Except: 1. hearing. intention. lever liver. Ex. minister. Ex. are also neuter. 7. 2. brand. (mostly abstract).: 4. The names of Ex. (mostly abstract). likelihood. hen. -st 3.The gender of substantives. The nouns in -sel are also feminine. 2. apel^ applegale (strong wind) jdst^ yeast tingest^ . aktning.: bjork. 5. -t^ Ex. 'ing (abstract -sel nouns) and -ning. Ex. school. ^ The words: II.: teori.: horsel. 6. c) 1. theory. -an (abstract nouns). hand. adevj vein. art. ambassador.: skola. willow. mdngd. -^. birch-tree. Ex.: sdndebud. . blast. fabrik. mission. mission. great deal of. being. -fidder^ elder. 4. Ex. temperatur. maid. 47 Except: 1.: sannolikhet. -d. perature. district. act. -ion and -ur (foreign words).: handling. -ik^ 8. altar. : names and appellations: girl . ndver. pil.

geni. -eum and -ium (derived from Latin). . such as ett ja. France. water-willow fdng- ghost. connection. railing. -m. 5. ett b. 9. a «yes»: Ex. betsel. master and mistress of a house. baroni. thing.: herrskap. country . strirkelse. Ex. . 7.: anforande. -e 4. avseende. Ex. : -er (unchanged in the plural). plant. the letters of the alphabet and generally the words used substantively. . Ex. study. (Plural -n). galler. lady.48 Lesson 9. drama. 3. and which are masculine. fact museum. a b. -ande and -ende (abstract nouns). afton. bakelse. 8. countries. genius.: tryckeri. buckle. morning. enclosure. conduct. barbarity. b) 1. 2. barony. strawberry. thirst. -el and Ex.: oga. kvinnfolk. drama. starch. else. -on. company. eye. printing-house. hacked straw. evening. are neuter. covering. Ex. -urn. : . faktum. prison. Except: The words: morgon. Ex. stdngsel. 6. museum studium. and vdxt. gaol. Ex. ^ors^. are masculine. III. bridle. -skap (unchanged in the plural). kompani. sto. hackelse.: Frankrike.: smultron. hdktelse^ 2. vide. spokelse.: spdnne. Ex. pastry. Ex. tdckelse. paddock. The nouns in: -a (Plural -n) and nouns in -a derived from Greek and Latin. . harhari. sheet. Neuter. The words: fruntimmer^ mare land. -an (concrete nouns). women. : lakan. Neuter are: a) The names of towns.

nordens [nco'r- [in] of the gudfruktig [gm'd. Hon grundlade i Vadstena ett nunnekloster. . Birgitta.pious fruk'tig] tyckte sig [tyk'td' thought si!g] drommar North ddn's] kvinnoi^[kvin'cor'] women [dro. dar hon sedermera var bosatt och slutigen vallfardade hon anda till Jerusalem. a Elementary Swedish Grammar. Hennes rykte spred sig vida omkring. den heliga Birgitta. Hon var mycket gudfruktig. I drommar och syner tyckte hon sig samtala med Kristus och anglarna och lat uppteckna vad de uppenbarat for henne. Pa sin alderdom begav hon sig till Rom. Hon avled 70 ar gammal i Rom Nagon tid darefter blev hon av paven under stora hogtidligheter forklarad for helgon.canonised gon [fcerkla'rad^ for! hel'gon']. sam.repute spred sig [spread spread sUg] dlderdom [ol'ddr.old age Rom dcom^] [rojhn] [po'vd7i'] vida omkring all around Rome the pope festivities [vi'da'' omkriy^ [se'dar. som blev det mest beromda kloster i hela Norden.revealed ba'rat] renown.hereafter settled pdven begav sig [hdgatv repaired sitg] hogtidligheter [h dgti'dlighe^tdr] sedermera monastery nuns of iiunnekloster [nun'dklDs'tdr] me'ra] bosatt [bco'saf] slutligen ligdn^] [sluc't- kloster [khsttdr] monastery died at the age at last avled 70^ [a'vle^d] dr gammal[otr gam'ar] pa of 70 deti tiden [po! at that time vallfdrdade fm'rdadd [val'- went on a pilgrimage ddrefter[dEtTeftdr\ afterwards den! ti'ddn^] den heliga [deni he'lig'a] the holy forklaradfor hel. 49 Words.dreams visions Idt uppteckna [UH had written syner [s^'nar'] angels dnglar [eiflar^] Kristus [kris'tus''] Christ rykte [ryk'td'] up'tek^na] uppenbarat[up'dn.tala[sam'ta^la] to converse Reading Exercise Den heliga 17. Vad vet Ni {what do you know) om den heliga Birgitta? Var hon gudfruktig? Med vem tyckte hon sig samtala i drommar och syner? Vad lat hon uppteckna? Var hennes rykte stort? Vid vilken alder avled hon? Av vem ^ blev hon forklarad for helgon? Var grundlade hon ett kloster? sjuttio = 70. Conversation. Pa den tiden levde en av Nordens markvardigaste kvinnor.The gender of substantives.

decanters. evening we eat cold meat and drink red or white wine. \ members [fruk'ostetra] tili of jdn's] the family ]medlemmar I welunch[eon]/^ ]ata tillfrukost [me'd^[e-ta' — ] lem^ar] we drink [mo'lti^- vi dricka drik'a^] [vzV meals mdltider ddr] [the] breakfast/ri^^'os^en k'ostdn''] [fru- tea coffee te [tef] [the] luncheon andra frukosten [airdra' — cakes sandwiches cold kakor {ka'kojr''] smorgdsar [sm(Er'gosar'-'\ kaffe [kafd^] ] [the] dinner middags mdltiden [mid'ags ddn] vio^lti- meat [the] supper kvdllsvarden [kvel'svaUddn] valnotstrd [va'lnot'stre] red wine white wine assemble kallmat [kal' ma't] rodvin [ro'dvi'n] vitt vin [vW viin] forsamla sam'la^] sig [for- walnuttree table cloth square to take is laid fyrkantigt kan''tigt] [fy'r- bord-duk dm^k] [hco'rd- intaga [inta'ga'] ar dukad [aetr linen the maid dishes plates linne [/m"9'] dui'kad'] lays the cloth pigan fat [pi'gan'] [tal'ri- dukar bordet [dm'dar' bco'rddf] [fa. in the morning and lunch a 1 p. The dining-room is an apartment in which all the members of the family assemble to take their meals: breakfast. W ords. m. forks. spoons and napkins. the dining matsalen[ma'tsa^Idiil napkins servetter t'dr] room apartment [sa^rve- rum (neut. The table is laid wdth a white table cloth made of very fine linen. eat e. .m. wine bottles.{eftermiddag) [ef'tdr' mid'ag'] we vi dta [vii £'ta% Translation Exercise 18. dtta.) \rumf] ifamiljens [famil'J ifrukostera we breakfasti .'t] tallrikar kar'] she puts at 8 o'clock Idgger [Ug'dr^] klockan 8^ [khk'an^] glasses wine bottles decanters glas [glais] vinhuteljer [vi'nhmtEVj] vattenkaraffiner [vat'9nkaraf'indr] inthemorningpa morgonen [movgon'dn] in the evening_p« aftonen [aj^to-ndti^] knives forks spoons knivar gafflar skedar p. The Dining Room.50 Lesson 9. tea and dinner. plates. At 5 o'clock we drink In the tea or coffee and eat some cakes or sandwiches. kniWe breakfast at 8 o'clock ves. m. A square table of walnuttree luncheon. When the maid lays the cloth she puts on the table dishes. glasses. stands in the middle of the dining room with twelve chairs around.

-fru and -hustru (profession). § 2. posthus II. By the mother's side. * By the brother's side. man systerson^. Gender of compound nouns. Norwegian. duchess varg. Spaniard tyska. I. princess hertiginna. she-ass kokerska. gentleman farbror^. sister flicka. he-wolf lejon. German (lady) woman svenska. Swedish (lady) woman spaniorska. Remarks on the nouns. lioness dsna. The female titles). Chinese (lady) woman. nephew kvinna. brother gosse. prince hertig. Compound nouns are generally of the same § 1. Ex.: husdgare (m) [from hus (n) and agave (m)]. Tiusfru (f) [from hus (n) and fru (f)]. wife butcher's German svensk. nephew ^ By sister's side. Special feminine appellations. aunt moster^. father son. woman syster dotter^.: Norronan. mother dotter. ^ the father's side. animals and -ska^ -iska (names of peoples). lion varginna. lady fader. — — — ^ By the 4* . boy herr. Norska. ass kock. she-wolf lejoninna. Chinese kinesiska. cook slaktare. Swede spanior. to the appellations appellations are formed by adding of male individuals -inna (female -erska (profession). countess furstinna. greve. daughter syster. -a. Spanish (lady) wo- man kines. § 3. cook slaktarhustru (fru). Names of peoples ending in imam) change this syllable into -ska. Note. (n) [from post (f) and hus (n)]. butcher tysk. count (earl) furste. niece. gender as the last component. uncle morbror'^. dsninna. uncle faster^. brorson^. Ex.51 Tenth Lesson. son broder. Formation of female appellations. girl fru. Norwegian (lady) woman. duke grevinna. niece brorsdotter^. moder. aunt man.

soil invid [invHd] on . shoals ZocA:. ders cylin- vals. purses path mask. lock grunder.'ud] trees flun''dra] [kus'tdn^] shore sillfiske [sil'Jis^k9\ herring-fishery sillen [sil'dn'] herri»g land.halibut byar jord \by'ar''] villages clifi"s kusfen Jdippor [klip'ojr^] trdd [tretd] [jco.Exchange (building) ^«??^. trunk funeral-pi- fjdll^loity mowii' fjall[ar\. sandbank bankar.gr. trunks lofty hdl. stdllningar [stel'- stands nets • fishing Bohusldn htasle'n] [bo)'- Bohusliin shires niyar'] ndteu [nctdn^] storfiske [stoj'rjislco] great fishery ling landskapen Uan'dska'pdn] fiskamci kama'] gdn] \fis'- the fishers Idnga [loya^] veckor [vek'cor^] torsk [tortsk] weeks cod fiskldgen [Jls'kU. reef not. thrush masker. drag-net bocker. fishing-line Neuter. ??of. Feminine.s•^*a7'. masks (no plural) cod-fis- hes valsar. banks borsar. curl. books notar. Double plural. lines. borser. ball baler. reefs. Exchange (buildings) gdnger. Double gender. bank 6ors. cylinder gdngar. III. time banker. hdl.earth. not. bal. motives grund.fishing places hdlleflun dralhel'd. worms ^or. bales bank. Masculine. trees beech- note r%. sand- bal. notes vdgor. tain fjdll^ scales mountains grund. cattle rev. shoal lock. fisket [fis'kdt^] [the] fishery. lids lockar.52 Lesson 10. purse ^a72. locks curls. Feminine. times mask. scale hdl^ les and meaning: hdlar. drag-nets vdgar. balls bank. lid grund. walnut rev. waltzes. scales &o^'. fishing- notter. waves. not. bale 5<2Z«r. scales v«^. >Vor(ls. worm torsk. § 4. banks bors. paths maskar. motive lock. wave noter. walnuts revar. book wo^. cod-fish vals. mask ^orsZ:. bok. waltz valser. Neuter. cattle rev. funeral-pile fjdll. beech-tree bokar. The following nouns have a double gender Masculine.

Idngt ut and so forth etc.'t] western southern somUga[sDm'Uga'] some borta {bod'ta'] away fdnga olika [foya'] to catch most idkas [idkas'] [oj'lika'] .. .an [etn they give themselves to various etn\ now . vun'dn^] amongst Reading Exercise Fisket i 19. de ligga da borta i flera veckor och fanga torsk.^) Sillfisket Om vintern idkas invid kusten har under olika tider varit olika rikt. I Bohuslan. situated vid [vi!d] on. Conversation.generally torka [torka'] far a [fa'ra'] overallt[0'V9rart] everywhere to dry to go men'he^t] vdstra [ves'tra'] sodra [so dra'] mest [mes. ofta inklamda bland nakna klippor utan Overallt ser man stallningar trad och utan odlingsbar jord. Dessa aro byar.cdva'rdn] ^ villebrddet bro'ddt] the flock hjorden [jcoUddn] 2 far away. the nouns. Om pa sa kallat storfiske. liksom i allmanhet i vastra och sodra landskapen. liggande[Ug'andd^] lying.'d\ givande [ji'vanda'] productive forsvunnenlfcers. an har det varit utomordentligt givande. 53 naked barren arable abundant nakna [na'kna^] [oj'd- utomor dentil gt [la'tomod'denHlikt] extraordinarily odlingsbar liy'sbar] ndsfan liksom I almost [nes'taii^] like [li'ksom''] aUmdnhet [iV al. I vilket Ian bo de fiesta fiskarna? Var ligga fiskelagena? om sommaren? Vad for fiskar fangar man i Nordsjon? Nar idkas sillfisket? Har sillfisket alltid lika givande? Vart fara fiskarna Words. Sverige. [the] domestic husdjuren animals jm'rdn] [hm's- the hound jakthunden hun'ddu] hun'ddn] [jak't- the dog friend the bitch hunden Uiun'ddn] the shepherd's/ar^wncZe/* [fo'r- van [v€.compressed bland [blan. = = .disappeared. an har sillen under manga ar varit nastan forsvunnen. langa helgeliga fiundra o. sommaren fara somfor naten eller att torka fisk pa.. . ofta langt ut^) at Nordsjon. now inklamdalinkUm' . near oft a [of'ta^] da'] often da ..Eemarks on rikt [riktt] rich. bo fiskarna mest i fiskelagen.'n] hyndan Uiywdan'] dog the hunter the game jdgaren [je'garan'] [vil'd- hu7idar [hun'dar^] dogs the watch-dog gdrdvaren [go.. v. = (och sa vidare). ett rikt sillfiske. s. liggande vid stranden.

fo'rdf] [uli] fdret ull oxen [ojk'sdii^] vagnen [vay'iidn^] plogen [plco'gdn'] tjuren [cm'rdn'] kalven (kal'vdn''] geten [je'tdn] . hdstarna na'] [hes'tar- the mar( stona [stoj'na'^ the ass dsnan [o[o-sna^] in the meadow p« cincjen [jpot £7)'9n''] the she-ass the cat dsninnan 7iin'an''] \os- katten ycat'dii^] tuppen na'] honorna kon figg [tup'dn'] [ho'nojv- folet [f0'l9f] [kco'ii] mjolk [mjol'k] bg^ [.54 the horses Lesson 11.

jag hade du hade han hade P. Indicative. Sul)junctive. OS bO Perfect. 3 S. haft. jag hade haft du hade haft han hade haft P. jag skall hava haft du skall hava haft han skall hava haft P. had. having. vi skulle hava hava I skullen hava de skulle hava skulle han 2-£^ Conditional past. jag skulle hava du skulle hava 1—1 *^ P. havande. jag har du har han har VI S. S. 55 Infinitive. jag (have) or md md du (have) or md hava haft han (have) or md hava haft (have) or or or hava haft P. vi (have) or 1 (haven) or de (have) or >M hava I haven (han) de hava (ha) md hava man hava md hava S Imperfect. P. vi hade haft I haden haft de hade haft S. vi I (haven) de (have) man hava hava haft haft hava haft ^ O e8' md Pluperfect. JETava. S.The auxiliary verbs. du skall hava han skall hava vi skola hava I skolen hava de skola hava Future past. jag skall hava Conditional. jag har haft du har haft ha7i har haft vi hava haft I haven haft de hava haft S. Present. S. Participle present. to have. Supine. vi hade I haden de hade S. Future. I skolen hava haft de skola hava haft ja^ skulle hava haft du skulle hava haft han skulle hava haft vi skulle hava haft I skullen hava haft de skulle hava haft o a Or matte. S. vi skola hava haft J« P. vi (hade) or skulle hava I (haden) or skullen hava de (hade) or skulle hava S. P. jag (have) or md hava du (have) or Tnd hava han (have) or md hava (ha) P. . jag (hade) or skulle^ hava haft haft haft haft haft haft du (hade) or skulle hava han (hade) ov skulle hava vi (hade) or skulle hava I (haden) ov skullen hava de (hade) or skullen hava S. jag (hade) or skulle hava du (hade) or skulle hava han (hade) or skulle hava P.

b. The forms havom and haver are antiquated. varit. S_ " S. Pres. I han. it instead of vi hava. jag du (vare) or md vara han (vare) or md vara vi (vare) or (vare) or md vara P. have. vi vore or skulle vara I voren or skullen vara de vore or skulle vara Perfect. let us have haven (haver). have (thou) Idt orri OSS hava (havom).56 Impcratiye. Indicative. being. Perf.ri (hade) or skulle hava I (haden) or skullen hava de (hade) or skulle hava varit varit varit varit varit varit rt e3 Or matte. are used 2.jag hade varit du hade varit han hade varit P. Participle present. Note Note 1. is never written with a capital letter. jag har varit du har varit han har varit P. Supine. Sul)jnnctive. md I (var en) or de (vare) vr vara vara md vara mdn S. jag (have) or md hava varit du (have) or md hava varit han (have) or md hava varit P. jag vore or skulle vara du vore or skulle vara han vore or skulle vara P.jag (hade) or skulle^ hava du (hade) or skulle hava han (hade) or skulle hava P. vara. . vi (have) or md hava varit I (haven) or mdn hava varit de (have) or md hava varit s s S. de hava. Int. vi hava varit I haven varit de hava varit S. The pronoun I (ye. Note 5. P. In general conversation vi ha.ti hade varit varit ^ I haden ^ de hade darit Pluperfect. Present. jag var du var han var voro 1 voren P. Lesson 11. de ha. «ia^» /. vi de voro Imperject. Infinitive. varande. I haven. Infinitive. been. to have had to be about to skola hava. The periphrastic forms of the tenses of the subjunctive mood are more frequently used. you) is written with a capital letter. Note 4. hav. unless occurs at the beginning of a sentence. have (ye) hava hava or lia^ to have haft. S. jag ar du ar han dr vi dro I dren de dro S. Note 3. S. to be.

auxiliary verbs. 57 .The Future.

disguised under [un!ddr] horde [h(£\idd'] tola om [ta'la' om'} talk(ing) intended kUd'] trdffade \tref'add^] met.58 Lesson 11. kitchen-gar- tala om? \ kokstrddgdrd [gok'strwD^jid] vegetables gronsaker [gro'nsa'kdr] den wall the gardener vdgg [vegf] trddgdrdsmdstaren [frrgojd- radishes spinage love-apples' rddisor [re'di^sojr] spenat [spena. Under sin fangenskap horde han danskarna tala om det stora krigstag de amnade foretaga mot Sverige. Hans fader var radsherre och en av Sturarnas trognaste anhangare. Var foddes Gustav Vasa? Vem var bans fader? Mot vem kampade han? Av vem blev han forradiskt gripen? Vad horde han under sin fangenskap danskarna Huruledes flydde han till Lybeck? Vem traffade han i denna stad? Nar aterkom han till Sverige? Words.treacherously diskt] kdnde [gen'dd^ oemotstdndlig felt irresistible hortford [hoji't- taken away during heard over [ox em ojtston'dlig] forklddd [fo'r. forrddiskt [fcere!. Da voro danskarna redan i besittning av storre delen av landet. troligen ar 1497. Pa ensliga vagar smog han sig fran det ena stallet till det andra och kom slutligen till en av sin faders gar dar. som forde honom over till Sverige om varen 1520. came across dmnade [em'nadd^] foretaga [fo'rdta^ga] redan [re'dan'] already undertak(ing) smog si-g] sig [smo^g slipped. Gustav Eriksson Vasa foddes i Uppland pa garden Lindholmen. Sasom yngling kom Gustav till Sten Stares hov.'t] kdrleksdpplen [ga?'rlefcsep^h7i] seeds fron mes'tard] [fro^n] asparagus sparris [spar . Reading Exercise 21. Ravsnas i Sodermanland. Conversation. Kort darpa blev han av den trolose Kristian forradiskt gripen och bortford till Danmark. Han kampade tappert i striderna mot Kung Kristian och i slaget vid Brannkyrka bar han den svenska fanan. Gustav kande da en oemotstandlig langtan att fa komma hem och kampa for faderneslandet. Forkladd flydde han fran Danmark till Lybeck och traffade dar en skeppare. Gustay Yasas nngdom.

the hoe and the rake. We shall have plenty of vegetables in spring and summer radishes. In spring horse radishes are tough. It is time to transplant cabbages. parsley and sorrel. beans. The kitchen-garden.The tomatoes adjective. Asparagus are soft and wholesome vegetables. Behind our house we have a large kitchen-garden. These : love-apples are red. 59 spaden hackan [spa'ddn^] [hak'an^] rdfsan [ref'san^] omgiven [om'ji''vd7i\ sdtt [sott] seg [seig] mjuk mogen [mjuifk] hdlsosam [heVsMsamy\ [moj'gdn^] flytta Cflyt'a'] det dr tid [deit etr ti'd] utrotar tar]. carrots. spinage. asparagus. onions. [m'tr cot- Translation Exercise 22. . love-apples. The gardener has sowed many seeds. The gardener roots up the weeds in the boarders. cauliflowers. they are ripe. The gardener's tools are: the spade. It is surrounded by a high wall. salad.

A.: mogen^ Tnoget. 1. the inflection of which is -t. Masculine. trogen. in the plural the vowel preceding -en. ddel. Ex. ny. Ex. When the adjectives are declined according § 4. en god gosse Plur. tapper.: gammal. the inflection of which is -a. weak declension has for the § three genders and both numbers the same inflection -a. Those ending in -al. goda ham.: hlind neuter: » » hlint mild aktad Note -tt in 6. Note 4. -er (unaccented) drop Ex. as well Note 5. gamla. ddla. -el. taking the neuter inflection -t.: fast. A A Note. to this form they are generally preceded by the InThe definite or dependent definite article (fristaende artikel): . gott ham goda Note gossar. 3. hldtt. -I. mogna. neuter: gott. Those ending in -d preceded by a consonant. mogen. common form for the three genders in the c) plural. trott -t preceded by a consonant or in -tt etc. The that end in an accented vowel double -t in the neuter. Ex. as participles in -ad change -d in -t in the neuter. troget. Ex. of -a. Participles in -ad and superlatives in -ast take -e instead Examples.: grd^ grdtt. hid. in the singular form for the masculine and feminine whereby the adjective requires no b) particular form for the neuter in the singular. -n. The indefinite or strong declension has three different forms: a) A common alteration. Indefinite Form. goda adjectives fiickor. Note Note 3. milt aktat. tappra.: god. en god fiicka ett Neuter. § 2. B. Feminine. -r. nytt. The adjectives in remain unchanged in the neuter. Those ending in -en (unaccented) drop the -n before 2. in -d preceded Those ending by a vowel change d in fhe neuter. Ex. stolt.60 Lesson 12. Definite Form. Sing.

: article or predicatively. good wine vinet dr gott. Plural. ett gott ham. 3. a good child. de de de goda gossarne goda fiickorna goda barnen. C. every brave soldier.: gode Gud! svenske man! b) When the adjective is not followed by a noun or when it is used after a proper noun as a surname. gott vin. The Without Ex. det » » three genders in the plural. a good girl. . excepted in some cases which will be treated in the Lesson on the Pronouns. » » neuter in the singular. With the indefinite Ex. § adjectives should be declined according to the strong declension when used: 1. Use of the modes of inflections. Ex. Ex. 6. Note 2 and 4 apply also to the adjectives declined after the definite form. Singular. 61 den for the masculine and feminine in the singular. Ex. Charles the Great. en god flicka. 4.The adjective. a) is of In exclamations and in solemn apostrophes. With the interrogative pronouns. NB.: vilket sott sockerf § weak The adjectives are declined according to the declension when used: 7. de Here it must be observed that the qualified noun has the terminal definite article although the adjective is preceded by the independent definite article. the wine is good.: den gode. Participles in -ad and superlatives in -ast take -e instead -a. (goda filckor) (good girls). god man. Examples. 2. With the indefinite pronouns. a good man. as when declined according to the indefinite form. den goda (e) gossen den goda flickan det goda harnet.: en article. . NB. Ex. § 5.: varje tapper soldat. the good (man or woman) Karl den Store. In the masculine singular the inflection -e It should always be used instead of -a: also used.

: jag olyckliga mdnniska! min gode van! : 3. gruvan [grrn'ran^] the mine maimer [maltmdr] dmnen [em'ndn''] inre [in. Ex. hra.62 Lesson 12. In this case the adjective is generally preceded by the article (see B. the father's large estates. such as: in ode. s in the genitive when used as but: substantives. § 4). b) all These adjectives have the same termination they take an : cases.: terminal definite ar- NB. Remarks. usual. 2. faderns stora egendoinar. good etc. the virtuous man's misfortune. Words. a) Some adjectives are indeclinable. Ex. After the personal. den dygdige mannens olycka.^rd] herget [hserjtdt] meter [mettdr] gruvor [grui'vcor^'] at alia sidor al'd^ si'dojr''] [^oit : gdngar [goyar''] [ne'd- rum [rumf\ nedgdngen goy'dn] oppning [op'niy'] brunn stegar [brunf] [ste'gar^] korgar [kor'jar^] tunnor [tun'ojr^] pd dagen [po! da'gdn^] lampor [lam'pojr^] bloss [blosf] upplyste lys^td] [up'- nyttiga [nyt'iga^] . gdngse. independent definite After a noun in the genitive case. Before a noun with the ticle. Ex. Ex. the French language. the virtuous (man's) misfortune. den dygdiges olycka. relative and demonstrative pronouns. etc. waste. 1. possessive. franska sprdket.

om man ej upplyste den med lampor eller bloss. low- [/o. For mider Dessa hel att jordens inre sig djupt ner i berget jorden. talet [otr or pot tatldt] land streams volcano strommar m'ar*^] by the French av fransmdnnen [stro- [a.chain of moun. the earth jorden [jutrddn] ett a ball Mot [eti klojtt] the Isthmus the bays the peninsula ndset Ine'sdt] havsvikama [hav'svi'karna] the universe vdldsalUet[vse'dds- aUdt] the equator line halvon [hal'vo^n] ekvatorn [ekva'- round rund [rwitd] moves hemisphere quarters surface linje [linih [Unijd] Hot [Jial'vJialvklot infinite fictitious ror sig [rd!r siig] odndlig \oj'En^dlig\ finger ad[Ji7)jeiraa\ lik(a) [li'ka^^ kWt] fjdrdedelar[fjss'jiddde'lar] similar divides yta [yta'] southern northern flat delar [de'lar^] sydlig [sydligl nordlig [noj'MUg^] slat [sh. I sjalva gruvan skuUe vara kolmorkt aven pa dagen.^t] oceaner[Q)' seaindr] the m2im-\2inAfastland€t [fas-tlan'ddt] the continents kontinenterna [kon'tinen'tdrna'] tracts of land oceans wide spitting fire vidstrdckt strek^t] [vi'd- eldsprutande [el'dsprm'tande] landstrdckor [lan'dstrEk^ojr] Idgland [lo'glan'd] leads in the year for dr plains. utvidgas at alia sidor^ sa att de slutligen besta av en komma at maimer och har man fatt spranga andra nyttiga amnen i mangd gangar och rum. Conversation. Sa far man gruvor. Dar nere kunna ofta flera hundra manniskor arbeta.. 63 Reading Exercise 23. sund vdg [sun'd] way [v€!g] uddar . Nedgangen till en gruva utgor vanligen blott en smal oppning.V] or pd . .bergskedja[bser'jstams ge'dja] strait topparna hojder rocky heights capes klippig [klip'ig'] [hojtddr] [ud'ar^].'vfran'smin^dn] in the Alps pd Alperna al'p9rna'] [po. stundom flera hundra meter.The adjective. Grruyan.' vulkan [vulka'n] the summits fna^] [top'ar- . som ser ut som en brunn man stiger ner pa branta stegar eller hissas utfor i korgar eller tunnor. . gora for att komma at maimer jordens inre? Varav bestar en gruva? Huru manga manniskor kunna arbeta i en gruva ? Huru ser nedgangen till en gruva ut? Vad har man fatt i Hur ypplyses gruvoma? Words.

Translation Exercise 24. which are called plains. that spits fire is called a volcano. deep bays and rocky the flat peninsulas. lika or likasa fattig . . . The earth is round like a ball. The aifected by two degrees: A. . Glaciers are heights covered with ice. Ex. .: lika rik as poor . Three quarters of the surface of the earth are covered by seas and deep oceans.. The main-land is divided into two continents: the old and new continents. . into three § 2. The adjective (continued). it moves in the infinite The equator is a fictitious line. Formation of the comparative. Degrees of comparison. The Isthmus of Suez was cut by the French in the year 1870. A strait is a way that leads from one sea into another sea. . deep and vdde A mountain valleys (through) in which great rivers flow. Ex. that divides the universe.64 Lesson 13. The comparative which expresses an equal deand which is formed by the words: lika or likasa gree b) placed before the positive. On the main-land are high mountains. classes : The comparatives may be divided a) The comparative which expresses a superior degree and which is formed in the regular way.. pieces of land. richer. The sea-shores consist of steep capes. There are many glaciers in the Alps. .. as rich . rikare. The earth. earth into two similar hemispheres. superlative. rich. II. The summits of the highest mountains are covered with eternal snow.: rik. A chain of mountains consists of several mountains. Thirteenth Lesson. comparison of Swedish adjectives is the comparative and the § 1. by adding -are to the positive. . that is.

icke (lika) sd rik not so rich Ex. . a) by adding the syllable when superlative attributive is regularly formed -ast to the positive and is used followed by a noun (which may be understood). . . These flowers are (the) prettiest (in German: am c) jc^onften). Formation of the superlative. The superlative may be: attributive. hogst. hogst angendm. «As» is translated by som. is Han is dr rikare an min fader. -es. «Thaii» is translated by an.. § 3. -se. -en. am the youngest (son).The adjective (continued). . mindre rik NB. but used after the verb «mm» as predicate and variable. -isk and the polysyllabic participles form their comparative by Elementary Swedish Grammar. : Dessa blommor dro vackrast. 2. predi- cative or absolute. n and r in the formation of the comparative and superlative. 1. that is is without comparison formed by placing such words asi mycket. Ex. . richer than my father. most agreeable. very good. : Han He He B. : The Bosen dr den vackraste hlomman . The adjectives ending in -al. . quite blue.: mycket god. . alldeles. . before the positive. ganska. not so strong as I (am). -er (unaccented) drop the vowel preceding I. Ex. The superlative absolute. The rose is the prettiest flower Jag dr den yngste (sonen). in is b) The superlative predicative is formed same manner as the superlative attributive. Ex. riper. the only is in- Ex. -e. . I . dr icke sd stor som jag. . ripe. Polysyllabic adjectives in -ad. g . -el. 65 c) The comparative which expresses an inferior degree and which is formed by the words: mindre or icke (lika) sd placed before the positive. . . alldeles bid. : .: mogen. mognare. mognast. Ex. Remarks. (the) ripest.

mest krigisk. Notice the following adjectives which form their degrees of comparison like those in -a. : . placing the adverb mera and their superlative b}' placing the adverb mest before the positive. stillast. Ex. warlike mera krigisk .66 Lesson 13. Positive. rative the positive. 4. 3. : The adjectives ending in -a form their compaand superlative by adding only -re and -st to stilla. krigisk. still . stillare . . Ex.

67 Ex. near- Words. least mest. blodbad ba'd\ \bloj'd- slaughter till doden [ti'l dei. smdrre. oldest bdst. old bra. c) The superlative absolute Singular. ndrmast. better minst.deposition sif'niT)] vdntade \vvrvtdid^''\ was awaiting dodade^de'dadds'] were killed tillsatte [til'sat'd] instituated domdes [dom'dds'] were condemcourt (of Ju- domstol [doj'mstco'U ned stice) [po. is unchanged. vdrre. much mera. bad sdmre. mindre. E. many ndra near.The adjective (continued). fa. more flera manga (plur. furstarne dro mycket rika flickorna dro mycket vackra barnen dro mycket sndlla.). Ex. : superlative predicative remains Dessa blommor dro vackrast. best minst. — mesta — ndrmare. § 6. mien. b) The Ex.). worse small gammal.invited dit] ones . Positive. Irregular comparisons. nearer. liten (sing. ddlig.: fursten dr ntycket rik fiickan dr mycket vacker barnet dr mycket sndllt. elak (ond). smaller » » smd (plur.). hall ring [riy!] bodeln [boiddln] ring the executio- slott \sht:'\ ner sal [sa. indefinite form. less mi/cfcen (sing.^n] look throne beslut€t[bdslm.^ hy Hades dds'] [hyl'a- was sworn allegiance a forhc pd forhand forhanid] de anklagade kla^gadd\ beforehand the accused [a?i* krontes [kron'tds^] was crowned inbjudit [hvbjm^. older bdttre. declined like the Plural. Superlative. est.). good dldre.: den rikaste fursten den vackraste fiickan det flitigaste barnet de rikaste furstarne de vackraste flickorna de flitigaste barnen. Comparative. ndst.to death soldiers ddn] mdnnen svek stdt [stoif] [sve.'k] pomp deceit knektar tar'] [knek'- \mentm\ the men (treachery) castle room. smallest » smdrst. vdrst. god. sdmst.'Z] uppsyn iron [up'sy'ri] face. svdrdet [svseirddt] the sword uppstdllda \up' posted steVda} [trco. few fdrre. most fldsta. worst didst.'t9t] the decision avsdttning [a*t*.

commanded dd'] samlades 'dds] [sam'la'. som han tillsatte. fomdmsta n€m'sta\ visade sig [fce'Ji- forfoljt \vi'- showed self him- fom [fce'v- persecuted avsatt [a'vsaf^ matte straffas samtyckte [sam'tyk'td] nddig [no'dig^] tankte \t€7)'td^'\ clement thought distinguished called together should be punished consented framstdende [fram'sto'dndd] uppkallade [up'karadd] 'it [de'lta^git] partaken deliagit [c befallde [bdfaT. Till hogtidlighetema hade han Han inbjudit de fornamsta mannen i riket och deras fruar. Konungen kom in med mork uppsyn och satte Infor honom framtradde nu Gustav Trolle sig pa sin tron. matte straffas. Stockholms blodbad.were led out d9s' uc't] framtrddde [fram'tre'dd] appeared avrdttas[a'vr€t^as] be executed. En dag i november 1520 blevo de mest framstaende svenskarna uppkallade till Stockholms slott. att alia. som forfoljt och avsatt honom.68 Lesson most eminent 13. som deltagit i beslutet om Gustav Trolles avsattning. Domen var pa forhand avgjord: de anklagade domdes till doden. och begarde.assembled std till rdtta [sto^ to sue at law til! ret'a'] mork [mcer!k] satte sig [sat'd'] gloomy sat (upon) avgjord [a'vjcor^d] decided fordes ut [fcR'ji. visade sig iiadig mot alia. De samlades i en sal pa slottet. Darpa fordes de ut till att avrattas. Nu dodades 82 av de fornamsta svenskarna. och inom denna viintade bodeln med svardet. skulle sta till ratta infor en domstol. tes i Nu Conversation. Pa Stortorget voro danska knektar uppstallda i en ring. begdrde [hdjseirdd] demanded Reading Exercise 25. men i sitt sinne tankte han pa svek. hyllades Kristian II sasom Sveriges konung och kronStockholm med stor stat. Vem hyllades sasom Sveriges konung? Var krontes han? Vad skedde under dessa hogtidligheter? Vad vet Ni om detta blodbad? Vilket ar agde det rum? Vad begarde Gustav Trolle? Vad befallde konungen? tillsattes domstolen? vad domdes de anklagade? Hum manga av de fornamsta svenskarna dodades? Av vem Till . Konungen samtyckte hartill och befallde. att de.

ten. -vret [kvik'sirvdr] hard ductile are dug out hard [hoidd] malmen {maHmdn] jdrnbleck. -et \kotl\ [rostar [ros'tar'] fukt [fuktt] massing. is used to solder other metals. Cast iron flows out of blast-furBrass is not so hard as steel. silver is and platina are precious metals. it smelts very easily. gold silver guld.'] precious fusible bly. 69 Words. Precious metals are not the most useful. naces. -et [jut't- rusts ros'tig't] mixture coal jeeUn] blandning. Fourteenth Lesson. . Platina Gold. tenn. The Swedish language has four conjugations which are distinguished by the termination of the supine. Tin tin-plate. heavier than silver.'] tdnjbar [tsn'jba'r] graves ut [gre'vds' m. -et [jseUn] [ko- copper mercury.'t] -et [jds'Miblsk^] -et smelted or smalt [smelit] [ten! dipped is used to solder doppad [dop'ad'] brukas [brm'kas'] loda [le'da'] (Mir rostigt < tin-plate Ijusbleck. -et [gul'd] -n [pla'- blast-furnace steel masugn. pla. -en[m€S'- ¥]' Translation Exercise 26. Metals. -et blek'] [jiit's- [bli. -en damp brass Iblan'dniy'] kol. Iron rusts easily when exposed to damp weather. The ore as well as most metals are dug out of the earth. tina stdl. -et [bly!] dyrbar [dy'rba'r\ smdltbar [smel'tba'r] jam. -en p'ar'] smelts easily smdlter [smel'tar''] latt [htt] kvicksilver. Silver is harder than gold and more ductile than copper. quick-silver the ore iron-plate tin koppar. it is the heaviest metal.platina. Lead is more fusible than iron. The verb. Iron-plate dipped into smelted tin becomes Cast iron is a mixture of iron and coal.'r cast-iron gjutjdm.The verb. Copper is not so heavy as quicksilver. -et [stoH] heavier than tyngre an [tgyrd' metals lead iron metaller. -na [metal'dr] en. § 1. -vret[sil'vdr] platinum. suy^n] -en [ma'- silver.

The termination of the supine -at for -t is: » the P* conjugation. § 2. P. jag dlskade or skulle or matte dlska du dlskade or skulle or matte dlska han dlskade or skulle or matte dlska. or dlska du dlske or dlska han dlske or dlska. -sa ding in -iga^ -la. -ska. vi dlske or tna dlska I dlsken or dlska dlska. Present. dlskade I dlskaden de dlskade. I S. Alska^ to love. md hava . -ra. vi hava dlskat I haven dlskat de hava dlskat. I S. vi I dlska dlsken de dlska. I S. § 3. P. P. § 4. vi han dlskade. Active volee. have loved etc. loye etc. or weak First conjugation.70 Lesson 14. Indicatiye. and -ta. -at in the supine. It takes: -ade in the imperfect indicative. jag dlskade du dlskade S. md hava dlskat du md hava dlskat han md hava dlskat. » » 2^^ » » S'-^ 'tt -it » » » 4*^ » The first three conjugations are called regular conjugations and the fourth irregular or strong conjugation. or skullen or mdttefti dlska or skulle or matte dlska. P. vi md hava dlskat I man hava de dlskat dlskat. de dlske or jag dlske md md md man md Imperfect. Sul)juiictive. jag P. -ad in the past participle. I S. or may have loved etc. I have S. I loved or might love etc. jag har dlskat du har dlskat han har dlskat. The -erttj first conjugation contains the verbs en-na. jag dlkaf" du dlskar' han dlskar P. loYed etc. vi dlskade or skulle or matte dlska I dlskaden de dlskade Perfect. love or may love etc.

I S. jag hade du hade han hade vi hade I haden de hade or » skulle skulle skulle skullen skulle > > > > matte matte matte matte mdtten matte Conditional. jag dlskes or md dlskas du dlskes or md dlskas han dlskes or md dlskas. I shall S. vi skidle hava dlskat. hava dlskat I skullen hava dlskat de skulle hava dlskat. dlska. Subjunctive. Int. jag hade alskat du hade alskat han hade alskat vi hade alskat I haden alskat de hade alskat. let Infinitive. loving. etc. Participles. dlska. loved. P. vi skola hava dlskat. should love etc. I S. dlskom. hava dlskat I skolen hava dlskat de skola hava dlskat. love to be about to love. . loved. jag skall dlska du skall dlska han skall dlska. Perf. skulle Imperative. vi dlskes or md dlskas I dlskens or man dlskas de dlskes or md dlska. to have skola dlska. having dlskat. dlskande. I S. jag dlskas du dlskas han dlskas. Indicative. P. jag skall hava dlskat du skall hava dlskat jag skulle hava dlskat du skulle hava dlskat P. have loved etc. hava dlskat. Present. I am loved etc. Pres. Perf. had loved etc. vi skulle dlska I skullen dlska de skulle dlska. Future past. Future. I S. Sup. havande dlskat. to love. dlsken. Passive voice. should have loved etc. VI skola dlska skolen dlska de skola dlska. skall han han P. Pres. S. P. us love.The verb. vi dlskas I dlskens de dlskas. P. he or may he loved etc. I S. shall love I S. P. 71 Pluperfect. ye. Conditional past. I jag skulle dlska du skulle dlska han skulle dlska. love. had or might have loved or skulle » > > » > etc. loved. P.

vi dlskades P. S.72 Lesson 14. Ja^ ^ar dlskats du har dlskats han har dlskats. I S. jag ma hava dlskats . jag dlskades du dlskades Tian dlskades. jag dlskades or skulle or matte du dlskades or skulle or matte han dlskades or skulle or matte vi dlskades or skulle or T/ia^^e I dlskadens or skullen or mdtten de dlskades or sfcwZ/e or wdffe Perfect. vi hava dlskats I hava dlskats de hava dlskats. 7 dlskadens de dlskades. P. I were or might be loved etc. have heen loved etc. I have S. was loved etc. P. S. or may have heen loved. Imperfect.

I. Plur. hette Ind.'] to the east of strax intill quite near allt kunglig [kuy'lig'] royal ever since ifrdn [altt ifroin] begravna [strakis intiH] [6a- buried gra'vna'] hredvid\hre'dvitd] close to tvdrton^tvBBJi-tom''] vice versa vanligtvis [va'n.d] built ndmligen [nem'ligdn'] namely new. Conjugation.of the Holy Ghost an'ds] bygffd [byg.the gdt] ddr] at norr [o!t nor!] i vaster [tV ves.'tdr'] oster om [os.'tdr om. The jag Mir (dr) dlskad etc. Present. Stockholm. Supine: (ilskats Note. I was loved. jag blev (var) dlskad etc. Stockholm ar en av de vackrast belagna stader i Europa. Irregular verbs of the Infinitive.'dn] the fartyget [fa'rty'.'t se.'- to the south to the north in the west in the east anden [an'dd'n] riksdag shuset [rik'sda'gshm' S'dt] house sluice vessel slussen [slus.are formed out jo'rds a.'ri- thereby divided goUddn] garden the ghost parliament- je'n'om] delat [de'laf] at soder [o. [sunJd'] straits uppfyllda [up' up [vi'kar^] JyMa] lummiga[lum'iga'] bushy sjdlv [fsl'v] itself ldvskog[l0'vskoj'g^ foliage dungar [du7far'] clumps soder [so. Imperfect.usually liktvi^s] beldgen [bdUigdn^ situate(d) helgeands [hd'jd. ny [ny.'v'] of skilda [fil'da^] separated filled sund. holmar och halvoar. Supine.'] Reading Exercise 27. vikar pi. skilda av sund och vikar samt . 73 been loved. I am loved.'] utgores av \m't. hetat heta to be named heter heta kunna leva veta vilja to be able to live to kan level" kunna leva veta vilja kunde levde visste ville kunnat levat vetat velat.the zoological ddrigenom [d€.. know vet vill will Words.The verb.'tdr] i oster [i' os. utlopp [m'tlop^] mouth salt-sea saltsjo [sal'tfo^] holmar [hol'mar^^ islets halvdar\hal'v0ar^\ peninsulas around kring [kriy. Sing. Hela trakten kring Malarens utlopp i ^Saltsjon" utgores av sma oar.'ddr] south malmenlmal'mdnl the suburb djurgdrden [jui'r. = passive voice is also formed by the auxiliary verbs <hlivai> and ^vara^ and the participle perfect past..

vattnet i Malaren star namligen vanligtvis hogre an i „Saltsjon''. Sjalva Stockholm ligger pa flera holmar och halvoar och ar darigenom delat i flera delar: I mitten ligger „Staden'' pa en holme mellan „Norrstrom" och „Soderstr6m" at soder „Sodermalm''.Helgeandsholmen''. skogar och lummiga lovskogsdungar..viskade [vis'ka'dd] ing industrious polite flitig [flitig'] hdvlig [ho'vlig'] indulgent [soj}'- skonsam [skco'n- sdngldrare W'rard] master pupils class Idrjungar juy^ar] [Ise'r- blames punishes strict rooms klassrum [klas'- impartial sam'] tadlar [tad'lar^^ straffar \^straf'ar^'\ Strang \str£y^ opartisk [oj'par^tisk]. Bredvid ^Soderstrom" ar en sluss byggd for fartyg. Oster om „Staden" at ^Saltsjon" till ligga „Skeppsholmen*' och ^Djurgarden'^ „Staden'' ar Stockholm aldsta del.74 Lesson 14.. . buildings hyggnader\hyg'nad^dr] professors Idrare \l£'rard^\ merchant lesson kopman [gd'pman^] lundervisning [uwj head-master \iskol)fdrestdndare I [foTdston^dard] dormitories ddrvis^niy] [lektion [Ukfcotri] sovsalar lar] [so'vsa'- children is ham \haiji7i\ conducted forvaltas valtas] [foR'r- dining-rooms infirmary matsalar [ma'tsa^lar] IS composed bestdr av [bdsto'r of a. . Conyersation. Har ar det „Kmigliga Slottet" och pa en liten holme strax intill ligger „Riddarholmskyrkan".'v] sjukrum rum^] [fuck[skco'l- spacious quiet rymlig \rym'lig^^ stilla \stil'a^'\ school-rooms teachers of skolrum rum'] scolded grdlade la^dd] pa \_gr€'- languages drawing master rard\ writing master skrivldrare[skri'vU^rard] singing sprdkldrare[spro'kh^rard] ritldrare [ri'tU''' was whisper. holme.Saltsj6n'* eller tvartom. som skola ga fran Malaren till .atnorr „Norrmalm" samt ^Kmigsholmen" i vaster och „Ostermalm*^ i oster. Pa en annan . ligger det nya „Riksdagshuset". Ar Stockholm en vacker stad? Av vad Pa vad utgores trakten kring Malarens utlopp ligger sjalva i Saltsjon ? Stockholm? I hum manga delar ar Stockholm delat? Vilka aro Stockholms viktigaste byggnader? Vad ar byggt det bredvid Soderstrom? Words. dar konungarna allt ifran Gustav II ligga begravna. uppfyllda av sma branta berg.

four class-rooms. past participle. he blames us often but punishes us very seldom. to bend. a singing master. Passive voice. -t in the supine. composed of three spacious dormitories. four pupils are absent they must be ill. Present. are divided into two classes: gation a) To the first class belong all verbs the root of which ends in -k. o. i. Our director scolded the merchant's son because he was always whispering during Our school is . to buy. two dining-rooms. and masters. but contains one of the vowels: -de in the imperfect indicative. -s.The verb. The School. -s. To the second class belong all verbs the root in the b) of which does not end a. jag du han . -t. -d in the past participle. a writing master and two other teachers. y. Kopa. in -k. Indicative. a Latin and Greek master. These verbs take: in the imperfect indicative. The school is It is conducted by a very learned director. Are all present to-day? No. Our teachers are very strict but impartial. e. Active voice. belonging. the lesson.to the second conju§ 1. one of the finest buildings in the town. parents Industrious and polite children are loved by their Is your master indulgent? Yes. Fifteenth Lesson. y. Second conjugation. We have three teachers of (for) modern languages. «. Pupils must be quiet in the class-room. -t. 75 Translation Exercise 28. Boja. i. o. a drawing master. an infirmary. -p. S. -p. and contains one of the The verbs weak vowels -te 't : a. -t in the supine.

dlskas. I de kopten. bojde. Imperfect. koptes. jag \ S. bojde. bojde. du > han J P. jag du > han J P. hojdes. Note. hojdes. kopte. are conjugated with the same auxiliary verbs as the verb: dlska. bojdens. The compound tenses of the Indicative and the Subjunctive etc. hojden. hojdes. S. . kopte.76 Lesson 15. koptes. vi I koptes. I de koptens. vi kopte.

The verb. 77 .

hissar. tunnlar. „Sodermalm« stupar brant dit at sjon..'kal'add'] finnas (the) [jin'as^^ are found. sd kalladid) so called tunnlar [tun'lar'''] tunnels promenadplatser walking [prco'mdna'dplafsdr] = place [so. Pa . ligga Stockholms tva fSmamsta promenadplaster. Tvarsover „Norrmalm*' gar en sandas. Stockholm. den ar stockholmarnas forniimsta forlustelsestalle.the omgivningar[om'. som innehaller statens historiska och konstamlingar. k.works.. k. uppfarten fa^rtdn] \up'the ascent lifts dngslupar Im'par] [^oy's- steam-launch slopes . bekant genom Sten Stures seger over danskarna. ^Kungstradgarden'' och ^Humlegarden''. Words.railways ve'gar] down Idtta {let'a^^ facilitate s. s. ries avdelning [a'vde% division park [paM^k] stockholmare [stok'hormard] park Stockholmers Jiotta [Jlot'^'} forlustelsestdlle [fcerlus'tdlsdsterd] slot'n] navy pleasure ground pleasure lustsloiten [lus't. k. genom denna as leder ock en tunnel. Mycket besCkas ocksa de i Stockholms niirhet liggande kungliga lustslotten ^Haga**. Vid „Skeppsholmen" ligger en avdelning av svenska flottan.'- through seum artistic(al) se'vdr] bekant [bdkanti] known leads also konstsam lingar [kon'stsam^liyar] leder [le'ddr^] collections ock lokf] sandds [san'do^s] sand bergds [bxr'jo^s] ridge seger kdr\ [se. A . har man tva s. For att latta uppfarten For jarnvagarna finnas tva langa underjordiska vagar. there are kungstrddgdrden [kuystrEgo'rddn] King's garden (the) Hopgarhumlegdrden den \hum'ldgo'rddn\ operahus [oj'pdra. vay^nar] Beading Exercise 29. ^Ulriksdal" och j. .Norrmalm.tram-cars.'gdr] ridge talrik [ta'lri^k] numerous visited besokas [bdso'kas^] are victory facto- bekvdmt [bdkv£7n!t] comfortably fabriker [fabrit.Kungsholmen'* finnas stora fabriker..78 Lesson 15.environs jivniy^ar] castles spdrvagnar[spo'r.opera house underground [un'ddrjojUdisk] innehdller [ind'containSjholds historisk \histcjtTisk'\ underjordisk historical hm^s] nationalmuseum [nat'fojna'lmiase^urri] national mu- tvdrsover [tvsej.Drottningholm". samt Operahuset och Nationalmuseum. Djurgarden ar en vacker park med talrika sommarbostader. „Brunkebergsasen**. hissar [his'ar''^ stupar [^stui'par^'] sinks jamvdgar [jx'dn.

ag€n. 79 Mellan Stockholms olika delar avensom till dess omgivningar kommer man latt och beqvamt med sparvagnar och angslupar.'st] tradesmen the merchant clerks handlanden\han'dlan'ddn] vdxlar [vek'slar^] receipts [co'p- kvitton [kvit'ojn^] kopmannen tojrisitdr] man'dn] kontorister [kon'- commercial code losses handelsbalk [han'ddlsbal'k] forluster lus'tdr] [foRV[6a- book-keeper cashier traveller office hokhdllare \ha)'khoVard] kassor [kaso. affdrer [afsridr] creditors fordringsdgare Ifoj'rdriyse'gard] debitors gdldendrer ne'rdr] [jel'dd- goods profit var or gods ^ [va'- r(j)T\ gcot^s] manager bills disponent nenit] [dis'pco- vinst [vin. Conyersation. the tTa.r] (neut. tiv!a] kontor tco'.'r] [handels]resande [re'san'dd] balance-sheet balanskonto lay'skon^toj] assets (tillgdngar) aktiva ak[til'goy^ar. passiva [skul'ddr.The verb.desm3inhandlanden[han'dlan'ddn] business. agenter [om' bm'd. ar brantast? Var ligga Stockholms tva fornamsta promenadplaster ? Vad kallas de? Var ligger en avdelning av svenska flottan? Vilka aro stockholmarnas fornamsta forlustelsestallen ? Vilken malm Words. pi.) [up'dra^g] bestdllning[bdst€l'- employs sends out my'] order-book invoices ^bok orderl bco'k] \D'j.ddr sysselsdtter [sgs'dlsd'dr] utsdnder [m'tsen'ddr] imports exports enter fakturor tm'rojr'] infor [in'fqr'] utfor [m* ftfor'] inskriva [in'skri^ va] correspon- brewdxUng \bre'vvek'sUy] dence agents make attend out utstdller rdv] [uctste[bdsoe'r- ombud. pasivia] merchandise customers orders I handelsvaror [han'ddlsva'rcor] kunder [kun'ddr^] does buys sells gor [joir] koper [p0-»ar'] forsdljer [fcersel'jdr'] luppdrag (neut.) [kon- liabilities (skulder).'tdr] besorja Ja'] cash-book invoice-book kassabok bco'k] [kas'a- fakturbok tm'rboj'k] [fak[la'gdr[hui'- keeps pays receives for [for^] \up'bser''\ betalar [bdta'lar'] uppbdr stock-book ledger lagerbok boj'k] signs is undertecknar [wvddrtek'nar] Jiuvudbok vudbo/k] bound dr tvungen tvuy'dn''] [fer' .

The balance sheet shows whether the assets go beyond the liabilities. to trouble. the invoice book and the stock-book. invoices. .. make out invoices and attend to the correspondence with the The book-keeper keeps the agents. Sixteenth Lesson. the ledger. The merchant employs several clerks. cash-book. It is then easy for the merchant to ascertain his to profits. to long for ro. to show happen dwell sno. commercial Code in France every merchant is boimd keep books properly and regularly and take stock every year that he may ascertain his losses or profits. row to flee . an [sn! enf] therefore ddrfor [dser'fc&r] now . to sy. to depend glo. he therefore imports and exports all kinds of merchandise. inventera tetra] [in'ven- in compliance z with to properly regularly enlighet med hV 'nligh&t meid] [ve'- utrbna [m'tre'na] overskrida [0'vdrskri'da] hilligt [bil'ig^t] vederborligen ddrbce'rligdn go beyond cheap dear dyrt . to warn bero..80 take stock ascertain Lesson 16. to fly. In compliance with the ters. yearly now an . to bo. to shoot forth sko. The tradesman does business. § 1. The clerks enter the travellers' or customers' orders in the order-book. Tradesmen buy now cheap now dear. [dyji't] . . to twist tro. to shoe bry. Commerce. to bother trd. travellers or customers. easy or regelmdssigt [regdlmesHgt] drligen [o'rligdn'] latt [Ut^ eller [elidr] Translation Exercise 30. to gape sew gnOf to rub gro. he buys goods and sells them again with a profit. To this conjugation belong monosyllabic verbs and a few others ie. a book-keeper and a cashier in his office. Third conjugation. bills and receipts. to believe varsko. he sends out travellers to every part of the world to sell and buy goods. all : the following to ske. The cashier pays the merchant's creditors and receives The manager signs the letmoney from his debitors.

tros. to reach to take after J brd[s]. VI tror. Imperfekt. Indicative. tros. same manner Imperative. to believe. to long for. tro. jag i S. jag S. to be able verb. to foretell. P. trodd. nd.^ tros. I de iron. S. I de troddes. Tro.^ ) trodde. Participle. to disdain spa. -dd in the past participle. I to resemble 2. jag du han P. S. vi troddes. tro. vi tros. mdn tros. troddens. to vomit md. dlskas. to predict dtrd. These verbs take: 'dde in the imperfect indicative. trodde. md md md tros. trodde. troende. du Tian P. Active voice. S. to be. Indicative. to sow forebrd. tro P. tro. man I de trons. 81 sd. Elementary Swedish Grammar. Passive voice. ^ The simple form of the subjunctive is antiquated and consequently no longer used. Note.^ du han P. The compound tenses are conjugated in the as the verb: dlska. to shun spy. I de trodden. to feel forma. tros. trodden. to spit. to reproach fid. tro. md md md jag tro} tro. tros. g . to skin feM. Subjunctive. Subjunctive. trodde. Infinitive. trons.The gry. Present. S. tros. troddens. cilskas (page 70). trodde. troddes. tron. to strike forsmd. troddes. troddes. vi ) trodde. -tt in the supine. ^ The periphrastic forms are like those of the verb dlska. tro. du han P. to dawn sky. troddes.

kyrkosocknar [ccer'ksok'nar] parishes naturshdnhet tm'rfonhe't] [na. Plur. b ordig fertile hygd [bygtd] kyrka [fcer'Ara'] herrgdrd [hsergo^jid] country church [co'dlad'^] tilled culti- vated stdtlig ligt] [sto'tlig^'\ manor house the view the plain surface splendid infinitely odndligt [wend^skull [skul'] utsikten [m'tsik tdn] sake travellers. Supine. Plur. Words. trott. Note. Imp. Infinitive. to cover jdmn stone [jemtn] flat stenart [ste'na'ut] species of hoja sig [hoja' si'g] to rise liknande [li'kresembling nan^dd] tredje [tre'djd^] third sandsten [san'dste^n] sandstone alunskiffer [a'lunfif'dr] alumish slate lime stone trap^ firwood hard [hoUd] ak^tig] hard svartaktig \svax't. sldtten [sUttdn] yta [yta^] resande [re'san'dd] its * an igneous rock (a variety of dolerite or basalt presenting a stair-like aspect. dott Participle.: Idtom oss tro. do to die dor do dog jick dogo jingo dod (adj.) -et fd r se ^ to get to go to fdr gdr lev fd ga le gick log gingo logo fdtt gdtt lett (und) fdngen. Conjugation. .82 Lesson 16.blackish kalksten [kal'kste^n] ddr uppe up' 9^ [dstr up there to trapp [trapf] barrskog [bar'skco'g] vdxa odlad [vek'sa^] [boR'. Sing. Supine. trotts.idig''] grow . named from . Ex. -et slagit slagen. -et laugh to see std to stand sld to beat ser stdr sldr se std sld sag stod slog sdgo stodo 10 sett sedd (ut) sett stdtt stdnden.beauty of nature hatften [heltftdn] the half avsatser [a'vsaf"-. shelves Sdr] ndra [ne'ra'] near trappsteg [trap'ste'g] stairs brett [bretf] wide. -et. Pres. Irregular Verbs of the III. Sing. gdngen. let us believe. The 1st person plural of the imperative mood is formed with the auxiliary verb ^Idta^ and the personal pronoun oss. broad omfatta [oirvfafa] to comprise. Indicative.

The verb.' un'ddrligH] ej att undra bathing places badorter[ba-dco^rthe leaves the days pd bladen [bla'ddn*] [€j. som kallas trapp. den tredje av kalksten. Det ligger invid Vanern/) ar nara 300 m. short best hdrd the sick climate desjuka[de!furka^] [streyt hoird] klimat matt\ (neut. Det omfattar tre hela kyrksocknar samt delar av fern andra.[bloj- blossoms favourable is blommor m'cor^] gynnsam sam'] [jyn'- frukt [frukU] nature natur(en) [natmtr] the crop. the seasons drstidema[o'rstrof the year ddrna\ the trees trdden [trcddn^] the weather vddret [vetdrdt] this year i dr [it otr] fruit temperature temjperatur psratut^r] [tem. Dar uppe vaxer barrskog. Det markvardigaste av Vastgotabergen ar KinnekuUe. : Conversation. Vilket ar det markvardigaste av Vastgotabergen? Vid vilken sjo ligger KinnekuUe? Hurudan ar dess sluttning? Varav besta dess avsatser? Ar utsikten over bergets lagre delar vacker? For vad besokes KinnekuUe? Av vilken bergart bestar toppen? Words. 6* . Det bildar icke en jamn sluttning. hogt. Varje avsats bestar av en sarskild stenart den lagsta av sandsten. langt och nara halften sa brett. the skdrden[J CR'rd9n^] harvest commenced borjas [bcer'jas'] intet under [in'tef untddr] wonder under \un!d9r] tdr] no wonder foga underligt [frffs. med kyrkor och statliga herrgardar. den andra av alunskiffer. 14 km.) \kli- kort bast [kco!rt] [besit] ^ a famous lake in Sweden. Utsikten over bergets lagre delar samt over hela Vastgotaslatten och Vanerns vida yta ar oandligt vacker. liknande stora trappsteg. Toppen innehaller en hard svartaktig bergart. utan hojer sig i avsatser. bergets ovriga delar utgora en bordig och val odlad bygd. och KinnekuUe besokes for sin naturskonhets skull mycket av resande.' at' un'dra' pof\ dagama man na^] I [da'gar- hot it is people in wet ther [mant] getting cold het [he!t] det blir kallt vdtvdder [vo'tvs'ddr] dark early mork [kalit] [mortk] wea vid ' tidigt (pd dagen) ruskvdder [rus'kvE^ddr] [ti'dig't] Strang. KinuekuUe. Reading Exercise 31.

in . The strong verbs are characterized by vowelin the changes of their root § a) 2.84 Lesson 17. The sick must spend winter in a warm climate In the month of December it is dark early. to recover. allt [al'tiy' altt] coming on nalkas to catch cold to recover forkyla sig [foer- leva upp igen i'jdn'] [leva'' up! gyla' sitg] tillfriskna [tilfris^kna]. hot we are in (pa) the dog days. Imperfect Indicative. Fourth conjugation. All nature smiles and everythere will be plenty of fruit. the No wonder that it is so harvest has already commenced. with (av) blossoms. Spring is the season that I like best. — — — Seventeenth Lesson. summer. How can people be fond of winter! The days are so short and the temperature is so low. Trees are white If the weather is favourable this year. They The first group contains the verbs are divided into three chief groups: the root of which undergoes but one vowel-change in the singular and in the plural of the Imperfect Indicative. In the morning it is getting cold winter is coming on. thing seems to revive. In autumn it is not so hot as — — . According to the change of the different rootvowels the verbs belonging to the first group may be divided into 9 classes. We have had a warm summer. .) seems begin to fall is [ro'tmo'nad] there will be det shall finnas [skali Jin'as'] to smile synes \sy'n9s^] borja [bcer'ja^] falla ned [fal'a' netd] [nalkas''] smdle everything to revive [smo'le'] allting. days become shorter. Translation Exercise 32. During the whole summer we dwell in bathing-places. dogdays rdtmdnad (sing. — — Leaves begin to fall. § 1. The seasons of the years. Winter is very cold in Sweden. Strong verbs. People catch cold very easily in wet weather.

2nd .

Besides the different changes undergone by their root.86 Lesson 17. by a simple change of the root. by the vowel in the Supine and Past Participle which is always u. in the Im- 2. by the preservation of the root-vowel Supine .vowel in the Imperfect Indicative. by a double change of the root-vowel perfect Indicative. Supine. Olbservation. to seize . » » § 4. c) The third group contains all the irregular verbs belonging to the 4 conjugations.vowels. It results from the above that the verbs belonging to the first group are characterized: 1. 2. Gripa. the strong verbs are also characterized by the following terminations: -en in the -it Past Participle. The irregular tenses will be given in the text as they occur or in the vo- cabulary. § 3. in the whereas those belonging to the second group are characterized : 1.

binds. binda. bands. ^ The compound forms are conjugated after <^alska» page 70. gripande. bunden. bunden. bundes. bundo. bundos. bindande. bindom. bunden.^ bindes. gripas. bindoms. Imperatiye. grepen. grepens. gripe. vi gripe. bundens. gripes. bindens.The verb. grepes. bundit.^ bunde. jag du han P. P. grips. 87 Imperfect. binden. gripa. Participle. S. . jag S. grepes. I de grepens.^ du han P. S. bunde. grepos. vi grep. binde. bunde. I de gripens. jag ) du han P. gripom. gripits. S. bindes. gripen. gripoms. binde. du han P. bindes.^ grepe. gripen. vi gripes. bundes. gripes. jag ) S. I de grepos. vi [ ) grepe. bundos. grepo.^ bundes. Supine. Imperfect. gripens. binden. grepe. Present. bind. gripit. bundo. jag du han P.^ I de gripen. band. I de grepo. vi [ I grepes. Subjunctive. S. jag S. hindas. bindens. Inflnitiye. I de grepen. binde. bundits. grip.^ gripe. P. bundens. du han P. vi greps. S.

vis^t^^^t^^^^^ a ^^ -"^ s -^ .'^<«2.5-:2 o 5^!^o§^ .•*>i "^ ."tS .^ .-t^ I U^~r Wliiiiffliiiiijiife ifiitti-PliiillHiiliilli! ^ '^^-^'?i.< .-s .:s .^ ..-ts 'Sj-^ ill ill IIP! i*iri'l-ili:&il i Nl -"^ .-t^ vS -1 -'^s t^-:ts .88 Lesson 17. ^^ ^ ^ ^o ^5'^o ^o ro ro 'ts '^ Qi ."^ S i "< .-t- s --^ :t:j -to .

89 «:5>i ^ S- ^^ c5 ''.The verb.1 g^^ ^M II ill ° g «o «c CO cc cc . cc "^ so CO ?~ p i: ^ ^ s S> g ^ i: g ^'^ ?^-g 53.g.* '- '•'- <=^ c/j '^^oS.

[/cermo/] sig.to overmanna row undkomma kom'a] [dra'ga^^ moda pieces [sdn'ddrfm'ta] [un'd.90 Lesson 17.V] (borne by a horse) stretcher. Eeading Exercise 33.'Jc] took place truppema p'drna'] [tru. bar- overwhelm man'a] soon snart [snaji^t] spridde [sprid'd^] spread Idt [UH] caused. ryssarna passade p§.sufferings [red'a^'] ddn] dterstd [o'tdrsto^] to remain modlos [moj'dWs] disheartened giva sig fdngen. let to shoot to sonderskjuta [o'vdr. to surrender [ji'va'' ddribland lan'd] [de.neighbouring to omrdde \om'ro^dd territory befdlhavare \bd. som har bildade gransen mellan Ryssland och Turkiet.success gonv'] utstd [m'tsto'] dterse [o'tdrse^'] to undergo to see again first fienden [Ji'dnddn^] the enemy forsta [/cers^a'] skedde [fed'd^] vek [ve. I den aterstaende svenska vek. a few.the troops gave way got to oordning niv\ [oj'o^Jid- disorder rdkade [ro'ka^dd] passa pd [pas' a' anfalla [an'faVa'\ watch skarorna corna^] [ska'r. Words.'Hb- among si'gfoydn^] fd [foi] (one's self) few. medforande konungen.the shower of rty'dt] hdstbdr bo'r] [hes't- the bullets stretcher bar [6o. och anfollo dem samt overmannade snart de spridda svenska skarorna.the rest draga (undan) with draw medfora [me'dfo'ra] to bring along Turkiet \turkiidt Turkey turkisk [tur'ikisk' turkish ndrbeldgna bdl€g''na] [ne'r. Konungen lat fora sig omkring i det varsta kulregnet liggande pa en hastbar. Aterstoden av haren drog sig. Det forsta anfallet skedde med framgang. . undan till den niirbeiagna floden Dnjepr.to escape to [me'da^] difficulty.chief commander ftlha'vard] fdlttdg [fd-tto'g] campaign disaster olycka [oxlyk^a^ sdra [so'ra^^ wound utmatiad [uct mafad] exhausted to to formd rddda. dterstoden sto/ddn] trouble \o'tdr. I ' fdngama [fov'arna'] the prisoners be able run away one's self to save lidanden [li'dan^. anfallet [an'fal'dt] the attack framgdng [fram'. Slaget Tid PoltaYa. Sarad och utmattad formaddes konungen att med n&gra hundra man radda sig over floden in pa turkiskt omrade. och fienden Men da rakade de svenska trupperna i oordning. men baren blev sonderskjuten och konungen undkom med moda pa sin hast.the bands to attack kulregnet \km'l.

I cannot stay longer. it is so cold. the teacher of modern open the door. da de svenska trupperna rakade oordning? Hur fordes konungen omkring? Huru manga man blevo sjuka och sarade? Vid vilken flod gav sig den svenska haren fangen at Ryssarna? Words. jotr mitg do gora [jo'ra^] Translation Exercise 34. Holm. It is an age since I saw you Take a seat. I am very pleased to see you. gav sig fangen at Ryssarna.000 sjuka och sarade. I am very Will you not take a cup well. daribland 5.The liaren verb. please! to I hdlsa [hel'sa^] ivar so god och tag \vair so plats gojtd 1 y oktatg good bye! farvdl (sd Idnge) how are you ? huru [farve'l so Uy'd'] star det till [hm'rm' stoir det tilf] be will you [mo!] Ni [viU nit\ itack! \takt] vill ma plates] from sit me jag tackar (I) \_jatg frdn mig rnitg'] [fro'n neid] thank you< tak'ar'] ^ tackar sd mycket {^siti sitt ned \\tak'ar^ so my'kdt'] to call for long no to stay to to Idnge {ley'd'-'] nej [nejf] /comma itn] i in \kom'a' stanna [stan'a^] to-day I hear (erfara [erfa'ra'] ^fd veta [fo ve'ta^] am sorry det dag [^ datg] gor mig ont [det conif]. of tea? I have No. The Visit. ja lidanden. please! Sit on this chair by the fire-side. 91 voro befalhavarna och en del av trupperna modlosa och haren. thank you. som nu bestod av omkring 14. only called to hear how you are. knocks at the door? Go and see who it is and It is Mr. Skedde det forsta i anfallet vid Poltava med framgang? Vad gjorde Ryssarna. I have much to do and Who — — — — — — — — . efter falttagets olyckor.000 man. the visit at the door besoket [bdso'kdt] to to knock knacka [knak'a^] pa dorren do&r. De svenska fangarna fingo i Ryssland utsta Endast fa av dem atersago faderneslandet. How are you? languages.'dn] [po [vi'd who? vem? [vem!] by the side fire- vid harden be pleased glddja sig [glsd'ja''] ever since alt sedan [se'dan''] to greet hsedtddn] a cup I en kopp [kopt^ hope jag hoppas [ho! p-as'] take a seat. Conversation. but I have been very ill.

I must go back to the country to day. Good bye! Greet your father from me. I thank you for your visit. jag du han . >. Another time I will stay longer with you. I am sorry that you cannot stay longer I hope to see you again soon.92 Lesson 18.

x^uxiliary verbs. . §5. §6. Present. 3. §7. viljay kunnaf to be able. 93 § 4. jag du han kan. To these should be added the maste and fa. following kunna. Imperfect. S.

som aro beslaktade folkslag. Finnarna bo nara men nagra aven i de stora skogar. Harjedalen. as [bo'dd' okr\ shk'tad'] likna [lik'na^^ sydlig [sydlig^] southern Reading Exercise 35. vars sodra och vastra delar med hansyn till folktathet tala jamforelse med de battre befolkade trakterna i Europa. \bd- (whose) to bear akin to resemble.^s] of which. [to'la^'] besldktad . I jamforelse sydligare lander ar Sverige glest befolkat. med varandra bade finska gransen.. De fiesta av Sveriges inbyggare aro till nationen svenskar. Sveriges folk. ldgland[lo'gldn'd] lowland with regard tx) till [me^d hen'sy^n tilf] fjdlhnark \_fjd'. Lapparna bo i fjalltrakterna ner Conversation.'t] inhyggare [in'by. to folkslag [fol'ksla^g] race look [m'tse^dndd] sprdk [spro'k] language on both sides pa orase sidor om'sd' si'[poi dco'v] utseende people tdtare bebyggt more densely \tE'ta^rd bebyg!t] peopled sdrskilt [sas'rjil^t] particularly ' vars tola [vaj. I nagra trakter bo finnar och lappar. bade . sarskilt de sydliga slattlanden. som ligga om Dalarna.mountainous land mdr'k] tdthet [ts'he't] density med hdnsyn glest [gles't] befolkad [bdfolkad'] hogldnta [ho'glen^ta] thinly peopled upper nordlig [noj'rdlig^] northern tat [te. och as well .inhabitants g'ard] dense l>el>ygyci [bdbyya^] to inhabit. Hum manga manniskor bo i Sverige? Ar Sverige sMedes tatt eller glest befolkat? Vilken provins ar folkrikast? Vad kallas Sveriges inbyggare? Vad vet Ni om Finnarna och Lapparna? I vilka trakter bo dessa bada folkslag? Words post postcard post [pos/^l brevkort [bre'vkcou^t] envelope kuvert [kmvcM't] stamp universal postal frimdrke mser^ka] \_fri'- telegraph telegraf\te'ldgraif] postal order post anvisning union vdrldspostforening \vssr ds pos'tfo^reniy] [pos'tanvis^niy] .94 Lesson 18. de likna I Sverige bo over 5 miljoner manniskor. I synnerhet galler detta om de hoglanta trakterna och allra mest om de nordliga skogs-och fjallmarkerna.. . Tatare bebyggt ar laglandet. pa omse sidor till till utseende och sprak. till exempel Skane.

if you wish Will you give me two penny your brother. [a'vsen''- send skicka [^fik'a^^ to belong tillhora [tiVho^ra] Translation Exercise 36. letter-paper and envelopes. The post-man delivers letters. news-papers and printed matters twice a day. The numerals. ett (n) one fern. Post and telegraph. I therefore had to pay double postage. The electric telegraph is one of the most remarkable inventions of modem times.telegram utomlands [m'tomlan'ds] to register rekommendera [re'komendetra] telegramm graTnf] [te'ld- words figures electric ord [io!dd] tal \tail\ elektrisk trisk] [eleki- post office postkontor kon^cor] [pos't- value ters to vdrde [vse'rdd''] invention to despatch uppfinning finHy] \up'- printed mat. ched at nine o'clock. for the post office was shut. that belong to the universal postal union. I have not been able to buy I had this letter registered. Cardinal numbers (Grundtal). six sju. en {m and tvd. seven dtta. Mneteenth Lesson. three fyra. eight . and a post card.The numerals. four sex. the actual value should be written in words and figures on the envelope. You must buy to to write stamps. f). The postage of letters This wire was despatfor abroad is two pence half-penny. two tre. With postal orders one can send money to all the countries. I. five tvdnne.trycksaker sa''kdr] \tryk'- avsdnda da]. § 1. The postman has delivered me a non-postpaid letter. stamps. trenne. postman letter 95 hrevhdrare [hre'vbe^rard] brev [breiv] non-postpaid ofrankerad [oj'fraifkerad] to deliver avldmna [a'vhm^na] senast [se'nas't] double postage dubbelporto b'dlpojCtoj] [dulatest abroad wire. registered. tu. On registered letters (containing) enclosing banknotes. I should have received it at twelve Go to the post office and have these letters o'clock latest.

f fyra tvd ifrdn fyra \ j blir tvd. word a Ordinal numbers (Ordningstal). : 20—100 the femtio fern. -a. fyrtio. forste. j ) dr i » fyra genom tvd gor (etc. In : § 4.).) tvd I ^** |f ^"/^^^^ «In the year» is translated by the § 7. a million en biljon. fifth sjdtte. tw^enty 2. a billion noil. fyra tusen. Ex. a thousand en miljon. thirty Ho. eighty nittio. tvd gdnger tvd gor (etc. Tvenne designates two persons or things belonging together and is used instead of tva. nine Lesson 19.) tvd. three hundred. first andre. lika tned minskat wied tvd \ dr (etc. Ex. -a. tvd. second femte. thirteen fjorton.96 nio. fjdrde. fifteen seventy sexton. dttio. 2 -|- Note the following expressions: gor is i 2 = 4 that tvd och (plus) tvd =2 2X2 = 4* 2 4 = 2 4 2 = 2 2 : : » » * » fyra. a hundred tusen. 3. ninty hundra. four thousand.) fyra. fourteen femton. ett tusen. and are neuter. II. Ex. the hundreds and in the thousands the § smaller number is placed before as in English.: In the year 1830: dr 1830. sixteen sjutton. eleven tolf. seventeen aderton. fourth § 8. forty twelve femtio. sixty sjuttio. sixth tredje. ten elva. Ex. tvd i fyra gor (etc. § 6. fifty sextio.: ett hundra. fifty-five. (year) placed before the numeral. tre hundra. Hundra and tusen may be used as nouns § 5. eighteen nitton. nineteen tjugu. tretton. In compound numbers between § units are added as in English. third . nought. trettio.

two. sjunde. 5. 10 minuter over tvd. a pair (couple) dussin. 7 . dr en kvart over tre I ^^ .: tvddubbel or tvdfaldig.^ ^ -i^^^^^ t^^^^^ ar en kvart pa fyra ) dr 5. to six. ninth tionde. Fractional § 11. eighth fjortonde. two thirds. 10 minuter i sex. threefold. thirtheenth femtionde etc. number compound ordinal numbers the greater placed before the smaller number. It is (wants) (dr) fattas 5. tvd. Collective numbers ett (Samlingstal). It is a quarter to five. hundredth tusende. § 12. § 9. seventh dttonde.The numerals. a gross. III. treduhhel or trefaldig. It is one. eleventh tolfte. numbers (Deltal).. in the following way: pressed Hvad dr klockan? What Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan Klockan day and night are exis it? time (o'clock) dr ett. twentieth trettionde. dr half tvd. Ex.10 m. tvd tredjedelar. ett ett par. V. Huru dags? At what time? Elementary Swedish Grammar. It is half past one. past two. In is Ex. a dozen a score en gross. It is 5. six o'clock. Ex. which takes the termination of ordinal numbers as in English. : fyrtiosjunde. sex. The proportional numbers are formed by -dubbel or -faldig to the cardinal adding the particles: numbers. 4:7th (and not fyrtionde sjunde). IV. The hours of the § 13. fourteenth 97 tjugonde. thirtieth nionde. a third. Proportional numbers. twofold. § 10. The fractional numbers are formed in Swe- dish by adding the particle -del (part) to the ordinal numbers.10 m. : en tredjedel. dr ire kvart pd (till) fern. thousandth. tenth elffe. trettonde. fiftieth hundrade. tjog. fyrtionde. fortieth twelfth.

98 .

to celebrate p.The numerals. Age. The Hour. you? I am twelve years old. da'gar'' tiV] [se-'n] [i komma for till sent late this sen [kom'a' for [nes. week my mother was thirty years old. was born on the 17^^ of January 1899. This day week we old are will celebrate How my elder brother's birth.rule SEf] multiplikator multiplier de fyra rdknesdtten [de fyra' the four rules [murtiplika'tor'] faktor [jakitor] factor dividend dividend [di'vi- addition [adHt- addition dentd] division [di'vi- division fojin] term [tasrim] term kvot total fcoin] [kvco't] quotient to is summa [sum'a'] ^ sum. jira [^'ra'] last m. rdknesdtt [re'kud.day. She does not look so old.'d] rest [rssH] sammanldggande [sam'anhg^andd] subtrahera [sub*. not to miss the train. At what time will you come to me to-night? I will await you until To morrow I will set out for London and as nine o'clock. I will be at the station at a quarter to nine. Is he so old? Your grand father will soon be eighty years old. Words. Translation Exercise 38. the train leaves at nine o'clock.to result addera kom^a] trah£n. is Can you tell me what o'clock it is? only two o'clock p. Last is twenty. What It is o'clock is it? it not very late.to subtract trahe'ra] skillnad \jil'nad'] difference multiplikand multiplicand [muVtip likanJd] forra [/cer-a'] (the) former 7* . m. (in the pa eftermiddagen ef'tdvmid^a[_po gdri] avresa [a'vre'sa] this forliden ddn] day week i [fcerli^- afternoon) to set to miss dag am dtta da- gar till [i datg om ot'a. When was your sister born? She It is a great (hog) age. sammanldgga [sam'anh'g^a] kallas [kal'as'] put gether to- suhstraktion subtraction minuend [sub'strakfojtn] [mi'nuienid] subtrahend [suh'rest (are) called to add [adefra] uppkomma [up'. The teacher is a man of fifty years (of age).t] morning i morgan on'] mor'- senit til] next ndst to leave was born foddes [fod'ds^] o'clock avgd [a'vgoi] klockan [khk'an']. My brother Next month my father will be forty-four.

Att draga ett mindre tal fran ett storre. kallas storre som Subtraktion. Talen. Vad gor 8 till 10? Vad gor 3 fran 15? Vad gor 5 ganger 9? Huru manga ganger innehalles 4 Words. Att dividera vill saga att dela ett tal i sa lika stora delar. Det o kallas minuend. Det forra talet kallas multiplikand. som det senare utvisar. faktorer. det senare divisor. Att multiplicera ett tal med ett annat ar att taga det forra sa manga ganger.100 Lesson (the) latter to multiply 19. som uppkommer genom multiplikation kallas produkt. rest eller skillnad.'ra] produkt [^proj- product to divide gemensam[^jeme'n. och det uppkommer genom deras sammanlaggande. Addition. Det tal. Reading Exercise 39. summa. dem. manga Conyersation. time tid [ti'd] i 12? October oktober \okt(oibdr\ January February januariljan'uicu'ri] November December ordinary november [ncovem'bdr] februari bruiairi] [/e'- december bdr] [desem. De fyra raknesatten. talet Ater- Multiplikation. som adderas.common multiplikation multiplication [murtipUkafoj^n] duktt] dividera [di'videtra'] divisor \divi'sor^^ divisor storlek lstoj'rle%] quantity. som visar storleken av var och en av de delar. senare [se'nard'] utvisa [m'tvi^sa] to show multipUcera [multiplise. : Division. Det tal. som ett annat tal innehaller enheter. kallas termer. aven att subtrahera det forra fran det senare. det mindre subtrahend. det senare multiplikator bada tva med ett gemensamt namn. stoden kallas.^- March April mars maj [maM's] april lapriit] [maji] juni [jmtni] vanlig [va'nlig^^ May June July Monday Tuesday mdndag \montdag\ tisdag [tiisda'g^ juli {jiatli} Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday onsdag \(l)insdag^^ August September augusti \a(^gustti^ September [septem:bdr^ torsdag [tMUsda'g] fredag tfreidag] lordag ilo^trdag] . kallas kvot. i vilka dividenden blivit delad. Att sammanlagga tal kallas aven att addera tal. Det forra talet kallas dividend.

tenth and twelfth months have thirty one days. av mig.) Singular. fern. vdr. an hour sixty minutes and a minute sixty second. : A. (at) oss. and N. the fourth. Saturday. neut. D. Sunday leap year 101 sondag [son'dag] skottdr [skot'or''] \ti'md^'\ \ name minute second namn {namtrt] hour timme I minut \minmtt] sekund [sekunid]. min. Tuesday. twenty ei^t in an ordinary year and twenty nine in a leap-year. July. (Masc. the personal. An ordinary year has three hundred and sixty five days and a leap year three hundred and sixty six days. Translation Exercise 40. The twelve months are January. us A. There are four seasons of the year. Summer. relative. A day has twenty four hours. me mig. demontrative. The names of the days are Monday. we G. May. Personal § 2. seventh. Spring begins on the 21st March. February. June. A week is the fourth part of a month and a day the seventh part of a week. . I Plural. third. A month is the twelfth part of a year. my (of me) (at) mig. October. First person. A. oss. our (of us) D. the second. September. me. av vi. Autumn on the 22^^ September and winter on the 21st of December. A month has four weeks and a week seven days. to us. August.The pronouns. The first. the sixth. (Personliga). There are in Swedish 7 kinds of pronouns § 1. us. April. Summer on the 22^^ of June. November and December. to me. oss. and Sunday. G. Autumn and Winter. fifth. Time. interrogative and indefinite pronouns. the ninth and the eleventh months have thirty days. N. possessive. March. The pronouns. determinative. : : — Twentieth Lesson. jag. Friday. Wednesday Thursday. These are: Spring. eighth.

more frequently used with the third person of the verb. my G. (at) henne. (at) dem. dess. wers to the English polite form «you>. her. to you. German . Feminine. Ex. dig. (at) mitt. she G. (at) Eder.bu" and French «tu». mitt. my. of her D. § 5. her. doctor? been in Du like Ar fru Smith sjukf Are you ill. to my. deras (av dem). hennes. dem. her A. din. Possessive (Agande). de. but it is not generally accepted as a mode The title or name of the individual addressed is of social address. henne. N. to him. han. you A. Mrs. N. § 3. it. du. Er. av honom. Masc. them A. of my (my) D. them. to it A. to her. to her A. his. thee. mitt. N. (at) det. dess (av det). thou G. § 4. det. to my. he G. Adjectival possessive pronouns. my A. hans. N. she G. Er. my A. G. is //' Smith? relatives. I (Ni)y you. to him. Count? Har doktom varit i Paris? Have you Paris. My. (Masc. her D. N. my. D. Eder. him A. Third person. N. novels etc. honom. Eder (Er. mina. av dig. Singular. min. fern.) Singular. I. to them. N. «M> is also commonly used in narratives. my G. his (of him) D. Masculine. to thee. they G. their (of them) D. . and fern. (at) mina. Neuter. her. and N. Second person. N. of my (my) D. used between intimate friends. In conversation «2V"u is used instead of «I> and ansNote. my A. miiia. mitt. mina. min. its (of it) Plural for all genders. you. Plural. B. av henne. of my (my) D. my G.avEr). him. it G. him.102 Lesson 20. Common gender. hon. (at) min. for all genders. my. (at) dig. det.: Huru mar grevenf How are you.Yom of you. (at) honom. Plural Neuter. D. den.. thy (of thee) D. he. (at) den. N. to my. neut. den. min. thee A.

our G. N. your G. our G. of (her) D. Singular. dina. A. N. c?m. Our. edert D. Plural Neuter. vdra. their D. our G. fa^:. edra. hans. D. N. vdrt. your G. to your. edra (era). §7. (dt) vdra. hans. (at) vdr. N. c?eras. (a^) deras. its c?ess. vdrt. her. her A. . thy G. your. Thy. your A. edert (ert). hennes. thy. for all genders. and fem. of his (his) of its (its) D. his A. Masc. ditt. far. thy. Singular. vdr. Ta^j hennes. din. D. to thy. our A. 10^ §6. his G. of our (our) D. to Its. of thy. your. of N. its to its. of thy (thy) D. your. edert G. <ZzY^. eder[s] (er([s]). § 10. dess. N. (your) Your. Their. your A. (ert). for all genders. fd^j dess. c?ess. her G. (your) D. (your) your. Her.The pronouns. its. thy A. thy G. thy. edra. our. her. N. our A. of your. eder (er). dina. Singular. of their. (dt) vdrt. thy A. hennes. G. ("a^J §9. §8. and fem. G. deras. cZma. /iaw5. to our. vdr. cZm. ("d^j ec?er fer). N. his. their A. your. of thy (thy) D. to our. vdrt. cZwa. thy. A. to edert (ert). their G. our. eder (er). Plural Neuter. their. to their. N. (dt) ditt. our A. c^eras. to your. to thy. thy N. vdra. to his. of your. Plural Neuter. our. and fem. hennes. ditt. to our. C«<t) ^a?is. of our (our) D. N. her. N. His. Masc. of our (our) D. vdra. your A. Masc. your. din. (thy) D. (dt) (ert). to thy. for all gender. edra. N.

Jlickorna. its N. Det (fruntimret) dlskar sitt bam. sina. Singular. § 11. its. the children's brethren) are looking for their book. his. his. the girls' mothers. The child's brother is looking for its book (the child's book). for all genders. Hon (modern) dlskar sitt bam. to her. her. A. (at) D. barnen) dlska sina broder. sina. (flickan) dlskar sin broder (syster). Hon She (the Det (bamet) dlskar It (the child) loves its sin broder (syster). Absolute possessive pronouns. D. her. girl) loves her brother (sister). its. These pronouns have the same forms as § 13. (at) sina. jlickomas modrar. the adjectival possessive pronouns and are declined in the same manner. De (gossarne.104 Lesson 20. sitt. hennes. D. her. The boy's father is looking for his book (the boy's book). her. Masc. . sin. its. (the father) loves his child. of his. her. their A. sina are used in a subjective reflective sense. the girls. Plural Neuter. sin. its his. her. G. Reflexive possessive pronouns. (at) A.: Han He (gossen) dlskar sin broder (syster). his. sin. its sitt. sitt Han He (fadern) dlskar barn. its. Flickans moder soker hennes bok (flickans bok). She (the mother) loves her child. her. brother (sister). his. whilst hans. II. her. The girl's mother is looking for her book (the girl's book). his. her. its to his. Bamets broder soker hans bok (barnets bok). its G. (the boy) loves his brother (sister). barnens (the boys' fathers. Sin^ sitt. its. De (gossames They fdder. its N. G. its. their his. sin. sitt. sitt. dess and deras are used objectively. that is when they do not refer to the subject of the sentence. his. § 12. broder) soka deras bok. sina. their. They (the boys. to her. their his. She (the wife) loves her child. Gossens fader soker hans bok (gossens bok). fern. her. of his. that is when they refer to the subject of the sentence. and N. the children) love their brothers. Ex.

de or dessa.: den hdr gossen. this (at) det or c?e^^a. this dess or detta. vdr. his. Masc. mine dina. this boy. sin. The absolute demonstrative pronouns have the same forms as the conjunctive ones and are declined in the same manner but take an s in the genitive. hennes dess deras »>:»»>» >>»»»» »»»»»» C. den denna. yours. Se hdr dessa omf Jag (conj. Singular. II. N. cZem or dessa. Ex. mine ditt. these. these. neut.: Denne (conj.) tvd rosor! vilken tycker Ni bdttre tycker bdttre om dennas (abs. Absolute (sjdlfstdndiga). yours. det ddr barnet. 105 min. of these. his. its mina.) mans sjukdom dr is farlig. (at) dem or dessa. edra (era). Conjunctive (Forenade). den or denne. This man's disease dangerous. > » » »» »> >» fem. dess or denna. to these. Masc. of this. ours. » » » plural § 14. ours edert. Fem. and «that2> Ex. cZew or denne. noun. this D. . det or c^e^^a. mitt. den or denna. (at) det or c?ef^<2. vdrt. its sina agree in gender and number with the possessed object whereas: is used when the object is possessed by a masc. these. this. Demonstrative (Utmdrkande). Sin. A. ert. that child. hers. (at) den or denne. the following substantive taking the terminal definite article. these cZeras or dessa. to this. din. Neut. G. G. er. hans sitt. her. det Jidr by den ddr. N. In conversation «this» is expressed by den liar. den or or denna. Note. Neuter. the following noun only taking an s. det ddr. thine sina. I.) doft. (dens) dess or denne. Plural. whereas the conjunctive pronouns remain unchanged.) fdrg men jag tycker mycket om dennas (abs.Tue pronouns. A. vara. thine sitt. eder. PZwraZ . Singular. Note. and fem. (for the 3 genders). D.

Hurudan ar naturen i norden? Kan den ocks^ vara mild? Hurudan ar Overgangen till de 4 arstiderna? Vad liknar nordbon i sitt inre? Vad saknas i norden? . bildande mognande v^rmen — Conversation. like the I prefer the smell of that one much. narande. det som ligger daremellan. Naturen ar darstades Strang. environment. genom ingen overgang forberedd. den det ar vad som saknas. host och vinter. mo- sU^dds] mg:\ njugg [njugt] deration hdrdsint irdsir id- rough tender friendly avbrott [a'vbrof] interruption overgdng [0V9r- transition dm sin't] [oTw/] \ven'lig^'\ {has-tig^'] Nordbo[nco'udbco^] Northerner alternativ [artdr. Words. ar just en bild av vad nordbon ar i sitt inre.na'] mognande [moj'ynan^dd] maturing.106 Lesson 20. See these two roses! colour (very) which do you prefer? but I of this one. utan liksom smygande sig fram. Den yttre omgivningens maktiga intryck gor i norden sin narvaro latt kannbar. den uppriskande svalkan. to be ndrande ran'dd] [ns'- nourishing dan''dd\ sakna [sa*A. lacking Reading Exercise Nordens natur. men ar det da vanligen utan m^tta. 41. Det hastiga avbrottet av vinter och var. I den fysiska som moraliska varlden harska skiftesvis dessa alternativ av kold och hetta. surroundings intryck \in'try^k'\ impression ndrvaro \n8srpresence [om'ji'vniT)] omgivning vdrme [vser'md'] warmth exterior yttre Yyttvd] kdnnbar l^en'bar] sensible ddrstddes [de'r- there stingy va^roj] mdtta \mot'a^'\ measure. Den kan ocksa vara om och vanlig.alternative vdnlig hasiig sudden to forbereda [fo'rbdre^da] _ fysisk [jy!sisk] prepare natHv] kold [gdltd'] hetta yhet'a^^ cold heat coolness to refresh moralisk lisk] [M physical [mojra. ofta njugg och hardsint.'- moral alternately svalka [sval'ka^^ uppfriska jris^ka] [up'\bil'- skiftevis [fif'tdvi's] bildande formative to lack.

six quails and so many thrushes. The cuckoo does not build any nest. yours. it is said of him. its female lays her egg in warmer My pheasants are greater than partridges have you shot? I did not shoot them. nightingale? I caught it yesterday.fjddrar [fje'drar'] owl uggla gold-finch ndt \nett\ fiyga [flyg'a^'] i yesterday to sing to chirp twitter) (to gdr \i go'r] [Juv'a. The robin is a pretty little bird. I caught them with nets.The pronouns. however they are very useful. The sportsman has shot twelve larks. when it becomes cold.^n] sdngfdgel fo'g9l] [soif- mes [me's] [fo'gdlbco^] fdgelho magpie quail net skata [ska'ta^] vaktel [vak'tdV^ rotgel [rojtigel] \ug'la^^ steglitsa [ste'glitsa] feathers (plu. The young tit-mice are chirping in their nest. because they destroy field-mice. Birds. Larks are the first singing birds in Spring. where did you buy them? Their feathers please me very much. How many .'] sjunga mage) female partridge lark kvittra [kvit'ra^^ hona [hco'na'-] rapphona [rap'ho^na] ugly to destroy to build to shoot ful IfmtT] [stdira\ forstora [foer- Idrka \lseji'ka^^ bygga [byg'a'] huntingsman jagTYidstare [jeg'mes'tard] snipe to chatter sndppa l^snep'a^'] skjuta [/m'^a'] iprata [pra'ta^] [snattra [snat'ra^ Translation Exercise 42. that he « chatters like a mag-pie ». These ugly birds are owls. they fly to Do you see this countries. bird swallow stork bird of pas. Your gold-finches and siskins are very beautiful. When a man talks too much.jiyttfdgel [flyt'sage fo'g9n ndktergal \n£k'tdrnightingale fagel [foigdl] svala [sva'la'^ stork [stoxiU] thrush field-mouse siskin trast [trasit] dkerrdtta [o'kdr- gronsiska sis'ka] [gro'n- cuckoo pheasant singing-bird cage titmouse nest robin ga'n bur [bm!r] gok [i0-A:] fasan [fasa. the nests of other birds. Swallows and storks are birds of passage. it sings the whole day in its cage. 107 Words.

who. I do not know the girl that you are speaking of.108 Twenty-first Lesson. who stands on the Gif mig kdppen med vilken bridge. (at) vilket. ^som») du slog min hund. that G. that (for the three genders). that D. and fem. Masc. Plural (for the three genders). N. The pronouns. who. which. N. Relative pronouns § 1. Singular. that.). 1. The man. S. to which. vilken. and may be used for all Like the English relative pronoun «that». A. of which. which. that vilkas. vilkens. Note 2. which. D. whose. N. vilka. which. that. whose. as in English. Som is fader. dem ^^^' ^^^^^^ \ ^^^^• vad. that A. <^som-» genders. Jag kdnner the stick with which you hit my dog. indeclinable that. The relative pronouns are: vilken (masc. which. the relative pronoun may be left out.. whom. vilket. Neuter. to which. det. vilkets. that (at) vilka. G. vilken. to whom. that G. of which. who. that 1). When case or when . who. ej till flickan som Ni talar om.). Give me the relative pronoun is in the objective the preposition connected with the pronoun is placed at the end of the sentence. and fem. vilka. that. (at) vilken. vilket. (relativt pronomen). that vilka. which. is never governed by a preposition. whom. that A. 2. to whom. vilket (neut. is ("not my father. which. Ex. 3. D. that. (Continued). Mannen. som (vilken) star pa hryggan dr min Note 1.

vars (antiquated genitive of var) is often used. and adjectively and is declined as the relative pronouns: vilken. a. . The interrogative pronouns are: vem? who? which is always used substantively » » > » » vad? what? 2. : De darner (damerna) som du icke. vilkendera? (m. vilka^ page 108. a. f. vilkas. f. Interrogative pronouns (interrogativt pronomen). Den. The Note 3. s. Ex. dem Ex. kdnner jag of.) sing. vilkets. whose virtues are praised so much . hurudan ? (m. Ex. . The books that (which) I bought are for my mother. of: om vilken). Note 4. 109 : Det vin. . vad for ett? (n. vars dygder man prisar sd mycket This king. and occurs only 3. : De booker. . Ben flickan jag talade om dr The wine gift s. of: of whom). ho? and only used in biblical .) vilketdera? (n. in the singular. girl I spoke of is married (i.) which kind 6.) which of the two (these)? vad for en? (m. (continued). (what?) in the plur. I talar om. f. I bought is not good.) who? which? can be used substantively 5. vilka? for the three genders what? In the 4.The pronouns Ex. : Define konung. of? a. and f. (i. Instead of the genitive. always used in the dative and accusative case. § 1. vilket. E. dem jag kopte dro for min moder. 2.) hurudant ? (n. jag kopte dr icke goU. det. . vilken? (m. is? who? is obsolete or poetical language.) who? vilket? (n. The antecedent of a relative sentence generally drops the terminal article when the independent article is placed before it. do not know the ladies you are speaking are not very much used and are Note 5. vilkens.) hurudana ? plural for the 3 genders is always used adjectively and means how 7.

some. 7. pronomen). man. vad? what? G. — What have you seen? Vilka hooker har han Which § 4. 4. the ter-dera remaining unchanged except in the genitive which admits of an «s». -en. vad heist. 9. fdfj vem? to whom? D. all and every one. whatever. — Nothing. star vad? what? Vem Who framfor huset? stands before the house? At vem giver du applet? To whom do you give the apple? Vad Jiar Ni sett? Intet. vew? whom? Ex. hela.. hel. you (or passive voice). nagoUf nagot. entire. one. F.: A. each. all. vem heist. 10. helt. vems? whose? G. vilken som heist j whoever. we. 2. 6. vem? who? N. 3. nagra^ any. whole. Indefinite prononns (Obestdmda 1. Vilkendera af dessa (tvd) Idrjungar dr sjuk? is ill? Which of these (two) pupils Vad for fdglar dro dessa? What § 5. § 3. alia. and Ace. vem? who? vad? which? Singular. 5. var och en (ett) . manga. varje (indeclinable). annan^ annatj andra(e)y other. somebody.110 Lesson 21. they. (sort) kind of birds are they? Vem is used for persons. last? books (has he) did he read? mination Vilkendera is declined like vilken. N. bada and bagge^ both. every. -ensj Dat. . Vilken is used for persons and things. vars? of what? D. manget. en (ett) var(t). mangen. Gen. faf) vad? to what? A. vad for things. many a. allj alltj 8.

dem. G. The man who fears God is happy. Neuter. flere or flera. to A. : the relative pronoun ^som^. som dro dygdiga.The pronouns 11. . den. several. man who . to her den. of them D. N. A. (continued). him. to him. her. of ^he one (at) det. . fern. . 12. som dro rika. Ill NB. som fruktar Gud. of her (at) den. to it.: Den som. c) In the dative and accusative cases «dem» changes into «de'» when followed by a substantive. . they G. b) It may also be used with a noun and then it becomes a determinative pronoun and drops the «s» in the genitive case. De. the one (for Plural both numbers). to the one det. G. dro icke alltid de lyckligaste. of him. D. Gud dlskar de man. fruktar Gud dr sail. she dens. Singular. dr sail. D. det. N. man Den mans dygder som The virtues of the . them. G. he. He who fears God is happy. Masc. : God loves the men. Den. de. (at) dem. Correlative pronouns. somliga^ some. the one. them Observations. Ex. deras. and N. Ex. — — it. A. . Declension. The indefinite pronouns admit of an «s» in the genitive like the substantive. a) This pronoun is almost always immediately follo- wed by Ex. who are virtuous. it. They who are rich are not always the happiest.

112

The deponent
meat
thirst

verbs.

113
tillsdtta [til'sst'a] drickbar \drik'-

mat
torst

[matt]
[toejitsti

to prepare

drinkable

Rhine-wine
eatable rancid
to

renskt vin {rsniskt
vitn\

ba'r]

sour
indigestible
I

dthar [e'tha^r] hdrsken [hed'skdn']
hdrskna[h€x'skna']

become

am

thirsty

sur [smtr] osmdltbar [co'smeVtbar] jag dr torstig [jaig
setr tcex'stig']

rancid to harvest
to please

skorda
falla
i

[/(B'dda^]

to

quench
I

sldcka

[shk'a''

smaken
smaJkdn]
to use

[fal'a'' i

' j

nourishing

behaga [bdha'ga^] ndrande [n€'ra7i'd9]

bruka [brw/ka^] hava for sed [ha'va'' for setd].

Translation Exercise 44.
Food.

Who
become

has sold you this butter?

it is

not eatable;

it

has

The wine that I have harvested in my vineyards pleases my customers. Brandy is distilled from wine. What meat do you prefer? I prefer beef to veal. What did
rancid.

you eat at luncheon? My luncheon usually consists of roast ham, eggs and a piece of cheese. In Germany they drink beer, wine and other beverages. Fresh eggs are nouAt breakfast we drink coffee with milk, chocolate rishing. or tea and we eat sandwiches. The salad is prepared with salt, pepper, oil and vinegar. This wine is not drinkable; it has become sour. Ham, sausage, and bacon are indigestible meat. I am thirsty; I will drink a little wine with water to quench my thirst. Eat this cake and drink a cup of tea. What sort of wine are you fond of? I am very fond of Rhine wine. After each meal my father used to drink a small glass of brandy and to smoke a cigar.
beef,

Twenty-second Lesson. The deponent verbs.
§1. A deponent verb is a verb, which is conjugated in the passive form whilst having an active meaning.
Note
the supine.
1.

The deponent verbs form

their

compound

tenses with

Note
the
«,9»

2.

when

The present participle of the deponent verbs retains alone and drops it when followed by a noun.
g

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

lU
§ 2.

Lesson 22.

The

four Swedish

conjugations contain de:

ponent verbs, of which the principal are
yst Conjugation, andas, to breathe. dagas, to dawn. hoppas, to hope.

2Qd Conjugation (cont^).

rddas,

to be afraid.

svettas, to sweat.

tdras, to weep.
vistas, to stay, to sojourn. avundas, to envy.

to be ashamed. synas^ to appear. tyckas, to seem. vdmjas, to be disgusted.

skdmmas,

2/vas, to boast.

5rd
hrn<i ^^^^

Coujugation.

2nd Conjugation.

*® ressemble. \ \ to take after.

behovas, to want. dvaljas, to dwell.

^th

Conjugation,
is.

minnas,

to recollect.

bitas, to bite, ^/in-s (^(C?e;fj, there

Pronominal verbs.
The conjugation of the pronominal verbs is § 3. formed with the help of the personal pronouns which are placed after the verb; the auxiliary verb is «hava».

Example. Beklaga sig, to complain.
Indicatiye.
Present.
Perfect,
I

Jag beklagar mig, du beklagar dig,
plainest.

complain. thou com-

jag

liar beklagat

du har
hast

mig, I have beklagat dig, thou
•73

han hon
det
vi

)

\
)

he beklagar sig, she
it
i

complains.

det
vi

«'»'
\

« a

it

I

beklaga oss, we beklagen eder, you de beklaga sig, they

/

complain.

hava beklagat
we

oss,

>

)

/ haven
they

beklagat eder, have
sig,

S o o

and so

forth.

you de hava beklagat

Words,
samtid [sam'ti^d] (contemporaneous) epoch; age

drottning \drot'niy']

queen

diadem

[di'ads.'m]

diadem
sceptre
election,

fomtidlfco'mti^d] antiquity
eftervdrld [ef'tdr- posterity vseUd] tanke {taij'kd^^ thought metal metall [metalt] sldkt [slekit^ generation storhet [stco'rhe^t] grandeur

spira [spi'ra^'] val [vaU]

choice

krona [krco'na'] fdrddmjukelse drag [drdtg^^
nedstiga\nedstVga]

crown
humiliation
feature
to

descend

The deponent
kejserlig [cej'Sdr- imperial

verbs.

115
to revolve, roll

rulla {rul'a^^

to

%']
enda

fullkomna

only [eWfZa'l (ful'- to achieve
satisfied, con-

senaste [se'nas'td] future
to explain tyda \ty da^'\ de dodlige [do'd- the mortals
lig'd]

kom'na] nojd [noj.'d]

tent,

pleased

nedldgga
leg^a]

[ne'd-

to

depose

umgds
ypperst

[um'go^s]
[yp.'djisfi
. . .

to

be enviro-

ned
prime
,

oinsom

omsom now

.

.

now

[om'som']

drva [asr'va'] to inherit vdrdig [vee'Mig^] worthy tilldga [til'leg'' d] to add the Most High den Hogste
\hdktst9^'\

stdmpla [stem'pW]
oforgdnglig
\a)-foRrJE7flig^

to coin

teckna sig [tek'na']
imperishable

to depict one's self

behova [bdhova^]

to need.

Reading Exercise 45.
Kristina.
Ej nojd att

Varje hennes tanke blir en bild, som, stamplad i en oforganglig metall, ruUar kring varlden och for de senaste slakter tyder hennes sjals storhet. Utan rike vill hon vara drottning; utan diadem den yppersta bland dodlige. Sedan hon nedlagt en arvd spira, vill hon genom val finnas vardig en annan; och hon nedsteg ifran tronen, da hon till den kungliga icke kunde lagga en kejserlig krona. I sjalva sin forodmjukelse infor den Hogste andas hon blott sin egen storhet. «Du har gjort mig sa stor» sager hon till Gud; «att om du givit mig hela jordens rike, skulle du ej fornojt mitt hjarta.» I detta enda drag tecknar hon sig sjalf sa talande, att jag till fuUkomnandet av hennes bild ej behover tillagga flera.
i

hon omsom

umgas med sin samtids yppersta forntiden, omsom i eftervarlden.

snillen, lever

Conversation.

Nojde

sig Kristina

med

att

umgas med

sin

samtids

yppersta snillen? Vilken var hennes livliga onskan? Varfor nedsteg hon ifran tronen? Vad sade hon till Gud? Vad bemarker detta sty ekes forfattar e angaende Kristinas
bild?

Words.
soul

unsettled. it thinks but of plays and amusements. we are ashamed of ourselves and we regret our blamable conduct. The child is careless. discouragement and despair are strange to it. The sonl and its faculties. the weak would like to become powerful. There are people who continually complain of their lot.'k] vis [vi's] sorgsenhet [sorsenhe^t] sorglos [sor'jle's] do [de!] [to'la^] modloshet loshe^t] [mcj'd[foert- bear tdla ment despair (to gay to care for munter {munitdv] glad [glcu'd] fortvivlan vi'vlan'] a) hekymra Qymtra m'an'dd] sig siig] [6a- have (hava) lust [lus!t] mind pleasure frdmmande fomojelse nojtdlsd] [fri- [f(£r- strange unsettled to grieve to discourage to to joy action glddje [gle'djd^] handlinglhan'dliy'] obekant [co'bdkan't] fordnderlig [foersn'ddrlig'] conduct to encourage to regret to uppforande foran^dd] [up'- bedrova [bddro'va] modfdlla [moj'dfd'a] gov a modigljo'ra^ moj'dig^] dngra [oyra^] gladden uppmuntra \up'- something wish continually ndgot {no'gof] onska [^on'ska^] stdndigt[st£n'dig't] do (a action) mun'tra] bad begd [bdgo!] tadelvdrd vse^jid']. . rich healthy frisk \^frisik} amusement play sadness discourage- forlustelse lus'tdlsd^] (foer'- only rik [ri'k] endast. When it Our impressions are cries it often has a mind to laugh. whereas the least pleasure and the least joy gladden and encourage us. When we have done a bad action. Sadness. the least pain. it does not care for the future. troubles and cares. the poor envy the rich. the least care grieve and discourage us. Man has always something to hope for and to wish. the wise man only knows how to bear pains.116 Lesson 22. when healthy it is always gay and lively. for hope never dies in his heart. hlott \m'- das% wise careless to die to blot'] lek [le. blamable [ta'ddl- weak poor svag [si'a!g] fattig Ifat'ig'] Translation Exercise 46.

117

Twenty-third Lesson. The impersonal verbs,
The impersonal verbs are so called because § 1. they are conjugated only in the third person of the
singular.

Example. Hagla, to hail.
IndicatiYe.

Present.

Imperfect.
(is

Det haglar,

it

hails

hailing).

Det haglade,
ling).

it

hailed (was hai-

Perfect.

Pluperfect.
has hailed

Det har haglat,

it

Det hade haglat,
(it

it

had hailed
,

(has been hailing).

had been

hailing).

Future
Det shall hagla,
will

I.
it

will hail

(it

Future II. Det skall hava haglat,
have hailed
hailing).
(it

it

will

be hailing).

will

have been

Conditional.
Present.

Past. would hail

Det skulle hagla,
(it

it

Det skulle hava haglat,
have hailed
hailing.
(it

would be

hailing).

it would would have been

Subjunctiye.
Present.

Imperfect.
hail
(it

Det md hagla, it may may be hailing).
Perfect.

Det skulle (matte) hagla, it might
hail
(it

might be

hailing).

Pluperfect.

Det

hava haglat, it may have hailed (it may have been
hailing).

md

Det skulle (mdtte) hava
might have hailed have been hailing).
it

haglat,

(it

might

Infinitive.
(att)

hagla,

to hail.

Participle.
Present.

Past,
hailing).

haglande, hailing (being

havande haglat, having
(having been hailing).

hailed

The
det det det det

chief Swedish impersonal verbs are:
det toar, it thaws. det dskar, it thunders. det haglar, it hails. det dngrar (mig), I repent.

regnar, it rains. snoar, it snows.
hlixtrar, it lightens. finns, there is.

118

Lesson 23.

I.

Interrogative conjugation.
The interrogative conjugation
cir

§ in English.

2.

is

formed as

Ex.:

jagf am I? voro vi? were we? dr bamet sjuktf is the child ill?

II.

Negative conjugation.
differs alto-

§

3.

The Swedish negative conjugation

gether from the English one; the negative particle is icke (ej, inte) and it is placed after the verb in simple tenses and between the auxiliary and the verb in compound tenses, the English negative forms «do not» and <^did noi» should therefore never be translated literally.
Ex.: vi tola icke, we do not speak (we speak not). vi hava icke talat, we have not spoken. vi skola icke tola, we shall not speak.
Note. In subordinate phrases the negative particle should be placed before the subject and the verb.

Ex.: jag sade
I told

honom, att jag icke kunde gd pa teatem. him (that) I could not go to the theatre.

III.

Interrogative^negative conjugation.
4.

In interrogative-negative sentences the negaalways stands after the subject whether it is a noun or a pronoun. Ex. Skall jag icke se dig i dag f
§
tion
:

Har

I not see you to-day? barnet icke varit sjuktf Has not the child been ill?

Shall

Words.
vdrldshistoria
history of the [vai'ddshistco^ria] world remembrance minne [min'd'] virtue dygd [dyg!d]

foremdl
mo^l]

[fo'rd-

object,
life

aim

levnad [le'vnad^] verksamhet
[vasjb'ksamheH]

activity

statsman man']
egenskap

[stat's-

statesman
hero
quality

rdddning[r€d"niy^] salvation

hjcilte [jel'td^]

dager [daJodr]

light

[e'gdn-

kunskap
ska^p]

{kun'-

science
social order

ska^p] personlighet[paer- personality
soj'nlighe^t]

samhdltsordning
[sam'helsoUdniy]

sdtt

\_S€t''\

way
great deed

drhundrade

[o'r-

century

hragd [bragdi]

hund'dradd]

The impersonal

verbs.

119

mod

courage [moxd] slaveri [^sla'vdri^ slavery

fdre7ia [fore'na^] to unite ovanlig [M'va^n- unusual

bildning

[bil'd-

culture

%]
dyrhar
\dyr'ha^T\^ dear

tillvaro \til'va^Ta)\ presence to leave efterldmna

andlig [a ~Mg [an'dJZt^'] spiritual vdrldslig [v^'j^ds- temporal
hdrlig
[h^'rlig'']

[^Ef'tdvUmfna]

dterkalla
kaVai]

[o'tdv-

to recall

splendid
final.

slutlig [slm'tlig^]
private

ensldld [e'nfiVdl^

Reading Exercise 47.
(xustav Adolf.

Fa manniskor hava i varldshistorien efterlaranat ett sadant namn som Gustav Adolf ett namn som aterkallar minnet
;

icke blott av alia den enskilda manniskans dygder, utan ock av snillets, statsmannens och hjaltens darmed icke alltid forenade egenskaper. Redan denna, lika ovanliga som alskvarda personlighet. skuUe gora honom dyrbar for varje hjarta; men annu mera har ban blivit det genom sattet varpa dessa egenskaper anvandes, genom den bragd, vilken blev slutliga foremalet for hans levnads verksamhet, namligen Europas Den harliga raddning fran andligt och varldsligt slaveri.

dager af samhallsordning, kunskap och bildning, som under dessa tvanne sista arhundraden gjutit sig over och ifran det nordliga Europa, har for sin tillvaro att tacka Gustav Adolfs mod och Gustav Adolfs svard.
Conversation.
Vilket namn har Gustav Adolf efterlamnat historien ? Vilka dygdep aterkalla hans namn? Vad gjorde honom sa alskad? Vilket var hans livsmal? Hurudant var Europa vid Gustav Adolfs tid?
i

varlds

Vad har Europa Gustav Adolf
Words.
weather

att tacka for?

120

Lesson 24.
to

to hail

to

pour

to clear to shine
to

up

Mama
dska

hagla [ha'gla'] osa ned [0'sa' ne.'d]
[kla'rna^]

seem

to destroy
to

synas [s^'nas'] forstora {foRrstotra] fiora [ho'ra^]

skina [/rna']
[os'ka^^

hear

thunder

bad
this

ddlig [do'Iig']

to lighten to freeze

blixtra \blik'stra'] frysa [frysa']

morning

i

morse

[moji'Sd^']

dark

to skate to

dka skridsko [o'ka''
skrUdskco] toa [if0*a']

thaw

[mcer!k] overcast betdckt, mulen \hdtekit, mm'ldn"]. (Contin. Page 123)
:

mork

Translation Exercise 48.
The weather.

What
it

has
is

sort of weather have we to-day ? It is snowed and hailed this morning; now^

bad weather
it

;

is

pouring.

dark weather. The sky is overcast, but it will soon The sun will soon shine and we shall have a It is very sultry It lightens it will soon thunder. and large rain drops are falling. It has lightened and thundered the whole night the weather was stormy. The streets were muddy and now it is slippery, for it has frozen very hard. The pond is frozen; we can skate on it. Now^ it is snowing and to-morrow at sunrise it will thaw the weather seems to become milder. It has hailed very hard; the harvest is almost destroyed. Do you hear it thunder? a storm is raging on the sea.
It

clear up. nice day.

;

;

;

Twenty-fourth Lesson.

Compound

verbs.

§ 1. Compound verbs, that is verbs composed of a root- verb and a prefix which may be a noun, an adjective, an adverb or a preposition are divided into inseparable and separable verbs.

A. Inseparable verbs.
Verbs beginning § 2. prefixes are inseparable:
anJ

with one of the following
sam-,

be-f

hi-,

ent-j

er-j for-j gen-, hdr-, miss-,

um-, und-, van-, reder-.
Ex.
:

vi forstd, we understand. jag erbjuder, I offer.

) tnotvdgay to counterbalance to help from dkalla.). The judge took cognizance of the letter. Some av-dela. to read through. to influence innebdra. to imply (infer. fdregiva. to surrender. 121 B. to shut in : Note. to decease in-packa. Ex. to pretend inverka. ned-hugga. pd-kldda. forth to vdrv [vseriv] Mod mission. kraft [krafit^ befriare fritard] [ bd- liberator power Ijus \_jmts] light frihet [/rr^e'^] liberty forsvarare [/ce^s. nedgora. task \blojid^ fro [/V0/] blood seed fullborda b(o''jida\ \_ful'- achieve krans \kranis\ crown besegla [bdse'gW] to seal . I jag sdtter over (sep. to bland to dress over-ldsa. to overwhelm tillhedja. overstep. to pack up inne-stdnga.V] skote [fo'td^] ojffra tear bosom to offer [ofra'] egen [e'gdn'] framstd [fram'sto'] own to to come fulfil. It is difficult to give absolute rules on the composition of the verbs belonging to this class. (ejmot-taga. Some avhdnda^ anklaga. Note. § 4. kallelse [kal'dlsd^'] vocation strength. Most of the compound verbs composed of a n o u n adjective Ex. to leave. they can only be learned by practice. : are inseparable in the translate.: Hvem hushdllar for honomf Who keeps his household? Words. away hddan-jara.defender tar [fo. to reflect back overgiva.). to invoke dterspegla. tog del av brevet. proper meaning. are separable. Some compound verbs composed of an adjective or a noun remain inseparable these are very few and will be better learned by practice. I in the meaning and separable jag oversdtter (ins. to spoliate to accuse to dispossess inseparable verbs. to share frdn-taga. to carry separable verbs.: The separable Domaren Verbs prefix is placed after the verb. underldta. to receive to hurl down till-blanda. or an Separable verbs. compounded with an adverb or a generally preposition figurative Ex. to worship frdnkdnna.Compound verbs.

noble to ddel l^etddT] skon [fe'n] utfora vdga \vo'ga^'\ knytas \kny'tas^'\ protestantisk beautiful \m'tfd^ra\ to accomplish to venture fukta {^fuk'ta^^ tacksam [tak'sam''] akta [ak'ta^^ uppfostra [up'fajs'tra] bedew thankful to regard to bring bless. upon up to be knotted protestant vdlsigna [velsiy. Vilken kallelse kande Gustav Adolf inom sig? Vilka voro foljdema av bans regering? Som vad kan Gustav Adolf betraktas? Words.122 Lesson 24. en krans. lag redan som fro den enda hjaltetanken att for Ijusets seger vaga bade sig sjalv och sitt folk och detta fro har efter bans dod utvecklat sig i eviga bragder i statens likasom i snillets varv. . Gustay Adolf. i . att med honom offra sitt blod i den heliga striden. som aktades vardigt att i sitt skote uppfostra denne hjalte. att med honom ga i valsignat minne till den senaste eftervarld. fuktad av hela det protestantiska Europas tacksamma tarar men mest av det folk. vilkas skonaste blommor ma knytas till en krans at befriarens minne. Conversation.^na] to [prco'testanftisk] Reading Exercise 49. och snillen hava utfort. . adelt och skont dessa landers hjaltar eget blod. bildat och tankt. benkldder be'n- [byk'sayr'. Han var den. IcW'ddr] waistcoat Slipper {vesif] halsduk [hal'sdm'k] pair of braces hdngslen [heyishn] shoe maker skomakare [skco'ma'kard] sko [skcof] stdvel [st0tv9l] toffel [tofidl] morning gown morgonrook {mor'onrok'-^ shoe boot half boot chambermaid kamTnarjungjru hat felt hat straw hat halvstovel [hal'vsto'vdl] [karrfarjuy^frm] hatt \hat\ peasant collar fiUhatt [fil-thaf] halmhatt [hal'mhae] cuff bonde [bojn'dd^] krage Ikra'gd] manschett [man- . som inom eget brost kande kallelsen och kraften att framsta som Ijusets och frihetens forsvarare och han fullbordade detta heliga varv och beseglade det med sitt Vad stort. clothes kldder \kletddr] klddsel [kled^sdl] overroc]4^0'vdrrok^] skrdddare [skrsd'ard'] stocking strumpa [stru7n'pa^'\ clothing overcoat tailor sock linen necktie halv strumpa [hal'vstrum'pa] linne \lin'd^'\ trousers byxor vdst .

The shoe-maker makes shoes. Page 127) sultry stormy stormig [stor'mig^] (Contin. Dress quickly. troget. Adverbs. boots and half boots.: Translation Exercise 50. You must beat the fur. § 2. Has the chamber maid brushed my hat? Which hat? The felt hat. it is so Put on your woollen stockings because it is very cold dusty . faithfully. the waistcoat is fashionable I will wear it with much pleasure. . Some adverbs end in -igen. We — . Take off your old coat and put on a new one. Clothing. these shirts the cuffs old-fashioned and the gloves too dark. poHtely. probable.: Jiovlig. The word «ja» answers to a question ex§ 3. . troligen. Ex. He has tried on his tight for me new coat it suits him very well. all Ex. . You see me with my slippers and morning gown. polite. § 1. Have you folded up my linen ? Where did you buy these silk neckties? They are very elegant. ! to-day. . faithful. I will not have them. The trousers are too wide. for we are going to take a walk this morning.Adverbs. Swedish adverbs are derived from adjectives Swedish adjectives may become adverbs by placing them in the neuter. This overcoat is too I can hardly button it. Twenty-fifth Lesson. as it was made by a skilful tailor. pressed affirmatively and « Jo » to a question expressed negatively. In winter we wear woollen stockings and in summer cotton socks. probably. trogen. This pair of braces is worn out you should buy a new pair.: trolig. 123 shirt slcjorta skd'] {^foj'jiia^'] muddy slippery smutsig [smut'sig^] slipprig [sUp'rig'] glove fur tight skilful handske [han'dpals [peHs] trdng [troyf] skicklig [jik'lig'] kvav (kva!v] very hard mild is raging mycket StarJet [myk'df star'kt] mild [mil'd] rasar [ra'sar^]. because I must keep my room. Peasants . The collars are too tight for usually wear wooden shoes. hovligt. have had warm clothes made.

politely. Vill du icke dricka ett glas vin? Jo. Note. I will. more politely hovligast. hra. well) .: hovligt. Adverbs form their degrees of comparison . 7^oi.: Vill du dricka ett glas vin? Ja. Ex. Degrees of comparison. like the adjectives. Ex. The «^» in the positive form does not occur in the comparative and superlative forms.%are. Irregular adverbs. § 4.124 Lesson 25. Will you drink a glass of wine? Yes. vdl. Will you not drink a glass of wine? Yes (certainly). most politely. (good.

nearly . 125 ndstan^ almost.Adverbs.

En Gustav Adolfs ridknekt valtrade pa Liitzens fait en stor sten till det stalle. att det var en av dess invanare. Var Gustav Adolf alskad av tyskarne? Hum kallas rummet. dar Gustav Adolfs lik blev funnet? Vad kallas denna sten? Words. funnet. samt blivit omgiven av planterade trad och besokt av en var.126 Lesson 25. Conversation. Niirnatt uppresa sin valgorares bildstod. som hade den hugnaden. vilken likasom ett ombud av stadens tacksamhet foljde konungen anda in uti dodsstunden. han kallade sin ogonsten. som flackades av bans blod? Vilken stad beslot att resa bans bildstod? Vilken ung man foljde konungen anda in i dodsstunden? Varfor bar Niirnberg beslutit att uppresa bans bildstod ? Vad star pa det stalle. den unge Leubelfingen. som han med sa mycken anstrangning forsvarade mot Wallensteins hotande svard: Niirnberg. fastan inre forandringar och yttre tvang sedermera hindrade verkstalligheten. som kommit till dessa nejder. der det konungsliga liket blev berg beslot Stenen bar sedan bibehallit sin plats jamte nammet Schwedenstein. The British .

anstd. It is The governed by a king. British Empire is the greatest in the world. after enligt. List of the principal prepositions. in. for wives may reign.'s among . The State and (xovernment. about pa. The legislative power is exercised by House of Lords and the House of Commons. at ibland. . respected and admired by all civilized peoples and very often received by all the Sovereigns of Europe. At the opening of the first sitting the king delivers a speech. In England Monarchy is hereditary the Salic law is not applied in this country. England has had many celebrated queens.Adverbs. before . from .'] take a kldda sig \klE'da^'\ taga sig en pro- walk to fold to on forsoka. It comprises the United Kingdom (England. concerning sedan. according emot. through innan. towards emellan. prova [fcersetka. hos. England may be proud of Queen Victoria whose remembrance will be imperishable. in spite of framfor. Scotland and Ireland which form the British Isles) India and many other countries and Colonies in the five parts of the world. Twenty-sixth Lesson. omkring. since frdn. on rorande. Queen Victoria's reign was one of the longest and most glorious during the last century. proj'va^] up menad [proj'mdnaid] Idgga tillhopa [leg'a' tiUhoj'pa^]. within med. av^ of bakom. before inom. [dam'ig^] [lo'ti^t to put have Idtit gora taga pa sig poi si'g] [ta'ga^ made to button to try to suit jo'ra^] to dress to kndppa igen {knep'a' zjVtz. with medelst. the . by means of oaktadt. behind efter. which is called the throne speech. between igenom. This great queen was beloved by all her subjects. . passa [a7i'sto\ pas'a^l buy kopa piska to brush to take off borsta [bod'sta^] avtaga [a'vta'ga] to beat [ge'pa^] {^pis'ka^\ Translation Exercise 52. oldfashioned 127 wear on gammalmodig [gam'almoj'dig] to bdra [bas'ra^] [be'ra''] dusty to dammig .

Sveriges natur.Lappland Lapp frodas kom fara Tnajb^k^ \kojijin\ corn risk. out Words. notwithstanding over. during utan^ without uti. [bro'dmoj'gna] danger [/a'ra'] [bserj'- frysa hort [fry'sa'' bo'r't] to freeze hdrgning niy'] harvest. En . polhojd [poj'l- latitude bergstrakt idrak''t] [bserj'- mountainous region to stretch hofd olikhet oj'likhe't] diversity strdcka ut [^strek'a^ vjuit] Skdne ^sko'n9^] [luf't- Scania climate luftstreck strek^] gent emot [je^nt emco't] just opposite kastanje[kastaniJ9\ chest nut(tree) mullbdrstrdd mulberry-tree \imul'h£jLstre''^^ mild [miUd] dkta [ek'ta^] mild real.natural condition heskajfenhet {hdskafidnhe't] %] betydlig \bdty'd. to anskont. an i Tyskland och ovre Italien. Skane gor till utseende och luftstreck en overgang till det gent emot liggande nedre Akta Tyskland. men har annu mildare vintrar an detta. under. in at. ehuru blott planterat. mullharstradet. frodas i Skane. Detta kommer av det senares betydliga hojd over havet. da det daremot i Lappmarkerna (dar endast kornet bradmognar) behover halvannan sommar dartill. utom. hastigare forandring i naturlig beskaffenhet och alstringsformaga finnes ej i Sverige. kastanjen. under. Den fran soder resande motes forst hiir av verklig nordisk natur.fimportant lig^^ ^Istring sformdg a ^Toductiweness [al'striysfcer- motas lower [me'tas'] [considerable to meet with mo''ga] verklig [vser'klig'] real nedre [ne'drd] nordisk [nojUdisk] northern. very. crop naturlig \natmtr. som gor den smalandska bergstrakten nilstan till ett Norrland mitt i Gota rike.128 Lesson 26. ej langre. Ragsiidet behover blott halvfemte manad att mogna. iin emellan Skane och Smaland. over. med fara att innan bargningen bortfrysa. Husdjuren aro storre och frodigare. Ett land som utstracker sig under sa olika polhojder. maste inoni sig visa manga olikheter. ge- nuine [frco'das'] to thrive ovre [o^vrd] upper frodig [froj'dig^] luxuriant to be precious brddmogna rag \rotg'\ rye-(seed) seed sdde [^SE'dd^^ mark [Lap '. Reading Exercise 53.

Translation Exercise 54.folkundervisning cation [fol'kunddrvi'sniy] to the execution lagarnes utforande of laws [la'gamd^s m'tfceran'-dd] fleet comply villfara [vil'fa'ra] [6a/aZ*a'] to command hefalla borgare vdlja kingdom citizen k(on)ungarike [ko'nuyari'kd] [bor'jar9^] [je*- fiotta {flot'a''^ army the Swedish diet hdr \hetr] den svenska riks- to choose [vel'ja'] dag en [svsn'ska' to carry out genomfora nomfo^ra] ansvarig for \^an' sva''rig'] rik'sda'gdn] chambers diet-bill kammare[kam'ar9'] riksdag sordning responsible for to the First Forsta Kamm aren Ifcer'sta'^ [rik'sdagso^rdniy] be bound to forpliktad till [fcerplrktad'] to count anse for [an'se''] to to Chamber the Second kam'a- improve read forbdttra bet'ra] [foer- rd^n] Andra Kammaren [an'dra^ Chamber military service under the — . According to the Diet-bill of 1866 the first Chamber is composed of the richest and most learned men of the kingdom the second Chamber. The Coun- cillors state are responsible for the execution of laws. s reto receive to reign gering rdje!ri7)] [uniddr mottaga[mojt'aga^] be proud of vara stolt over [stoltt] reforms railways fdrhdttringar [fcerbet'riy^ar] jdrnvdgar [jx'xnvs'gar] imperishable oforgdnglig [co'fcerjey'lig]. The king commands the fleet and army. Elementary Swedish Grammar.Adverbs. The king should comply with the is Sweden of It is Constitution. Vad ar Skane? Aro vintrarne i Skane mildare an Vilka trad vaxa i i Tyskland? denna provins? Hum manga manader behover ragen for att mogna? Ar det stor skillnad mellan naturen i Skane och Smaland? Vad kommer detta av? Words. 9 . The Grovernment of Sweden. governed by a king.'d] councilors of statsrddsherre state [sta'tsrad'sh^rd] steam ship dnghdt {oyhoH^ national edu. of citizens chosen . The Swedish Diet consists in two chambers. 129 Conversation. an old monarchy. constitution statsforfattning [sta'tsfoRvfat^nixi] length langd [Isy. ] to write to respect to admire Idsa [le'sa'] skriva [skri'va'] militdrtjdnst \mi'lite'rgen'st] hogakta[h0'g ak^ta] beundra dra'] [bdun'- under . .

130 Lesson 27. since. In Sweden all citizens are bound Under the reign of Oscar II many remilitary service.miscellany niy'] around mellerst [mel'dJLst] most central dessutom [dss'ui^. . . nevertheless . for an as.union niy'] inflytelse [in'fly'tdlsd] vdlgorande influence jo'randd] forvdna [foer vo-'na] bergig [bserjig'] mountainous \to wonder vdxtlighet [vek'st. Jivarfore. anting en att. The from among the people. and ocksd. forms were carried out in Sweden. both . as.calcareous soil skdrgard {fas'r. or men.basin fdnom'rodd] sddesbygd [se'dds. whether sdledes.isolated li'kd^] its like enstaka [ensta'-ka] [lik've'l] bok [bojfk] lund [lun^d] bolja [bol'ja^] beech grove. to fleet numbers over 1200 steam ships. but ndmligen. or om. .. . lucky beneficial rto astonish forening [fo'rd. namely och. why likvdl. eller. sometimes times dndd.archipelago goUd] skdrgdrds natur archipelagic knappast p'ast'l [kna- scarcely [—s natm'r] sin like [si'n nature ovan orolig likvdl \o'va^n'\ [cj'rco'lig^ above lonely. however.. . either .. thus (viz. though da. . otherwise eller.vegetation lig^het] vildhet \vildheH'\ wildness . that . . some- Words. och. thicket unsettled equally wave fecundity bordighet dighett] [bce'r- bdda [bo'da'] utmdrkt [m't7nser^kt] i both remarkable vattenomrdde [va. List of the principal conjunctions. bevis \^b9vi!s] proof kalkgrund grun'd^ \kal'k. and dock. an.moreover kring [kriy!] torn] bergsrorelse [basr'jro'rdlsd] mining in- gynna [jyn'a'] [ve'l to favour dustry lycklig [lyk'lig^] happy. although eljest.cornfield byg'd] anseende till H with regard to an'sedn^do til] hlandning [blan'd. ty. . Railways were stretched out and their length is now over 10 000 kilometers. .. National education was much improved and the number af those who cannot read nor write is less in Sweden than in any other Swedish country. for emedan. also if. Twenty-seventh Lesson.) hade . when ehuru.

bada I anlikval utmarkta genom stora skillnader i bordighet.och Ostergotland. men oroliga boljor skilja Vaster. Vatterns klara. som forvanar. Foljer man fran Skane ostra kusten.Adverbs. Vilken natur har Blekinge? Ar stranden fran Karlskrona till Kalmar skon? Vilka aro Sveriges fruktbaraste landskap? Vilka aro Sveriges storsta sjoar? Words. tvenne av Sveriges fruktbaraste landskap. fantdri^l artilleri {^ctr'tihrii'] artillery horse-soldier ryttare [ryfard^] foot-soldier fotsoldat [fco't- sergeant corporal cornet garrison menttd] kapten [kaptetn] lojtnant [loftnan't sergeant [s^rfanH korpral [korpra'l kornett \kornEti'] garnison sajfTi] [gar'ni- soldaH] victory seger [se!gdr] field-marshal fdltmarskalk volunteer recruit frivillig [fri'vilHg] rekryt [rdkrytt] \krig' sfoRrkMrirj] declaration of krigsforklaring troops discipline [fd'tmarfark] trupp [trup'] discipUn [di'siplUn] overste [o'vdrstd^l^ war capture of the m^«^<2?2c?e (av en place plats) \intagandd\ dragoon cuirass dragon \draga)tn^^ colonel kyrass {kyrasi^ . smarre lundar och enstaka trad ga dock ej bokskogen mera : hogre. infanteri in'- lieutenant [fco'tfol^k. rytteri regiment regemente \ksLvaVdritj ryt'd- captam infantry fotfolk. Conversation. med harliga sadesbygder. i Rattvik) en vaxtlighet. 131 Reading Exercise 55. great powers stormakter [stco'r- at the head i spetsen for [spet'sdn] [re'jd makHdr] cavalry kavalleri. ex. Kring sjoarne Hjalmaren och Malaren ar det mellersta Sveriges storsta slattland rorelse. dessutom gynnade genom en lycklig blandning av akerbruk och bergsDessas forening har strackt sin valgorande inflytelse till Varmland och Dalarne. seende till sjalva landets bildning hor Vastergotland till Vanerns. utan att likval i dessa bada bergiga landskaps ovre delar hava kunnat besegra naturens borjande vildhet. som pa sina stallen Ovan Kalmar vaxer i skonhet knappast har sin like i norden. Ostergotland till Vatterns vattenomrade. Likval narer annu kalkgrunden kring sjon aven Siljan (t. SYeriges natur. sa visar sig i Blekinge det vackraste beviset pa Ostersjons mildare skargardsnatur och fran Karlskrona till Kalmar en strand.

the sergeant and the corporal.132 Lesson 28.'] to fight to win to stand kdmpa vinna [cem'pa^] [vin'a'] obligatory ohligatorisk gatojirisk] {ph'li- std [sto'] compulsory [foers- tvingande [tviyan'dd]. because a declaration of war is feared. equipped and armed. bear a sword. infantry and artillery. Twenty-eighth Lesson. Officers — . Military Service is not The Comet defended bravely the obligatory in England. his regiment. Army. An army consists in cavalry. a cartridge-box and a haversack. to defend forsvara va'ra] Translation Exercise 56. Under the colonel stand the captain. Footsoldiers bear a gun. the garrison was disarmed. All great powers of Europe keep an army. The volunteers and recruits will soon be exercised. ack! alas! ajf ay! o dear! anfdicta! plague! gtid nd's! alas! fy! fie! hva! hva sa! hey! st! hush! tag mot! look here! hvadan! what! hm! tro I ha! ha! say! ah! it! topp! agreed! lappri! nonsense! mig! depend upon min sann! really! faith! usch! oh! . The horse-soldiers and foot-soldiers fought bravely and won the victory. hjdlm Yjdim'] svdrd [sv^. Dragoons wear a cuirass and a helmet they defend themselves with the sword. lance or pistol. The field marshal commands the troops. colours of the garrison. After the capture of the place. In the German army The Colonel stands at the head of discipline is very strict.^rd] gun gevdr [JdVEtr] cartridge-box patrorikok [pair congo'k] helmet sword lance pistol to exercise to to laiis [lan^s] pistol [pistojH] utova [m'te'va] arm equip vdpna utrusta Xvsp'na^"] \m^trus^ta^^ haversack to mat-tornister \ma't-tornisHdr\ to fear to disarm keep underhdlla ddrhoVa] \un'- to bear strict frukta [fruk'ta^\ avvdpna [a'vep^na] hdra [&£'ra'] strdng [streif). List of the principal interjections. the lieutenant.

133 Words. hem \hemf\ .Adverbs.

134 .

Ex. Det huset har min fader kopt. Yesterday we were in the country. Ex. Place of the subject.: Hon the interrogative is made with the help of the or «Jw» the subject should precede the verb. father has bought this house has bought). : tences. The subject is placed after the verb: When : the sentence begins with. § a) 1.: Nu are going to bed. Ex. fadern sjong icke. c) In exclamations. skulle han gora mycket gott. 3. the father did not sing. Order of the words. If he was (were) rich he would do much good. (this house my father an adverb or an adverbial expression or a conjunction.reading? Alskar du icke din moderf Do you Note. § a) 1. My 2. Mdnne de voro trottaf were" they tired? dr ju nojdf she is Exceptions. b) After the verb in negative and interrogativenegative sentences. Now we skola vi gd till sdngs. I.. jag laser ^ I read .: Om han vore rik. 2. I gar voro vi pa landet. Ex. Ex. not like your mother? When word « manner Ex. Ex. The construction of sentences. A. : Mdktig dr Gud! God is powerful! (powerful is is God!) b) When the principal phrase preceded by a subordinate sentence.: Laser barnetf Does the child read? or is the child . The subject is generally placed: Before the verb in affirmative and negative senEx. an attributive adjective.: Leve drottningen! the queen for ever! . the object.135 Twenty-ninth Lesson.

it began to smile. repose [me'dlem^] member vdrldsliv [vse'jids. to the boy. sd borjade det att le. Ex. a) The indirect objective case when used without any preposition precedes the direct objective case. Ex. c) cipal When the child saw its mother. Ex. a) Generally the clause cipal part in the sentence should ginning of the sentence.world's life [rojf] medlem li'v] frid \_fri'd^ peace trevnad [tre'vnad^] comfort rot \ro)it^ leende Ue'dn^dd] root naturliv [natrn'r. Place of the objective case. Ldraren gav en hok in at Idrjungen. Ex. The teacher gave a book c) Like a noun is the noun. Ex.: Ndr hamet fick se sin moder. : Om de icke dro skyldiga. which bears the prinbe placed at the be- § 4. both are generally united by the conjunction ^Sa» which is not rendered in English. should be acquitted. When a subordinate sentence precedes the prinsentence. The teacher gave the boy a book.natural life im gubbe [gub'd^] smile old man gudsjruktan \_gut'sfrukHan\ fear of God . The servant on whose faithfulness I relied has stolen money from me. my father's house. If they are not guilty they b) The relative pronouns. § 3. godhet {^gojtdhet'] kindness serving spirit ro tjdnsteande [gen'stdan'dd] rest.136 Lesson 29. B.: the indirect objective case is preceded by a preposition the direct objective case should immediately be placed after the verb.: Drdngen pa vilkens (vars) trohet jag rdknade har stuUt pengar frdn mig. conjunctions generally follow the nouns to which they refer. the adverbs. Words. b) When Ex.: Ldraren gav Idrjungen en hok. Order of clauses. hus. : English the indirect objective case of placed in the genitive case and precedes Min fader s 11. skola de frikdnnas.

och ordning. 137 to shoot earnest to bless to bravery | gro {gra)f\ [aZ* va'r- forhdllande /Ae^]j circumstance [^foRrhol'cin^dd] allvarlig condition to call forth bitter %] viga n/juta [vrga^'l \njwi'ta'''] framkalla [^frara'kaV'a] enjoy hitter \hitt9r\ fdrkvdva [foerkV£. Hemmet. se Sverige se overallt bland fjallen och skogarna. ! : tapperhet. se Frankrike vill du se hemmets och familjens vigda jord. Vill du se deras jord. Konsterna aga ej dar sin hembygd blommornas tid ar kort. vaxande allt hogre upp mot himmeln. Ingen bitter rot far vaxa dar den vill gro. der manniskan njuter ett foradlat naturliv. uppkommer alltid ett leende eller en tar. se Italien. Reading Exercise 59. och i dessa ett ord av karlek att forkvava den. dessa himmelns tjansteandar pa jorden. — . fatherland native fddemesland [frddmdslan'd] fosterland [fcos'tarlaa^d] glory patriotism dra [s'ra'] fosterlandskdrlek [fcos'tdrlandsgse'rlek] country sacrifice uppoffring [up-ofriy'] sentiment love kdnsla karlek [(gen'sla'''\ [f^rZe'fc] [til'ji'- native land fosterjord [fco'stdrjcoUd] attachment tillgivenhet Vdnhet] . . dar i skotet av heliga och Ijuva forhallanden utvecklas svenskarnes nationaldygder gudsfruktan och . dessa stilla gardar. Vad framkallar friden och trevnaden Hur forkvaves varje bitter rot? i hemmet? Vilka aro karlekens forrattningar bland familjens med- lemmar? Vad liknar hemmet? Vad motsvarar nordens hem i de sydliga landerna? Var utvecklas och vilka aro svenskarnes nationaldygder? Words.'va] to choke up Umiv] Jiembygd [hem Ijuv hyg'd.\ delightful native land. Godhet .'dv- construction of sentences. framkalla overallt samma frid och samma trevnad. lycklig gar manniskan ur varldslivet Det star i livet sasom ett gronskande trad.The tapperhet [tap. over var medlems val och trevnad for att vara hem. Conversation. Norden ar kail och allvarlig. Karleken vakar over barnets vagga over gubbens ro. .

ment stanna Translation Exercise 60. We . because nothing is more beautiful and more worthy of our love^ than fatherland.138 Lesson 29. Fatherland. When we travel or stay in a foreign Country we are always thinking of our native land. love and devotion to fatherland are the principal civil and social duties. ought to love. fidelity troliet \tra)thet] to protect skydda Uyd'a'] " i devotion hdngivenhet \h€'ngi'vdnhet] on the war bt krigsfoi [kri'gs- establish- civil danger duty fara [fa'ra'] ment to contribute medhorgerlig plikt [me'dbor'jdrlig plik't] hidraga [bi'dra'ga] prosperity to require to prevail to unite to threaten framgdng [fram'fordra [fco'rdra'] rdda [ro'cZa'] forena [/ore/na] hota resa [hoj'ta'''] social duty samhdlsplikt [sam'helsvUk't] to love dlska {el'ska^'] on the peace. Patriotism prevails in the hearts of all good citizens all are united in the same sentiment of love and attachment to defend their country when danger threatens it. Fidelity. Let us love our native country. our duty in time of peace to contribute to its prosperity and in time of war to defend it even at the sacrifice of our A brave soldier ought to fight and die for his native life. It is . land when the glory of the nation requires such a sacrifice. protect and defend our native country. pa fredsfot establish- [fred'sfoj^t] to travel to stay [re'sa^] [start' a'].

Klockan var sex pa aftonen. i En hostdag ar 1869 hollo tvenne ekipager vid hamnen Marseille just dar de stora angbatarne ligga som i alia riktningar ploja Medelhavet.H. tycktes tillhora uppvaktningen. Det var D. medgav kapanmarkte den med tre eller fyra i dag. H. bagge unga. «Nar vi fatt kolforradet ombord». mera var avsedd for gods an for folk.» «Tva? Omojligt!» «M kan hava ratt. Det var synbarligen «wne famille tres-distinguee» och de som akte i andra vagnen . En frukost pa Medelhavet. uppvaktande forargad. Emeller- . svar.D. for att dar tillbringa vintermanaderna. svarade denne tvart. och vid sidan av angbaten lag en koldragare. Ur det forsta stego en herre och en dam. anmarkte den uppvaktande. 1. att de nyss . «slippa vi ut». han forde. ar det mer. Den som ar van vid vara ordentliga angbatsturer forvanas over oordningen soderut. an jag vagar hoppas. att man annu eldat pa. om ocksa alia Europas suveraner vore tillstades. enligt annons.» »Men det var annonserat klockan sex». med tre sma barn. och gods ar en talig och tystlaten passagerare. Kaptenen smalog. «Nar avgar fartyget?» fragade en av prinsens uppvaktning kaptenen. «Men det ar hoga personer ombord». Till nagon ursakt for angbatskonungen i fraga ma namnas.139 Readings. och man kan darfor ej undra pa. K. Kaptenen smalog medlidsamt och vande ryggen till. angbaten skuUe avga men ingen rok ur angskorstenen rojde. men bevardigade honom ej med nagot Ombord ar skepparen ensam konung.K. det ser omojligt tenen.» «Det drojer kanske en hel timma?» «Det kan droja tva. den timman da. att den bat. «Och nar sker det?» «Det vet jag icke. som lastade in kol pa den forra. hertigen och hertiginnan av Ostergotland. som med sina barn skuUe resa till Nizza. anlanda passagerarne syntes missnojda.

vilken lange lat vanta efter ett tid hade H. icke for atande. hertigen foredrog att vistas pa dack. att jag ar rysk amiral ?» fragade prinsen. nar angbaten stotte fran land. mellan vilka angbaten gled fram. «Vem har sagt Er. godo med vad jag har att bjuda pa». Trots morkret trodde sig prinsen igenkanna nagra av de ogn. Fram emot sig prinsen hungrig. Prinsen hade namligen en gang som yngling. Men att jag talar franska ar mindre underligt. Men det drojde icke lange forran en fjarde person visade sig i samma hytt. kaptenen. sade kaptenen. Natten var kolmork. Prinsen gav sig i sam- morgonen kande fanns ombord. aro beraknade for sovande. men huruvida han da avkastade anony«Vill Ni och Ert sallskap halla till ej bekant. «jag har den aran vara svensk amiral och ar fullkomligt belaten darmed. upprepade kaptenen med en viss andakt. Men ingen restauration Fartyg. att vara rysk amiral. «0m Ni ar en Bernadotte». talar De mycket i bagge sysslingarnes ogon mottes. men havsvinden vanlig och mild. vilken sednare ocksa fick stora ogon. «sa kan jag har p^ stallet presentera for Er en nara slakting. gjort en resa over Medelhavet. Det var en lang ung man. hertiginnan med sina sma funnit pa sig. Prinsen tackade forbindligt och intradde med sin kavaljer i kaptenens hytt. den ene till en .K. Min frukost vantar redan ». sotig och flottig fran hjassa till fot. men som icke desto mindre belt obesvarat tog plats bland de andra vid bordet och del- sprak med miteten ar tog med «For Ni en ypperlig franska». «Bernadotte!» upprepade anyo kaptenen och gjorde stora ogon. Men sjon suger och Medelhavet icke minst. «och vilka aro de?» «Eugene och Bemadotte!» svarade prinsen.> «Tva franska marskalker». dem han oupphorligen flyttade mellan prinsen och maskinisten. som det i yngre dagar skadat.H.140 Readings. ett poetiskt sinne erfar. som visst icke var att forakta.pper. Huru olika Fr^n samma vra kommer man. maskinist pa min bat och sonson av en syster till marskalk Bernadotte. dar en frukost serverades. Klockan var 11. sin hytt Men besvarligt klattrande over tunnor och balar.* frisk aptit i frukosten. «sa ar Ni hjartligen valkommen. ett ! Det kan ligga odets lotter sadant dar omsesidigt betraktande. nar jag i min slakt haft icke mindre an tva franska marskalker. tertog kaptenen. nar det aterfinner stallen. och han betraktade dem med den djupa rorelse. och da i egenskap av lojtnant pa ett svenskt orlogsfartyg. yttrade kaptenen till prinsen. avvaktande med latt begriplig otalighet stunden for avresan. Monsieur De la Graise. som endast gora nattresor.

jamval ofta nog far stekas vid sakta eld och mera an en gang torka sin panna. hett fran bagge och bagge kuna hava sitt stora ansvar for sig men i forhallande till fursten. som av odet ar bestamd att foresta det stora maskineri. blir val anda maskinisten en underordnad person. som det under hela arhundradet forut hade saknat. uppstod snart emellan dem ett livligt och underhallande samtal. Huru- omsesidiga slaktbesok utlovades. Kanske tankte han pa sin frande. Prinsen fortfor att promenera pa dack. Mahanda tankte han ocksa pa huru den. August Blanche. Alia med namnet Bernadotte tillhora dock Namnet Bernadotte i sodra Frandrike ar lika ej samma att. som da anvandes. som djupt darnere vida vid nagra stektes for det gemensamma basta. betraktande den av eldgnistor paljetterade stenkolsroken. Slaget vid Narva. Tsar Peter. som de lange nart. voro icke skjutvapen. vanligt. Det var hans lust att pa en yster hast flyga fram over de farligaste stigar och forgaves sokte da hans faders gamle tjanare varna honom. var bjornen. an pa allvarliga varv. utan hogafflar och pakar Da Sveriges grannar horde. . Till det andamalet ville han berova Sverige dess be. som virvlade ur skorstenen. trodde de ratta tidpunkten var inne att utfora de fientliga planer. Prinsen rackte likval vanligt den sotige och flottige franden sin hand.Readings. och utsikterna for framtiden voro lovande. Han syntes tankfull. men det djur. kanner jag dock icke. han ma befinna sig over eller under dack. Dock voro lekarne sadana. . 2. 141 Det kan osa lika furstekrona. Karl den tolvte tog vid femton ars alder riket i arv efter En lang foljd av fredliga ar och en kraftfuU sin fader. som namnen Bergstrom och Stromberg hos tillfallet oss. som isynnerhet jagades av honom. och de vapen. och som denne var en bildad img man. Jakten var ock ett av den unge kung Karls huvudnojen. som for det mesta rorde sig kring familjegrenar sa i norr som soder. som tydde pa nagot ovanligt. att den unge konungen tankte mera pa lekar och nojen. att pa den svenska tronen satt en yngling. Men det spordes snart. styrelse hade da bragt Sverige till en valmaga. och halade sig ater ned i maskinrummet. som kallas staten och varav an fleras val och liv bero. som endast roade sig. I Ryssland harskade da en kraftfull furste. den andre till en angpanna. Men frukosten om skeppsbord ar alDen unge maskinisten avlagsnade sig snart drig langvarig. som gjort till sin uppgift att hoja sitt rike till en stormakt i Europa.

Det var ej tid till att langre droja. och i den atgarden liksom i varje annat Sveriges forsvagande voro Danmarks och Polens konungar av hjartat villige att deltaga.142 Readings. hort «Vad ar det?» sporde i luften ett underligt vinande Ijud. Dessa utsagos nara mitten av ryska linien. sade Karl. hade. Ryska forskansningarna strackte sig kring Narva i en lang halvkrets. som prcivade bade mod och krafter. Karl daremot uppstallde sjalf sin har och beslot att angripa fienden och med inom hans egna forkansningar. « detta skall hadanefter bliva min musik. sag han framfor sig den ryska harens sextio atta tusen krigare. Med en ringa har seglade da hastigt konung Karl over till Ostersjolandskapen. «Kulorna. Detta slog honom med harm och forvaning. och under faltropet: «Med Guds hjaip!» drog den lilla trots . och da han strax darefter fick underrattelse om Tsar Peters forraderi gick det lost emot Ryssland. ty fran den stunden var hans liv en oavbruten kedja av strider under mer an aderton ar. han. klockslaget tu-tiden. Just nar konung Karl nojen vid Kungsor. ty noden hotade den svenska haren. som av Tsaren belagrades.» Nu var det slut med nojena. gjort ett och forradiskt anfall. Det vat ett forfarligt tag. ty i vinterkold och snoyra maste haren genomtaga ett alldeles ode och forharjat land. fardig sak. Nu flogo de tva raketerna i luften. «Na val». kom som bast var sysselsatt med sina underrattelse om Danmarks och Polens fredsbrott. Som en blixt stod Karl med sin krigshar pa Seland och foreskrev danske konungen en forodmjukande fred.» Och sa blev det ock. Vid landstigningen pa Seland hade Karl. Sa borjade de tre makterna nastan pa en gang och utan skymt av rattvisa ett anfall sittningar mot Sverige. till Narvas undsattning. och orden «med Gudshjalp* losen. vid Ostersjon. Svenska haren var for svag att angripa mer an ett par niirbelagna punkter. dar han landstigit. dar han pa sex dagars tid knappt fann ett spar av manniskor och dar han led brist pa allt. Ett par raketer skuUe vara tecknet. I november manad ryckte Karl med sina fataliga trupper fran Pernau. Och nar han antligen stod nara vid malet. Tsar Peter . med flyglarne stodda mot Narvaflodens strand. upprepade forsakringar om vanskap. Eders Majestat». Det gallde att nu forst undsatta Narva. Jag vill forst avgora saken med den ene sedan fa vi nog tala med den andre. «Det forundrar mig». svarade en gammal krigare. sade han. «att mina grannar vilja hava Ma sa vara! Gud hjalper oss val. Vid underrattelsen om svenska harens ankomst lamnade dock Tsar Peter befalet over de ryska trupperna at hertigen av Croi och begav sig sjalv pa vagen inat sitt eget rike. vi hava en rattkrig. sages det.

en utvald trupp av ett hundra femtio man. och vallarne bestegos. oordning stortade nu ryssarnes hogra flygel ner emot bron over Narva. vild . Ryska linjen brots och kastades at sidorna. skada darav. och som sedermera forblindades av det starka snogloppet. Nagra svenska generaler «Nej». och vid det ater frambrytande solskenet stortade svenskarne mot forskansningen. och tre tusen ryssar.Readings. funno sin grav i boljorna. ville uppskjuta anfallet till ovadret sade konungen. icke kunde se trettio till fyrtio steg framfor sig. Den brast. och generalema gjorde allt for att ordna den ovriga massan. att ryssarne. Gravarna fylldes av medforda risknippor. men bestortningen over svenskarnes underbart hastiga anfall och deras utomordentliga mod spred sig allt. «vi hava mera gagn an Ryssarne. Da besloto han och tvenne av bans generaler samt nagra andra utlanningar att som fangar lamna sig i svenskarnes hand hellre an vara utsatta for ryssarnes raseri. anade ocksa ingenting. Da forsvann aven till alias forundran snomolnet med ens. I detsamma svenskarne ryckte fram. Manga sokte pa sidan om svenskarne fly undan till skogs. utan att akta nagot befal. och i fortvivlan borjade ryssarne nedhugga allt vad tyskt var. Nagot till hoger om konungen gick Magnus Stenbock med dalkarlarne ocb sa bela den ovriga haren. och honom foljde narmast bans drabanter. uppstod en haftig blast. som Tsaren dragit over sina landsman. och genom den tillvagabragta oppningen sprangde svenska rytteriet fram att understodja fotfolket. som trott. at vilken de gavo sig till fanga. Detta var gjort inom en fjardedels timma. mer. De ryska gardesregementena. Konungen i sin enkla blaa rock befann sig ytterst pa vanstra flygeln. men enstaka moln med ett sa tatt snoglopp. Men da motte dem Karl sjalv i spetsen for drabanter och dragoner och jagade dem tillbaka in I i trangseln. att olyckan komme fran de forradiska tyskarne och fran andra utlanningar. att Karl dragit sig tillbaka. som voro mer ovade och krigsvana. 143 svenska haren framat. Storsta delen maste saledes stanna vid stranden mellan floden och svenskarne. Hertigens av Croi eget liv hotades. Med adjutanter och betjaning sprangde de over till svenska sidan och stotte dar pa Magnus Stenbock. sages det. forran svenskarne voro pa blott femtio stegs avstand fran vallarne. hejdade for en stund det svenska anfallet. som drev framfor sig ett tjockt. som anfordes av Arvid Horn.» gatt forbi. som hade detsamma mitt i ogonen.. Men da borjade med ens ropas. och snart sprungo de som skramda far om varandra. I borjan sokte val ryssarne forsvara sig.

dar denne lag vid vaktelden. Overenskommelsen uppgjordes snart. men alia trupperna genast over den snart upplagade bron taga hem igen med bibehallna vapen. ingen fick avlagsna sig. att generalerna och overbefalet skulle stanna som krigsfangar. Men under natten kom bud. Svenskarne hastade att laga bron i ordning. och var och en skyndade till sitt hem igen. Karl gick med annu genomvata klader till en vakteld. . varigenom den befalhavande generalen pa vanstra flygeln fann sig tvungen att gora detsamma. langt innan dagsljuset hunnit visa verkliga belagenheten. . och uppsokte nu nya ur doda Senders patronkok. skulle bliva krigsfangar men den ovriga skaran finge avtaga dock skulle alia lamna sina vapen. Ryssarne. tagade fiendens hogra flygel over bron. Man uppgjorde. Svenskarne hade storsta delen bortskjutit de tjugufyra skott. stracka gevar for knappt sex tusen svenskar. Ett stort antal ryssar stupade. och borjade de ihardigt forsvara sig. att hogra flygeln dagtingat. som man utbredt over marken. Med huvudet i knaet pa en bland bussarne. och lade sig dar pa en kappa. Da forlorade ryssarnes hogra flygel modet och skickade ett par officerare att begara forskoning. varigenom han avskar dem fran varandra. Nu slag. som lag pa en hojd mitt emellan bada flyglarne. Snart kommo tvanne af ryssarnes anforare for att underhandla. De anmaldes for Karl. borde ock kvarlamnas. m.144 Readings. utan konungen lat giva tecken till dess upphorande. tyckte sig ej snart nog kunna bliva av med dem. tyckte sig ej nog fort kunna komma undan. Det var ett markvardigt skadespel att foljande formiddag se tio eller tolv tusen man. . bland vilka manga voro val vapnade. For att fiendernas vanstra hogra till flygel ej skulle komma den hjalp lat Karl erovra ett stort ryskt batteri. Overbefalet Underhandlingen harom oppnades genast. tog han en kort och behovlig vila. standar m. Ryssarnes vanstra flygel hade stridit med storre framgang. intraffade De emellertid den haftigaste striden i detta vid stranden instangda ryssarne uppforde i hast av trossvagnar och vad de fingo fatt en forskansning. bast han kunde. fanor. bland vilka manga voro uttrottade och sjuka efter den foregaende « Bland mina sex hundra dalkarlar*. Nu inbrot morket och blev sa tjockt. svenskarne med kannedom av samma forhallande. utan kanne- men dom av verkliga forhallandet. och redan klockan fyra foljande morgon. varje soldat till medfort. skrisvara medfarten. som gardessoldaterna uppgjort. En var sokte nu vila. att striden ej langre kunde fortsattas. Kanoner. ock likval ville de aterstaende liarifran annu icke giva sig.

Hos den unge Karl Linnaeus var bagen for naturens studium sa stor. vem den man var. Darfor lamnade ban dem ock snart och enda skott kvar». en fattig komminister vid namn Nicolaus Linnaeus. Stenbrobults socken. i likval modiga ut. som sedan forskaffade honom plats bland varldens namnkunnigaste man. innan alia hunnit forbi. Det varade lange. och vilket darfor mycket bidragit att gora Sverige kant ocb aktat i frammande land. i vilken den lille gossen redan ifran sina spadaste ar inbamtade en livlik karlek for blomstervarlden en karlek. dess natur och folk.Readings. kanna detta namn ocb veta. Fadern. Efter denna forsta seger fattade Karl for dem ett djupt forakt och ansag dem foga farliga. dess samhallsskick och historia. Karl von Linne. vilken sedermera blev kyrkoherde i forsamlingen. I en av sodra Smalands vackraste trakter ligger. som i dopet erboU namnet Karl. Svenskarne upptaga sig nagorlunda Med blottade tagade att straffa den polske konungen. och bar. men tillika tillskyndade honom mangen sorglig och bitter stund. foddes den 23 maj 1707 en gosse. Komministersbostallet inom denna socken beter Rasbult. 145 ett ver Magnus Stenbock. Det finnes dock ett svenskt namn. ocb manga av de verkligt store Da vi man. eller ock anses de ej sallan bava tillhort nagot annat folk. en lang rad pa ett led for att huvud vandrade i en lang stracka ryssarne forbi svenskarne ocb nedlade infor konung Karl sina fanor och vapen. IQ . 3. kunna vi ofta ej annat an pa det bogsta forvana oss over den okunnigbet ocb de oriktiga forestallningar. att densamma bos honom borttog all lust for lasandet av de gamla — Elementary Swedish Grammar. «hade ingen se Men ban bad dem stalldes ut. som infallit i Livland. Sa slot Karls forsta falttag mot ryssarne. var Da bor ock varje svensk heist bildade manniskor finnas. Det namnet ar Linn6. bora utlanningar tala om vart fadernesland. vilket for ingen bildad person inom hela varlden torde vara obekant. att vid bron trangdes manga hundra i vattnet och drunknade. aro for dem antingen till namnet okanda. men sa stor var skramseln bos ryssarne. i en ringa och oansenlig koja. som Sverige frambragt. och det namnet namnes med vordnad och beundran over hela jordklotet. ej langt ifran Skanes grans. Detta fick ban redan som skolgosse erfara. Aven bildade framlingar gora sig bar vid ej sallan skyldiga till stora misstag. var en stor alskare av blommor och anlade en for den tiden vacker tradgard. som gjort det sa ryktbart. som de i dessa avseenden lagga i dagen.

hade beslutit att bliva lakare. Med desto storre iver sokte han daremot att lasa i naturens stora bok. och blott en tillfallighet gjorde. att han ej blott lat honom fritt begagna sin stora boksamling. av alia forbisedde 3'nglingen hade mahanda varit nodsakad att snart lamna Lund. hander. da han lamnade Vexio gymnasium for att sasom student i Lund i'ortsatta sina studier. vilka studerades i skolorna. och till svar pa sin lorfragan. vilken snart fattade sadant behag for honom. som i skolan foredrogos. varest han genast vid sin ankomst traffades av en ny motgang. vishet och godhet. att «ungdomen liknas vid sma trad i en tradskola. latinska och grekiska forfattarne. for att skaffa sig sin utkomst. att de forandra I och bliva skona trad. som giva behaglig frukt. varest han dock f*>rtfarande gjorde endast obetydliga framsteg. En sadan var daremot Upsala. att unga trad icke arta sig val. i vilken han ansag sig inhamta kimskap om Skaparens allmakt. att gossen pa inradan av en doktor Rothman fick kvarstanna i skolan.146 Readings.eller snickare-lara. pa det att han atminstone pa nagot satt skulle i en framtid kunna fortjana sitt uppehalle. Den fattige. Da Linnaeus dessutom. Darfor. som Linnaeus mest alskade. att de baste lararne i medicinen funnos i Upsala. om hans larare i Vexio skola ansago honom sasom oduglig Ocksa tillradde de hans fader att satta honora i att studera. denna avsikt och ingen annan avsandes till akademien denne yngling (Karl Linnaeus). Han beslot darfor att lamna ej . fastan sallan. som kan vara gynnsamt for hans forkovran i kunskaper». utan pa allt satt likna vilda stammar. vem den avlidne vore. i det att hans larare forklarade. Emellertid var Lund ej en lamplig plats for att inhamta kunskaper i de amnen. ehuru man pa dem anvandt den allra storsta flit. medforde han dit ett ingalunda vackert avgangsbetyg. erhoU han den upplysningen. sa var det ej underligt. Da han till foljd harav visade sig sasom en haglos och ingaluuda flitig larjunge i de iimnen. Med biodande hjarta beslot aven fadern att lyda detta rad. Med ingalunda glatt mod begav han sig med ett sadant vitsord till Lund. var det for honom av stor vikt. hos vilken han hoppats finna skydd och hjalp. utan aven upptog honom i sitt hus och till och med lovade gora honom till sin arvinge. kan det handa. dar det i skolorna kan under tiden. som kanske dar kan komma pa ett stalle. och da dessutom naturvetenskaperna den tiden voro ringa aktade. Vid inresan i staden horde han namsin daliga art ligen klockorna ringa till begravning. skraddare. varest den beromde Olof Rudbeck meddelade undervisning i naturens kunskap. sa vida en lycklig tillfallighet gjort hans synnerliga flit bekant for en doktor vid namn Stobseus. att det var en hans slakting. bliva dessa sedermera omflyttade i annan jordman.

for honom ej forut frammande orter. var snart fortard. Det var om hosten 1728 han kom till Upsala. an da till dess en aldre universitetslarare aterkommit fran en utlandsk resa och da overtog denna underLyckan. att da noden ar storst. varfor han beslot att for nagon tid lamna Upsala. agnad naturvetenskaperna. under JRudbecks sjukdom undervisa de ovriga studenterna i ortkunsett uppdrag. Noden gick sa langt att han med papper maste omlinda sina frusna fotter. Innan han lamnade Upsala. ar ock hjalpen narmast. sa att den fattige studenten snart med gladje sag sig kunna fortsatta sina studier. och da han sjalv var sysselsatt med utarbetandet av ett verk om de i bibeln omtalade vaxterna och dartill ansag sig kunna fa god hjalp av Linnaeus. Pa sin valgorare Rudbecks tillstyrkan foretog han darfor 1732 en vidlyftig och ofta livsfarlig — 10* . Den lilla penningsumma. sadant noje var honom beskart. I gladjen over den samma glomde han nastan sin sorgliga belagenhet och undersokte vaxtens delar med storsta noggranndet var ju ocksa. sa upptog han honom i sitt hus. En stod dar nyss utslagen. pa det att de ej skuUe sticka fram ur de trasiga skodonen. varest han njutit sa m3'cken gladje vid betraktandet av en mangd sadan. 147 Lund. Har fick han dock snart kampa mot den storsta nod och de svaraste bekymmer. Detta kan man saga vara en av vandpunkterna i Linnes underbara ungdomsliv. som han trodde. som hans foraldrar kunnat lamna honom. vilken ej allenast tog honom till sina barns larare. vilken efter nagra fragor snart uppskattade Linnaei stora insikter. bifall fuilgjorde. och da det den tiden ansags vara nastan foraktligt att studera lakarevetenskapen. sag han framfor sig en hand. som han med allmant kapen eller botaniken. da han annu vagade hoppas pa en framtid. utlandska. Da hordes plotsligen en barsk stamma. Utan mat. varover hans valgorare Stobseus hogeligen fortornades. borjade nu visning. som hejdade hans Da Linnaeus vande sig om. sista gangen ett het. doktor Olof Celsius den aldre. klader eller penningar hade han knappast nagot annat beslut att fatta an att saga farval at Upsala och pa samma gang at studierna. — blomman at for att medfora henne sasom ett minne fran lyckligare dagar. ville han namligen annu en gang besoka den botaniska tradgarden. Nu besannades dock ordspraket. ater att vara honom ogunstig.Readings. Till sist ville han avbryta forr som han skadat. ehuru han blott var en ung student. vordig prastman. som en tid gynnat Linnaeus. sokte han forgaves att erhalla nagot understod for sina studiers fortsattande. Genom Celsius blev han namligen bekant med den ryktbare professor Rudbeck. utan ock skaffade honom forordnande att.

dels undersokande detta landskaps naturalster. och efter att f5rst hava fatt anseende sasom Stockholms skickligaste lakare. Spanien satta sig darstades och undervisa ungdomen vid darvarande universitet. vande han visserligen tillbaka till Upsala. av nordstjarneorden (vilket den tiden ansags siisom en lika ovanlig som stor utmarkelse) samt adlades. men sa blev . samt oppet erden unge svenskens larjungar. att bans ende son f5re faderns dod utnamdes till Vi hava nu i storsta korthet bans blivande eftertradare. blev dock ingalunda handelsen. som sin frammande land vunnit mottagas. En mangd arbeten. som var fast vid detta namn. dotter av stadslakaren i Falun. rika man tavlade att forstracka honom medel och gora bans vistande i Holland behagligt samt bekostade bans resor till England och Frank- sig vara olika land Frankrike. sa stor hemkomst skulle armar. vilket land da var sa gott som alldeles obekant. vackte det storsta uppseende. Har forlovade han sig med Sara Elisabet Moreea. och varest han hade ett rikt tillfalle att gora nya iakttagelser rorande detta egendomliga lands invanare. England. erholl han titel av arkiater. Har vann han aven snart ej blott doktorsvardigheten. redogjort for bans levnadslopp. utnamndes till riddare del. han 1am- Mn — — nade alia franvaro ara vid till sitt dessa lysande utsikter och atervande efter tre ars fadernesland och sin vantande brud. Men Linnseus var svensk och alskade for mycket sitt fadernesland for att lockas av frammande guld. utan aven vad mera var allmant erkannande och anseende. att han knappast kunde livnara sig. fard till Lappland. som han har lat trycka. sa att gamla hogt aktade vetenskapsman tavlade — med varandra kande i att visa honom sin vanskap. kommo frikostiga anbud. i vilket land pa den tiden ej blott lakarevetenskapen. och for detta mals vinnande ansag han det vara bast att begiva sig till Holland. Annu hade Linnaeus ej blivit medicine doktor. Under hela denna tid var bans rykte i standigt stigande. som kommo honom till Sa.148 Readings. utnamndes han 1741 till professor i Upsala. vilken befattning han sedan innehade anda till sin dod den 10 januari 1778. med oppna man sager. han hemma sa forbisedd. Molnen skingrade sig dock efter nagon tid. utan aven botaniken stod i storsta utveckling. varvid han antog namnet von Linn6. och talrika voro de erkannanden harav. men det ^terstar att antyda. i Att en person. sasom val kunnat vanta. naen snart finna vi honom ater i Dalarne. djur Med alia de dyrbara vaxter och ovriga naturforhallanden. som han dar sammanbragt. dels undervisaude i naturalhistorien (i synnerhet laran om stenarterna). hade man Utomlands overallt firad. Sa stor var den glans. samlingar. Holland. om han ville nedland. Tyskrike.

sa som han iitrattat. liksom ock medicinen. och till andra nyttiga andamal. m. utan det samma galler i nastan lika hog grad laran om djuren eller zoologien. klader. som likna dessa och med vilka de kunna forvaxlas. pa vilken han ordnade alia de forr gjorda iakttagelserna dessutom okade han dem med en mangd nya och hogst viktiga.\ste anses hava en ratt stor boksamling. men ej blott dessa bor hon soka lara sig kanna. . om de kastades i en hog om varandra. lakemedel. ar val fortjant av manniskans uppmarksamhet. som han agnade sin rastlosa flit och sitt genomtrangande snille. Man kan med trygghet pasta. men denna kannedom ar ock forenad med ej ringa svarigheter. utan aven alia. varje annan vaxt. pa samma satt voro de om vaxterna gjorda iakttagelserna sa gott som oanvandbara. men liksom anvandandet av husgeradssakerna inom ett hushall bleve svart eller omojligt. att en person. och dessa bocker aro daruti olika flertalet av bocker. emedan ingen formatt att ordna de samma. och varfor ban blivit beromd bade inom och utom Sverige. ronte ett valgorande inflytande av Linnes ordnande ande. Detta gjorde Linne. efter vilka ett sadant ordnande kunde ske. Aven laran om stenriket. och fa manniskor torde hava skrivit sa manga och dartill Sakert ar. vilka i skilda trakter av jorden aro hogst olika. bestar. Kannedomen av vaxtvarlden bor darfor anses s^som mycket viktig for manniskan. 149 vari det stora. finna vi jorden kladd av trad och andra vaxter av otaliga slag. som den allsmaktige skaparen ej ansett sig for stor och hog att frambringa. lattfattliga grander. Ja. under det andra aro skadliga eller rent av giftiga. ty ocksa denna borjar fran bans upptradande en ny tidrakning. att pa jordklotet nu finnas mycket mer an bundra tusen olika arter. Han uppstallde nagra enkla. stor eller liten. vilket namn han an i dag utan motsagelse uppbar. For att sprida kannedom om sina nya asikter och iakttagelser. Harigenom erholl Linn6 namnet «botanisternas konung». att de . Detta var i synnerhet forhallandet fore Linnes tid. Manga av dessa tjana manniskan till foda. mj\ste Linne naturligtvis upptrada sasom forfattare. Det var dock ej blott at denna vetenskap. Under manga arhundraden hade man visserligen forut gjort en mangd iakttagelser angaende vaxterna. blott ager Linn6s alia arbeten.Readings. En noggrann kannedom av sadana vaxter ar for manniskan nodvandig. som sa utmarkta bocker som han. ty intet ar onodigtvis skapat. och salunda erholl vaxtkunskapen genom honom en fast grund. vilka snart forlora sitt varde och glommas. av honom sjalv gjorda upptackter. Skada vi omkring oss. och darfor ma icke manniskan i sin kortsynthet anse sig for hog att betrakta och beundra det.

som forut varit allmant gangse. Hartill fordrades Sa t. ryssar. levnadssatt. tyskar. som finnas nedlagda i dessa arbeten. m. tvartom fortfarande hogt skattas for allt det utmarkta de inneliksom i allt manskligt — nagra fel aven om i dem och oriktigheter hava insmugit sig. utan vilket allt naturvetenskaperna skulle hava nedsjunkit blott till en namnkunskap. och att dylika djur ej finnas till 1 naturen. fransman. utan aven mangen gang mod. som endast han forstod det. halla. och fran alia . Jordens maktige furstar och furstinnor ansago det som en ara att sta i beroring med honom. och efter en flitigt anvand dag int&gade de sent pa aftonen i Upsala.150 Readings. att de da av alia vordades nastan mer an nagon annan vetenskap. Att kallas «Linnes larjunge* ansags for en aretitel. att en var latteligen kan med tillhjalp av dessa skrifter bestamma de naturforemal. Otaliga aro de nya upptackter och iakttagelser. utan — i enfaldiga personers inbillning. Och barunder vaxte aven de forut ringaktade naturvetenskapernas anseende sa. Till ett antal av ett par hundra vandrade de ut tidigt pft morgonen. beskrivna och pa sadant satt ordnade. foljande under pukors och valthorns klang sin alskade larare till bans bostad. Ingen professor vid vara hogskolor bar haft sa manga och sa hangivna ahorare. som blivit said for en summa av tio tusen mark.. och ej mindre viktiga aro bans vederlaggningar av en mangd oriktiga och vidskepliga forestallningar. da ban i Hamburg visade. I dessa Linnes talrika arbeten finnas alia da for tiden kanda naturforemal namngivna. utan en mangd av rikets fornamsta man infunno blott aven for att atnjuta bans undervisning. utan ofta vandrade han ut i fria naturen for att lara sina talrika. och bans blomsterspiras makt strackte sig over hela den bildade varlden. Sa satt Liun6 som en vetenskapernas konung i Upsala. Ja. som ban antraffar. sig till Outtrottlig var aven lararen. islandingar och amerikanare infunno sig for att av homom bora tolkas naturens under sa. nytta ocli anvandande m. ej var annat an bedrageri. Men darjamte sokte Linne att pa allt satt utreda och sprida kannedom om de sarskilda naturalstrens forekomst. och derfor skyndade ej blott studenterna till bans forelasningar. svavade till och med Linnes liv i fara. schweizare. men ej mindre storartad var bans verksamhet sasom larare. vetgiriga larjungar att sjalva undersoka och utforska na- turens hemligheter. meddelade han ej blott pa forelasningssalen eller i botaniska tradgarden sin undervisning. ex ej blott kunskaper. att en dar forvarad «flygande drake med sju huvud». Stor var utan tvivel Linne genom sina talrika verk. Fran tidigt pa morgonen sent pj\ aftonen i fullt arbete. engelsman. till och med danskar.

inristat ovanfor sin dorr. . han harleda sig Tvartom att i sina skrifter satta sig sjalv i forsta rummet. varmed han omfattade allt i naturen. att man han ofta nastan barnsligt gladde som kommo honom de hedersbetygelser. lydde sa. andas de alia den djupaste vordnad. sedan Gustaf den tredje infor rikets stander klagade over den oersattliga forlust: som Sverige genom Linnes bortgang lidit. manga bland dem folio val under sina resor offer for sjukdomar. och mycket har sedan dess forandrats. den oinskranktaste undergivenhet for naturens herre. Hans valsprak. och otaliga aro de. varmed han bar sin iycka. och jag hapnade av vordnad och beundran». svava forbi. Linne sjalv och bans ara. Kar for alia ar denna blomma. utan utbristor i glad odmjukhet: «Jag sag skuggan av Herren. som ej forandrats. som Linne maktade ingiva alia. modor och forsakelser. Standigt friska och gronskande aro hennes blad. Da han gjort nagon viktig och storartad upptackt. enkla och ansprakslosa hennes blommor. klocklika blommor. att standigt nya unga erbjodo sig till nya farliga farder. som med odmjukt sinne stannat vid bans grav i Upsala domkyrka eller intratt i bans enkla boning pa Hammarby. som han bokstavligen alltid hade for ogonen. men for hundra ar sedan det stalle. 151 hitll insandes till honom skatter av naturalster for att bestammas och beskrivas. hoga och laga? Utan tvivel ar hon att soka i den snillrikhet. Varpa berodde nu denna ofantliga makt. och den glodande karleg. forhaver han sig icke darover. den allsmaktige. Sjalv utsande ban till varldens avlagsnaste trakter larjungar for att darifran hemfora dittills okanda naturalster. varifran vetenskapens sol klart stralade over hela jorden. om en sadan man radig. men sa stor var den hag. sig at till del. Men det. Fries. som av hela den bildade varlden agnas Sveriges storste vetenskapsman. Arligen fira naturens vanner i vitt skilda land arsdagen av bans fodelse. «Lev rattAr det underligt. ty hon bar Linnes namn. som Linne utovade pa alia sina samtida. Val ar det sant. som fr^n en krypande stjalk hojer sina Ijusroda. overallt soker han blott framvisa Guds godhet och allvishet. Hari kunde man se en bild av Th. men dock tjusar hon alia och fyller den omgivande nejden vitt och brett med en mild vallukt. Gud ser dig»^ vinner sin samtids beundran och karlek? Hundra ar aro snart forflutna. Linnoea borealis. nu tyst och undangomd. I vara barrskogars djupaste skugga doljer sig en liten vaxt. ar den beundran. Karl von Linne.Readings. numen adest. men aldrig lat ^ Innocue vivito. Men i den i ej ringa grad torde hon val vara att soka aven odmjukhet. vanned han forstod att tyda naturens dunkla gator.

Nikander. Och solen annu Kan spegla sig dar. K. Hon Till ro lagger sig ner i det bla. Af varldshavet ju En droppe hon ar. V&rylsa. Men fins dar anda. allt vill Och ronnen blommar gullstankt fjaril i i parken. sina ungar . Hon synes ej mer. Nu Da D^ ar den Ijuvliga varens tid. Och vinden ar tyst. grcinskas pa marken. A. Som rores en tid I svallande tag. Da somnar hon av Vid stranden hon kysst. Vagen.Poems. Nar lugn blir pa hav. Och svanen simmar med Pa morkbla \kg. Mitt liv ar en vag. Vid vindarnas strid. rosen gungar. Och luften flaktar sa varm och blid.

» Som en aldre syster vardar jag dem omt.Poems. Och om du sedan en kyss mig unnar. rack mig din hand. Tradgardsflickan. dar suckar hacken. sig ror Hvad lustigt liv. . Solen glommer \dem. Lilla blomma bla! Larkan pa. Oskuld bor i hennes oga. Blommor tusen slag. sjalf klippan hor Och blomsterkullarna andasDar grater kalian. Kom min Och folj mig ut herdinna. dar spelar backen Sin polska upp. Lilla blomma rod! Vakna upp! hor Ar du redan dod? obsolete form of the dative case. slar de Ijuva slagen. Dar sjunger vagen. Blomman ar min van an. Svek mig aldrig Oskuld bor i hennes oga. Blomman ar min van. I Svek mig aldrig an. C. Och dricker daggvin och rosendoft. For barg och dalar jag hogt forkunnar: 'Nu ar det var. F. i det grona! Med hundratusende blomsterband Och kransar skall jag dig krona.» men jag dem aldrig glomt. Den glada goken fran lindens krona Sitt kiinda kuku pa nytt hors tona I gronan^ skog. 153 Pa fastet solen i hogan^ loft Den hela dag nu sitter. Dalgren. Nya med hvar dag Dricka Ijus utur det hoga. Och lyss pa faglarnas kvitter. som i allt Och med zephirer blandas! Vart lov kan tala.

slar de Ijuva slagen. lagga i iigg under kyliga polen. Och hararna vitna. Mot norden! mot norden! Och djupt under fottren vi se som en grav Den gronskande jorden. Det for bitti ar pa dagen. Mot soder! mot soder! . An star solen vanlig over dal och sjo.in ocksa. klacka vi ut dem vid midnattssolen. Lilla blomma bla! Larkan Vakna upp hor pa. Men Och Dar Dar Dar vi fara fria med himmelens skyar. Flyttfaglarna. det blanande hav. C. Ej jagaren hinner var fredliga dal. Sa hett skiner solen pa Nilvagen ner. Sjalv en blomma jag Vissnar ock en dag. der redes var silng. Dar oron och stormen var dag sig fornyar. da varandra. och sedan kan du do. och ronndrufvan gloder. Och palmerna ge ingen skngga mer. Varens dar forga. BUttiger. Och taget forsamlas. hogt mellan fjiillen dar ligger en ang. Lat den forst ga ner. Vissnar ock en dag Det gar mig. som eder andra. till fadernejorden. Da Och griper oss langtan taget forsamlas. blomma an en liten stund en blomma jag W. Kort Lat OSS alska Svarta natten Glada lat oss Sjalv ar m. Dar halla guldvingade iilvor sin bal. mulen kommer med sin blund. fjiillen. Det gar mig.154 Poems. GrOnmantlade skogsfnm spatserar i i kvallen. som eder andra. nedslar var skara. Och dvargarne hamra sitt gull in Men ater pa bargen star Vindsvales son Och skakar de snoiga vingar med dan.

tankarna da ropa Fran varje jordiskt foremal tillbaka. Anden Den rena duva. Jag vill dig visa. nar du beder. Blott till det laga sankes Det hoga neder. En blaogd logn. E. Stralar glansa Da i Som I ditt oga. for hela varldens Herre Boj dina knan. som en marmorbild tempelsalen. Ett underverk nodvandigt ar. Knapp sedan handerna. Ur « „rritjofs Saga". Skall tala med sin Gud. Lar ock mig Perpetua. och ditt anlete skimrar att bedja. Om dagen ej dess spada drag bestralar. Martyrerne.) Flavins. (Extract. och om stoftet blott. Kan ensam lara hjartat bonens ord. kvinna forsta tanke. liljans krona. Med dygd av varis och tro av vind. Nar till ditt upphof med din kanslas offer Du amnar framga. Sa ogat ej av egen kraft kan se. Dar vila vi ut fran den luftiga farden. som med falska tarar Alltjemt oss tjusar. Kom hit emellertid. Det ord som skapte hjartat. Hur du till bonens nad skall dig bereda. alltjamt oss darar. ! «Den kvinna. Hogbarmad logn med sin rosenkind. » nu Frithjof sade. till vittnesbord Att dina sinnen du for varlden sluter. Stagnelius. Boj sedan knan. Jag kan det ej. och han sande den I kvinnoskepnad till jordens man. skuggande palmer star ater var hag. Tegner. .Poems. som Loke Det var en logn. 155 Till Till gronskande angar. till Ijummande vag. som med silvervingar. Dar langta vi ater till nordliga varlden. Bonens himlastege Star djupt i odmjukhetens blomsterdal. Skon ar du. Lar vara brost den helga suckens genljud. hade. Milt svavar over tidens mulna flod.

Jag ar ej van att mig tanka ensam. Tegner. . vuxna fran rot tillsamman. var sorg gemensam. Och mened dansar pa lappar friska. Nu ar jag ensam.» E. hur kar hon ar! Jag kan Att hon ej i — minnas sa langt leken ej tillbaka. Sa var yar gladje. I hjartat flarden och sveket viska. Dar hon ej tanktes som pris ocksa. Den andra klader i gront var gren. Och dock. . Den andra vissnar.. Som stammar. hur var hon mitt hjarta kar. Hur kar hon var mig.. men lofvas en. Slar Tor den ena med himla-flamman. var min maka. Jag minns ej bragd. som jag tankt uppa.156 Poems.

the sun Ijuset. the earth luften. the fig valnotstrddet. the wood sldtten. the sea ^/ow. the hay plogen. boken. the bush vdgen. the fig-tree fikonet. the walnut korsbdrstrddet. the violet the pansy fdrgdtmigejen. the garden kvarnen. the star jorden. the apple granen. The universe. the poplar rosen. corn rdgen. the periwinkle . the pear jikontrddet. the currant hallonet. the walnut-tree valnoten. the valley. the brook dammen. the plum smuUronet. the beech fir-tree 3. the pink . the meadow 62/v^. the barley t. the moon tjdman. Viirldsalltet. the highroad spannmdl. the strawberry vinbdret. the harvest ^06^. the pear-tree pdronet. fruits and flowers. 1. the forget-me-not styfmorsblomman. Trad. the barn grdset. the light mdnen. the wheat halmen. the plum-tree plommonet. himmeln. the forest veden. the peasant fdltet.Appendix. the rose liljan. the world solen. stockgilly- [flower violblomman. the air 2. the rye kornet. the road landsvdgen. the lake an. the straw skorden. the country skogen. the water on. the mill bonden. the apple-tree dpplet. the cottage trakfen. dppeltrddet. arrendegdrden. the island havet. the field dngen. the pond dalen. the river bdcken. the lily the vinterlofkojan tulpanen. the honey-suckle vintergronan. the sky vdrlden. the pdrontrddet. Landet. the farm trddgdrden. the plain vinbdrget. the corn-flower getbladet. the plough ladan.e^eif. the cherry plommontrddet. frukter och hlommor. vattnet. Trees. The country. the vineyard busken. the raspberry ektrddetj the oak-tree poppeln. bldklinten. the tulip. nejUkan. the cherry-tree korsbdret. the village hyddan. the grass.

Faglar. the mole renen. rapphonan. the carp sillen. insects. the cock honset. the may-bug wyran. the pigeon storken. the cathedral . the spider flugan. Staden. tornet.. the dog hJ or ten. the mouse mullvaden. the caterpillar fjdriln. the nightingale sparven.158 4. the wolf tigern. the frog hummern. masken. muscle spindeln. the kanary-bird svalan. the horse dsnan. the shell. Quadrupeds. the ant sutaren. Fyrfotadjur. the snake 7. hasten. the lark koltrasten. the salmon «Zew. grodan. the rat musen. the pike laxen. the snail ormen. the chamois haven. the sheep lammet. the owl papegojan. forellen. the stag rddjuret. the toad the lobster torsken. the titmouse goken.. the hare kaninen. Fishes. The towu. the rabbit ekorren. the butterfly ollonhorren. .^ . the lizard. the stork ugglan. the partridge Idrkan. the cat rattan. Fiskar. hunden. the fly 6ie^. the squirrel katten. the fox vargen. the calf fdret. the parrot 0. the chicken pdfdgeln. the snipe omen. the wasp odlan. the worm larven. the rose gemsen. vakteln. ^ . the oyster musslan. the eagle tuppen. the sparrow siskan. the tower klockstapeln. the elephant 5. the quail sndppan. the cod-fish gdddan. the bear raven. the thrush ndktergalen. the swallow mesen. the bee krdftan. Birds. the reindeer. getingen. the herring paddan. the peacock gdsen. the cray-tish snigeln. the ass 0X671. Appendix. Insekter. the tiger kamelen. the eel karpen. 1 . the black-bird trasten. the egg kycklingen. the goose ankan. the duck svanen. the fowl rt^^e^. the house domkyrkan. the building kyrkan. the pig lejonet. the siskin kanariefdgeln. the cuckoo. the ox kalven. the swan dufvan. the lion bjomen. the goat svinet. the steeple byggningen. the trout ostronet. the church huset. the camel elefanten. the lamb geten.

the place. the garret. 10. serviette forhdnget.Appendix. the towel servetten. vaxljuset. the cowl nattrocken. the shirt forklddet. bordet. the bell spisen. the kandkerchief halsduken. the floor klockan. the tail-coat jackan. the custom-house sjukhuset. the hospital borseyi. strumpan. 7nottagningsrummet. the looking-glass skdpet. the tallow-candle Mobler. . the parlour sofrummet. the chair soffan. the dressinggown vdsten. the sheet madrassen. the key trappan. the hotel slottet. the staircase rummet. the post-office kafeet.tloLe loft granary hrunnen. the waist-coat tovlorna. the hat (bonnet) mossan. 159 tuUhuset. the gloves fickuret. the shutter 9. the cravat benkldder. the lock nyckeln. the exchange teatern. the stocking sA:on. the snuffers skeden. the shoe stoveln. the boot . the street pldstret. the candlestick Ijussaxen. the sofa spegeln. the inn posthuset. the well vindskupan. . the bottle glaset. hatten. the glass korgen. Huset. the cellar the door Z<2. the napkin. Kladning. the jacket kdpan. 7. the cup tallriken. the blanket mattan. the mattress sdngtdcket. the fortress platsen. the table-cloth handduken.9e^. the apron ndsduken. the knife koppen. the picture vdgguret. the room dorren. the carpet Ijusstaken. the spoon gaffeln. the wardrobe dragkistan. the chest of drawers taflan.i handskarne. ^a^'ei^. the neck handkerchief kravatten. Furniture. 1 ? J ^ ^ ^^^„ the trowsers . the kitchen kdllaren. the pavement. the cap bonjouren. the bed-room fonstret. the fork kniven. the window fonsterluckan. the market 6 oc^eTi. the plate bordduken. the table stolen. vdrdshuset. the pillow lakanet. the veil spatserkdppen. the shop gatan. the basket. the bed huvudkudden. the slippers skjortan.-^^ byxor. the frock-coat fracken. the wax-candle talgl'juset. the castle vdggen. the curtain flaskan. square target. the theatre hotellet. the ribbon slojan. the coflfee-house 8. the wall fdstningen. the watch bandet. spannmdlsboden. the parasol . the time-piece sdngen. the walking-stick paraplyn(et) the umbrella parasollen. The house. the ceiling golvet. Clothing. the chimney koket.

the ear kinden. pork skinkan. the eye ndsan. the water kaffet. the beer vatinet. the mustard oljan. the parsley syran. the lung hjdrtat. mutton kalvkott. the beard 12. breakfast middag. the ring 11. the shoulder mdnniskan. flour soppan. the breast (chest) lungan. the chin skdgget. (the) man kuvudet. armen^ ^nunnen. kdlen. the lip tanden. Kroppen. meal. Mat och dryck. supper ftroc?.160 Appendix. kakan. glasogonen. meat s^e/b. the nail ftene^. The body. veal fldsk. the tongue hakan. the mouth Idppen. roast-meat oxkott. the tooth tungan. the face ogat. dinner kvdllsvarden. the tea mjolken. beans fronsakerna. 0^^. the leg kndet. butter os^en. the milk chokladen. orringen. (the) ham fisken. ryggen^ the back brostet. halsen. the chocolate honingen. the head the brain hdret. the cheese t-me^. the purse ringen. ^ee^. the honey timjan. the cheek hjdman. the spectacles. the throat. the salt pepparen. the hand fingret (fingern)^ the finger nageln. the neck skuldran. the vinegar saltet. Eating and drinking. potatoes frukost. the sorrel. the nose ora^. bread wJoZ. the knee foten. the soup the vegetables moroten. the fish saladen^ the salad senapen. the hair pannan. magen. the fruit smor. the cake frukten. the cabbage potatisar. the foot i(«?2. beef fdrkott. the chervil persiljan. the heart the stomach the arm handen. the carrot drier. peas honor. the ear-ring pungen. the oil dttikan. the coifee. the wine 67e^. the pepper . the thyme korveln. the forehead ansiktet. the toe strupen.

[anfoe^ra]. [^al'de'lds]. followed by the terminal definite article in the singular and the flexion of the indefinite form in the plural. 5. to addition -er {ad'itfojtri]. 5. Explanation of the signs and abbreviations used in the Vocabulary. allmakt. anfalla. I. = imperfect. — [an'bm'd']. [an'/aZ']. adj. to esteem. 3. prep. alpenstock [duce alster. serious. never ana. -or [ak'ja^]. -en. alstret [^alistdr']. IV. past participle. imp. past part. pi. conjunction.productiveness alunskiffer. -n. — [arr/ce'rara].VOCABULARY. [an'gri'pa]. five : The = The figures I. [an'dlig']. -er offer [^anda¥t]. spirit.. -en. s. = = pres. -or flag (the flag. Ex. -en. flags). = — = supine. of verbs are designated by the Roman The sign © placed after the Roman figures means that the verb belongs to the third group of the strong verbs and is quite irregular. and IV. onset.s/cermo'^a]. alstringsformdga. to command 5. -n. singular.. to have a presentiment of. adj. I. -en. 11 . adj. solemn. to surmise all. adder a. regarding Elementary Swedish Grammar. [an'das']. \^al'drig^'\. resent- amerikanare. pro-n [aV1. = = = sup. 3. attack — commonness. general allmdnhet. -an. 1. — [am'm- — 3. far (before a su[al' smek'tig']. 2. adv. ^ack[ade'ra]. The sign -1~ means that the noun has no plural. that the plural is similar to the singular. adverb. 2. conj. 1.gf]. adla. adj. -ar [an'dd']. [an'go^dndd]. katnard]. 5. -n. -et. American amiral. -en. IV. to breathe ande [a]. ever (so). only. all alldeles. Swedish-English. four II. to consider. 4. andas. A Ackja. -er [am'iraH]. (pi. [a'cfZa'J. allvarlig. lead. adv. andakt. 5. 2. -f. The sign means. adv. addition. concerning. -n. {^an'faV'a']. grave alpstav. conductor alltjdmt. conjugations III. aluminous slate va'rd]. 5. allra [al'ra']. [a. [alf\.. to regard upon (as) agg. omnipotent leader. —ffrar [a'lunfif'dr]. in general.{aVmak't]. solely devotion(s) I. adjective. quite allenast. to aftonvard. and 5. adv. perlative) anforare. to attack to anfora. = = present. admiral I. mind andlig. alia. [a'na']. fana. spiritual anfall. prep. all anbud. -et. generally i —.. omnipotence allmdn. -\. allsmaktig. by adj.[^aVmenheH']. -ef. adj.) [aZ'a']. -en.. afternoon meal akta. [^aVmen''']. angripa. 3. addition 3. 2. ennoble -er [af'ton- s^n7. \^al'va^rlig']. I. 3. -ar [alpsta'v]. adj. II. -en. [^ale'nasH']. to attack angdende. plural. [al'tjemH']. [ak'ta']. ment aldrig. declensions of substantives are designated by the numbers 1. 3. -en. spite. preposition. adv.

[a•^'Z^'(ZaJ. [a'v^o'^a]. 1. 4. depar- ansvar. 5. -\. [a^. 3. avkasta. deposition avtdga.162 Vocabulary. au'dra']. application apostel. -ar \artra\. -ar [avc^e'Zoff vertisement m'l/]. to decide I. moderate anstrdngning. partisan -?i. [av's^m^na]. deceased avldgsen. other annons. -ew. [a'vse'].-or [a'vre'sa].[an'se^dndd]. [aroe'^aj. to cut off avstdnd. avldgsna. -en. to execute avsats. arrival 3. avsdtta. 2. till. to avgd.r£f a]. -ri to have in ponsibility avseende. ponsible adj.'s]. [an'kla'ga]. miYe/f]. a certain quality ary. 2. 5. avrdtta. [an'o2. cies 2. intention avskdra.aV]. arta. -^. te de- avkasta. spe[a'dta^]. IV. + [an"s?. [an-^r£/'a]. [awvewcZa]. art. I. ture II. application 2. distant. anldgga. ansvarig. to settle. -f. res- [a'vse'dndd]. to an infinitive) avhrott. bed [view arse. -n [^an'sikHd]. to — [^a'vhrot^ in- anmdrka. to retreat avvakta. to depart n. heir anldnda. -n. anmdla. -en.'^ar].to meet antyda. face [^an'leg^a^ to put to arrive . -e^. division [a'vgo']. dandd]. andra (pi. of 5.se. -e/i. either antrdffa. III. I. go — [a'vgoys- [an'ony'anonymitet. to re- countenance move avresa. i in consideration of — ansikte. nqunce II. [a"i. -^. 1. II. -eTi. to look upon. e^.. regard. distance 5. [a'vfse^ra]. off. on. to throw off avlida. to use anvdndande. consideration. O -n [an'le'td]. -n (apostlar) [apos. [a*i. -er [an'sikts/«r'j]. adj.^tdl]. ansiktsfdrg. -^. apostle a/?^iY. -en. modest. — \sLn'h€ifard\ + arm. III. to go to [a'vsoi'cZa]. II. II. -ar [an'streyHy]. to forward II. to inter- annan. an'at'. to throw avsdttning. -en. — [a*i. I. II. 5. effort [a'vre^sa]. to await physician . res- O 4. arm -er \^atdt\. -j. [a*?. 3. att to 2. 3.6r2/'fa]. kind. work arkiater. 2.[an'ven'anvdndning. [ari*7W«r'fca]. to ad- avgdngshetyg. ankomst. 2. remote anse. II. ad- avdelning. III. I. -er [a'vsafs]. to work arhete. vertise I. 2. -e?i. I. -en. off I. -en. -er [a'vsik't]. -eri. -et (arven) tance \_ariv].) rupt [an'an'. antingen. to consider anseende. [a'vUk'sna]. 4. adj. [a?i-sproA:sZ0's]. to 3.H. [an'Zfn'cZa]. [an'Z^/'cZa]. -er [a?zo7?. anvdnda.\Y. 4. nixi\. avresa. serve terruption avhryta. layer. face. -en. complexion ansprdkslos. anklaga. 3. -ef. [aTi'm^'Za] anob- av (before \aiv] [pi^v)]. -^. 3. I. © annonsera. -ar [ar'vir/d']. ^si^J assume inheri- anlete. to point out respect. -ar [a't?5£^*- n%]. anhdngare. anonymousness + "bdty^g^ testimonial avgora. 4. conj.sfor?/cZl. I. use. -n ("ifrjar [ar7«a. to establish arvinge. \^a'vlek^sdn\. -en. pose O [a't'Sf^'a]. regard avsikt. -ar [an'vfn'cZ- avsomna. 11. adj. IV. [a'^Aras'^a]. 5. sleep I. -ef. to send avsdnda. -n [ar'^e'^af. appetite arheta. to decease avliden. [an'^i^^'^n]. use. O [ari'se']. 3. II.[aptUt]. -t.Zi'cZ9/i]. 4.Va]. [a'i^/cas'^a]. O [a'vjo^ra']. 4. [a't'-ya/c'^a]. [awstJaW^']. annat(n). to accuse [an'kom'st].

adj. [bdU.£. -en. to people befriare. befdlhavare.'t*a].^(Za]. [69A. to be] befolka. inhabitant — \b^byg'ar^'^'\. 3.'m]. bekvdm. comfort bal. 1.']. I. II. [to do. I. to repair II. adj. -en. adj. to pray bedrift. fir-forest 2. -en. 3. quality. adj. barbarisk. -en. -er deed -er [bddre'gd- mountainous 3. conceivable. renowned berora. possession -ar [&a^ra*v- beskaffenhet. 1. II. 2. -er [6a/Z]. bury begravning. sorrow. adj. way 5. 1) band . 3. gangue bedja. — — rock. [ftaj^'sA:]. 3. behind sure. -ar [bdrce'riy]. bergstrakt. -e^. -n.^n]. [^99^m!dr}. necessary.'^an]. care beldgen. [6are. -et. con- barbarous. [ftaA^an/f]. to be found. (IV. 3. bone bereda. ball bal. leg. plea- bakom. besegla. -e^. to prepare berg.'gra]. 5. -e^. moun{bser'js- -er Ibddriff]. Aa'?. to affirm commanding begiva. adj. -ar [bal- behaglig. to 2. prep. 2. 3. [ba3r!j]. to seal besegra. -{- [bd- burial begripkg. bebyggare. ri. II. 5. I. occupation. 2. trak't]. et. [6aA:?. -en. embalming bamburor. fortable com- behova. 5. -er [6«r-Ja'^^]. [^^Z^. on. to require 5. [6a^0. [bdrom^d]. -en. adj.^a]. I. -en. -e^. II. 2. -r [6^r-js- command. childlike barrskog.f. [69se. [6e. to cultivate 5. situation barsk. -et.'r{]. to bereave beroring. — [bdha'g]. bekymmer. behovlig. [SajziJa']. Ibdfri'ard']. [barba'risk]. to to order country bergsrorelse. adj. — O [bdfe'l]. -en.*i^raj. roe'rdlsd] -n. to besiege 6en. to beldgra. [6arw. [bdha'glig]. to debeskriva. to confirm. [&962/^'a']. IV. acquainted bekosta. -en. -or [6«'na']. befattning. convenient. -(Vje^. -ar [bser'jo^s]. pursuit hejinna. -en. needful -n. behag. -ar [6a/af- m??']. [6ardVra]. — [bam'bmroad. commodious [baUn]. condition [scribe IV. to over- batteri. band. 5. -en. filial. 5. II. -et. [6ar0/ija]. to desire. veinstone.Wz^]. sz^ [&a^na']. [bakom']. III. 5.ara]. 5. — venient. beg. —command [69/fZofficer besanna. ro^r].'igrZa]. [ft^^W-pZi^'J. \b9foVka^'\. baker B begdra. adj. bergig. rough. -er [bdle'gdn- — he't}. to touch berova. I. to defray [6an/d]. to build to to cover with buildings. [6ase. commo- 2) ribbon. -ar [6asiY/nz7/]. 3. mountain-ridge bero.% deceit befalla. comprehensible skaf!dnhe't] . II. -ar \ha:T\.. nf??']. -e^.Swedish-English. barbary barn. nature . 3. mountain bergart. to cover bebygga. [6a/a?'a']. known. II. -n. -n. [69j«/ra]. I. adj. — bergds. contact liberator befdl. till. situated beldgenhet. child [fta'^nsZz^^']. IV. begrava. -en. tract. \be'dja^\ -en. ll* . tainous [bxr'jig'].z. [basan^a]. O [ftaZe^. hilly bedrageri. [bdskri^va]. barnslig. [69A:os. — \hatd\ bath — \ha'gard^'\. to need sa'meriyli. — bekant. -ar [ftar'sArw^^].'^a]. -en. tery -er [bate. \bdh0tvlig']. 5. bale balsamering. feat. IV. to depend (upon) beromd. adj. hagare. comfortable bekvdmlig. rude bat- beldgga. path. lay. -n.) [bdgra'va']. 5. bamboo bana. 163 had. 2. ease. 5. dious. to vanquish besittning. 3) volume adj. 3. -et.

— -n. -en. — [6Zo«//s^ar]. adj. -er approval [bWd]. 3.'cZ]. think worthy of tain. [&Zan.']. heslaktad. 5. blue 3. I. [am. tant adj. burgher. III.'Zl. [69S^f7?2. I. \hestitga]. education bildstod \bildstoj^d\. [6Zan*c?a']. -ar [blomstdrkuVd].. II. up . observation stdrspi'ra]. bard. pasture -ew. I. off bjorn. [ftZiVcZ].']. (4. -f. -ar [blan'd7117)% mixture blid. [bdstroHa]. -et besluty hesluta. part. to con- — blomsterband. 2. soft IV. adj. -en. 5. II. adj. educated bildande. -et.^A:a]. prep. 1. -#.i^. torch blott. blue-eyed bldnka. formative. -n. [bdun!dra]. dwelling om 5. -ar [ft^^'m?. beech 60A:. definite bestdmma. \blojid']. [6asr^. -en. [ftZf??'^^^*^']? to twinkle bloda. away. -e?i.lbi'dra'ga].'(^raw]. -r [bdtrakUdlsd]. -en. -en. IV. -?i bidraga. -ef. 4. statue biskop. bldna. bildning. [5Zo. to climb. board. [6as0. wink bid. [boji'tfrg^sa]. -ar [bcoik']. only. 6Z«s^. flower -e^. 2. I. 5. 5.a. -j-e^. bleeding 60.'r%]. to blend blandning. 3. to -671.'rdiga]. II. literally boning. adv. to bore [Z>o. [6r&a7ioZ'a]. adj. blodbad. to ascend. -or \bhm'- betraktande [bdtrak!- tandd]. flower I. feZias^. 1. trou- 5. book boksamling. -|-). -ar [blom'- betjdning. [ftZoo^^cZ].'^n]. to bldsa.'a]. I.W]. to beskdra. leaf — bortfrysa. to blue. -ar [ft/ce. -e^ [SatiVs]. consideration betraktelse. -en. -ar [6ZiA:. 3. \bli'va^\ to become 2. 2. stdrban''d\ 5. adj. adj. lY. IV. [fta^ra/c'^a]. I. to contribute bifall. -e^.[bdgenHy]. 2. blesome besok. -en. bitter bort. flowery sceptre bloss. adv. to dwell bibel. adj. 2. -ef. -en (backer) [bcoik]. -\- blow [bhsU]. [69S^fm. [bojksta'vligdn]. [bilda% form bildad. 2. 5. formation.'] — on board — [bor'jar9^\ to table. to irradiate bestd. -f- [6Zi/n. adj. waiting. blue beundra. -ar [6i7"d'«i2. [bevse. to de- bestdmd. I. 6Zzi. massacre. adj. 5. — blood [6/a. 2. [6iY. bear blad. [Z>w. flash bestrdla. visit besoka. \hdfseira\. mount -en. image. 5. proof bevdrdiga. stdrda^l]. &i7c?. slaughter termine. -ar [ftis'/coj?']. to mixt. -e^.'c?]. to visit bete. simply — blottad. [ftZof'tZa]. adv. I. to admire beundran. admiration bevis. wind bibehdlla. [ftz'/'^^ac/^]. 2.164 Vocabulary.'6?6a'6?]. blomster. [ftZo'cZan'c^^]. 3.']. to bok. to II. [6Z0W3']. bestow upon 5. -e7z. to define blomma. H.'sf]. to [bdslid't]. [69i^n. 2. -ar [Z)(^cA:- picture bilda. bitter. -j. -n. [blot']. — [6Zom'- blomsterdal. [6i7'da?2'c?9]. -n [be'td']. [bdstot]. service. IV. -n.'9?']. I. [ftasa'/c]. among blanda. [bios!']. adj.) bokstauligen. 2. [6Z<i. attendance betrakta. [6w/]. \b9tyidlig\ impor- blund. civilizing -en. III. besvdrlig. bare betydlig. flowery dale blomsterkulle.'c?]. bishop 2. sam^liy]. flowery hill sider blomster spira. decision [hdslvitta\ to decide — bland. library (books of a. citizen borra. . -^. freeze [bor'a']. IV.[fti'/aZ']. -e^. to bleed blodande. to turn[blo'sa']. \hdslekttad\ kindred hestiga. [6ZD^'ac?*]. to consist O (of lightning) blod. borgare. —+ . 5. -e^.Wa']. [blaid]. to re- keep on {biblay) \bi':bdl\ bible bldogd.

-en. burden [6ce*^^i^']. 5. &Qya. -en. IV. -r (bodlar) {betddl]. [byg'a']. 2. to widen. %^^«5. -n (dagrar) \datgdr\ wf [6ns*i^a'].S£f a]. 3. II. 5. -en. brant. -ar [brcof]. 2. boskapsskotsel. 3. both bade [bo-da^]. 1. want. bridge broder.'c?]. used. 2. ftra^ftZ. residing. fire [ftre-'cT]. -n bon. dew — \dag'vi^n\ — \dag'sjuL^s\ to capi- brunn. -en. to put-off borttaga. bdrdighet. -ar [ftrwn. IV. to bring brinna. [6nn*an'c?a]. to commence borjan. 1 tulate . -e^. 3. IV. IV.']. to burst day-light c?<3^^^. ay [ftri/'^a*]. 3. brook bar a. [6o*c^a']. -ar [fto. spread out bredvid. 2. -en. soldier [6&>-saf]. -4. departure. [&ran/^]. to build. bruklig. to away bortgdng. -}. 1. \dagti'r)''a\ /ram [bryta'' framt\ to break forth dal. botanic(al) bdrgning. -er [ftw^'amV^]. ardent.. borda. bolja. -en (—stdder) [bco's^acZ']. -f [&o/Z]. -ar [dail] valley.'r]. fruitful adj. -f. [6c(. 2. cattle + by. -er [bon].[c?a^. -ar [%']. bride p -e?i. harvest.t'tfoh'a]. salvage 66'<ieZ. bostalle. feat. stomach — buss. adj. 1. 2. -en. -en. bro. usual il adj. [5rm'A:%']. IV. daggvin. broad to breda. 2. habitation 4. -ar [bekt]. day dag. adj. II. country [&<^"s^«'p].[6w^'ani'A:]. 2. 1. ftorja. bra. brinnande burning Z)ris^. bottnar [bo^. 2. executioner botanist. -e/i. [si'vilise^rad]. -n. -ar [c?a/^]. &r?/^a well off bryta. [Jra. IV. 3. 3. lack brista. bottnen. fruitfulness I [boe'rja^]. -en. to break day light dagtinga. ripen early brost. 5. [6re'^a']. 2. 3. steeply 3. 2. 2. IV. ground [brag'd]. lead bryta in [bryta' m. -en. -ar [&«r. prayer -or [6oe'^c?a']. botanist botten. \bdj'a^\ to bend -n.']. to cultivate 3. 3. II. civilized adj.^. -n [fttcCsff'Za]. -en. [dtfe'ra']. -er [brisH]. barrow dwelling place bosdtta.Swedish-English. 11.*a']. 1. byxa. to bear back. [6rJ7. winy dew dag si' dagsljus. adv. settled adj. 2. [6rma'J. to settle O -en. -ar [bm'Jc]. -n (broder) \brcj'ddr% brother brud.t\ breast 6wA:. -n. brasa. both 6«Z. -en.. 3. -e?2. -en.']. cattle breeding bostad. \bredviid\ by bringa. -en. \b(jotainisk'\. trunk bar. -en. boskap.m7. -en. II. -|. 3. [bod-ffm'ta]. -en. prep. -er deed brant. village bygd.\b(B'rjan''\ at the beginning (in) bred. -et^ (belly) bortskjuta. -er [6ran. fellow away bosatt.'f]. + to [bce'ddigbegin. he't]. [bo. + [bco's- kapsfot'sdl].'an]. to burn C civiliserad. to 165 break in to bortfora. -ar \busf\.. vale . botanik. 2. botany botanisk. -er [byg!d]. dager. well bordig. -ef. -en. -n. adj.. fertile. 2. adj. -or [6oZ:yV] wave soil. + decease brddmogna \bod'tgo7)'\ [bro'dmco^gna]. to shoot away.^]. wide. steep -n. \boji'tta'ga\ to take \brds'. -en. 2. -ar [ftrm. 3. -or \byk'sa'\ trousers bdda. -or [6rasa'].

'm]. -ar [cZro^'m'T. baptism. I. [(?0. 5 -et. drop drottning. division [visor divisor. [cZ^Z-'r]. -er [dyg. to distill gloomy. dingy dvdrg.'jp]. dolja. [dotv]. [^'Zz'^]. mortal -en. adv. doctorate cZow. -er [cZ{'viya>/?i]. -er [di'ads^m]. thereto ddruppe. -ar [cZam-].[cZ«. [dek']. condemn. 5.setrsted9s'\. to sentence II. to be to [fZroj'a']. 2. — — after [jtnir]. beast of burden dragon. portion c?eZa. adv. -eri. dalkarl. to delay. drom. -n. deaf . \di'videira'\. -er [di'vidsn'd]. [(iri'ya']. 2. -|. -n. 5. [jmpsin'igl. 5. 1. -en. -er [dom% dome. decimal system del. '-?i. 3. dJ^ZzA:. -en. -ar [deH]. [<Z«r. \dan'sa^\ to dance dansk. -n. I. 5. I. -ar [dalkar^l]. dwarf diadem. virtue adj. 5. -mar \drdm!:\ dream duva. -et. to drive droppe. [dan'sk]. dorr. [de'simaH]. [iie'Z^a'^a].Va].[cZ^A:*torsvas'rdighet]. then cZan. [cZ0.-71. 2. -en.166 Vocabulary.s- \dratg\ feature draga. sentence dam. -et. IV. [t^^'r^aV]. 3. -e?2. adj. diadem (3. -er [da'm]. there ddrtill. adv. -e^. to conceal to — doma. drift driva. -er[(Zoyfc/^Qr]. -en.]. 2. Dane decimal. [cZ^szi^fom]. IV. adj.'d]. \dra'ga^\ to draw dragare. Dalecarlian dam. I. -ar [jm'rgo^jid]. judgment. -en. like. -ar [^<i>. s^wn'cZ]. 3. adj. decimal decimalsystem.'rpo]. -en. [do'dlig']. there- ddck. drahant. similar dyr. -men. -en. [de'la^]. 2. 2.'Z]. [c^ra'/ca']. -en. down ddrpd.^. -ar death [c?&.Vwjp'a].].^cer]. [d«. -or \dvi'va''\ pigeon dunge. domstol./a']. 3. ddrfor. doctor doktorsvdrdigket. to die ^ocZ. to judge. r^0*cZa']. animal 5. 5. up there cZo.'rf/rar]. minster 2. \dsetrije'nom\ ddmere. profound djur. -e^. <ic>^. cZa. dansa. drowned droja. <^ra/7. to kill 3. divide division. befool to infatuate. deep. -en. -et. -n. [<i^rw2?*/!:?ia']. -f" [^^-^^1^ roaring cZara. -er [dragojin]. 1. [d^. 3. -et. 2A^\d. adj. [(iom'a']. zoological garden doktor. thicket dunkel. among ddrigenom. -en. (profound) djupsinnig. [cZo'ra']. 3.'cZ]. queen drunkna. djurgdrd.). dopa. 3. to divide deltaga. -n. adj. adj. [cl^. to c?/wp. cZocZa. 1. pond. -ar [duy'd']. adv. be long I. IV. IV. damm. to drink driva. door dragon. adv. [dopa^ -ar to baptize. adv. dap. -ar [cZi^c^r/.*ws^6. [do']. adj.'cZ]. . cathedral. -e?2. dygd. (paper-)kite adj. — hour of death [d?aZ'. 3. christening dodlig. II. [cZ^. court dead [cZe. -er [docZ'.']. II. 2. [dra'gard% draught animal. dragoon -ar 2. -m. Danish. deck ddrefter. -er \divi'sor^\ diI. -en. adv. dividend.'r^i'Z]. there upon ddrstddes. there adv. dear adv. -or [dri'va^]. [im. -[~ [^esima'lsyste'm. part.'riblan'd]. {durjikdV] dark. -ar [<Z6. lady 2. drake. 2. cZocZ.. -m. to take a share (part. [c?es'^z7e. 2. IV. dricka. thereby adv. — 2. 3. dividend dividera. cupola domkyrka. I. dodsstund.']. satellite -er [dfra6an/^]. to christen 2. [c?nA:a']. -ar [cZrop'a']. besides destillera. -n-or[c?om*pGer'A:a]. II. -n. tribunal. -en. -en. adj./^]. 3.) dessutom. therefore ddrihland. [dsetmerd]. dear dyrbar. adj. [dfajr.

erbjuda. . adv. /asZer. 2. 2. 3. -n. [e?. property. alone enstaka. [ef'tdr^ after efterldmna [ef'tdrUm'na]. r/* ^t vever enda. prep. fastland. to overpower evig. dangerous — sta'd]. ^ tj firm. I. I.'paZ]./A:aZ]. -e72. to drive egenskap. single enligt. \e'gdndojmHig]. ^r^'cZara].. although [/aZ'a'j. 3. 5. IV. .4:. alone enskild. IV. quality ekipage. -en. —fader [far!/a^]. [Ef. [e*rA£>Z'a]. colours /a?'^. fisher 2. -\- [fal'igdcom% mistake. ho- "y® j. adj. fine finger.]. [fi'n'}. to conquer. /*^«^» adj. . —grar) [A'^^J? finger erA:a7iwawcZe. one . [/aZ'i^']. [e'rZym'da]. adj. 3. successor — 3. adj. [e'ro'vra]. to offer erfara.9Z. IV. (—gret. 2. ardent stdder {^eVdeldstad. fault 'i. to fall falsk. [T^'^a']. — fsk. lEV. -eTi. adv. fahrik. adj. equator eldgnista. 5. adj. to receive fientlig.-672. -n. «/]fermWcZ. -n. lonely. between emellertid. adj.fcerel'drar].p. -er [/afc. to hear e>^hdlla.tdv- father faktor.'^eZ]. -er [en. 1. elector 3. 5. ekvator. — farhro(de)r farfa(de)r. —modrar farrao(de)r yjartma)r\ grandmother eller. . . -er [/a&nVfc]. eternal ^/iwa. -n. to go. 1. adj.r^ .-n. poverty 5. simple enhet. [Jin-a']. /^J-^'^^Z „ — ifa-rty'g\ vessel [/a'ryfZ]. fartyg. simple. e7i(Z«.Swedish-English. — [/e/Z]. (—lander) [fas land].. [e'wsZ/^' J. adj. adj. -er [ekva'tor']. adj. -n. mterj. IV. -n. [e'wZi^r'Z]. [e'nsta'ka]. -|-[^/*^9^''v«^*^. -n (fastrar) [fasttdr\ . -et.^or. to learn. sole.'for].a]. to leave behind eftertrddare. [smtZV^zV^Z]. [e'^an']. IV. -n. peculiar folia./ t- fastdn. to seize. false familj. -er [/amiZ/. [e/i'cZas'Z] only. to find ^nnas. -n. cnsZz^. -en. (r) [ek'ipaJf]. works fa(de)r. grandparents farlig. 5. [/a^. fader [/acZar']. [e'nsam']. —broder [faribrojr]. -n. acknowledgment erovra. private fattigdom. conj. 3.9r\ or cZi. adj. fiskare. poor to adj. 1.-en. 5. prep. solid -or faZmj [£Zi. own egendomlig. posterity. uncle 3. 3. ensam. [enfal'dig]. [ffcs^m. -e/i. according 3. fire place eZeA.'sA:]. [Jien'tlig]. inimical ^n. [fn-as'l to be (found) fira. [fa'ra']. [em^Z'an']. -t. -eZ. -ew. adj. I. solitary fiende. [/aZ. -er leUk'tor^X [fairy elf. continent ^ ^V?* . IV. fel. 3. [e*r/aVa]. future e^en. 3. to com- prehend fattig. IV. conj. -n. . -ar [fs!k]. [e'ri/zZ'cZ]. grandfather farfordldrar [far. factor 2. .Z]. alone. fish -w. -or [eZ'cZ^nw'^a]. flag. family fana. [/aZ'a']. good ewieZZan. 1. [e'vig^]. adj.a. -or [fa'ra% danger fara. -or [/a'Tia']. simply enfaldig.-Z. -n. -er [e'^snsAra'p]. to celebrate.-et. fatta. to solemnize exempel. [/as'Zm^]. isolated. adv. 167 efter. -w. manufacture. [/(^'rZz^']. adj. unity mkel. -ti. [en'cZa']. spark eZcZ2^. [el'dig^ fiery. example -eZ. equipage 3. -r [fl'dndd^ enemy hostile. — [^s'fcara'J.-7i[e-r^m'ancZa]. adj.

3. + -or [Jiik'a^]. -n. mountainous soil fjdrdedel. fertile fortfarande. peace. wandering fldcka. frukttrdd. -e^. [/oj'rcZra']. infantry fisher village -et. several flertal. nation 5. fjdll. I. 2.[fram-sto^dndr)]. orchard continue. -or [fro'ga'']. {friid'\. evince. ^fishery jiskldge. Frankrike franska. III. healthy [fol'ksWg]. [. -er [fram'ti^d]. -en. 2. -n (—glar) [flytfo^gdl]. people -er [/bZ'A:- fri. liberty — folkmdngd. [frysa'' bod't]. [fram'tre'da]. [fli'tig']. flit. -en. -n. IV. peaceful 5. to remove. fortfara. wing.)?<y. fruit-tree adj. folkslag. 5. 3. c?e'Z]. fortsdttning. population — frisk. -ar [fjce'rdd- fourth advance. fidkta. to I. to flow flytta. -en. -et. [^i/-^a']. 1. [fram'sto'\ to flicka.-er[fJ€l'mar'k]. — frambringa. -n. to fomtid. breach of the peace French fred. to represent framtid. 3. -71 (flyglar) iflg'gdl']. to [j?2/^*a']. [/(W'^^/a'ra]. -ar [fcj'jut- continuation bort. aisle ^2/^(2. [frt/'sa*]. /oZA:.-ar[fruk'ttre'^goM]. -t. 1.^]. framvisa. frodig. continually. frukthar. leading framstdllU. diligent flod. -n. to freeze frysa 2. [3. framgd. to cause. continue ful. to [/r•am•^. fishing. fritt. {^flot'ig'X fatty. eminent. jority — framkalla. [/jsl']. IV. fot. past /rw. to yjdUmark. [/rfo^'tZz^J. O [foj'jitsefa].168 Vocabulary. 3. to demand. IV. [flseUd]. [flyga'l to fly ^2/^eZ. -or [flot-a']. bird of passage flyttning. [/rzY. ^*rrf. to stain. adj. © produce to [fram'go% 2. 2. adj. greasy " " j^2/j III. fruit5. freely 1.continuation frysa. O application flitig. France [fran-ska']. -ar [flyt'niy^]. [/rwA:"^6a'r]. to pursue fortsdttande[foj'd. fruit IV. -en. -n. continuedly — [/rw^"^^r£']. fleet flottig.2. 3. 2. blow (gently) 3.'d]. -n [jis'kd]. [/ram's^^/'a]. 5.-en. 3. adj. -eZ. -er [/nV^e^]. 1. fordra. river flotta.ts£t^andd]. to spot I. [/nVA:]. progress diligence. -en. [/rec^'sftrof]. -e?i. -en. fortsdtta. -er [. /WA:os%.ll. — [fram'ste'g]. girl [fli't]. to frukttrddgdrd. -en. question . to to blot. fiske. -ar [friat']. [foUk]. mountain to bring forth. -e^. thrive adj. 4. [fre'dlig']. 3. -er + — \^flek'ta% breathe. free frid. -et. framstd. [fle'rta^T] I. [calm] frihet. -er [/rwA:/Z]. 1. {fco'jitfaWandd\. prolific. -en. peace fredlig. adj. [/rrA:os'%j. wife frukt. to freeze away frdga. [/rc<>'c?a5'].^2/-'Jj to flee framstdende. [fraykri''kd]. 5. -t. adj. 5. adj.^'sa j forth . -en. II. -et. adv. (fotter) [fojtt]. - foot \_fojttMkl -n [Jis'kh'gd']. appear II. vanity -en.-en. frodas. sef'ni'ij].Sidj. + — 3. fotfolk. [/nV]. antiquity. II. -ar [fram-goy% success flera [fle'ra']. 3. to occasion 5. IV. to I.'6?]. 1 . fredshrott. 0[fram'briy'a]. appear III. [fram'kal^a\ to call forth. liberal m£2?*^]. adv. to expose.d. -n. -en. 2.] -en. maframsteg. lfre. framtrdda. to show wander flyttfdgel. fresh. Ifls'ka']. to step along framgdng. -en. future fiyga. 5. to claim luxuriant -er [/<wrnZrc?].

[/oZ'/a']. [fes'td]. -eri. absence /arc^. adj. re•^^''^ / . I. frdmling.. to to furstUg. [fo'da^]. 5. [/cere/na]. 5. -en. adj. [/ce'rajgo'anc^^]. to give birth to be born ^ -n r^ n seed [froil /wA:^.'vdr]. to 169 frdga. ask. native land (country) + foremdl. forblinda. -eZ. — [fce'rdmo'l]. lead /^'^^ bort[fce'ra' boMt]. to terminate. adj. 5. prep. strange. -er. -n.P^f. to achieve. [/wZ-6co»-^c?a]. to follow foljande. to despise foraktlig. [fcerblin!da].Swedish-English. frdnde. to anger to i [/cer6are. drive (foreigner) stranger fdste. -en. to s^a'p]. birth y^^^ ifo'Q^'l little foija^ n. I. perfect.''c?a]. general 2.[fud'sUig% princely /2/ZZa. -ar [frem'tiy^]. . -tz. -tz.x*s^a/([:rcc»'wa]. [fcerbin^dhg]. -ar [/ce'ra- fddernesland. ^m^^ fullkomlig. parole ^ 5. to get. from [/ro'7ii. to. moist ^ fulda. + [/os'ra- fddernesjord. portant [fotrl sheep [fo'ta'ligl unim[/f*- forekomst. [/ro'^aj. may fdgel. /aZaZz^. complete furste. [/b??'a*]. 7- TT ^ O ^- r^ 7 -c 7 -. to accomplish + Ifmrakit].P^f^dent 3. r^ i. /ro. adj. -n. journey. occurence 3. food [/0*c?a']. lo lead [/wZ'jo'ra]. [/ce-ra']. princess 1. obliging fill ^. complete adj. 1. ride. . prisoner fdngenskap. [fdmi result y^v^^ n. foda. -en. -or [/w. adj. to catch fdnge. -n.. /o^eZse. -ew. -ar \_foj)'d^'\. I. + 5. native soil foreldsning. 2. -er [fren'd9^'\. fdnga. -en. 3. 2. prefer [/ce'rad^ra'^a]. -en. deepning. -\II.': — object. /aZ^. O fd. foreign 3. firmament frammande. captivity /«r. [/i^A:-^a']. -or [fuj^stin. to 1 away /oV«wi^i>[/os-ra'w2)/]. forena. foda. dazzle forbise. -n. 3idi. [/H'Z]. -ar ddrndsjco'jLd]. -eri. [froin]. princely crown tempt forakta. adj. [fy!sisk]. lecture 5.'^]. -n. adj. 5. /r^m'sZ]. -et. [ful'sten'dig]. [/?/A:. adj. to conduct. forening. 4. II. [/|//-a']. disdainful forarga. -ei^. IV. fullborda. hollow + foredraga. . frdnvaro. [foerar^ja]. cavity. bird fordjupning. con- fullstdndig. [/oT^'an- 2. damp. — — [fEl'trcxj'-p]. to ^?5''^ fullgora.- ^^7- adj. [frem'andd]. r^7 <7- [ful-Jcom'hgl to fullkomna.i*sf9']. to /^ra [/^/'ra'J. perfect.. - foregdende. to unite [/cere. 3. 3. -n. physical [/o/]. forbereda. to moisten /wZZ. I. subject fdltherre. to accomII.. I.. few III. 2. -er [fasUd].a'rwJ. adj. four /a fgsisk. toleadup fdra over [fce-ra' o. [/cera/c/fa]. furstinna. to lead over /6Vafcj5. -n. -en. -ar union . 3. Us^nir)]. question frdn. fdlttdg campaign -e^.P^^. -ar [fo!gdl]. [fol'jandd'l folio- + [fuHlMl I. -ar [foerjmipniy]. to fdltrop. [fuVkom'na]. II. 4. -e^. -ej^. 2. I. [fcerakUlig]. [/^-f^aZsa'].a'l forbindhg. [/f*^9^ndslan^d]. [f(B'rbise'l overlook. to wet. 2. 2. -(e)t. 1. -ar [/w. -et. O [/o/]. field -ar ifel'thxr'd]. [/f^'^^o'^].. 1. wing foijd. -en. -t. I. to omit I. prince furstekrona. III. -n.

^vds]. -en. to compose forfattare. [foerflytta].a]. [/osr^/n]. pleasure ground formiddag. exemption.[f(Brsva!ga]. torous adj. to understand ndgon for IfoRrkUidaX (helig) [guise helgon [no'gon' nonize he'lig^]. [/cBrw7i/c?ra]. distinguished [fcerne. question forgd^ III. 2. I. -n [/cerlusitdlsd]. prove. uished to adj. [foerfro'- conj. to deserve fortjdnt. to forsamling. III» [/cersto. -en. +. place before. -n [foerhDl'an- skanisniy].&ai. — + . author IV. to undertake forfatta.'na]. to im1. 2. forsld. -^.'a].*]. [fcemy. F/cerma. II.'rja']. to manage [jce'rdstel^a]. representation notion foretaga. 1.raj. order forra [fceva^]. most forestdllning. II. fortdra. -n. I. to be able sume fortoma. — fortvivlan. dran]. -en. 2. II. self denial ^aTi].']. to deII. -ti. to lose [fcerlco'ra'j. to forsvinna. forkvdva. -e^. to slip away. plain. [foertvitvto 3. [fcersva^rard]. to to fornya. — + . to brag. [foerkv£. [/cersZo. forordande.[fcero'ddnan^dd]. disappear forsdkring. forstrdcka. — I. [/cer^o. IV. to ex- advance. to pass. forndm. assurance /orfj^'na. [foRrhefva].^va\. intrenchment 2.^. [/cersAra/'a]. forestd.'la^. to stretch forstd. to ravage forklara. performance. elapse [/osr[cure /orsA. -en. to dis- [/cerA:o/i. in vain forhand.a^<2. beforehand forhdllande. -e?i. fonner forordnande. 2. loss I. to ofI.^kdlsd].'].[/cersva. to boast. fend I. adj. II. -n. forenoon fbrmd. wonder fdrnitftig. -\. [foersvin'a]. [/ce?'f/dzsA:]. [/cer/a^/ara]. [/cer^ce. trai- away forfrdga. 4. forundra to sig. treason 3. -ar [foermid'da'g]. [/cer^f. to represent.[foersko'm'l. 1. con- forlustelsestdlle.'a]. sterniy']. -er [/asrZi/s/^].']. -ar [foR'r9image. to charr to il. -en. to forskoning. forlust. wonder. to proforskansning. to suffice \^f(Brstrikta\ to vastate. III. 4. insurance. — . before 3. . to perfect forkovran. ko^vrari].Vna]. -ar [fcerseikriy].170 Vocabulary. [foeme'Tn]. disting- forestdlla. -f. quire I. -er [/cert'^eW. -if. I.[foemuf. forsakelse. forfrdgan. 5. to disappear. introduce forndm st.'ra]. [/cer/i:Za. [fcerhe.]. [foerko. recommendation 4. I. — + [foenin'astonishment . [fcergen't]. I. despair II. -|- [fcer• improvement forkola. II.Te&sonable forundran. adj. forlora. 5. 1. stifle I. -en. Za7i]. -|. [fcerfaHa]. (pd) [ foerhantd]. [foerndj. [/cer^«. III. forrddisk. to satisfy 4. forbearance forskriva. circumstance prescribe forhdva. III. dd]. morning.tOYfeaiken 5. forndja. defender IV. former forre [/osr'a'].'ra].V].l. -ar [fcer- -ar samUiy]. fdrsvaga. to renew govern. to in1. [f(Krfra!ga]. forraderi. to flow forjiyta. -f [/cer^j'^- — dan'd9]. [fce'rdsto^]. -et. to be proud of forhdrja. deserved forsvarare. -r \f(Brsa. I.'mst]. [/o2rsA:riVt. forkovra. forrdn. 2. inquiry.'tig}. defense forkldda. to ca- forsvar. [/ce'rafa'^a]. meeting forgdves [fcergs.

mistake I. (on) to border be bounded by . 2. -e^. changeable glans. -en. gaffel. — [^raw/]. -ien. echo — grekisk. 1. neighbouring country grav. opposite.*cZ]. \^jui'ta% to pour (forth) foradla. god. (—Idnder) gemensam.^s]. profit gammal. to 171 forvdna(s). 3. general genius. tive. + goodness. \^gl0-dan^dd\.'na]. [^an*sA:a']. glo- glomma. -et. I. change. to cross I.[^Zan. -et. [ /cereZ/^rar]. [^am'aZ']. \_gra)t']. 1. -er [^ri^n/cZ]. + glodande. to alter fordndring. II. kind -en.'A:isA.[gay. IV. adj. [fcereniddrlig]. mo- reason II. to augment forokning. grave general. found -or [^rm'va']. grade gram. O [^ZfcZ'ja'j. 3. to forget good./(Z^ef]. [^r^s]. 3. [^(y*<Zj^.^n].'^].'A:a]. [gle!s~\. to ennoble foranderlig. -en. grata. to traverse. weep grdns. greek ^ren. II. — [gojt!s]. to O [^rwn'cZZf^'a]. 5. to shoot forth [^rwn. productive ^. slide — to to to I. genomvdt. through [j'e'nom^o'^a]. IV. branch gripa. gruva. giftig. 2. to glide. parents pi. 4. [gUd'jd^]. to go through. in favour fork 5. 2. splen- fordldrar. [^Zi'^a']. limit [^r£^n"sa']. -r [/ce'rddmjmtkdlsd\ humiliation foroka. 5. to cry. [^^a-'s]. godo ^ods. -w. joy gloda. [/(}sr'0. [jame/nsam]. II. 2. -en. [^ro'^a']. mutual adj. -et. -ier [jeinius]. rifle [je'ntemco^t]. -er I. -ar[gran'd% neigh5. 3. -ar [/cerenidrirj]. 1. [je-nljm^d]. {jif'tig^\ poisonous giva. -en. forvdxla. grad. -n \^ga'jiddsre^jdinenHd]. reform fordndra. -et. -or [^a'^a']. godhet. unsettled. -n. [^ji'va^\ to give -ar [fcervo'forvaningj niy]. guards gata. adj. astonishment 2. -er [je'ndrail]. [grrpa^]. genomtdga. [foeren^dra]. 5. augmentation ri glddja. [je'nomtrey^a]. to make red to glow hot. -en. to be glad glddje. to increase. hour -me^. ^ZtWa /ram [gli'da' framf].o. through genomtrdnga. — genom. gramme granne. goodhearted adj. 2. dour glas. (gafjiar) [gaf'dl]. to rejoice. -eZ. glass gles. III. humble forodmjukelse. -ar [^os"a']. adj.]. [foRre'd'la]. -er [^ra/d].. 3. [jrvan'dd]. 5.-n. glide forodmjuka. gardesregemente. street grannland. quite. -n. -en. -et. [^6. {^jdv€tr\ gun. -n. grdnsa. [^Zom'a']. boy 3. -en. [^Z0'cZa'i. II.w^a. to penetrate grund. increase. [^ran'/an'tZ]. -en. -en. -^. to adj. -ar [^graiv]. to I. adj./-'^acZ]. to seize gro. -j. thin ^ZicZa. wing adj. 3. kindness godhjdrtad. genius genljud. [fce'rodmjm'ka]. givande.e"n3mz. mine IV. gosse. adj. ground grund. [je/nD/n]. 5. [^to».Swedish-English. tier. astonish I. -ar [gre!n].'cZ]. entirely adj. 2. IV. IV. fertile. -n. -en. old adv. -ar [fcere'kniy]. adj. to 1. wet gentemot gevdr. goods ^a^n. [^re. in front of 5. change. [. prep. (till) [gco'doj^]. ganska. grundldgga. {^fc&rvEkisW] . to fron- — boundary. regiment of life- 2. -\. -w. [fcervo.

\^grdn'skan^dd]. -en. farm gdta. adj. YJeysd'']. 5. pious 2. -et. domicile 2. fear of God (of the Lord) gul. -e^. I. hand handling. -ctz. \hd'gon% saint helig. [j^'^na'l. sudden ^ay. [Ae/^]. [gul'dviy^ad]. he't]. to gynnsam. [ha'v]. neck hamn. covered with a green mantle gronskande. gynna. [/^as'^i^'j. I. -en. mansion 2. -n. to hasten hastig. II. -e)i. + hedning. 1. — [upi] till. -en. -\. -en. harm. adj. -e^.[^ew/ce'ra]. gentle2. -ctr [Aa"?. 2. -ar[hel'gddcom% sanctuary helgeflundra. deed. I. to go. -ar* [hal'vo^]. God gudfruktig. [hemf]. -or [hser'tigin'a']. [AaZ. -en. [gm. I. duchess hes. hemlighet. grdnmqiitlad [gro'nman^tlad]. -ar [goy^]. -en. -er [goy-]. gullstdnkt [^wZ*s^f?y'A:^]. -en. . to harbour hand. [hej'da^ to hold back hel. to swing favour fa- I. [jom'a']. [Aa'Za']. -ar [^joiTc]. adv. 1. 1 [ffoy!]. (named) heita. 3. 2. 2. to hinder. -n. usual 2. (home) -er [hem'lig- gang. 2. II. vourable [ji'^/n'saTw']. act impede hinna. hemvist. -en. [^m'(?ra']. 2. 3. yellow hedersbetygelse. 2. 3. willingly -ar ^oA:. -ar [gub'9^]. 2. hertiginna.'v]. 1. [Ae'^a']. -ar [han'dliy^]. adj. 5. — — gang. heat himmel. marks -r [^eof honour guld. + [^e^'" way -ar [goUd]. gift. -en. (himmeln or himmlen. -or [hel'gdflun'dra]. [^asta']. -en. cuckoo gomma. -n.'w]. 2. -en. ^«. -w. IV.'Z]. dis- pleasure harmoni. heathen hejda. -en. [Aem'a']. -we^. [gul-d]. — . to get fram {^framt\ reach. to. . III. -ar [A^r'a']. [^e/s]. -n. -n. — home [Aem'i'z. adj. himlar) \him'dl^\ heaven hindra. passage. to prevent. -or [go'ta^]. -or [go'va^]. to be in force.. halibut helgon. -ar [haHs]. home hemkomst. home hemfbra. adv. peninsula hals. -ar [7«V].\hastt\ hast hasta. -en. adj. 1. 5. [^W7?*a']. — ^aA:a.s-'^]. -ar [gm!d]. to do to -ar [^^r'fz^']. [gut's- sea-breeze fruk'tan]. time 3. [/its"a']. man hei'regdrd. 1. to hide [hssr'd- go\id\ manor.'l]. old + [^ar. [j'^/wa']. whole helgedom.si-z/i'<f]. 2. Igm'dfruk'tig]. saint. 2. adj. -|. gdngse. to lift . harmony hast.a. out — upp — up to — ut [mtt]. half halvo. [jfZ'a']. action. -ew. with golden wings adj. hoarse het. 1. adv. -en. adj. 1. [^e. -en. 3. herre. Ar^wsif]. -er \har'mojni:\ man gud. 5. secret hemma. havsvind. 2. gdrna. port. return 3. gold guldvingade.172 Vocabulary. adj. holy hem. green gubbe. II. -ri. -en. gdrd. -|~ 2. hertig. dwelling. lift hissa. donation [to be worth gdlla. [Aa*A:a']. hot to be called /ie^a. adj. 2. II. [^e'%'J.[Ae^'a']. adj. [jce'ra']. -et. [^m'a'l. sea — gudsfruktan. 2. 5. II. to bring yellow stained gunga. duke make H {^haik\ notch chin ^aZa. [gof]. 1. -et. ddrsbdty'gdlsd]. to haul halv. adj. I. hak. (hdnder) [han'd]. -ar [Aam//i]. -ar [he'dniy']. ^ora. -71. -n. to — to at- tain hiss. 5. -ew. riddle ^az.

-^. II. [hco'pa']. I.'r]. Alts. 173 himlajiamma. [ijen'gen^a'].'r]. -ar [hds'tda'g]. hdnsyn. to fetch. -72. [Aot. -ar \]iuntd\ adj. hdndelse. hole severing [hoU]. autumn hostdag.'v].an]. -or[him'la- flam''a]. -ar [liosit]. 4. hund. to dominate hdstbdr. [hep'na^].V]. here hdrlig. 1. [y^fm'Za*]. [hsf'tig]. herd. 2. II. housekeeping huvud. 5. 2. splendid heap [hop']. adv. occurence. 3. lY.id]. [hod'd].(^i2?']. army hdr. -e^. event -ar [jcoUd]. 5. -ar [A0'a. heavenly ladder historia. highland hogskola. to preserve. 2. -n. -et.-tlig']. [^oj'^a']. hungrig. cabin /la^. festivity hdja. -er [^w?. hdngiven.[Acer'saZ]. horse 2. hay Ao^. -en. hero heart hearty. highschool hogtidlighet. 3. -en. -n. -r [A^^i. -ar [him'laste'gd]. hdr. 3. [AoZ/gr]. -en. -n. adj. 3. lazy. 5. height Aora. to to take in to -n. hearing Aos^. hogldnd. hdst. -er [Ao'A. litter. I. respect (in this) hdpna.'r]. to raise hdjd. -or \hyl'sa''\ husk \hy'sa']. 5. per- hdlla. adj. history 3. II. fancy. adj. -ar [Afs*^5oV]. hoof hov. consolation 2. -en. adj. -e^. chieftain %ZZa.tidlighet]. I. [^op'a*]. islet hjdssa. fire of heaven himlastege^ 2. 5. IV. — — [y^o. -n. hdll. go and fetch. -\- hjalp.'ri^']. -er [heW]. imagination hold [ho. 1. -ar {hum'h- hopgarden -en. -en. [%Z'a']. adj. [^w?. -en. hota. magnifi- cent. -en.'ta'']. + [ho!]. hjdlte. [hui'vu'd]. z^A:a. [Afn'jz'z. -e^. historisk. 3. -ien. I. -en. -n. -e?i. -en. [hui'sjdro'dssa'kdr\ utensils hushdll [hm'shoV]. crown (of the head) holme. n. r. [raA:to*^aZs9]. II. A. AarcZ. side to inhillning [in'bWniy]. observation ihland. -er [AojVcZ]. -f- de- flock voted (sunendered) 2. %ZZa. hoppa. adj. go'. husdjur. to rule. to swear allegiance I. 2. -ier [histoj!ria]. shelf [%/•«']. humlegdrd. -ar hjdrta. [jel'p]. hdglos. 2. -n. [A£?i*52/'n]. 5. hard hdftig. 3. lig]. [Ao'^Z^ti'cZ]. adj. dolent hdl.-n. do- mestic animal husgerddssaker. [Aopas']. carry on igenkdnna.'risk]. [Aars/ca']. to invite . [in'bjm^da]. \hoR'ra^\ to hear horsel. -en. [^c>Z"a']. [Am*sjm. -ar [^&>/y]. 2."*a'].7]. -en. to iakttagelse. -e?z. among to to re- entertain hytt. -j. [/io'^/e's]. spirit [icZ'A^a']. 5. [zftZan/cZ]. historic(al) hjord. -or [i^sa']. -ef. -en. 2. in- — cognize. -or I hylsa. [i'hmr'-dig]. 2. violent AaZ/f. -(^e)^. [histoj. half hdmta."7iacZ']. heartily [jasj. bring in. to threaten hov. 3. chiefly 1. hdr. I. I. 2. [A^. -ar [/ioZ'???a']. to do homage.?/sa. to hope /lopa. adv. [ho. -or [ho'gskoj'la]. to be asto- hjdrtlig. to — hdrska. hair inhjuda. 5. 5. adj. -?i. [A^'rZz^']. 1. high hugnad. l.cZaZsa]. -n [j^j. to know again ihdrdig. satisfaction. 2.\hotg\ mind. -en. -e^. to leap.Swedish-English. -|. 1. head huvudsaklig. adv. -et. — — dog hungry house [hmtii]. 2. -ar [A^. help [y'fZ'^a']. -er \hyt^. hope Aopp. 3. to exercise. adj. to skip hoppas. nished -en. [huivudsa'k- — autumnal day hovding. adj. court barrow — ho. pi. 1. -ar [AesfZ]. 3. m — [ — m]. -en.

2. I. -en. -72. cup. -en.-or[A:ZQA:'a']. adv. kejserlig. gun intrdda. inre. -f" [iw^o'San]. 1. II. -en. A:Zan^. -n. -en. -or [kap'a^]. earth klar. [^its/Z]. cavalier A:ecZja. [m'Jfn'na]. within IV. to call [upf]. -e^. + [in'tryk']. 3. -er meridicu'n]. 1. mantle kapten.[in'fly^tandd]. -en.'^disA:]. interior inrista. 3. im- kanon. jordmdn.174 Vocabulary. earthy jordklot. ground 3. -er [fiTj/dT]. 3. 1 . Icelander iver. [m*ra']. [kla'ga']. nobody ingenting^ pTon. IV. crag jordisk. 2. -er [A:a_pZe. -ar [y^'u-nt'c'^]. comprise. adv. jcuct. — [in'hyg^ard]. -en. to invade infinna. [in'smy'ga]. -en. -er + 3. -r^. IV. — .'a^e. jaga. -ar [rsZe/i'cZzT/]. prep. -n. IV. 5.V]. can- pression non. in intryck. 2. — railway (railroad) 2. -n. I. in —upp vo- instdnga. 2. chain im- A:m(Z. [jw. to march in is. -n. cheek I. -r[J£m'fd'ralsd]. (joklar) glacier [jo'kdr]. -en. just -r [in'fly^tdlsd]. to bring in jdgare. zeal -n. [tw^rf'^Za]. to meet intdga. 4. -er [A:ai.i<Z- inbyggare^ 5. innesluta. [kan'fd% perhaps 1. -or [ge'dja']. [m'Zr^/'^a]. I. 5. I. comparison jdmn. adj. -e^. to possess innehdlla. 1. II. cake [kal'k]. 3. IV. 1. to come in intrdffa. to throw [Ara^Zan. dweller indela. -en. \kaVa'\. calcareous soil kalksten. adj. inhabitant. tain kanske. to hunt [jakif]. -ew.^n]. -n. [jtm/n]. 3. to appear infiytande. -eZ. 3. to divide infalla. [m'^T^oZ^a]. to include inom. [mrzs'^a]. -n. [m'asZm'Za]. stroke of the clock . [iy'dn^]. [m'^aZ'a]. -j. -^. globe — klocka. cation./a'^a']. [mtZe'Za]. [A:Za. 1.ji']. hunter. -j- sound cliff. insmyga. 3. [jV^>'. 2. -en. I. -er [in'sikH']. ice ismassa. . -ar [jcoUd]. [^Vi'^?']. [. /caZ/c. [m'sZ^^^'a]. [in'dha^va]. [m'Zo'^a]. -en. meridian inhryta^ IV. clear klippa. — clock. -en. 3. -en. appeal (up). I. 3. quick-lime [^'aZ/A:]. [kas'ta^].-n. lime-stone — idea kail. [jtgard']. -r [/caZ'aZsa'j. 1. notion. -or [^•Z^pa'].liy'dntiy^ nothing irihdmta. klockslag. [in'hryHa]. -or [i'smas'a]. cold to creep to lock /caZZa. 2.V]. I. hunting jorcZ. sportsman jdmforelse. to engrave chalice inrddan. adj.bell [A:Zo/c'sZa'^J. mass of ice kappa. to call up . [i^m-ifa']. -en. just. -et. even jdmte. 3. -er [jco'jidmo^n]. [in'hem'ta]. to break in jordmeridian. -en. adj. -ar [iVs]. adv. 2. kallelse. -n. -er [A:anco»/n]. to + -ar -or [ka'ka^]. [ja>*^dA:Za>'f]. [m'om']. chestnut kavaljer. {kalf]. to complain [ArZa^//]. -er hunt. adj. 5. -en. influence infiytelse. prep. -n. 3. kastanj. kasta. jo/iceZ. lo contain innehava K /caA:a. cap- islanding. \kaVkgrun'd]. advice insikt. kalk. -n. calling. with jdrnvdg. 3. -ar [kal'kste^n^^ kalkgrund. 5. adj. 6. perial A:Za<7a. influence ingen. [^fi's^rZigr'].

crown kropp. 3. II. to korg. -ar \knekit]. -ar [A:on*s^ sam'tiy].'s]. -ar [A:3m'24.on. — krigsfdnge. O [A. I. 5. [klok'lik% shaped kloster.^]. -en.^- monastery 3. 2. shortsightedness kraft. cuckoo /mZa.Swedish-English. -^. -en. hut kndppa. adj. to crown kubera. hill -ef. -ar [knap. -en. — kristendom. -or [A:rr^na'].. [kri'gard^].[A:Zfm'a']. 5. [A:am'a']. to dress kldder. [A^r^-pa*]. krets. -ar [kret's]. -or \km'la'\ ball -ar {kuVd^]. -ar [krop']. -er [A. -ar [fc^Z. [ZcZf'cZa'i. -en. [gylig]. — [klos. adj. -ar kom. [kry'pan^de]. coast I. -er [A:msiVn]. II. kvadrera. [klsk-a']. wreath -en. kolforrdd. [/^n^/'^a']. [fcZf^'ra']. -ar \knitv\. krona. [A:nap/]. I. to climb 2.o^.wZ*rf?. 3. -or [)fct. -n. I. konung. Christianity Kristus \kristus''\. [/t'r0'na']. button knapp. [kmbe'ra].2.']. -ar [A:o'nw2. to blow forth kldda. 2. [A:w7. power. (pi. [ A:z. adj. -et. 3. -ar [A:?. -en. -er [kun'ska^p]. wife -n [A:v2^*^']. 5. adj. knappast barely \knap'asH\ scarcely. artist + [A. -n {kom'inis'tdrhaj'sUld]. rectory konst. to hem in to krans. -ar[krig'shw'r]. Christ kolmbrk. to lie. ac- knekt. [Aror. receipt 3. to war kring. -en. -er[kon'stn%'r]. to button military expedition krigsvan. [/cn^p'a']. royal [ko'nuy^sUg]. 2. to creep krypande. -en. IV. clothes kraftfull. 5. [ko'ldra^^araj. A:w/Ze. around kristen. pitch krona. -en. 2. kldcka. 2. adj.^^]. king kunglig. shower of balls kung. \ko'lfcero''d\ stock of coal -n. [koUt]. tdr]. II. -e^. 1. warrior — 2. frock komma.Va ] . soldier kniv. 2. -j[ko'dtsynHJiet]. -en. con-en. -n. [kri.']. 5. short korthet. to come. dark fco?^.) [A:Zf/c?ar]. II. IV. art 2. -n \knst\ knee koja. leave over I. kusin. -er [kraf!t]. -ar [klo'v]. 2. -ar [A:ra7z. II.Uk'\. (claw) knapp. king -en. -en. 2. -en. konung slig. shortness kvitto. to korsfarare. -en.) [A:w/cw']. -|. 3. 1. -n. adj. adj. -en. sin 3. strength kortsynthet. adj.fZ. corn — basket barley [A:3r'.'^].m'a']. -en. hoof A:Zoi7. crusader Acor^. — [krik'sto^g]. 2. nisitdr']. bell- 175 klocklik.sfa'rz]. -en. evening kylig. 4. to be able 3. kunskap. crown. royal konstsamling. adj.'n]. -t.t6>. kldttra. army krigstdg. — kvinna. -n. kvarldmna. curate komministerhostdlle. -en. -ar [A:w?. [Zcn^'.[Acau^^e'^J. circle krig. 5. scarce m. -er [A^z^s/^]. /a'rara]. 2. reptile -en. \ko'lm(e. 2. adj.'s^]. kulregn. prisoner of war krigshdr. body krypa. -e^i. A:?. IV.'g]. (klostret). to come up — komminister.s- square [kcoirn]. -e^. cool . collier (coalheaver) 5.']. -ew. [kraf'tful% powerful kldmma. 4.wn'a'J. collection of works of kunna. -n. [jfcnV]. to cube Z^i/A:w (interj. to knot knd. 2. 5. kust. -en. -n. 5.acZre. -en. creeping. -er [A:«.']. knowledge 2.^]. squeeze in. -en. war krigare. 3. prep. customed adj. 1. 2. quotient ArvaZZ. -n. -or [ZcaJ'a']. 2. [kva'rUm^na]. christian koldragare. -ar [krig's- J^2?'9]. 1. -^. -e^. art konstndr. knife knyta. [A^Ws'^an']. upp [up.*Zta']. -en. + [A.ns'fari- — dcom^].

life 5. latinsk. [gsn^d]. ZeA. 3. [Ze"A:a']. 5. -er \luktt]. sweet locka. to in]. [gem'pa^]. 3. [Z^^"a'J. lively. adj. country Ijusrod. -n. -et {lander) \lanict\. conj. adj. lop^]. air [luft'strek'']. II. promiluft. laga i ordning \la. -ar [lapf]. open leende. -en. 1. organ of (feeling) touch kdnsla. [Zovan'cZa]. [ZrZan']. -n.s^a. + — [Zw/'Z]. II. — —[laWnsk]. -f. -r [Zm. liver levnad. to get ready. II. -ar [co^l]. course of life (career) to fight kdnd. -n. -1. -en. 3. adj. -or [gen'sla']. -n. smile -en. I. -eZ. 2. limb in [le!d]. [Za^i'cZ- landscape landstiga. -^. -?z -^. — — [jm. ^'d7. 4. rest. -n. 2. adj. to live lever. corpse Zi/c. Lapp lappuiark.]. [Ze*?. cherry 5. feed. sing [Zo'ra]. to play leva. adj. to -en. 5. 2. -n -or [gd'a*"}. 1. {(gon'sdlvse'rktyg]. likna. -en. fate lova. 3. to korsbdr. [ — I. 1. [Zi'A:na']. -en. -e^. sensible levnadssdtt. dead body. -ar [goeu. 2. -e^. 2. [Zas'^a']. 1. however ZmtZ. luftstreck. -ar [le'k]. -en. to know. vicar ledig. -eZ. suffrance IV. -et. -en. II.176 Vocabulary. adj. landskap./m/s]. -or [ko'ta']. 1. -ar sW-gniij]. [Ze'dfi^']. smell f-erj [ZwA:Zluktorgan. [jm*sr0'<Z]. adj. -en. quietness lukt. like kdrlek. lot. [Zrt-n^^'ra]. landstdlle. 5. love -en. -?z. gerous livlig. adv. load. [geir]. lime-tree. sound light [. Lapponian tent kdlla. to feel kdnnbar. [Zrtvs/a'rZz^]. adj. adj.[grrle^k]. 5. lead [Ze'cZa']. adj. [gol'd]. -n. dan- [pcer's&^V].-kojsok^dn]. 2. line liten. lufttom. 2.'d]. -en. -eZ. -eZ. small little livsfarlig. to struggle. -knen. -or \lam"pa^\ lamp land. adj. country-house lapp. I. 3. [ZrA:nan'(Za]. parish kdta. charming. -ar [Zm'cZa']. -et. — linden-tree linje. to promise landstigning. 2. -er [Zap 'mar' A. I. [ZrcZan'^Za]. IV. -ar [lek'dr]. I. 3. land Ijuv.a. to lie ligga. [ZrA^vf'Z]. customs. I.\_Q€nis9l\^ feeling kdnselverktyg. Lapland Za. knowledge kdnsel. 5. to to nourish Ijud. [lan'dsW'ga^. [Zw^^-^n].']. -eZ. -or [goeska']^ church kyrkoherde. kdnnedom. as. levnadslopp. 5. land. to seduce lott. void [Zi^jf^ZZwrn']. keel A:o76Z. hermetical latin lugn. [fo'ra'].ga'' it o'jid- nir)^\ to put in order ^/ws. dear — Ilk. -ti [Za/i'cZs^fZ'a]. 5. adj. adj. to prepare livndra. resembling liksom. 1. [Z^•^•s^?n']. — [ZiVA:]. — [le'vnads- kdmpa. cold A'ora. -\- [gen'ddojm']. known kdnna. — lidande. -e^ — \lan'dska^p]. — in lufttdt. -e/i. to leda. 3. alive laga. -^ [Ze'rnacZ']. [gen-ba^r]. ZeA:. ways and customs lida. to suffer 4. -er [ZoZ. [ZrvZi^']. ZecZ. II. 3. -ar [gcBji'kcohe'jidd]. -^. [Ze'va']. source kyrko socken. 3. landing lovande. I. rosy adj. vacant. kyrka. adj. [Za'^a']. vacuumair-tight. smelling — . [^^wa']. \lida'''\. 5. play-game 4. IV. adj. 5. [Zw/'ZZf'Z]. -n [le'dn'dd].na6Zss£Z']. 5.^'9]. [Z2^*a']. feeling kdr. [jn^'v]. to conduct. as if likvdl. (?r^a'n]. -n. to drive + resemble liknande. \liik'\. to entice (away). light lampa. suffering. -en.

Swedish-English.

177
to facilitate

lummig,

adj.

[lum'ig'],

thick,

Idtta,

I.

[Ist-a'],

tufted, bushy, thick-spreading

lund, 2. -en, -ar [lun^d\, grove lunga, 1. -w, or [Zt^?/a'], lung
Zws^, 3. -en,

latteligen, adv. [Ut'dUgdn], easily Idtffattlig, adj. [Utfaflig], easily understood, easily sible

lustslott,

5.

pleasure castle luck Igcka, 1. -n, [^^^'^'l?
lycklig, adj. [lyklig'], lucky

+ — +
-e^,

[Zi^s.'^],

mind

comprehenonion

[Zws'^sZo^'],

lok,

2.

loseii.

Zoy, 5.
Zoi;as,

—+ —
-e?z,
,

-ar

[/0.'A:],

[lo'san],
[Z0.'?;],

watch-word
leaf

-e^,

I.

[Z0-vas'], to leaf, to cover
2.
-eri,

lyda,

II.

[Z2/'<^3'],

to

obey

with leaves

lyfta^ II. [lyf'ta% te raise Zi/sa, II. [Z2/*6'a'], to light;
[wp.*],

— upp
[lo'g-

lovskog,
leafy

-ar [Zo-vsfc<w'^],

wood

to light

up
bright

lysande, adj.

[Zt/'san'cZa],


maka,
makt,
malm.,
I.

Z«^, adj. [loig\ low

Idgland,
Zan'cZ],

5.

-e^,

(—dnder)
long
[Zqt^'s'],

-n,

-or [ma'ita'], wife
-er [ma,k!t], power -er [mal'm], ore

lowland
[Zo2?.'j,

Zaw^, adj.

3. -e?i, 3. -e/i,
2. -ew,

Idnga,
Za?2^s

1.

-ti,

-or

cod-fish

malm,
wan,
3.

[loy's'],

along slow
[ZoT^'va'ri^], long-

ar [maZ.'m], suburb (mannen, man) [man^],
-ew,

Idngsam,

adj. [Z£»7;'saw'],

man
mark,
3.

Idngvarig, adj.

-er
3.

\marik\

soil,

lasting Za^a, IV. [lo'ta'],

ground
to
let (to

have

with an infinitive) Idgga, II. [Ug'a'], to lay Idkare, 5. -n, [Zf/car^'], phy-

-er marmorhild, morhiVd'], marble statue
-en.

[mav-

marskalk,
marshal

2. -en,

-ar [marfaUk],

sician

Idkarevetenskap,

3. -en,

-er

[Zf'-

mask, mask,

2.

-en, -ar [mas.^k],

worm

kardve'tdnska^p], medicine

Idkemedel, 5. -e^, [Z^'Arame'cZaZ], medicament, remedy

3. -e72. -er [was.'^A:], mask maskineri, 3. -e^, -er [ma/'manV],

Idmna, kvar

I.

[lemna^

to leave;

machinery maskinist, 3. -en, -er
machinist

[maf'inis.^t],

[kva'r],

to leave

behind
proper,

Idmplig,

adj. [Um'plig'],

convenient

Idngdmdtt, 5. -e^, long measure

massa, 1. -n, -or [mas'a'], heaj), man, block mat, 3. -en, -1- [ma't], food
me<^,
2.

[ZfT^'^^mo^'],

-en,

-ar [we/cZ], runner

(of a sledge)

Idnge, adv. [Z£?/'a'], long Idngs, see: Zan^s [^^??'^J? along

Idngtan, 1. [leytan^ long, longing Zopp, 2. -en, -ar [Zrp.'], lip Idra, 1. -n, -or [Ix'ra], doctrine,
,

—+ —

meddela, I. [me'cZcZe'Za], to inform, to communicate; undervisning [un'ddrvi'sniy'], to teach Medelhavet [me'ddlha'-vdt], the Mediterranean Sea medfora, 11. [me'cZ/o'ra], to bring

apprenticeship Idrare, 5. -n, [Ise'rard^ teacher lard, adj. [Z^u^/(i], learned

(take) with

medgiva, IV.

[me'cZji't*^], to agree,

Idrjunge,
Idrka,
Zasa,
1.

2.

-n,

-ar

[Z«"rjw7;'a],

pupil, scholar
-n, -or
[Ise'rka'], lark
II.

acknowledge medicin, 3. -en, [me'cZzst/n], medicine

to admit, to

+

Idsande, ding

[Zrsa'J, to read 4. -^, -J- [Zf'san'da], rea-

medlem, member medlidsam,
2.

-men, -7nar [me'cZZem^], (of a society)
adj.

[me'cZZzcZ'sam],

compassionate
easy
mellerst, adj. [m^'Z/arsZ], middle

ZaZf, adj. [Uti],

Elementary Swedish Grammar.

12

178

Vocabulary.

men, conj. \metn\, but mened, 3. -en, -er [me'ne^d],
oath, perjury

multipUcera,
false
to multiply

I.

[rtiuVtipliseira\
-en, -er

muUipUkand,

3.

[muV[muV-

metall,

'6.

-en, -er \metali\, metal

[me''4dr], metre meter, -n, midnatt, 3. -en, -\- [mi'dnaf], midnight midnattssol, 2. -en [-ar] [mi'dnatsco^l], midnightsun mild, adj. \miV.d\ mild

tiplikantd], multiplicand multiplikation, 3. -en, -er

stiplikafoj!n], multiplicsition; tahell, 3. -en, -er [ta'hel% multiplication table multiplikator, 3. -n, -er [mid'-

tiplika'tDr% multiplier

miljon,
million

3.

-en,

-er

[mU'joj'n],

minnas, II. [wnVas'], to recall, to remember minne, 4. -^, -n \min'd'-'\, remembrance

munter, adj. [munitdr], gay musik, 3. -en, -j- [muisi'k], music myteri, 3. -ef, -er [m^'^arz.'], mutiny

mdhdnda,
haps maZ, 5.
-ef,

adv. [mo'Jien''da\, per-

minst, adj. [mm.^s^], (the) least minst, adv. [mm/s^], at least minuend, 3. -e^i, -er [mi'nmenid],

man, 3. mdnad,
month
tw^z^^,


,

3.

[wo.^Z], aim, goal -er [mo.'/i], measure -er [mo'/iacZ'j, -e/i,

missnojd,
satisfied

adj.
5.

[mzs'Tzoj'cZ],

dis-

5.

-et,

\mott],

measure
to

misstag, mistake

-e^,

mdtta,
\mis'ta''g],

1.

-n,

-f-

[mo^'a'j,
to

be

able (may)

mdkta,
-j-

I.

[??2eZc*fa'J,

be

able

mitt, 3. -en, centre

\mitr\,

middle,

(can)

mod, 5. -et, [mco.'d], courage moder, 2. -?2 (modrar) [mco'ddr^],
mother

mdktig,

mdngd,
tity

adj. [mek'tig'"'], powerful 3. -en, -er [mey'd], quan1.

mdnniska,
adj. [m(>j*4/"£Z'<^],
dis-

-?2,

-or [mHi'i/a'], hu-

modfdlld,

man
mdnsklig,
adj.

heartened, discouraged

modig, adj. [mccCcZi^'], courageous modlos, adj. [mw&'s]. dish eartened

man

[m€n'sklig%

mdrkvdrdig,
remarkable

3id].

[mssrkvser^dig],

mogna,

I.

[m<z»-^na'], to ripen

[mo/.^7i], cloud moln, 5. -e^, moralisk, adj. [m<z>r<2.7isA:], moral morfader, 2. [w(wr'/a'c?ar], grand

moda, 1. -7^, -or [wioc^a'], trouble morda, I. [mceu^a'], to murder
mor/c, adj. [mcer/A:], dark

marker,

5.

-e^,

-f-

[mcer.'^-arj,

father^

obscurity, darkness
2. -en,

moster,2.-n,-ar\mojsttdr\2i\mi^

motgdng,
adversity

+

morkbld,
blue

adj. [7wcer•^'6/o'],
II.

dark

\m(x)'tgo7)''\

mbta(s),
adj.

[w0*^a'(s')],

to

meet

motsvarande,

[mw^sv«'jr

ra?i6Z9], corresponding motsdgelse, 3. -n, -r [mw tsf '^aZse],

contradiction

nagel,
to
re-

2.

-n,

-ar

[7ia.'^9r|,

nail

mottaga, IV. [mwf^a'^a],
ceive

naken,

adj.

[n<2*/:b>n'],

mulen, adj. [mm'ldn% gloomy mullhdrstrdd, 5. -e^,

overcast,

[mwZ*-

name namn, 5. -ef, [namJn^, namngiva, IV. [nawryi'i^a], to name namnkunnig, adj. [nam'wArwn'i^],
famous

naked

6«rs^r£*], mulberry-tree
^

by the mother's

side.

Swedish-English.
-en, -er [nam'nkun^skap], nation, 3. -en, -er [natf(o!n], na-

179

namnkunskap, 3.
tion

nationalmuseum,
national

8.

(—museet),

[nor'a% north -ar [nco.'s], nose, snout nu, adv. i e^^ nw [nmf\, in a twinkling nunna. 1. -n, -or [ni^n'a], nun

norra,

adj.

nos,

2. -en,

i-museer) [natfcona'lmmse^um],

museum
-or
[nat're^sa],

nunnekloster, 5. -e^ khs''tdr\ nunnery

[nwn'a-

nattresa, 1. -n, night journey

natur, 3. -en, -er [natm'r], nature [natui'rnaturalster, 5. -et, als'tdr], natural product 5. -et, [natm'rnaturforemdl, fo'rdmol], being, body 4. -t, -n [nanaturforhdllande,

— —

ny, adj. [n^/.'], new nyhet, 3. -en, -er [nyihef], news ?i2/ss, adv. [n?/s/j, recently nytta, 1. -n, -4- {nyt'a''], utility, use nyttig, adj. [nyt'ig''], useful na, interj. [no.'], well! nd. III. [no/], to reach, to attain

tui'rfcerhorande], natural condition

ndd, 3. nddig,

-en,

^

[^o/c?], grace,

mercy

adj.

[no'cZi^'J,

merciful,

clement

naturlig, adj. [natuc'rlig], natural naturliv, 5. -et, -\- [natwi'rli''v\,
natural
life

3. -en, -er [natm'rfo'-nhet], natural beauty naturvetenskap, 3. -en, -er[na-

naturskonhet,

ndgorlunda, adv. [no'^orZwn'tZa], somewhat ndmligen, adv. [n£m'%an'J, namely

ndmna,
nar«,
rish

II.

[n^m'na'], to

name
nou-

II. [nse'ra''],

to feed, to

tWj'rveHdnskap, natural science

nedanfor, prep, [ne'dan^for], below, beyond nedgdng, 2. -en, -ar [ne'dgoy^ descent [down nedhugga, IV. [ne'dhug^a], to fell II. O [ne'dleg''a], to nedlagga,
put down nedre, adj. [netdrd], under

ndrheldgen, ndrvaro,
presence
1.

adj.
-n,

[n«r6aZ^^an'],

neighbouring
3.

+

[nas'rva^rcj],

-n, -or [ni'sa^], nose ndsa, ndstan, adv. [n^stan'J, nearly na^, 5. -e^, \nEtt], net

nedsjunka, IV. [ne'dfuy^ka],
sink

to

[nit^, nice nocZ, 3. -en, -\- [notd], need,
na^i^, adj.

down

nodsaka,

1.

[no'cZsa'A^a],

to

want com-

nedsld, iV. [we*c?sZo'], to cast down nedstiga, IV. [ne'dsti'ga], to descend
nejc?, 3. -en, -er [nej.'d],

pel, to necessitate

nodvdndig,

adj.

[no'cZvfn'cZi^].

country

njugg,

adj.

[njug!],

avaricious,

eager, niggardly njuta, IV. [njui'ta% to enjoy noggrann,2idj [ti W^raTi'], accurate
.

necessary nojd, adj. [nojVd], pleased, satisfied noje, 4. -^, -n {noj'd''], pleasure not, 3. -en (nbtter) [noit], nut

noggrannhet,
het],

3. -en, -j-

[nco'gran'-

accuracy
3.
-eri,

nomad,
nomad

-er

[ncoma'd],

oansenlig, adj. [wansen'Zz^], unimportant

7iord, 2. -en,

[nojUd], north nordbo, 2.- fejn, -(a)r[noj-j.dbco% northerner
7iorcZisA:,adj .[n<z».Uc?zsA:], north[erly]

+

oanvdndhar,
inapplicable

adj. [6(;*an?;£n'c?5ar].

adj. [(Wai?6rm'^9n], unintermitting o6eA;an^,adj. [(^•6aA;an'^], unknown

oavbruten,

]S/ordsjdn [na)'d,df0^n], the North

obesvdrad,
free,

adj.

[fccSast'^'racZ],

Sea

unconstrained
un-

Nordstjdrneorden [noj'xdfmrndD^rddn], orden of the polar star

obetydlig, adj. [co'bdtyd^lig], important
12^

180

Vocabulary.
3. -en,

ocean,

-er [co'sda'n], ocean

operahus,
ore?,
5.

5. -e^,

[oj'pdrahco^s],

ock, conj.

[okfj, also

opera house
-e^,

oeksd, conj. [ok'so], also, likewise odla, I. [w<^/3'], to till, to cultivate

[^^/^tZ],

word

odlingshar,
arable

adj.

[M'dliifshar],
unfit,

[oxdrn'tlig], orderly (properly) ordna, I. [oVKi/ia'], to set in or-

ordentlig,

adj.

der
adj.

oduglig,

[oj'dmg^lig],

ordnande,

4.

-^,

-tz

[o"u,cZnan'cZ9],

useless, unsuitable oemotstdndlig , adj.

[o^'emoj"^ ston^dlig], irresistible

arrangement, organisation ordning, 2. -e?i, -ar [o'rdniy^
order, arrangement

oersdttlig, adj. [w^rs^-^'/t^], irreparable, not to be replaced ofantlig, adj. [oj'fan'tlig], enor-

ordsprdk,
organ,

5. -ef,

— [<i>V(Zspro'A:],

proverb, saying
5. -e^ [orga.'n], organ oriktig, adj. [wriZc'^], incorrect oriktighet, 3. -e?z, -er [oj'rik^tighet], incorrectness

mous, huge

[5>/'ar], sacrifice offer, 5. -ef, officerare [ofisetrard], officer sacrifice Oj^?^a, I. [of'ra^], to

o/i(a, adv.

[of'ta'''],

often

oforgdnglig,
perishable

[cj'fcerjey'lig],

imun-

ogunstig,

adj.

[orgun^stig],

[oj'roj'], agitation oro, 3. -91, orolig, adj. [6;-r6;'Zi^], agitated, unsettled orsak, 3. -en, -er [6;*rsa'A:], cause osa, I. [co'sa'], to smell

+

favourable

oinskrdnkt, adj.
unlimited

[wiwsA:r£??7t'^],

otalig, adj. [<w'?^a7z^], innumerable otdlighet, 3. -e?i, -f- [<^*to7f^i^e^],

okunnigliet, 3. -e?i, het], ignorance

+ [co'kunHgunknown

impatience

oM^, adj. \o)'t£''t\, not tight oupphorlig, adj. [<:j*Mj)Ace'r%],
continual
outtrottlig,Si,d]. [co'iatrofUg'], in-

okdnd,

adj. [^^'f^n'cZ],

olik(a), adj. [<z>'/z'/[;a], unlike olikhet, 3. -ew, -er [tocZfMe^],
difi'erence

defatigable

olycka,

1.

-w, -or

[<^>-Z2/A:'a],

mis-

ovan, adv. prep. [6f;*ra'w], above ovanfor, prep, [coi.yan'/cer], above
oval, adj.
[(i;?;a/Z],

fortune

ombud,

0. -et,

oval

[om'6m'c?], deto

puty, messenger omfatta, I. [am'/a^'a],

com-

prehend, to comprise

ovanlig, adj. [66»'i;«'nZz^], extra[der storm ordinary thun\(xJ'vi-''ddr'\, evader, 5. -eZ, odndlig, adj. [wfn'dZi^], infinite

omflytta,
nij)},

I.

omgivning,

[om'flyt^a], to remove 2. -en, -ar [om'ji'v[om*ji't*a],

environs
to

omgiva, IV.

sur-

round, to encircle

omkring, adv. [om'Arn'T;'], around omrdde, 4. -^, -ti [om'ro'da], district, domain
omtala,
sible
I.

paljett, 3. -ew, -er [paZJeZ/], tinsel paljetterad, adj. [ paljete'rad^], tinselled paZm, 3. -en, -er [paZ/m], palm

panna,
head

1.

-n,

-or [pa'na*], fore-

[om'te'Za], to report
[ct>'7no[/Zz^],

papper,

5.

-e^,


6.

[per [pa'par'], pa

omojlig, adj.
2.

impos-

onkel, -n, -ar [oyikdl], uncle onodigtvis, adv. [toi'Tie'di^^m],
unnecessarily

_parA:, 3. -en, -er [pax'Ac], passa, I. [pas'a'], to suit; [po], to pay attention

park

— pd
^

passagerare,

-n,

[^Jas'a-

fe'rard], passenger
-f- [oj-oj.dni'o^],

oordning,
disorder

2.

-e?i,

patronkok,

5.

-eZ,

[patroj'n-

ge^k], cartridge-box

-er [raA:e. 5.cheek rank raket. rule regent. 3. -nen. I. 2. personality piano.-er [rco'Sdncin'd].'tisk]. [pqZ. 3. rose R racZ. S. — traveller -en. -er {prco'md- produce. plain. 5. -en. [rjwa']. -tz. -er [proj' ra/c'j. to report II. candidly polhojd. adj. — mdua'dplafs].'n]. -en. -en. -en. -n [piahico]. walking place protestantisk. 3. -ar [rok!]. kettle- riktning. [ras'ZZo's]. to assert 3. dress-coat + [ris'ta^]. -en. -ar [re'g9l% bolt. -ar ring ringa. -er {platts]. rosenkind. -en. -ef. -ar [p^Z. adj. renlav. ring. -er {plain']. 2. plan. -n [pse'rontre^].'f]. I. direction 2. I. adj. journey. pear shaped 4. raseri. -er [porlhoj'd]. already sco'nlighe't]. fury -en. in pdrontrdd. to compress prins. 181 penning sunima. natd]. [^^ra^zVAra]. fur pave. sum (of money) person. 3. -or [?)DZ'sA:a']. [riik]. -en -er [r^-s'Zo- promenad. resande. WsZa. 3. wealth prova. adj. to flow 1. [rco*.^^^s/c]. -en. -ar [rr^'acZ^f^m']. -n.[ra'sdrii]. [pre^s'a']. -er [rorsdndofH].. I. — [p^'ron- pear tree rest ro. 3. [re'san'cZa]. to call 1. point [po's^o']. Polish polska. [rid'ard']. travel — resa. -eZ. latitude 3.^sZc]. 1. [p6o>e. mz^]. sudden poetic(al) poetisk. -en. II. line. -en. to raise 5.']. 2. -man [pres'tman']. fagot [n'n'a']. knight ridknekt. restless rec?a. -ar [re/n].'a/c'Za]. I. place plocka. 3. walking promenadplafs. pope pals. -?i. [pro'va^ -71. -er [projdukit]. 3. -ar [re'?iZa'i?]. [psersoj^n^ -er person personlighet. rastlos. samman [sam'an"']. -er [reji'fn. 5. 5. -t. -er [resif]. 1. plan. 3. 2. -et. 2. clear rent av [reint aiv\.-a']. pdrontrd. -en. -or [re'sa']. Swedish parliament — puka. -en. 3. 3. -er -en. -e/i. to preach pressa. -n. [j9?cy'a']. product maining restauration. -en. to plotslig. -ei(. IV. to press. 2. walk. -n. mad- ness. reindeer ren. polsk. adj. -or Yjpsn'iysum^a]. -en. -en. to ring [ri7. pasta. -en. II. I. -ar [rik'tniy']. — [cross bar [pla!7i']. -er [pwT^/A:^].'s]. 2.^^]. design plats. -er [re'Z2^i(^». ren. [plok'a. [rcocpa']. regent religion. [n*?. to amuse rock.Swedish-English. to test [rik'sdagsriksdagshus. to disdain. ros. risknippa. to adorn prdstman. adj. pure. ^rf']. drum punkt. -ar [po'va']. -n. ringakta. -e^ hm's]. -en. [re'dan']. protestant groom (soldier) 7Hk. {pryta^]. to gather re^eZ. n. -en. polka predika. [re'da^]. adj. [re/n]. to prepare [pser- redan. -e?z. II. I.. -ar [_prm/s]. perfume of roses . prince resa.']. plan. III. II. -J. 4. 1.e. lichen 2.']. -n. roa. adv. priest rikedom. -ar [ri'dknek''t]. 3. -t. -en. rosy. -or [ri's/cjzip'a]. 2. [W?. realm pryda. [rrZ:a']. 3. to travel. rocket rosendoft. pear wood adj. religion ploja. 4. 2. rest re- produkt. 3. flat regel. 3. 3. [prco'testan. 1.^n]. -erz. riches.-en. 2. -7i. to despise pdronformig. rich nA. rest. [re"sa']. [p^'ron/br'- rinna. © [^^e'cZiyjce'ra]. -en. plough [pZofsZ/o']. -n. to maintain. to engrave ropa. piano- redogora. -or [jjm'A:^']. restaurant riddare. -er \ra^d]. -er [re'igr^Z'j. -or [rojis]. I. II. -en.

h£lsfik% social condition samla. I. 5. 4. her)''aiidd\. saloon saltsjo [sal'tfo^^. reveal [roiy'a']. justice rod. adj. sammansdtta. [sam'an- continuous. sakna. 2. -ef. age 3. (with) and samtala.[sam'- rag. to -ar [re^k]. sak. 3. + [ro. right. 2.']. 4. II. -en. -en. [rcB'ra']. I. en (rotter) S saga. 2. row?!. -e^. assemble to to turn out \r£k'a^\ to pass. -et. to con- cern — rorande [rceran^dd]. -en. rot. adj. social order samhdllsskick. -e^. -n. adj. room. councillor 2. since. -e/i. 2. 5. sandy heath sandsten. -t. -en. to pull. -\. 2. to [rys'lan^d]. liver \r£d'a% 2. [sawZa']. -ar [ryg!]. [se'dan% since sedermera. -ar [. adv. Russia rytteri. rtira. rona. -er [ryt'drit]. concerning rorelse. -n. cause \ryk'a% rycka. II. II. -ar \rEd'ni7)^\ salvation. true schweizare. -met. -ar [san'dste'n]. 2. 2. -et. fly cubic measure sakta. rdcka. 2.^]. rye hdso'rdniy]. righteous. -ar [samdiij^. rule (adjective) 5. to samtida. -et. conversation right (righteous) [r^^'a']. reach. 1. 3. adj. adj. [r^if']. honest rdttvisa. samsprdk. -?2 up- poraries) + [vet'vi'sa]. rdddning. 2. contemporaneous sandhed.7]. -n. — space -or [sa'ga^]. sand ridge sann. collection rddda. [sa'kna^]. to save. -n \ryk'td''\ reputation. -r [?'oe'raZ.^]. I. fable 3. -en [+]. [sam'^a'Za]. back rykte. -ar [san'd'o's]. to get.'\. roan-tree [reiia. to compose. II. adv. to tear tale. renown rymdmdtt. rdtt. to prove. smoke experience -en. 3. adj. -ar [rod'shse'rd]. to construct II. III mo- O [se. [rwm/]. -ar [ron!]. Swiss se. 3. connected. coherent sammanldgga. \rotd\. {rek'ndOjUd]. T07^a.99']. II. to place O O to [sam'antogether — (to put). -er right. [. rulla. [ryma']. std till rdtta be samt. -en. -er [sam'ti^d]. to rdtta. II. -en. root lrul-a^\ to roll 5. [sam'ti'da]. room. [samancombine. 5.9a. soft. {rEt'ro^dig}. conj. [r^:^/].-{-[sam'- rddsherre. — [rsk'ndsd']. [san']. 5.'^]. red rdja. sefa]. [roid]. I. II. [rojtt]. the we live in (our contem- rdttrddig. 5. -en. 1. to collect. to give I. -en. to see vement. saltsea samhdlle. -ar [san'dhe'd]. I. -en.se. 2. cavalry rdd. [fv€J'sa'rd% move. [sam. hall. 5. to samling. to disclose.^. adj. — [sam' spo^k]. to de- sammanhdngande. legend. -en. rygg. to rok. to — [r^m'd^wo^']. -en. slow saZ. numeral rdknesdtt. law rdtt. -er \sa!k]. sand stone sandds. [se'^armeVa]. counsel advice Eyssland — samhdllsordning. -n. rdka. Ug'a]. -et. motion se ut to look sedan. just \ret'fse^rdig\ samtid. afterwards . society rymma. [ro'A^a']. adj. to converse sued at law rdttfar dig. thing. -^. deliverance rdkneord.182 Vocabulary. -n [sam'hel^d]. [sak'ta^]. be in need of to miss.

-or [sA:itZ't?ra']. — [/^/c?']. adj. -??. [sm'9']. -ef. -et. — [sA^r^c^'ara']. to create 5. -er [/o'n^e'f]. woodland skola. to separate skillnad. . 1. -n. ]^ refuge skyldig. II. to shoot. -et. to sink down sjdl. [fo'n]. [fik'lig'-]. swim 3. shade skuggig. -en.a*6?a']. rate. I.9A. to shoot away sonder [sdntd9r\ to off. adj. skydd. III. clever. 5. sea skada. -et. [sZcw^'i^^']. -et. [sZzp'a']. to scrape sjunka. to -^. -n. . skrdmma. — skynda. [sA^'/'^m'a'] .']. adj. I.9v^'s]. -or [skoj'la'"']. to disperse.o^. — [/^a•^a']. 2. -w. 2. shimmer — skeppare. I. 2. -en. -eri. adj. adj. -n. 3. I. -er [/z7??ac?'].d\. [fyl'dig'l [y^m. [/2/^*c?a'] to hasten skada. to serve sic?a. [sA:6. 3. 2. ship skatta. IV. -ar [s^7'v^r?. shoulder sA:wZZ. -er [skat!]. sink. creator . -et. — away [/m. difference — Skdne [sA^o'na']. seger. bound -ar sky7nt. -ar [fx'rgo''rd\ — archipelago (near the sea side) skon. 1. sla- skimra. skat' 81% to tax . tailor 5.%'a]. -n. 2. [/w?. -or [sA:w^'a']. [skaf'a!'']. fright skadlig. to twinkle [y^2?ra']. damage."d^Qn']. -en. 5. 3. very slippa. 1.m']. skinn. — /or sake 5. Scania skdgg. convenient. 2. -ti. disease 2. prejudicial. 2. shoes sA. [/lA:. -n. -ef.Swedish-English. duty. 4. [. wood. [/zVt^'a']. 2. shady skiddra. -n [fo'td'']. -ar [sA^f^'Z^Qs'a]. I. 5. -er [skorgsmar^k]. 5. -?i. handwriting skrdddare. battle. to send skicklig. 5.'g]. — [sA:£>^/]. I. scholar sA:o^^. -ew. to shake [sZca'^a']. injurious. — [s/tJo*c?aspa'Z]. . [sm"a']. 4. -|. reciprocally skilja. to — IV. 2. skogsmark. to get to scatter 5. 1. skull [skult]."^^]. ned [neid\. soul s?o. condition skicka. [sA:o'cZa']. sense sitta.a']. shoot sjukdom. -ar [/m*A:6?&. shipper 5. skaka.9A^e. impost I. obliged. [silf]. -7z pupil. -or [srdd% side si7Z.sA:a-^%']. skingra. I. -672. -ar [setgdr\ victory segla. -n -ar [skco. — shoot to pieces -en. -er [skrifH]. 183 IV. 3. 5. to procure skugga. school skolgosse. suitable adv. [sasrveira]. to startle skrdmsel. bosom slag. forest -e?!. — sillfiske.'J. 5. hide slott. nately. guilty. [sla'g]. silver. (avj [s/cra'pa']. hort [holW]. [sA:a'A:a']. — [slotr\. [A^-']. spectacle skeppsbord board [fep-sb(o-j. to damage frighten. 1. injury skada. I.9m?ze. [/^/'•^^. . -n.9A:a^f. skapa. I. to skrapa. I. IV. to sit . [fep'ard^]. beard skdrgdrd. sight. -en. pi. to escape. [fepi]. \se'gla% to sail sen. 5. for [s^'a•par^']. . I. castle . -71. -en. shelter. -et.[sla^vdri!]. 3. [ /z7:. 3. I. skrift. silver silvervinge. 5. -ar [fhf].*A:a']. to take place skepp.wing simma.[skremtsdl]. to happen. -ef. herring-fishery silver. [sz^'a']. [/?m"ra']. -n.[siltvdr]. 1.. -et. to occur. -f. \^sein\ late serrera. -e^. [j'ef\. juta. [fm'tva^pdn]. -ar \fetT\. spe- — cies slaveri. -ar -t. fire arm skodon. 4. ship- skick. alterskiftesvis. . adj. herring: [sil'Jis^k9]. to look at skddespel. [sZ^a'c?a']. -or [. tax. -}. pretty skonhet. pernicious skaffa. skjutvapen. -en. II. beauty skote. -\. -en. -ef. skapare.

IV. soner) [so^n- sluttning. sprida. mily sldkte. to taste [s77ia. -n. sooty sova. to run springhrunn. IV. IV. 3. top. sluice slut. 2. [spr^'a']. -ar [s^jW?. [so*7. sorrowful so^i^. — -nen (-mdn) [sta'tsstatsmann. 2. 5. snowdrift 5. to sleep sovande. spdd.-en (somrar) [som:ar% sluta. IV. [sm/c*a?"a']. [sh'dd^]. -en (. 1. snoyra. to throw. II. [s/m'fZ(^']. -ar [spe/^s]. sldkting. [smof\. . 2. [spe'^Za']. 5. 2. sprdnga. [smf/'^a'J.V]. generation -n Yslek'td^l. race. [sn0moZ'n]. [slm'ta^. -t. -war [. to spread springa. tongue II. adj. 5. -ar. sun solsken. to melt away snickare.[s7i0*2/'ra]. point. -en. I. 3. — somliga. -er [sno'^ren's]. race — snow snomassa. Tnan']. to slink narrow [sprey'a']. smygain. snow- main stark. [stad'sUkard']. -n. [slm!t]. — — spdnna. sleeping spegla. to lock slutlig. buckle spdnning. ingenuity sno. summer house . -e?i. 2. sonson.-71.[sma/A. -en. 3idY. stadsldkare. to to re- — stanna. s^e^e. [stoi'^i^']. up s^ar.9ma?. grandson O — ut [udt]. sorrow sorglig. remain I. 1. stay. lative 2. I. [^starik]. IV. [sm^/'^a']. . -en. taste sprdk. smd. -n. 3. sized adj. er [s^a/^]. slope sZa. [slo!]. to melt. O [s^^cer'ja'] . 5. -e?!. small. -et. strong stat. 2. blow trace. tension joiner snille. tramcar track.[sluL'tkgdn% finally slutta. gentle smdlta. -er [sUJdt]. 3. . -er [sUtt]. -e??. -et. -en. to beat sldde. to — kvar \kva^r\ [s^an'a']. -or [sno'mas'a]. town physician s^am. [sor*J%']. -ar [slus^]. O smdvdxt. sledge.9fam/]. to play spela. -\. 2. — [s^ancZa. -e^. -en. fa- sorg. (bostdder) [som'arbco'stad]. 4. 5. -ar [s^e'^a']. -n. 4. to end sluss. 5. adj. -eri. to snillrikhet. [si?7n'Zz^a']. . sol. race. to beat. pron. [so'z. -en. -e?i -\-[snil'rik''het]. language. [sp£?i*9'].2. 3. to strike out. 3.184 Vocabulary. adj. 2.'Z]. to smaka.[snof].]. to smuggle. standard 5. [spe'd]. IV. sleigh sldkt. -ar [spo'rvay^n]. [spe'Za^]. mass of snow snomoln. hort [hortt]. adj. -e?^. parish. plain sldttland. spets. [sma'fca']. — [spro'k]. [smo'vfA^'s^]. so'nj. tender. to finish. III. 2.^*]. -n. -ar [sojU]. -ar [sZw^'ni?. 2. . I. \^sluta'\ to slope summer sommarhostad. -en. -ar [^sUk'tiif)''']. adj. -n. snogrdns. under- way-road spdrvagn. -er [sar. adj. -e^ -f [s^0'^Zoi3']. (stdder) [sta:d]. 2. ladder [sco'lfe^n[. fountain \sl€t'la!'nd]. -or [spi'ra^]. to reflect I. -e^.J. to smile -e^. some souimar. limit of 2. -^. [^spri'da''']. plain smak. adj. — . district -e?i. [slm'ta^]. -en. -ar [soAr/an]. [spen'a\ to bend spdnne. -n {snil'9'']. -w. shine 5. storm socken. town snoglopp. lander) . 5. II. -f. genius sporja. head 1. I. sceptre sZaY^. state 2. -e^. -e^ f. -ar [spr?i'%]. re- spira. -men. -f. -n.a']. s^ac?."6rwn']. -e^. little smale. III.a7i'cZa]. II. end sluta. 3. cloud of snow standar. — [s^o.V]. final slufligen. 3. statesman sun{steig^\ steg steg. snow question -en 5. 2. adj. a few. 2. [swo'Ze']. -en. stem.

adj. -ef. 2. 2. 3. Stockholmer — [s^r^Zc"- stoft. path stiga. adv. difficulty svdrd. [sm'ga% to suck summa. 1. deceit svenska.9Zo. stenkol. [sZo'ra']. [s^2/'^]) stiff . government stupa. position stjalk. to mounj^o [sZfZ'a']. -ar [sfor. to thrust grand. 4. -or [si/m'a^]. sund. I. -et.'a*]. [stro'la^]. suverdn. 1. 3. -en. to stretch ut [mtf]. [sZra/'a']. I. proud . stdmpla. swan svart. 2.e/A:]. — [sun. studium. 3. [svo. sum swn«i. -en. to study studie.-ya'J. [sZr£:7. studiet. to stick. IV. subtraction straffa. -er [stri'd]. adj. [sZrrcZa']. [stol't]. 3. to quarrel. [sZoj. IV. -en. feeble weak svan. to place. -e/i. — . -en. chair .V]. strdnder [strantd]. -ar [stco'rle*k]. -en. Sweden studera. svartaktig. III. mineral kingdom sticka. student [sZmcZe. to prick stig. strand strax. I. [^stik'af]. [sub'tra- subtrahera. ifantly II. sword [st'f. to [si<Z>'- storm. adj. [sZf "cZsa']. O jtof]. [s^'<:Z%']. 2. [sZ0*^3']. -eZ. studier [stm^dium]. strdcka. 2. -er trakfco. 5. svdva. administration. -|. strait dispute strida.'s]. -en. sometimes svika. 1. -n [stel a']. -en.) stilla. to set up. IV. I. -t. -e/i. [svi'ka']. -ar [stiig']. [j^^wn'cZo^n'j. II. -n. [sZrfZ:a']. [sZoZ'Zigf']. [. 3. 2. [sva. hen. healthy -et. -n. to stretch out strdnga. to roast steUf 2. [stofH]. -en. adj. 3. to dispute stripig. [sZm'pa'].'Sar]. study Sverige I. -en. to beam -er [sm?. pompous stddse. -er [sZmcZfn/Z]. -f. 5. -er [sZwn/cZ]. moment stundom. to prop stdta. -??. -n [ste'nri^kd]. strife. conftdlla.ar£/n]. size subtrahend. 2. -n. to stand (out) stdt. to push. -ar [sva/n]. storartad. shaggy strdla.']. 3. — [svse^id']. adj. presently sZrzcZ.^^].'d]. dust s^oZ. + -or [sZfm'a'].'^^]. IV. strand. place. II. 2. great power 3. storm stormakt. -er [stco'rhe't]. steka. to punish suck.'n^. heavy svdrighet. quiet. southern S2/n. Swedish lady -or [si'fn'sA:^*]. magnificent storhet. adj. sZ^/v. [s^an'cZz^^]. adj. -n. -en. adj. stdndig. difficult. -er [sZ^'rmaA:^]. std. 5. shore. -n. 3. -ew. black 3. 2. -e?2. sigh sw^a. . -e?z. [sZtocra'^tZacZJ. 3. -er [sz. [ste'ka^']. 5. 5. -en. adj. — ascend. to put up (at hotrfsetc. -er I. to hover sydlig. 3. [sZo'ra']. pi. sight .Swedish -English. \^sti'g^a\. 2. adv. II. 3. adj. voice [sZfm'pZa*].\^stoit\ pomp stdtlig. sovereign svag. stenrike. [s^ra/t'. I. [sun^d]. peaceful ?/pp [wp^J. -en.'m]. [sva. stalk stjdrt. 3. -en. II. -ar [s^fZ*?z%*]. -e^. adj. to erect stdlle. adj. blackish st-eA^. -en.^. -r [stmtdid]. — [stenko^T]. to hurt. subtraktion. [sZ£n. study stund.92^or. [strfpig']. subtract [sub'trahe!ra]. to [iM-t]. to stamp stdnder. -ar [sukf].[s?. II. {sv$Rrt{i)jd\. stone stenart. [sfrZa'J. to fall styrelse. sting. to fight. -en. adv. great adj. -eiif -ar [ste-^n]. -er [ste'naUt]. to trouble stora. to deceive svdr. tail stockholmare.o*W^^e'Z]. spot stdllning. 5. greatness storlek. [s?. to string student.au-'ZaA:'Zz^]. -en. constant stora.V]. I.'d]. -er \^sytn\ view. adj. to stand — ut pit-coal 4. 2. -ar [stojU]. -r [s^^/'^^Zsa'j. hol'mard].9^0 Z^. states general stdmma. -ar ifeltlc]. species (kind) of stone 185 I. coal. -t. grandeur. -ar [/^x^^].Va]. -en. steadily.

II. II. [ZeA^'na']. bed sdnka. opportunity tiUfdllighet. -er [txrtm]. pi. to seize. 1. [sfZ'ari']. -en.']. tapper. oc- sdrskilt. ZzcZz^. -^. 4.9^'r/VZ'cZ]. [synbarligdn^]. — — [sfZ'sfca'p]. [sE'ga.'ddr]. tacka. bravery tecken. 2. accessible. -et. -en. — — take in syskon. ar [Zi'cZr^'A.]f sot. to be occupied syssling. I. adv. adj. and sisters sysselsdtta. to wound sdde. II. adj. -n. advice tillstddes [(to — + . principally synnerlig. \_fati\ — — . to sign ^e^eZ. thankful tacksamhet. I. conjointly tack.a*]. adj. term Zid. at once. -t. adj. hort \hodit\ away fatt synas. IV. to belong tillika \til'li*ka'\. -e^. 2. [ZaA:'3*]. to be put up with [til'goj'doj]. 3. 5. 2. [soH]. to pass (of time) tillfdlle. [m!t]. II. thank(s) be) inj . southern soka. — — — catch. -ar [sys'liif]. kan]. 5. bring. susceptible [tiVjeVp']. to appear synharligen. early company sdndebud. 3. -en. \ini]. certain. -r [tak'se^gdl- [til'ste'dds] present Sd]. tdnder [tantd]. I. [Zi7'ro*(Za]. sure 5a^a. adv. II. [sf:^"3']. [te. I. rently sdtt. [so'ra^]. tidrdkning. \^sys'kon^'\. \tatT\. different [. — 2. south ut.% to say sdllan. -eif. adj. sister sdlunda Yso'lunda^]. adv. II. to out [up. \ta'la'\ to speak. 5. [s^n'^a*]. 3. adj. -er [ZzVcZ]. —u upp tillgdnglig. 2.'g9l]. {sy'nas% to seem. till och -en. brave tapperhet. adv. visibly taga. -n Ise'dd']. to advise. II. 5. II. in i synnerhet. \ta'ga% to take. okt me'd]. 3. adj. O various. [til'ho'ra']. -671. to sink sdrskild. 2. to send smi^. -er [tiVfeVighet]. -n. -n. to talk talande. [tak^]. -en. son of cousin-german syster. — [s£-f. brothers sive taZriA:. cooperation + tillhora. [s£~/A:ar]. to 5. exprestak. tillhaka. [til'styu*- tacksdgeUe.[tak'saTnh&t]. [Zz'Zy^n'cZa] . thank(s) to thank tillrdda. -n. -en. -ar [se??. casuality ut tillgodo. [tapidr]. to occasion tillstyrkan. synnerhet \_syn'9r- he't]. med \tili messenger sdnda. — [fe/u^n]. [s£?. Zerm. time adj. \ti'dig^. II. thought tankfull. seldom sdllskap. adj. 5. ago {tiVhriifa']. -en. help. -en. to seek . [so'cZra']. to tacksam. -ar [tay'kd*]. seed sdker. ful -ar [^sya'tdr^]. -en. even back. -\. sign tile sdra. [ta'lan^dd]. . -ef. singing master — [soy'Wrard]. [^aAr'sam']. soder southward sodra. -et. [ZzZ"6a^A:a].[so. godo be content with. 5. so sdngldrare. 2. adj. nf?.186 Vocabulary. diffe- -n [til'fsVd].']. 3. tillhjdlp. to tillhringa. adj. [til'j€y'lig'\. hdlla med ndgot till- soder. -|. O \^sys'dls£t'a]. 4. II.]. to spend. sweet — [s0A:a'].[tap'drhe't]. teckna. tal. thankfulness cause. -\."A. adj [taykful^ thought. adv. [5«'r/VZ'^]. -eZ. to set out. to counsel tillskynda. \talri^k\ numerous tand. especially. 5. [^syn'drlig*\ especial \taik\ roof speech tala.- era [sf?2*(^a&m'6?]. to expose — cassion. 3. -en. + 3. [soiddr ui't]. to set. 3. tooth tanke. -n. I. way sdtta. -e^.

[tsUt]. 4. 5. on the contrary ty. -ar [tit!dl]. Z%a. -or [^r^-'s/cct^'Za]. to believe turn trogen. -ar top Turkiet [tur'ki'df]. 3. -or [ifw?. 5. -n. to think — -?2 [t€k'd% cover ZaZ. hasty tvdrtom. -n. to interpret tu [tia!]. 1. 1. 3. 5. impres- tdcke. [ZoZa']. to dry tvinga. topp. 5. I. tongue tunna. to tjock. security 2. 2. to trasig. -en. tdnka. -en. -eZ. -ew. 2. [ZfZ/ie^Z]. adj. -et. -|. ^-yar. -ar [tros'vay'n]. compel doubt 2. [tr€!:\ tree trddgdrd. 1. -or [tun' a']. shabby trevnad. II. trappsteg. point. [tys. sion 3. [^Co>"7i3']. -et. I. -en. German Trjskland [tys'klan^d]. 3. II. II. -ef.'^J.^ hour -en. -n. -et. to sound. -e>i. two tunga. house three stories I. adj. -ar [tro'd]. -ri. [ty'da']. -e?i. to tree-nursery trdffa. to bear. adj. 1. 5.^^]. \til'VE^gd\. to stand. adj.^]. I.Vt:]. probable trolos. charm ijdna. — — {tiVUg^ addition [tiVleg^a]. -en. -ar [tojJsk]. -en. tvivel. [tryg!]. -er \trojin\. I. + to like. [gok!]. 3. -ar [^rap.]. torka. cod tvdng. [^v^^TZom*]. 2. 3. 1.'t]. 3. -f. [Zo. narrow trdd. to meet trdng a. still tystldten. -e?2. stair 5. country trapp. about trdng. — sig [omi]. torsk. high trippa. -ar [to. constraint. pecked (night)-cap [^D. servant tjdnst. [Z2//]. -\- [treyisdl]. trap trappa. to garden trddskola. [%A:'a']. blunt. thick . . faith tro. [^ra'si^'j. taci- to trip. to march. -^. hermeclose- tdthet. tic(al) II. troop -e^. -en. tent [Zf??"^^*]. 3. 3. 3. -or [^rap'a']. [teU]. 2. — \tryki]. adv. [tys'tlo^tdn]. presence tillvdga. + ness . [to'ga^]. 1. [ZroZ"a']. 187 tillvaro. [trip'a*]. throng II. ^aZZ. to tire. -n. [^^'na']. Turkey to toppmossa. [tvseir]. -n. [Z^/s.z?. staircase ^raA^f. -71. I. -eri. wellbeing trevdningshus. -ar [^r^'^o'u-c?]. — om . [^t. 5. tear tdcka. -f- {til'va^rcJ]. tunnel tona. to ex- haust -er [c£n. close. 2.'r]. -?2. -?i^ -ar [gen'stdan'dd].']. [iryka% to punt.[^rw. sure. tycka. ministering spirit tolka. to tone [topi]. adj. adj."a*].'a'].^y?/sa. [Zr£7. surety. 5. trycka. tun tunnel. to serve -ijdnare. -n. fibre ifaZa. secure tryggJiet. -n. faithless ifroTi. service tjdnste ande. trdng set. -eri. -or to support tdlig.Swedish-English. throne trossvagn. [si'g]. to explain. -e^. tryck. I. to be fond of to \tre'vnad% tyda.''s^]. [tol'ka']. [^rc^^'Zo's]. to press trygg. -er [fraL'^].adj. tillagga. -en. adj. adv. [^r&. adj. -n. IgCnard*]. [^roj'^9?i']. Germany tyst. adj. add timma. -ar [tim'a. adj. -et. 2. — to go tdga. to like to think. [troT)!:]. [ffA. train ^%. adv. -er \trupt]. II. to press. -eZ. conj. -fcompulsion [^vo??. -or [fj)p"m0s'a].'a*].fyfca']. [to'ga']. title [fitfsa']. tysk. 2. — signify \tre'- i:oni7)shm's]. II. [frw. -ti. adj.[tryg'he't]. thread ^r<|d^. as [trap'ste'g]. 2. comfort. I. — [tvitvaT].*Z{^']. to cover luggage-waggon. IV. 1. crowd trotta. titel."a'j. 2. — for. 5. [^r£/*a*]. (to bring) tillagg. to trot tro. [to'lig% patient tar. II. -en. tunnlar [tundli]. convay trupp. III. faithful trolig.

2. uppmana.4. to uppseende. subdivision [unddrba^i^]. -n. [up'fgl'a]. [wp'^a'^a]. -er [up'jif't]. support upprepa. to range [up'sy^n]. I. II. resignation uppfora. to value. \t£v'ln*\ to contend 2. postpone IV. te — [i^n'cZar- sto^d]. to — wonder 2. -e^. attention. underlig. — tora. to bring np. -en. II. to establish underhandling. I. -t. [upre^pa]. velihood. 5. drous. -\- I. torriy I. -f. -en. -ar [wwcZsfi'- relieving ?/n^. -ar [up'lys'information. quent. -en. derful adj. -e?2. [unddrsto^dja]. [wwcZarvz'sa] 2. [wwdfra'].'u-- upphora. 4. sensation. 5. -er ascension. [up'jce'ra]. 2. O [^ce'ra'J. under avdelning. I. adj. 2. + mag'rksamhet]. to revive uppfostra. to exhort [wp uppmdrksamhet. II. to freto have intercourse with II. 712*2.]. stir. uppvesa.188 Vocabulary. [un'ddrso^ka]. relieve (a garrison) to undsdttning. [un'- uppfylla. IV. -^. examine undervisa. I. rein universitetsldrare . upp och ned and down uppdrag. tuition up. supervision undersoka. under stud. -t. to negotiate I. to uppskjuta. range 3. li- [um'go^s]. [wp'ma'na]. vel. [un'danjom'a]. 2.*t?<^m']. mien upptaga. young one [up! ot ne:d\. upplysning. mar- uppenbara. [un'ddro^rdna]. to hide III. II. [up'dnba^ra]. to uppstdlla. to repeat [ttjp're'saj. [up'fris^ka]. adj. O [up'stel'a]. to take up upvteckna. (shall) [m'niv8ersitd'tsWrard\ university teacher. -ew. to light subterranean [^f7^•c?9rZ^^']. [?/?i'c?arjf6. to erect 4. [wp'^eA^'na]. O mission. to record upptrddande. strange 2. may. 3. task II. + [w7i'c?ar- uppstd. -en. underrdttelse. -ar [un'- manifest. university -men. [un'ddr]. to ar- O ddrhan^dliij].9£^'a]. to educate uppfriska. up -et. professor unge. -en. under. to arise undkomma. 3. to refresh. tdvla. rfif'aZsa].[itp'^e'^Jicfe]. negociation underjordisk. 2. ddra'vdelnii)]. to undervisning. niij]. 3. teach uppskatta. won- upplysa. underbar. \un'd9rhan'dla]. [wn'cZArom'a]. escape IV. appearance . attentiveness news 5. ascent [up'fa\(f]. -er [rn'mvaersit9't]. to stand to vis'nii)]. underhandla. understodja. II. to reveal uppfart. I. -n. support II. — [up'dia^g]. [wp*/m'^aj. -ew.-\-]up9-h£rc)]. + draw up. -ar [uy'd^l. -mar \tdint]. 5. universitet. adj. -en. I. [uv'l young ungdom.[w^j'frf^- + youth dandd]. to cease [wp*Z?/"sa'J. I. -en. to wonder undsdtta. -eri. -en. task uppehdlle. -j. O II. explanation underordna. . [lip-s^o'j. [w2. to write down. II. [w^'/ora]. -??. undra. [Kip*^03Va[. won3. [w^*sA:a^'a]. II. uppfftfi^ II. -et. -ar [wrz'- uppgora. uppsgn. I. U umgds. to erect. to lill up ddrji'vdnhet]. III. undergivenhet. O [wn*^. disic]. -r [t^n*c?9r- to subordinate 3. to emulate. to appreciate I. look. living midangomma. \up'fms^trH\.

II.a?. to constitute utgoras. to execute. [m'j^/ceVa]. -en. adj. -ar [la'tlenHy]. 189 upptackt. [va/ZJ. to amount. foreign utmatta. to bloom. to search utfoT. -n. [uiHomlands]. to turn out. IV. I. -or {vaga^^ cradle -en. [m'tbris'ta]. I. I. [m'tomorfit dsnHlig]. 5. where f^V^-an^enom. [va'd'ma''T\. 3. utforska. to make vacker.[z. -/i deposition utse. election vail. foreigner watch-fire val.ara. [i. I. [mtre^da]. goods utomordentlig . of 3. 2.a. originally 3. -en.. -?^. -r [la'tmasr^- valthorn. -n. kdlsd]. working out II. [van'dra% wander point. vakteld. -ar [val% wall — utldndsk. to enlarge. -ef. [ya'nZz^^vi's]. [vi'tTnafa]. attendance.aA:'^eZ'cZ]. II. to to clear — out. -^. utsaga. 2. mouth.<2'/csam*]. [m'fsf^'a]. [^>a•nZ^^^n']. -en — 2. -ar [z. to expose uttrdtta. adj. -or [ui'tsa^ga].[m'tkom''st\ income. 2. discovery 3. i. to nominate utomlands. O 4. — — utmdrka. waiting i^^sZa. development utvidga. usually vanligtvis. extraordinary utreda. -en. up [if^'^rf^'aj. chosen utveckla. -n. m'J^jce'ra]. utbrista. [va'ra"]. to claration. -er [ui'rsek'-t]. to look. III.':tfcer]. III. adj. -ar [?. down utfora. [vas/]. 1. to wear out. French-horn van. vagga. [fa't/na']. 11. utsdfta. to dis3. 2. tinguish II. adv. assertion. pretty -{- up.a"ra*]. [?. [i^a'Zspro'A. to utgora. device utmdrkelse. -or [t. adj. to spread uthreda. -ar [up'vak^tnirj]. [m'ifufcZ'^aJ. II. look ^) varna.'dr].adv. -eif. to break out utvald.ain]. appearance. to apadv. -en. view [m'tslo% to blow.Vije'nom]. 11. apology 4. [up'vak'ta]. I. rara. to weary. I. -n. I. vandra. 2. utsikt. [i. [ut'tfor^ska]. -e/i. I. -ar [m'ifveA:'Z%]. to make a pilgrimage valsprdk. 1. [m'tse'dndd]. ligan]. to show. to decide [m'^veAr'Za].[ui'tar'betandd]. to send ursprungligen. [ui'tnem'na]. {m'tlop'']. abroad II. to carry out develop utveckling. adv. -er [up'tsk't]. -en. [vak.'n]. weapon vapen.aZ*/«^£^<^a]. adv. adj. [ucrspruifursdkt.Jwedish-English. to expand. -\. \uftmser^ka\. distinction accustomed utndmna. adj. to expel. -en. av sist [uL'tjoe. adv. [va'nlig']. open utsdnda. adj. prep. to warn vatten [vaitdn\ water old orthography . [m'^ro^'a]. -e^. usually [?. 5. -\. -et utlopp. -t. to last f A y vardagsgdst [vardagsjes^t]. [iu. [urtsen^da]. every day's guest (h^)varest. to tire out utarhetande. 1. usual vanligen. to O -er [m'tsik^t]. choice. to promise utlova. [?. [m'thre''da\. to exhaust vallfdrda.a. coarse stuff 1. estuary I.a'rfs'^]. [ut'tse^]. carriage vaksam. destatement. vanlig. sharp appear utseende.]. -e^. awake -en.a^?z. to extend utvisa. to perform t. utrdtta. I. (getting out) 5. out II. mtva'ld]. to wait uppvaktning. adj. [m'tUn'dsk]. excuse. whereby (h^)vass.'p9n]. utldnning. 5. utkomst. [m'tlo''va]. I. adv. uppvakta.'ras\ to con- vadmal. select. [val'thcjUn]. 5. [m'^fz'sa].

-en. [vip'a']. \vi'la^\ to rest 3. pleasing odour vdlsignelse. J.m/dl]. -j. [i. I. -ew. viktmdtt. the 2. viYZa. sive I.^]. adj. wildness benefactor 3. [-yzs'^as*]. -er [vinist]. I. vecka. wind iringe. sure visserligen. [vida']. [ve'tji'rig]. to turn. I. testimony vittnesbord. apply II. t'lsa. 2. -ar [vo'ris].r^ra']. IV. -or [vek'a^]. 3. -en. wintercold punk^t]. -man of sci- vitsord.£n"%']. -ar {veddvUg^nirj]. 5. IV. -en. [vser'k- samhe't]. -stdder \vin'tdrbco'stad]. to vinst. weight vdrvisa. [y£Z'A.[^?cer•A:steVighet]. 3. to exhibit vishet. beneficial vdlgorare. I. witness vrida. -en. -en. scholar . to [ve'tdnskapsman*]. coVd]. 5.r^/?. [t*itZj'sa?i']. -en.190 Vocabulary. 3. [-ufZ'^ra^]. Vaner [tm'^ar- vdnlig. [vrn't^a*].eta']. 3. -ar [i. -ar [vo. [vri'da']. effect ve^a. -n. 5. 2. refutation (h^)virvla. 2. to vintermdnad. 2./'%]. adv. -en. certain. 3. winter-month vippa. adj. vetgirig. -er [ve'tdnska'p].zA. to extend take care of vdris. -en. 1. -n. 1. I. 3. Yframf\. vetenskapsman ence. vdnta. superstitious fi^. -nen. bay z. -ar [c£tg\ way to \viktmot% weigthy. vildhet. -ar [i^zVA:]. -en. -en. [vrdjep'lig]. \vserka^]y to work verklig. [vm'a^]. exten- vidskeplig. -en. adj.^/•/M^*^]. [r£^"^a']. activity verkstdllighet. I. to wait for . -er [vin'tdr- friendship [v£?i"^a'J. grown (up) I. bce'rd]. II.o?>?/c>nJ. -en. \vil'ig^\ willing (h^)vina. — [ffZ'Jce'rara]. virtual — 3. welcome 3. wall vdgra. adj. mo'nad]. -er [vm'c^- vinterbostad. or \vil'a% cottage villig. [t. -f- [?.27'c:?war'A:]. -ar \veg:]. to dare 2. to wag old orthography expect. -en. blessing vdltra. I. to [visa'']. [?. -r [vfZsiV^/sa]. vdlkommen. -en. [i?zs*9rZi'^an]. to refuse vdlgorande. [vik'tig^']. adj. [uo'^c^a']. -ef.f. -|- adv. 2. -|. friend -er vinnande. 1. J. desirous of learning vida. -ner [vent]. 3. -^. [^. friendly vdnskap. [vzs.m'an'^9]. nal ice ver- vidiyftig. winning 4. 2.ir'r/a*]. vdr.[ven's/ta'p]. vidga. vdnda. vdllukt. -et. to show. weight measure viktig. -n. winter-house vinterkold. important (h^)vila. 3. [r^Z'^ceVancZa]. to know vetenskap. vdga. adj. -et. [i.rc?^a*]. I. wrest vrd. vildmark. -f[vil'dheH]. 3. I. -|. -r [uro/]. \vserklig^\ real. -nen. verksamhet. -n. to roll (out) vdn. to weigh vdgg. 3. -ar [z/Zj?'^']. turning point + Vdnern [ve'ndd'n]. work verka. adj. -en. -e^. adj. to await. 5. -en. [z. -e?' [z. -or legend of Spring II. [vo'^a'J. whirl — /ra?n wis- verk. -er lvik. show. [z. -en. [yo'rvisa]. adj.VJ.[vrs^e'if]. science surely vistas. to vdrda. — to sojourn [viY'sC'>»W]. [vi'na'\ to whistle t'lnd'. -en. -en. 2. corner vuxen. 3. adj. wild country -n. spring to nurse. wide adj. man 2. -n. 3. dom viss. IV. 5. -en. [vsertk].'t]. {vek'a% vdg. — to [vit'ndstwist. — awake vdcka. va^a. win -en. week vederldggning. profit vdndpunkt. wing vinna.

-en.*]. dkerbruk. II. 2. noble [£'ga% to possess. III. A a^a. [syna']. -n. 2. -|. 3. [otarZcaZ'aJ.'r]. IV. 1. 2. -ar [^/wZi?. to youth return. dgg. [2/i>^^']. lover dlskare. -ew. 2. 2. [o*^9r/i7i'a]. angel .te. listener [o'A:a']. 5. ["y^'-t^sZz'y]. -ef. O O to see vdxtvdrld. [vce'j. extreme yppig. adj. -er [vektst]. 4. dka. [eg^]. -[- dnda. -rz. dngslup. adv. dhorare.-ien. year cen- task vdrld. -ei^. the Vatter -yacca.'ra]. [g/s. -|. -ar 3. -ar [o'rsda'^]. to devote [^/dJaZJ. -en. [o'tdTven''da'\.*6o'^]. dmna. adj. -et. -t. [otZi^^ti']. to love — [fZ's/cara']. lovely [fw'na'J. [o?. -71. -n. [o'tnjm'ta]. to. 5. to recall fo'^arX'^^m'a]. sten]. exterior II. -ar [oy'slm^p]. [vce'd. 3. -e?2. adj. adj. steam- dndamdl. worth vdrde. opinion dterfinna.'ars^]. 3. ytmdtt.[vek'stlig^het]. mission. [2/p'ar%']. steam-sloop ar. aA. adj. yearly drsdag. to find again dterkalla. 111. -w. adj. end dnda. vegetation tury drligen. object 5. [^/^. -or [oypan^ajf vdrd. I. -ar 5. to drive dlksvdrd. [o'tdTta''ga\ to retake dtertvdnda. to remain. [vek'sa \. excellent dtgdrd. 5. -ar [vsk'stvae'^td]. -n. to 5. adj. history of the world vdrldslig. — [o. to enjoy square measure ytterst. ternporal vdrldsliv. I. boat 2. adv. I. adj. -e?z. ?/pper%. genuine dlska. I.-ier\vse\idshistcoWia].[voe'j. -er [o'tj%'jid\y ypperst. -er [o'tdrstco^d]. -n {^cse'ddd^ value vcirdig. dmne. -er [o'sikH'\. 2. 3. world vdrldshistoria. -er [oy'bot- stm^r]. I. [£^Z'5A. — own 2 d. I. 2. — till [£7^'cZamo'Z]. to be left dtertaga. [fZ'sArv^'rcZ].Swedish-English. [fri'cZa*]. -eTz. 2. 2.[v£s/^ar]. -ef. dngbdtstur. adj. adv. again dterstod.dslig']. yta. to come back -e?i. [^p/^rs^J. vordnad. short voyage on a steam boat dndligen. adj. 5. [2/^*ra']. egg o^Tia. wild surface dtnjuta. IV. -e^. up to. '6. -ar [vw!rd]. — small river [o'^o'rara]. world of plants vorda. -eri. 2. measure. plant vdxtlighet. [y'ta'"']. remaining. [o'tdrse'].a']. at least adv. meadow dngel. -^. dnghdt.dnad% veneration Y yngling. step dtminstone. -ef.arr. at last ari^. adj. [o'ifmm'sfowa]. -en. rest dterstd. -ar [oyskor'- — [v%r'v]. luxuriant 2/s^er. 2. auditor. -or — [y'tmof]. husbandry dlderdom. yttra. [^/if. IV. 3. -en. -n. return.da]. + [o'kdrbrm'k]. [£?^•(ZZ^^'9?^]. II. to grow t/aaj^. fierce. material -e/i. -ew -j. to intend -?i [em'nd'] . -en. anniversary dsikt. [vas'dd]. -ar [ey'dl]. -?2. 3. -ar [m'c?a']. -n. [oZcZ'ard^wm']. 5. [ek'ta]. -ar [eij']. utmost ddel. II. 4. flue 1. -et.-en. steam-boiler dngskorsten.'^ar]. worthy i. west Vdttern [vsHdrn]. dterkomma. to utter yttre. to 191 vapna. adj. to venerate 3. [of]. -e?i. drhundrade [o'rhun^dradd]. [v€]p'na'']y arm dngpanna. [vx'j^dig']. I. stuif. to to come back dterse. age 5. + temporal life vdster. [o"i(ars^o']. IV.

I. to as. [op'Tza']. [op'an']. odmjuk. island ode. -n (dldrar) {oV. -or [os- — nm'a'] . 3. -ar Alp. arm. ass. -en. [hxmta* frisik Iv/f. archipelage oka. handling. -en. dppeltrdd. among. -et. eye ogonsten. [om'som']. -92. apple of the eye ogrupp. -ar [ar/m] arm-chair.. [os-'^^rj. -en. to open oppning. stddse [al'ti^d] [spar'is^] aktiva [aktiiva] 1. [o'ka^]. [s'W]. {an'vimida] April. -en. 1. -en. 5. supreme command overenskommelse. to increase adj. 2. IV. transition 2. -ar [has^r] — artillery. -or [^'sna'j: 1. -n. [0''yac?'].'t] pa assets. 2. family or^. sd. lot. april [aprilt] arm. om.'] [JKi^ir] she-ass. [vfpna*] [va^^pdn] arm. [han'dliy*] to admire. -ar [0*'y9r^o?. IV. alp. humble -eri. — [rum. 3. 5. artilleri. 3. -met. I. [o'dmjm'k]. 3. herb. rum. [0''ya']. [ftawn/cZra] eftermiddag. omhud. -er [aZ/p] always. 5. accord -en. -e^. -en. [o'vdrart]. -er os^er. -n. adj. -er [ar'- air. -en. + [oRjitt]. alter- ara. 2. -ar [op'wi?. title of honour -ar [^'rdtit'dl]. to eat dtt. apartment. ibland [iblan!d] animal. army. -et. -e^. — action. desolate Osifersjon[o6'tar/0'n]. exercised overavdelning.']. -er [et!]. to omsesidig. mu- tual. to overtake. vid liv [le'van' dd\ _ asparagus. 3. over subdivision overallt. apple-tree. I. overcome [o'Vdrman^a]. -t [^'ra']. destiny ode. beundra. 2. -en. sparris. -ar 2. every- odm-jukhet. Aar. vapen. 2. [^r'va% to inherit dta. afternoon. alltid. I. dnskom''9ls9]. [ui'tro'na] levande. conj. taga reda 2. -ar [o'vdra'vdehiiy]. man-of-war — race. isle. [o7?2/]. Vocabulary. adv. -?i. oppen. 3. -en. to take possession. 3. take alive.theBalticSea ova. -e^. 4. prep. dsninna. vdpna. 4. I. [o'dmjm'het]. 2. — [£p'9ltre% omsom. humbleness oga. tender overmanna. adv. -er [o'grup'']. desert. 5. likasd [so/] utrona. -ar to alder. -or [%rla% wagtail drva. -n. honour dretitel. reciprocal overtaga. [omsdsi^dig]. waste. 5P' -en. djur. -et. 2. open oppna. + where overbefdl.. 3. -r [0'ver- eye-ball. -en. -ar [0. opening [ce'rZo^sorlogsfartyg. adj. aria. dppeltrdd. II. fa^rtyg]. overgdng. I. — [o'vdrbdfe^T]. — arm. uioralands [m'tomlan^ds]. adj. adj. 3. -e^. plant eastern o. anvdnda. 2. -n. -n [0'dd^]. II. + hdmta tildrH] [Zw/'Y]. apple-tree -et. -en. English-Swedish. 5. -ar Uftdrmida'g] ^ to apply. -en.192 5. — dsna. -t (ogon) \o'ga']. 5. to exercise ovad.']. -n. [e'c^^'j. 2. 2. Idnstol. frisk luft to ascertain. 1.'].. [0*var^a'^a]. age. nately adv. Zw/i(. adj. -en. -t. air. [ep'eltrs*] 5. -ar [0*^D7is^e'?i]. abroad.ddr] [om*agent. -n.

brm'vi'n] brass. -ar [varjt [t./sZ97i[ ball. -or . adj. ^jwr. -er draiga] beard. [ba'ka"] body. 2. om'tyk't] best. -eZ. hynda. -n. -en. -er [kapZe/n] care. -e?i. I. I. -e^. 2. adj. -ar [r:?/^.[mf. [hrosit] to breathe. [so'vrum'] beef. -ar -ar [sko'l].'t] for cape.'] bed. 3. 2. genomfora. -?z. -ar [sf?. [6or*s^a'] to build. augusti [fol'ja^] 2.'k] boot. 1. 2. fager [fetn] 2. 3./nj carrot morot. -ti. 1. I.. -n -ar [veJdsdl] 2.. borja.a. 5. -rar or [ma-sup'n] blind. [smotr'] to button. 2. dlskad. emellan [omd'an^] beyond. -or [hlco- [ogusiti\ m"a*] (hlomster b. tadelvdrd I. brandy. 3.'J -t. 1. 3. stovel. -ar [krop!] book. borsta.^d] bloom. 2. skon. breakfast. 11. -ar [biW] ] bird. massing. klot. -or [srar/Z Za't^Za] -n. britisk [britHsk] to brush. to call. folja. [ud'd'. -en.. 1. -ar. sorglbs [sor'^lo's] . smor. [an'cZas'J — bay.V] but. 2. omsorg. havsvik. bakpd [ba-en. •n. skdgg. . 2. vdxel. bakom. &rosZ. [acogustti\ blossom. 1. II. prep. IV. [mat'a*'\ carriage. ~ of passage.English-Swedish. tillhora. pi. -en. -or m'a'] {hloj- [vin'dskam'ard] August. adj. [^I'Z'Ao'raJ beloved. adj. -et. hdngslen. [^£7. . -n. behind. bona. besoka. captain. fbrpliktad [fcer- plikttad] braces. [oA:'fdY'] to begin. -n. . vee'rd] to blame. kdl. -ar -\. ka. adv. kapten.. hlomma. [&2/^'a'] bean. 11. -et. — the Baltic Sea Ostersjon [os'tdr- /0'n] basing skdl. [fta'Ss^f^'d] -n breast. 5. booker [boj. 1. . [ta'ddl- fb'ra] cartridge-box. conj. \jlytfo'gdl\ bit. prep.. Jtdsk. attic. A:aZi. — fdgel. andas. 5. -et. kalla. fordraga. -en. -f. -et. masugn. jiy\ttfdgel. omtyckt [el'skad^. 2.[tiljiv9nhe't\ to attend. I3 [patrco'ng0*k] Elementary Swedish Grammar. kndppa. -ar [Tia'vs- British. 5. ^J^'^'] 2. 4. bast [bss. er [om'sar^j] '_ bitch. -en. -n. -ar [^m. [ta'dla'] — patronkok. kap. II. [frukos*t] 3. -r [va'ralsd*] to belong. 5. rw'Z] to carry. -en.. sovrum.. -n. 5. — kula. svart tavla. black-board. tillgivenhet. -n. -en. -rotter [mo)'careless. -n. 3.a?. kropp. 2. bit. [km'la'] bassdng. 2. blamable. -en. II. -Tne^. -en. oxkott. [kon'jak. -n -or {Jiyn'da^^ 1. -n. [/^^-'J beautiful. rvgg. blind [bUn. II. [6cer'ja*j — — C cabbage. badstdlle. -eZ. men {menf\ butter. 5. I. -or. hlomma. 2. konjak. carpet. -er bathing-place. SoA:. -}" [^o/Z] komt] being. byggnad. -en. [bdseika]. A:aA. -en. — 2. att trdffa [tref'a*] komma -en. [fles'k] to bake. 5. -or [JonaH to bear. adj. I. 2. . blast-furnace. 3. brdnnvin. -en. II. -ar [flyt'fo^gdl] n. vagn. bygga. -or [ka'ka^] -ar [kaHv] for \kal'a% — between. baka. varelse.9*z??'] frukost. -e^. — [62/^nacZ'J bull. [5as£2/. utover [mte'vdr] bill (of udde. -en. [fcn^p'a'J to buy. 3. [je'nom5. -en. [/cer- building. sang. kopa.) U back. calf. -ar [ste/u^Z] — bound. vindskammare.'p] exchange). cake. -en. [go'pa'] — bed-room. 193 attachment. 1. prep.'] bacon. 2. tadla. -n. -en. -en. -ar [/o/^aZ] . -et. matta.

[kUfddr] clothing. kammare. korsbdrstrdd. -lander [fas'tlan'd]. to consist. kind. 5. 3. — copper. 2. -en. [stco. -booker [skri'vboj'k'] jara'] class-room. 2. kvittra. -booker gjutjdrn. rrjtteri. tak. 2. I. 2.'d] to — — chamber. bestd. 3. 5. -ar [statsfoRrfat'niij] O [gcerbertrs'] hovding. O -n. kassabok. pa lan- \kUdtsdT\ det [poi laniddt] . I. haka. kol. duka. -er [A:on'^m£n.'q continually. I. -en. 2. II. [rf'A-na^ 5. blomkdl. I. -^. kassor. in the country. tyg. cloth. -or [ha'ka*] to chirp. 1. clothes. -|- hoe'rlig] contribute. befalla. I. krage. kammarjungfru. -n. -ar 2. -en. lagbok. [A:. bdrgskedja. [jm'tjas^rn] cat. + [rod'sha2r'd] to count. cash-book. -en. fatta. [klasrum'] 5. -er \kd- \bla)m'ko^l] cavalry. — — I.'q -er [ry- to tdrif\ ceiling.7] [A:Zz- correspondence. pi. kornett. oupphorligt [oj'upto chocolate. [^Qr*- koppar. tvoys-^ to tvdngsI. -ar \tupi] code. lander /an^i. -en. -e^. [A:a/-a'] 2. billig(t) [biVikH] cheek. -?i. dra'ga\ to choose. -en. fastland. klimat. 5. V'Dnit'\ koloni. collar. II. borja. adv. Ijuskrona. -et. [ma/a^'a] compulsory. [sam'tyk'd] in compliance with. country.iY'ra'] continent. cock. 5. 3. chair. -n. -|3. -en. skrivbok. 3. innefatta. 1. klddsel. [pra'ta*] conduct. -ar [ho'odiy'] chin. -en. -r [kam'arjuy'frm\ chandelier. -n. [&i. chieftain. va(/a. -en. — . [6cer*Ja*J House of Commons. -n. horn. prata. kldder. -er [kasd!r] cast-iron. coal. -or [bserjsge'dja] stol. compliance. -en. tvingande. sig [fcergyUa] cauliflower. -n. -or [jm'skroj'na] to chatter. choklad. -er [/cornf^. rdkna. std'] -f. — colonel. ^wp^. — 1. samtycke. cold. -en. IV. — [koil\ -backer [kas'abco'k] cashier. -er [gintd] cheese. fhl. 2. 5. — corner. -en. -e^. -me^. [me'dtevla'rd] . -e?i. -n. 5. -e^. 2. -yaZ/^aj forvalta.[^•32. bidraga. kldder. -et. -et. adj. ost. statsforfattning. [hoRUn] cornet. -et. [/cer- cheap. -en. -j" [bre'v-vek'sliy] [ty^g] to lay rddsherre. IL. colt.194 Vocabulary. [fat a'] forkyla. -en. copy-book. — [/0. I. . [sam'to comprise. klarna. -en. -or [ge'dja']. 5. bordet [dm'- b(oUd9t] 3. -ar [A.'] — 3.ra"^9'J overste. [tviij' ande'. -et. 3. Idrostol. of mountains. to clear. 5. — (i ett rum) command. samtycka. -en. -ar [(x)stt\ cherry-tree.. III. comply. 5. Underhus(et) [un'ddrhia's(dt)] competitor. citizen. [vd'ja^] borgare. -en. 5. [A:?a'rna'] clerk. -ar . -en. councillor. II. corporal.^rpra. katt. 5. — [bdsto:] constitution. [fta/a/'a] to commence. -n. -er 2. -en. medtdvlare. -ar [o'vdr- — colony. -et' the ka'. 2. kontinent. [lanJdl . A^a^e. II. 3. 3. -e>" [A:an'climate. -er [kat] to csitch. 1. -ar[l3R'rcostoyi\ 2. + [la'gbo/k] coffee. klassrum. 3. pi. korpral. -e^. i enlighet med [i' e'nlighe't we. -mrar ftyk'a] [kam'ard'] chamber-maid. brevvdxling.. 3. -n. 2. -en. [6rfp'ar^] -f. [tatk] chain. 5.'l]. 5. 2. -en. kontorist. -ri. 3. kedja. -et.

2.'r. -er [mankyrass. diet. fara. adv. [AfTi'iz-yariAe'^] + earth. pulpet. doppa. -en. -eif. 3. -or [fa'ra'] day. dorr. 2. to deliver. II. -ar [pos. -er [dra5. adj. forklaring. -t oron [o'ra^] early.. [dirsktce^r] to disarm. E each. drift. -en. [jel'ddnseW] decanter. 4.- to destroy. 5. -ar [fcerkla. to 2. I. skord. korsa. [^r^'ua*] eatable. gora. II. -en. -ar [hun!d] anidomestic. III. drawing-master. pdsk. karaffin. -dver\kor'Sct'] cuckoo. 3. -ar [kopf] customer. dela. -en. gojin] — dubbel [dub. -ar [da. 3. I. cZov [<^0/v] dear. knacka pa dorren [knak'a' poi do&rtdn] dormitory.[/cerifto despatch. -f- fetf] cuirass. II. -et. 3. dragon. [c^a^'tZr^p'a] to die.^ws. fuktig [fuk'tig*] dark. -«r [rik's- Easter. [uttdnjelig. middag. ora. door. gok. 3. adj. knock at the door.[hm's]. 2. [a'v-vfp'na] 3.7»:] da'g] to dig. [fo'rma^k]] salong. dtbar [e'tba'r] 13* . do. 1. 3. modloshet. -e?z. — December. 3. ritldrare. overldmna. -en. va!ra] djup [jui'p] I. 2. [foersI. -ar [fodtdd] to cross. [^Ze. II. — [/ce. hund.. 3. III. -en. varje [var'jd'] ear. 2. [c?r/A:'a'] drinkable. -or [dri'va^] to drink.'k'] danger. skada. defend. -n. manschett. tidig(t) [ti'dig^t] dewdrop. -en. -er [pZiA. 5. [d^e'Za*] to do. -f. forstora. avvdpna.'dl] dyr-er -er dragoon. IV. tillintet- gora. 195 cousin. mork [mcej. -er [kunid] [/«-'^] dish. disciplin. 2. gullviva. devotion. tdnjbar [mt-teij'jdlig\ ten'jba'r] dusty. 3. — — jm'r] damage. -er to dip. -en. -er \kui- dining-room. vi'va] creditor. 5. -en. drawing-room. dta. [he'mvis't] -et. -er [sahyf] to dress. or[gul'-en.^a^] mat sal. -en. 2. vistas. 3. -en. d. 5. 5. -r [kco!] 1. I. -ar [je'k] cuff. -n. befria. 11. -w. to divide.'riy] to deep. /a^. 1. hemvist. dyr. -n. adj. O dwelling-place. kopjp.. 2.xsfce'ra] -e?i. -en. december [ddsem'bdr] declaration. 2. drickbar [drik'ba'r] ductile. I. adj. [mofdlosheH] -er \ky- rasi] cup. adj. -en. adj. -en. -en. -en. -ar [(^cer. daggdroppe. adj. -er [bovjdnas^r] crop. adj. [hm'smal. ko. -e7i.'^] to dwell. [ia?-ra*] — O dog. formak. dag. adv. -en. IV.English-Swedish. direktor. kldda. -en. I. -ar cow. -er [pulpe't] despair. &o. [ri'tU^rard] 3. 1. 2. I. 8..^ — . -en. fortvivla.. 2. dyrhar [dy. II. -<2r jor^. adj. to eat. dammig [dam'ig'] duty. sovrum. -n. sig [kle'da'] driva. gdldendr. adj. adj. -en. [vis'tas'] forsvara. -met [so'vrum*^^ double. [a'l. hdngivenhet. -ar [wz- cow-slip. [cZzs'zpZzVn] discouragement. -en. borgendr. -et. -en. -er 3. 3.^g] deaf.. -ar [jojUd] riksdag. [dfap'a'J director. -en. [6*^a'] grdva. ha^r] debitor. dricka. 3. avsdnda. husdjur. [&a/nVa] desk.. [?na'fsa7] dinner. discipline. kund. -ti. [kar'afitn] — -n.'J 2. sitn] kusin. plikt. -or [ska'da^ damp. -n. 1.

-er [flcoid] utova. fidelity. 5. sla'g] (kuvert b. cigg.. foda. -ar [0gonste'n\ eye-tooth. hard. -7i. by far. oga. -en. 2. fredag. flower-garden. -en.. 1. ekvator. -en. [fel'tmarfaVk] dkerrdtta. golv. -en. 5. -er [frukit] frukttrdd. -en. -t. -en. IV. -et. -en. -n -or [flot'a*] -en. 1. frukt. 5. 2.[un'ddrvis^niij] egg. finger. -ar faculty. IV. bild. -et. tor'] to equip. -et. electric. [in'tre'da\ envelope. 3.. exporter a. 2. 4. van. [t^^trws'^a] European. -grar [fiy'dr] -ar [ha3!d. anlete. vi'to'va] to export. -en. -or [hco'na*] I ~\~ [up' mun^ trail] frukthar. I. 3. -tdn- pall. food. fear. I. adj. I. -ar [fre- fashionable. IV. uppmuntra. kdnsel. -et. IV. I. (pi. fotsoldat. fertile. — sam'] [fimk-ttre*] . omslag. februari [fe'bruia^ri] 3bruary. sysselsdtta. — 2. -en. -n. 3. to enter. -ar [pal'] -or [pa-en. in of. -n [rrkd^] to employ. — utfora. -n [an'le'td] 1.'sk] to fall. fddemesland. adj. -\. -en. -ner [vehi] ramfor [fram'front. ova. hjord. -drar elektrisk [elEkHrisk] empire... vid den husliga harden [vi!d brasan*] execution. that'] — uppmuntran. -et. ogonsten. europeisk [mt'rojpeHsk] evergreen. form. -n -or [o'kdrrofa] -en. ga. der [o'gontan'd] 3. female. [e'va'. 4. -er [foj'tsolda't] footstool. fiod. fire-side. 3. aZZra (before a superlative) [al'ra'] fresh. education. allting. -en. rike. face. grbnskande allt [al'tiy'. formdga. 2. 3. -ar [fiV- mun'tra] encouragement. nymodig \ny'moj'dig]. 3. 2. gynnsam [jyn'- fruit-tree. -{. fleet. adj.. -en. filthatt. II. -er \hil. da'g] 2. -n.. [gem'pa^] figure. -t [genisdl]: kdnsla. [up'1. -n. [njm-ta*] — ba^r] fictitious. 1. 2. modern fatherland. Idgga tillhopa [leg' a*] illhopa \l [lutfo'ra. 4. [fllyga^] . 2. -ar [juUd^ fse'rdandd] to exercise.d] finger. -ar utrusta. 1. . alltid to fight. -n. fransk [fran. adj. adj.[fo'da^ footsoldier. adj.. [sys'dlsefa] to encourage. flood. . 1. fjdder. -n. I... -t. 5. 3. fruktan. falla. egon'] eye-ball. 2. underinsning . fiyga. -n. -n. -en. [gron'skan'dd] everything. II. [gol^v] blomstertradgdrd. feeling. 4. [fE'denidslan^d] adj.. -\- [fruk'- — [egt] tan^] feather. — f fo'r] fruit. engelsk [e7)tdlsk'\\ the (language). 1. -or [gen'sla*] felthat.[trcoihet] field-marshal . -\- friend. -. dd].196 Vocabulary. kdmpa. utforande [la'tfo'ranlagligt utfdrdande [lu'tI. al't] by the fire-side. engelska (sprdket) [eyidlska] to enjoy. O [fje'ddr] February. 5. flotta. ifilyga'] to fold. intrdda. jfrisk [frisisk] Friday. -\. ogon [o'ga'. flock. -n. finger ad [fi'yjet- rad] trohet. English. adj.floor. -\. 1. 2.^fcer- [skoj Iberfk] to freeze. -ar [blcom'stertregoUd] to fly. en.) equator. 3. [fry'sa^ mo!ga] formogenheter) French. skolbdnk. II.d] : vid brasan. hona. forehead. njuta. n'a'] panna. — [om'+ [ekva'- field-mouse. . fdltmarskalk . h ordig [fruk'fadj. [fala'] far. ogontand. ek'sporteira\ eye. frysa. favourable.

adj. to glide. [tap'etsetra' hard. -ar [pelts] hair. [fcirfar^. 2. oforgdnglig importera. 1. hjdrta. guld. guldfisk. -e^. H hdr. tyska \tysik. -er [hojtd] helmet. hora. -ar [hestt] horse-radish. -or [Ise'rdcomsskoj^la] grand-daughter. steglitsa. -n. lies \hets] hoe. -cti. hund.. [ste'glifsa] goldfish.'mcor. 1. rajetra] interj. skorda. ferier. tysk. mormor sondotter hour. adj. -er — haversack. [gar'niscotn] gay. I II. adj. -rotter [pep'arrco't] horse-soldier. dotterdotter [dogrand-father. -en. [foR'dda^] hat. viltt] 5. smdltbar [smeltba'r] — [hotr] ham. -ar [huntd] grand-mother. IV. trddgdrd. 1. munter [munitdr] German. smdrta. II.. sty r else. 2. -ar \kul'd*] hoarse. hojd. at the head of. hopp. gd. -en. 2. tys'ka^] glad. 5. II. [helsa'] to grieve. b. glida. I. -ar [Iian'dskd'] to go. adj. [trs'goxdsmes'tard] garrison. — healthy. -en. so'ndot'dr] to greet. trddgdrdsmdstare. pals. pi. sorja. grand-son. [spettsdn] headmaster. -ar [foetjid] to harvest. -n. -et.[artv-] hill.. [fo'rdston'dard] — -n. styra. -n.. 4. [so'nso'n. halvklot. [ojfoerjsiflig] infora. 197 fur.-7z.. huvud. — government. vo'nir)]'. Idrdomsskola. -en. 3. 5. 5. adj. harvest. -ar [hatt] [tre'go'dd] gardener. 1. 2. [up'ly'- jordvdning on the . st?ar [fw??/. -or [hak'a'] to govern. -n. et. 2. timme. — -ar to hang. -e?2.[gultd] O heart. 1. I. glad [glatd] glddja [ghd'ja'] glass. I. -{. 3.. adj. -et. hdlsa.[hortsdl] [glats] [glrda'] 2. ja^are. -n. regering [styrdlsd'. -en. -ar [jeltm] hemisphere. -et. -en hdnder[han^d' game. dra. adj... hdst. glas. farmor . hand. 2. 1. 5. to import. [hora*] hearing. adj. skinka. ^i^np. mcortrriMr] huntsman. 5.. 11. -or [7i0"na*] -ar [guldjis'k] good-bye. pepparrot. 5. horsel. hereditary. 2. -et. [got] gold. [fetridr] hope. -et. — [je'gard^] sonson. I. 2. -ew. upplysa.. -et. 1. far-far . -en. farvdl [farveil] I. [^op/J to hope. I.d.English-Swedish.. -f. hona. spetsen for 5. 5. [m/oVa] . glory. -n. -or 5. -en. [ryhot. handske. arv. -n.. fusible. to gladden. hacka. -or [fiyka'' hand. adj. gevdr.-n. [hal'vkWt] hen. to illustrate. -en. svotr] height. 2. [jevsetr] — — [joj'dd- sa] imperishable. -rar [mat-tornis'tdr] head. halt. garnison. 2. 3. \hm'vm*d] — i . 5. kulle. -ar [tim'9'] huge. -\-[ce'ra] glove. pd nedre hotten [pot netdrd hottdn] gun. [hdrd [hotjid] garden. -n. — goldfinch. 2. [smer'ta'] ground-floor. forestdndare. rdje'riy'] hoppas. Ae^ [hett] ft'ard'] — morfar hound. vUlebrdd. ofantUg [cjfanHUg] [far. 3. mat-tornister. frisk [fristk] to hear. -n. III. ryttare. adj. tapets'^a. [j^r'ta^] heavy. [y^^p'as'J grammar-school. vildt. -n. skord. -w. mojr'far'] horse. regera^ [sty'ra^ holiday. hjdlm. -n.

-er [liif. -et. adj. landskap. pi. -et. long. fotfolk \in'fantdri. bldckhom. 2. [0. -et. 5. kokstrddgdrd.'] like. + — master. blixtra. &^ -??. adj. -n. -or [fcavfa'] March. 5. sifo. 2.'] 3. -or [Iser'ka'] senast [se'nas't] -ef. -et. skottdr. 4. -ar [an'dra' fruk'osH'] [kuy'ari'kd] kitchen-garden..'ddr] lieutenant. -er [sla!g] — lowland. \lo'glan*cl] kingdom. -{ [gUdjd'] forlust. lake. Za?is. latest. leaf. letter. levrar [le'var] -ar [^^r-'a*] -ew. o'r] — [skot'- May. flitig [Jii'tig*] infantry. sjd. januari [jan'uiatri\ joy. gora [blik'stra'] I attar e [jseUn] 2. [lem'na*] ledger.198 Vocabulary. 1. 2. invention. 3. -ar [kni'v] to knock. lagstiftande leg. -e^. Idngd. 5. sprdk. lord.. 5. -er [mo'lti'd] . -er — map. o. adj. 2. 2. adj. foj'tfol'k] infinite. M main land. learned.. — [gt] to lighten. 1. sjukhus. -en. Ijudlig [jm'dlig] to love. \hol'a% underhdlla. -ar [ey. 5. -^. -e?2. 4. jo'ra* let'ara''] iron-plate. 3.. -er [/cer- July. 3. 1. karta. \lan'dska^p'\ language. — {fwi'khia^s] inkstand. IV. -n. -en. disponent. 5. 3. to lighten. adj. lem. -en. 1. -lander 2. odndlig [M'en^dlig'] infirmary. -ti [sff(>/] lead. — 1. -n. kind. meal. I. -ar liver. juni [juiini] loud. -et. [oi-rlogsfa'rtgg] -er?. \bretv] [bhk hoj'jin] skulder. landscape. luncheon. 1. kungarike. 3. lagstiftande [la'gstiftandd] legislative power . 5. -n. infanteri. -et. -ti {cdB'rleksep^ld] (tomat. ftZy. -en. — [?7?fS'- [W-] [lo^v] leap-year. -or [men'ifa'] man-of-war. Idrd [IseUd] Idmna. lik. adj. 2. sort. -ar Ijxdjiplo't] island. andra frukost. lika [li. kdrleksdpple.% li'ka'] limb. loss. -en. -n. -ar isle. to improve. [spro^k] — manager. \bein^ legislative. 5.. herre. uppfinning. 2. ma. mdltid. -backer to leave.. fastland. jdrnpldt. . -en. -w. 3. 5. [£Z"5A:a*] K to keep.. 2. 3. -en. -mar [lem'] 0. -en. -n. -et. — — makt [— maktt^ lenght. -t. [un'ddrhol'a] -et. -ar [lan!s] — orlogsfartyg. indulgent. mdnniska. 2. -men. dng. 5.'. -ar [upfiniy'] jdrn. osmdlt [M'smeVt] skonsam [skco'n- sam'] industrious. 2>.d] brev. -en. juli [jmili] June. -ar [/of] lance. [jiufviadbolc] ben. -e^. knacka [knak'a*] -en. [mar's] mare. -et. 3. [/osr- indigested. IV. -ar [gok'stregoUd] knife. glddje. huvudhok. -et. lark. [ht'a'.) holla. 5. adj. tard*] 5. -en. kniv. 2. Idtta. -w. 4. lojtnant [Idj'tnan't] liability. adj. 2. love kdrlek. [skul. 5. iron. -et. mdstare. lever. -n 2. -|" [^^'^'^e'^*] love-apple. -lander [fastlan^d] man. Zov. -et. fovhdttraj I. mars. dlska. Idgland. slag. [lov-] January. [wi^y-l meadow. -n. Idrka.

Tcdpman. flytta. adj. larm. -en. -n. 2. 5. -en. for sent till [kom'a' foe. ndktergal. nail. dig] nymodig [nymo/- Monday. morning. medlem. [me'dhm^] -men.. -en. -et. now. -ar [mor'onrok'] mother. 3. -ar [nek'tdrga^l] no. hlandning. mild [milid] military. — overcoat. [flyt'a'] orderbook. adj. 5. 5.[fcos'tdrlan'd] nature. 199 meat. 1. -en. overrock. 3. — night. vdrldshav. muddy. -er [oj'sdatn] October. -er organ. —-n {n£S'td*'\ [neif] metal. -en. -en. -en. Tcrigs. -f- Ijmtd. er [mi- nmtt] miss (thre train). net. -or Yflot'a^'\ -t. -or [ol'ja^] — old. ha^v]. lust. -et. adj. [gop'man*] mercury. -ar [lotk] . overcast. smutsig [smut'sig'] malm. -nen. — foetr titddn] mixture. adv. -et.. mitt [miti] in the mitt i [miti it] mild. Wtt. — . -en. [v^rkty'g] 2. -n. -modrar [moj'ddr'] opening. 3. -mar mercantile fleet.[fo'- faUt] navy. -man native country.'r senit tilf] November. -et. -et. ocean. [han'ddlsva'rojr] merchant. [gam'aV^ mdnad. -et. — — [mdtalt] [orgatn]. gammal adj. -en. -or [ns'sa^] nourishing. 1. adj. 2. [taV 3. obligatorisk. -ar 3. -boker [o'rddrbco^k'] ore. 5. 1. 3. 3. dra^g]. metall. 5. nu for tiden [nmt . 2. [basdtj] 2. + — [bdstsl'niT)'] move. -en. [blan'dnip'] modern. 7norgon. november [ncovsmtbdr] and then. [up'bestdllning. -en. ndsa. betdckt [bdtektt] nagel. slips. 3. nordlig [noj'rdlig^^ nose. adj. -n. -\. lartm] t€'r-f Tcrik's-] milk. -ar [fruk'tregoUd] ordning. IV. -ar [dp niy^] orchard. pi. 2. adj. 3. uppdrag. 5. -nar I. 3. 1. handelsvaror .^d. -ar [namtn] [0V9rro¥] . -ar obligatory. 4. frukttrddgdrd.'t att] minute. verktyg.English-Swedish. -en. -er [sliyts] nest. 1. apa. -nen. nej (icke) \nejt^ noise. middle. [o'jud5. 2. order. — 2. — niy^]. -et. -en. Icomma. -en. sjofart. + [me necktie. nad^] tvdngs. -et. 2. -et. Ijud. oktober [oktojtbdr] oil. 2. morgonrock. -er of.[mjoltk] mind. -en. tanke. name. -en. -en. natt. -er [mo'- oldfashioned. mouth. moder. -n. lok. -et. [Qoti] napkin. -n. -er vett] [sser- member. randd'] have a mind hava -en. 2. -jto northern. -n. -et. -en. -ar. 2. -\. 3. 5. olja. natur. [munt] to mun. orderbok. mountain. servett. 3. adj. fosterland. 2. fiotta.. -\. -or [han'ddlsflot'a] merchandise. to minute. gammalmodig [gam'almco'digl onion. militdr-. 5. berg. -an. 2. 2. -n.[mifi.. -et. -en. 2. organ. adj. -en. ndste. -or [a'pa'] month. ndrande \nBe'- [tayW] to. i morse [moMSd'] morning-gown. -en. oppning. -lar [natgdl] 5. natter \natt^ nightingale. nu [nmt] da och da [dot okt dot] nowadays. namii. 2. mdndag. ndt. -en. -ar [montdag] monkey. morgnar [mor'on] this morning.. Tcvicksilver. 5. lust att [ha'va^ lus. -en.[natmtr] navigation.[ob'ligatcjtrisk\ tvoys-] [vse'jidsocean. handelsfiotta. [kviTc'sU'vdr] 5. -\. mjolk.

pennkniv. -en. -e??.4]. straffa. pi. 1. platinum. eftermiddag [eftd^wiida'g'] pain. Tcryssa. 2. vaktel. 1. -w. 4. -w. noje. -ar [/yd a'] [mol'niy'] piece. frankerad [frayke^rad] post-paper. bonder — [bco'ndd'] pen-knife. -ar [fjx'rddde'l] to quench. -/i. -j[po5"fj3ap'ar] postage. posf. [sZffc'a'J quick-silver. ploja. -ef.'d] [rap'/iO^Tia] fosterlandskdrlek. 2. -en. -\. tallrik. adj. papper. II. II. -or [sm^. -n. [fr^fca'] 2. beldten. sty eke. 5. the great Powers. pistol. 1. -ef. 1. -f. -f. -e?i. ydron. platina. -ef r6re*vpost.[fces'tdrlandsgse'rlek] to pay. pistol. kvicksilver. adj.'(^a] to prevail. 5. -en. lard'] mdlare. -n [_p^Vnco] picture. adj. fjddrar. vinst och forlust [vintst oki fcerlusU] par'] pheasant. oxe. post. [Z>9?'e. rdda. -ti [fri'mseju^kd] postal. 5. [bdta'la'] peace-establishment. -n. blyertspenna. adj. peppar. [projfes'or^] profit 3. -ef. fjdrdedel. [krys'a'] p M. Tco/jit] painter. -ti [por'fw*] postage-stamp. II. -\~ [pe- and loss. fredsfot. frimdrke. power. 3. sldcka. [fj£-drar^ owl. professor. proud. brevbdrare. — — [fcerel^- drar] park. fordldrar. hovlig [he'vlig-] 2. vederborligen {ve'ddrboe'rligdn] prosperity. sfi7/a [sfi'/a^j . fa^] ^ polite. rapphona. -n. Idrjunge. adj. dyrbar [dy'rba'r] to prepare.'t] post-card. park. 5. -f. piano-forte.^'a] partridge. -ar [haVro'J people. [p^^- + sif. 4. 5. 1. Zefca II. -n [styk'9'] -er [pistcoU] -ar [faZnfc'] I. [p^Tori'] peasant.. -or \ug-U^] ox. stolt [stol't] to punish. -f. mdktig \m£ktig^ precious. [pos'tkontco'r] post-paid. 3. — [kvik'sil'vdr] quiet. -ew. 3. makt. to plough. plate. hrevkort. stormakterna \stoj-rma¥t\ powerful. -ew. en. 2. 5. III. -|- platina. -w. adj. betala. -n. poor. 2. -et. /lamn. -man \foltk'\ pepper. -n. -e?i. framstdende adj. -or 3. to protect. 3. -n. -ef. -ar -or [pm'fcm'v] pencil. [bre'vb^^rard] post-office. postkontor.fP. 5. -w [noj'd'] quarter. behaglig [hdhaiglig] to please. persilja. [pla'tina'] to play. -ew. bereda II. -er [fa- vdlgdng skydda. -er peninsula. uggla.[fre'dsfco't] pear. [fta/io-'^a] pleased. osa (ned) {osa' ne. [pZo/'s'] plumage. -n. halvo. [ve'lgoy'] 1.200 Vocabulary. 5. 2. -e7z. 4. -ar [Ix'rjuy'e] 3. smdrta. (latin: post meridiem). bonde. I. -en. mdlning. 2. I. adj. I. parents. Q quail. -e/i. 3. [straf'a:] pupil. piano. -ef. -er [wafc. -ar [7ia??L-n] -er [pos. 5. -w. -er [_par/fc] parsley. 2. adv. w. folk. [bly'dMspm'a] 1. 4. prominent. speZa [le'ka\ -ar [vafc'faf'] speZa^] pleasant. behaga I. professor. porto. — [mo'- paper. postpapper. -f. fasan. — [_29apar'] pi. adj. [ro'cZa'] to print. fattig [fat'ig'] port. 2. -?2. postman. -f. patriotism. trycka. 4.[postt] to pour. -ar [cotsd^] to pl)^. nojd \bdloitdn] pleasure. [fram'sto'dndd] properly. sa!n] 3.

-t. to root out. I. dubbdlsmorgds.'vdt] riy]. hogakta. sekund. [fo'rd- stsVa]. fro. -n. adj. 2. 3. sergeant. scarcely. -n. -en. or [ref-sa^] rancid. [hogak'ta] [an'sto sell. under . [skoj'lmes'tard] school-room. [ra'sa. -man ta^ga] to recover. -^Zar [rot'gdr] rocky. -rotter [rojtt] — service. sdtta. on the sea. 4. vid havet [vi'd ha. . adj. -ar [lce. rof. fordra. regular. -nen.. -en. 2. [rd- krytt] reform. 2. sdnda. rotgel. -er [se- O steVa] to require. II. I.2. II. -n. sandwich.. responsible. 3. 4.-n. -en [sor'j[se'^Zara'] — sjoman. skolrum. rost. -t.. oxstek.. 3. [^rrZa'] to scrape. rail-way. [la'trco^ta] -en. 5. 3. 5a^. hse'dska^] schoolmaster.. -en.'- sea. mogen [morgdn^'] sense.. -ar \rey ndrop^d] rake. II.V3.nv£^g'\ rain-drop. -n. II. Russia. [sel'ja'] to send. adj. utrota. — — — reign.. seed. IV. -en. [m*^s£?i'<^a] ripe. [bdklatga] [re'gdlI. -n. 4. tjdnst. klippig [klip'ig^'] September. -or [r(i>/s] several. -w. -en. 2. 1. va^rig] to revive. to represent.'rdag] [foerbd^riy] regiment. -n. II. adv. [mco't- [up'ofriy'] sadness. kvickna. to respect. 5. -n \hvit'a)^)^ to receive. river. -n jdmenitd] to register. 2. [rumt] -en. II. (ejmottaga. adj. skrapa.] [A:!. II. saY^a. -ar [Itsdho/lcl reasonable. rwm.. -ar [rdjetra. adj. I. -en. -er [s^er/an. regndroppe. [/0"man'] salic. foj'rdra^] synas.^^] room. [fram'I. root. salisk salt. lordag. strdng. recruit. Sdnhe^t] sailer. -en. regelmdssig I. 1. hdrska. under the reign of. [sA^ra'jpa'] [Ao/y] . [69J«.{A:*wa'] utsdnda. -ar. -J. regering. -w.. hard [strey! hoUd\ 13** . [rco'sig*] -or \re'di''- round. -ar [smor'go's] Saturday. [set'a'j O rose. rosy. Ryssland rasa. -ar rust. rddisa.'st] to set.^] jdrnvdg. 2. -bocker sacrifice. skola. —] framstdlla. mssHg] to reign.. 1..English-Swedish. -en.s regering [un'ddr' . -en. -ar [re'I. 2. grata. -er [g£n. 3. -ar [cok'ste^k] robin. -t. r eg era. [skoj'lrum^] to scold. -or [skoj'la'] rekommendera. tyckas.'c?] begdra. forestdlla. sailor. fornuftig [fcernuf. 201 R radish. 5. regemente. hdrsken \J^8eJ:sk^n'^'] reading-book. -er [o^•s^^'c?] to seat. ros. [rdje. -en. 2. -n. 3. -en. I. 1. 2. 4. A:wn. September [septemi3. -e^. -n [sin'd'] sentiment. Tcvitto. ldseboTc. 2. -or [^fn*s?a'] a. take a seat! sitt nedf [sit! netd] second.. drstid. W/c [nVA. adj... 3. I. rund [run'd] [rys'lan^d] sa\ to rage. bdr] sergeant. -met. Aav. [r»s*%'] ros% [j£e'j.. adj. adj. II. I. knappt [knap't] school. sorgsenhet. [sa:tlisk] [til'- saZ^. rdfsa.. ansvarig I. I. — rich adj. adj. II. kdnsla.[rostt'\ rusty. ^ocZ. -e^.a.tig^ receipt.. rosig. II. season. skolmdstare. -er [saltt] -er -en. [srn'cZa'] out. Jlere [fle'rd'] severe. adj. 4. 3. ffriskna'] tillfriskna. -en. [re'komendeira'] to regret. rekryt. forhdttring. 5. -en. 3. -er [jiojtd] roast-beef. seglare. -n [/r0/] to seem. uppoffring. beklaga. s«^ [sf^'a']. 1. sinne. 3. -et. -we^.

[^?. hangdrd. gronsiska. sorry. 5. 5.] -n. ever spina ge. frimdrke. [fik'lig'] sky. 5. adj. nos. fyrkantig [fyr'kan^tig] ] sjunga. -ar [. silke. smdle. spader. 3. -en. -\. [/cero. rymlig [rym'lig^] spade. [sit'a^] skate. -hooker [la'gdrho/k^ 3. -ar \fetd'\ square.' J spacious. -f.9wncZ. 2.'cZ] am stream. [sn0/] sock. soft.[tail. -or + stomach. from -et. -eZ. -n. 3. study. talformd- shady. inventera. adj. -eZ. ZwA:^. to deliver a speech. 3. [fi'na'^ shirt. 2. syn. 2. [skoj'ma'kard] to shoot. 5. to sit. I. -n. [tiVhrirj^a] O [tektdn] silk. — [so'0'l9e''rard\ siskin. sur [svitr] strict. -en. dylik [dylik'] since. 1. sZt'ZZa [sZz'Z'a'J to smell. -or [strum'pa^] snout. stocking. (ett) II. -n. himmel. -n. -\. IV. [so. [sZan'a'J -n.'cZ] . 2. 5.sZaZ.[sil'vdr] similar. std.^co». -en.Va] — stockbook. strdng [strey. — — ga. — spend (time). adj. -ar [nco>/s] snow. [m'i. -en. street. mage.W stormy. [Z^6^'•^a*] smell. 3. -n [sil'kd^] silver.'a- — ko/] skilful. skomakare. halvstrumpa.202 Vocabularj^ sovereign. herdttelse. 1. adj. [spatddr] to speak. 1. dngare. ytmdtt. 3. 2. -r [skrid's- steamer. adj. 1. -n. II. skina. . sjdl. -en. -n. -n. tala. -en. III. -n. [ytmot^'] 5. sko. -n. I sorgsen [sor\jsdn^]. -ar [sZox'/c^ storm./ZocZ. [y^aZ'wAaZ'] 2. -er [smv'drstn'] to sow. -n. stormig [sZor'Tnza'J story. IV. sked. [troj'nta^l]. sick. II. 1. so#a. 2.[sZo/Z] still. -er [sZa/Z] station. -en. -et. storm.[Zwfc/^] to smelt. smdlta. . [sm^Z'^a'] stock. to smile. III. 3. allt sedan [altt — . adj. 2. -ar [felt] sour. adj. adj. -or [sys'- to stand. 4. stYifa. I. -et. -ar -n. sno. — the throne. [ta'la^] . [suntd] -en. -w. -en. — [sov'fo'gdl] stamp. -e?i. -r [Z>9rettdlsd] strait. suverdn. sdngldrare. 1. stork. ar [ma'g'd'stork. -f. stanna. ta'lfczrmo^- speech 5. I. -er -n. [aa'Zri'j soul. 3. -n. -er [sy!n] sign. sdngfdget. [hal'vstru7n^pa] sofa. IV. skicklig. sedan [se'dan'] since. sick. 1. 2. to solder. beckasin. southern. de sjuka [det fm'ka'] — trontal. vass [vast] sheep. 5. -n. ga]. 1. -n. -en. tecken. skridsko. . -en. -en. -kamrar [stut'ddrkarn'ard] . skuggig \skug'ig^] sharp. miw/c [mjiaik] syra. -t.7. snipe. adj. I. III. ZocZa. tillhringa. 2. sydlig [sy'dlig^] siuderkammare. adj. speech. \foir\ to shine. [fui'ta. far. -en. -eZ. -en. sd. -et. kort [kD!d. IV.cZJ tdr'] to stay. adj. 1. -ar [sZor. -cZ. 2. -er [&f- O lagerbok. -et. 5. strumpa. 5. forrdd. 5.tli the sjuk [fmfk]'. adj. [lo'da'] sorrel.^] short.-ar to sing. sister. spenat. hdlla tal [hoVa^] to sight. -en. -ar [him'dV] steel. -r [skojt] shoemaker. skjorta. [smo'Ze/] 3. adj. stat. -ar [&a'n^o'. -n.[spdnaii] spoon. -or [sofa^] adj. silver. 1. 2. skjuta. square measure. [stot] state. 1. tal. conj. [gre'nsis'ka] syster. adj. 1. -n. -j.fnZe. halmhatt. — -or -or [syra'^ sorry. tZeZ gor mig ant [det: joe!r miig ojntt] straw-hat. to take stock. lukta. gata. -or [fco'dta^] — — shoe. -n [fri'- singing-master. 2. -{. 3. [fur)' a'] singing-bird.

-er [bi'flco'd] troop. svcird. adj. -en. -n. bordduk. dska. [som'rar^] -somrar summit. -stdder [staid] tract. -et. -en. -er [^rt/p. svensk. -ar [^zV. [s!(reA:*a^] 5. — [sprotk] -et. telegraf. -ef.'. fe?27i. -eTz. 6dZ. -n. [om'ji'va] ka^p] tooth. -n. -e^. -ar [^i^as/^] to thunder. -e?i. [bojUd] -en. -et. forsoka. topp. [&9- Tuesday. hota. -er [fe. tdta'l] tool. [fa'^a'] taste. 5. [toMi torsdag. — — [red's- \l€s'- supper. -tdnder[tan!d] swallow. yta. [pas'a.'^] town. -ar [we/s ] to-day. II. adj. -{- time. [/cer- bord. I. Idrare. saga. table. kvav [kva'v] [j«*. [^ro??'] 3. -er telegraph. -or [re'sa'j 5. -en. sommar. II. — [tre!] d'avd^] to take. -n. o.^sk] Swedish. -er [ti'd- [sok!9r} III. 1. Storbritannien och Irland universal. Idstetal. puy^kt] tin. -ef. [^<y'^a'] thrush. -\- [soj'lup^gorj] redskap. 2. 5. -et. mes. I. 2. II. [sm^Z'ifa'] 3. 1. kvdllsvard. bekymmer. I. tunga. -ar travel. I.^] torpedo-boat. [tak'a^] to thaw. under sate. omgiva. sma^. thirst. 5. soluppgdng. -or tradesman. [tran'satlanttisk] to transplant. 2. trupp. tin-plate. 1. -ar[sven. -e?i. -or [two'a^ sprdk. -en. 2. 1. 5. -en.-n. vdrmegrad. I. stad. -n. tocA^a. ful [fm'l] uncle. 2.7] to try. ddrfor [dmrfdir] 2. b. — ^2/^. -er [^wi'_pa/n] [te'ldgraif] to tell. -ar farbror. tea. — sword. 5. -en. 1. 2.'] trouble. 3. -n..^] Sunday. se^ [se. adj. socker. berdtta. -en. -e/i. te. -n. ^ra5. I dag [i! datg] tongue. transatlantisk I. + [^cex^s^] thirsty. -en. -en. to unite. -ar [mi'nbo^f] tough. -er [kvEl'sva'dd] surface. -en. -n. tisdag. 3. 5. -et.. IV. 5. adj. morbror [far'bro/r] forena. fran^ \un'ddrsoHd\ sugar. — [bdgymidr] trunk. svala. adj. IV. [os"A:a'] Thursday. -e7i. — [svaUd] [^an'6?/an'c?9] train. resa. taga. to teach. -ar tight. -e^ [^o/^] transatlantic. 3. -en. to suit. [Ise'rarQ^I 2. dag] sunrise. sondag.s-- dag] U ugly. 2. -en. jdrnbleck. tulpan. II. forflytta. [Z^'ra^] teacher. tand. [/cers6VZ:a] tulip. -er [v^-rmdgra^d] to thank. 3. 2. smdlta. — Idra.'j adj. -ar [son'- tit-mouse. tailor. -en. -|- [^en/] 5. tonnage. [sim'a. -ar [6o. I. allmdn [^al'ms^n] . — [skre[s??^«.. -n. I. -en. simma. -et.^A:] san^dd] tree. [re'- — [b(o\iddui'k] skrdddare. -or [y'ta'] to surround. strdckq. 2. svensk [svm^sk] to swim. -en. resande. tributary. minbdt. temperature. 3. 2. 3. liandlande. (river).Swedish-English. 5. -et.^a] table-cloth. 2. -en. 5. passa. -ar [top. tidpunkt. 5. onkel. torstig [toex'stig^'\ to threaten. [fcere. 203 subject. adj. -e?i. adj. trast. therefore./-ri6Zeit'] summer. -n. or [sva'la^] Swede. ^ors^. -et. ^a^. 2.'na] United Kingdom. + biflod. 2. 2. 2. traveller. 3. -ar \pykdV]. an'sto'] anstd. — sultry. adj.

2. friviUig [fri'vilHg] Z^^raw. 1. — [vi'nbm'telj] wire. onsdag. -et. IV. 5.[^j'^rs's] week. .'] wise. gdrdvard. w^ [sU'ta^ m!t] weather. water-lily. 1. out. -et. to take a walk. 3. [ta'ga' vdgg. ruskvd[?.^A. ull. -et. [uU] — waist-coat. vdrde. 5. -en. 5. ylle-. 3. universe. 4. vdrldsallt. -or stdr] wine. valnot. ba^rtj] -n. violet. kalvkott. viol. besoka. vast. fonster. under. 5. IV. ord. 5. -et. [gro'n- sa'kdr] vessel. [i-at:dn\ ndckros. -en. -er [vi!n] wine-bottle. -n. vin. to wonder.[vi'ddr] 2.a] volcano.-et. ul'-] [coUd] word. -er [prco'mdnaJd]. -et. -ew. walnut. -ar [vegf] -en. -er besok. ull. violblomma. yesterday. -\. visit. adj. slita. -ef. [bsso^kl telegram. woollen. 2.'c?9r] wonder. vdtvdder. [va^'ddsaVt] unsettled. HOrning. [brui'ka^] — water.204 Vocabulary. gronsaker. -ar [go'rdva^xd] to wear. 5. adj. [wn'c?ra'] 2. -er [vi'ojlblojm'a]. -notter [va'lno't] year. + — — [skri'vU^rard'] taga sig en wall. pi. 5. vinbutelj. vis [viis] to wish. promenad. i gar — [tV [o!r] gotr] Printed by J. onska. 3. -me^. -or [vek'a'] wet weather. vas. bdra. 5. bruka. to visit. 5. undra.-n. -en. -671. -n [v^'ddd^] vase.[etika'^] 1. I. -en. 5. -ar [v€sH] walk. 5. adj. vecka. vid [vi!d] window. dttika. -}. promenad 3. vineyard. —[fa'rty'g] -ar [setgdv] — victory. dr. -ef. — value. -er [vwZ- ka!n] volunteer. [&«•?'«']. -et. — [vi'n- — -n. 3. wool. weed. writing-master. ogrds. vinegar. vinberg. [fon:- fartyg. 2. -n. -en. 5. -ar got'] vegetables. — [^e'- [&as0. — 1. II. -et. 3. skrivldrare. b. -et. -e^. -en. -e^. -|. 3. 1.[yl'd-. -or [nek'rco^s] watch-dog. wide. -en. vdder. seger. I. vatten. -en. 5. -en. 2. -er [^vcu's] veal. [kal'v- — Wednesday. Heidelberg. vulkan. 5. -e^. [on'sfca'] [w??. orolig [o)'roj''lig\ to use. -t.o'^t'f^c:?arJ der.

it breaks through the barriers which separate the peoples and ties up new relations between the nations.. increasing in proportion as a knowledge of living languages has become a necessity of modern The chief advantages. The first series comprises manuuls for the use of Englishmen and consists of 54 volumes. The textbooks of the Gaspey . larly characteristic of their ivorks. most other grammars either content themselves with giving the theoretical exposition of the grammatical forms and trouble the pupil with a confused mass of the most far-fetched irregularities and exceptions ivithout ever applying them. are loumess of price and good appearance. Publisher. in the endeavour to enable the pupil to understand a regular text as soon as possible. and are again subdivided into a number of Lessons. «At the end of the 19'^ century the world is ruled by the interest for trade and traffic.* William II. that they have styled — — . the clear scientific basis of the grammar proper combined with practical conversational exercises . here conceived for the first time and consistently carried out. that an acquaintance with one greatly facilitates the study of the others. HeIDELBERG.* Charles V. In this particular department he is in our opinion unsur- passed by any other German publisher. in the arrangement of the grammar. as is easily seen by a glance at the grammars which so closely resemble one another. The rules appear to us to be clearly givefi. of similar books. they are explained by examples. and above all to teach him to speak the foreign language.Educational Works and Class-Books ^^s Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer FOR THE STUDY OP MODERN LANGUAGES. This is no small advantage in these exacting times when the knowledge of one language alone is hardly deemed sufficient. To this method is entirely due the enormous success with which the Gaspey -Otto -Salter textbooks have met. and the system. and sifuply teach him to repeat in a parrotlike manner a few colloquial phrases without letting him grasp the real genius of the foreign language.of class-booJcs for the study of tJwse modern languages most generally spoken. yytTulius &roos. the first giving a rapid sketch of the fundamental rules. which are explained more fully in the second. The series consists of 290 volumes of different sizes which are all arranged on the same system. 2. «With each newly-learnt language one wins a new soul. this latter point was considered by the authors so particuto distinguish them them from other wvrks of a similar kind Conversational Grammars. and has published a large munbe?.Otto . The grammars are all divided into tivo parts. acquired an universal reputation. has for the last fifty years been devotmg his special attention to educational ivories on modern languages. commencing ivith a systematic explanation of the rules for pronmiciation. Each Part treats of the Parts of Speech in succession. the happy union of theory and practice. by which they coinpare favorably with thousands life. or go to the other extreme. by which the pupil is really taught to speak and write the foreign language. and the exercises are quite sufficient. The system referred to is easily discoverable : 1. PUBLISHED BY JuLIUS GrOOS.Sauer method have. within the last ten years.

. is increased whe}i ive examine the other series.) All books bound. 9. -Grammar by Valette Dutch Reader by Valette. Ed Dntcli . : Key to the Arabic Grammar "by Thatcher Arabic Chrestomathy by Harder I>anisli Conversation -Grammar by Thomas Key to the Danish Couversations. s. Ed Key to the German Convers. 2. t. Geim. Key to the Mater. 5. . Oerman First German Book by Otto. . We must confess that for those persons who. both unth regard . 8. (Eoctract frotn the Literary Meview. 7. this collection being in reality quite an exceptional thing of its Jcind. . Ed. . that it is equally easy to understand and to leai'n them. Ed Elementary French Reader by Onions Materials for French Prose Composition by Otto-Onions. Elementary Enjrlish EclitloriLH. . Key to the Dutch Convers. for the method displayed and tlve fertile genius of certain of the authors. It is doubtless on this account too that these volumes have been received with so much favour and that several have reached such a large circulation. 20. by Tebbitt .. 8. Arabic Grammar . . Ed. 13. .. Handbook of English and German Idioms by Lange German Verbs with their appropriate prepositions etc. 28.-Grammar by Otto-Onions. Key to the French Convers. Our admiration for this rich collection of loorUs. 2. reflects great credit on the editor. 9. . we cannot but commend the elegance and neatness of the type and binding of the booJcs. . moreover. Ed. 2. French Dialogues by Otto-Corkran Conversation-Grammar by Otto.-Grammar by Otto. . Ed German Dialogues by Otto. Ed net French Conversation-Grammar by Otto-Onions. from a prdctical point of view. Modern Armenian Grrammar by by Thatcher . 2.Grammar by Thomas Conversation-Grammar by Valette. willingly testify that the whole collection gives proof of much care to the aims it has in view and the way." We and industry. . Ed. not to mentio7i the peculiar difficulties ivhich the German idiom offers in ivriting school-booJcs for the study of that language. Ed. i. ivhich are intended for the use of foreigners. III. Ed Elementary German Grammar by Otto. . Engl. . each Ed. 4. . f. and. . by Otto Materials for translating English into German by Otto-Wright. Ed. Gulian . Ed. has been the necessity of teaching a language in a foreign idiom. Ed German Reader. In these iwrJcs the chief difficulty under ivhich several of the authors have laboured. II. Moreover. 3. i7i which these have bee^i carried out.Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer for the study of modern languages. Ed French Grammar by Wright. the authors have set down the grammatical rules in such a way. Ed Accidence of the German language by Otto-Wright. by Otto. tr. wish to learn a foreign language sufficiently well to enable them to ivrite and speak it with ease. I. 5. 5.

Ed Elementary Spanish Grammar by Pavia. Spanish Reader by Arteaga Spanish Dialogues by Sauer-Corkran Portag^nese to the Portuguese .-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga.-Grammar by Motti. Clair-Tlsdall Conversation-Grammar by Kordgien and Kunow Convers. 7. .. The Key SEansa to the language (DieHaussaspraclie. 3. Kleine deutselie Sprachlehre fur Araber von Hartmann . . Ed Italian Reader by Cattaneo. 2. A-rnienian Edition.Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer for the study of modern languages. 2. 5. LDnala Sprachlehre und Worterbuch . IDIiniscIie Konversations-Grammatik Schliissel v.. .-Grammar by Hagopian -A^rabic EdLltion. Kleine Kleine deatsche Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky. Arabische Chrestomathie Schiussel dazu v. Wied. Seidel Schlttssel dazu v. Ed Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. net Ed Japaneste Key to the Japanese Oonv. Clair-Tisdali .. Kleine englische Sprachlehre fiir franzosische Sprachlehre Bulgaren von Gawriysky fiir Bulgaren von Gawriysky Harder.-Grammar by Perisian Conversation-Grammar by St. Modern Key Key to the Mod. 3. Ed Turliisli Conversation -Grammar by Hagopian Elementary Key to the Turkish Convers.. Ed Key to the Russian Convers. . Chinesiisclie Konversations-Grammatik dazu v. Ed. Key to the Italian Convers. Arabische Konversations-Grammatik 2. Wied. Seidel Kleine chinesische Sprachlehre v.-Grammar by Kordgien and Kunow Knissian Conversation-Grammar by Motti. Seidel v. Swedish Grammar by Fort. Aufl dazu v. Aufl v. . 2. Schiussel dazu v. JBalgarisclie Konversations-Grammatik Gawriysky Gawriysky Seidel . GreTTna-n Editions. 3. 8.. . v. Ed. Enerlisli FCditions. . net Key to the Spanish Convers. la langue liaoussa) bySeidel Hindustani Conversation -Grammar by Clair -Tisdall Hindustani Convers. . 9. . 2.. . 2.Tisdall Italian Conversation-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. Aufl. Harder. Ed Elementary Italian Grammar by Motti. Ed Russian Reader by Werkhaupt and Roller (Spanish Conversation-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. Ed. Schliissel Harder v. Aufl. -Grammar by Plant Conversation-Grammar by Plaut St.Grammar by Clair . Persian Convers.. Ed Key to the Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. Seidel 2. Aufl v. 2. Elementary XSnglisll Grammar for Armenians by Gulian . Bnlgraylan EditioTis.-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. Italian Dialogues by Motti 2. 2.

French. English. in four English. Ed.Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer for the study of modern languages. 2. Kleine dentsehe Deutsches Lesebuch Sprachlelire fur Tiirken von Wely fiir Tiirken von Wely Bey-Bolland Bey-Bolland Conversation-Books by Connor in two languages: 2 English-German. Ed. . in three languages: English-German-French. 2. . . 2. Deutsch-Italienisch Deutsch-Niederlandisch Deutsch-Portugiesisch . .German-French-Italian. . 14. English-Russian English-Spanish English-Swedish Deutsch-Danisch Deutsch-Franzosisch. Ed. Ed. 2. Ed languages: 2. . Ed. . English-Italian.

I .

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