United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service

National Engineering Handbook
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Section 15

Irrigation
Chapter 7

Trickle Irrigation

Contents

Preface .................................................................................. ............................................................................... Description Typesofsystems ........................................................................... Drip ................................................................................... ................... Subsurface..........................................................” ................................................................................ Bubbler Spray .................................................................................. .............................................................................. Advantages ....................................................... Water and farm operation cost savings Useofsalinewater ....................................................................... Use of rocky soils and steep slopes ........................................................... ............................................................................ Disadvantages cost ................................................................................. ............................................................................... Clogging Lackofuniformity ....................................................................... Saltaccumulation ........................................................................ Otherhazards ........................................................................... Benefits obtained and safeguards required with fertilizer and chemical injections ...................... ............................................................................... Fertilizer ................................. Nitrogen............................................~ ............... Phosphorus.....................................................”......~ Potassium ............................................................................. Traceelements ......................................................................... Chemicals to control precipitates and organic deposits. .......................................... ....................................................................... Calciumandiron ........................................................................ Algaeandslime Ironbacteria ........................................................................... Treatment for precipitates, algae, and slime ................................................. ........................................................................ Systemcomponents ............................................................................ Controlhead Pumpingstation ........................................................................ Water-measuring devices ................................................................ ................................................. Fertilizer and chemical injection equipment Valves ................................................................................ ...................................................................... Sedimentremoval Mainandsubmainlines ................................................................ Manifolds ............................................................................... Laterals ................................................................................ Emitters ............................................................................... ........................................................ Flow controls and pressure regulators Hand-operated pressure controls and on-off valves ............................................ Sequentialoperation.. ................................................................ ..................................................................... Partial automation ........................................................................ Fullautomation ................................................................. Operation and maintenance .............................................................. Soil-plant-water considerations. Areawetted.............................................................................7-2 Percentareawetted ...................................................................... ...................................................... Meeting irrigation water requirements. ......................................................... Maximum net depth of application ................................................................... Consumptiveuserate

vi 7-l 7-l 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-3 7-4 . . 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-5 7-5 7-5 7-6 7-6 ‘7-6 7-6 7-6 7-6 7-7 7-7 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-9 7-9 ...7-1 3 7-13 7-13 7-15 7-15 7-18 ..7-18 7-18 7-18 7-19 7-20 . 7-22 7-23 7-23 7-24

Page

Seasonaltranspiration .................................................................. Netdepthofapplication .................................................................. Gross water application .................................................................. Seasonal irrigation efficiency ............................................................. Gross seasonal depth of application ........................................................ Gross seasonal volume. .................................................................. Plantresponse ........................................................................... Optimum moisture levels .................................................................. Salinitycontrol .......................................................................... Crop tolerance and yield ................................................................. Leachingrequirement ................................................................... Designprocedures ......................................................................... Designcriteria .......................................................................... Emitter selection criteria .................................................................. ...................................................................... Generalsuitability Sensitivity to clogging ................................................................... Manufacturing variation ................................................................. System coefficient of manufacturing variation ............................................... Relation of pressure to discharge .......................................................... Relation of temperature to discharge ........................................................ Connectionlosses ....................................................................... Performance ........................................................................... Dischargeexponent ..................................................................... Typesofemitters ......................................................................... Long-pathemitters ..................................................................... Tortuous-andshort-pathemitters ......................................................... Orificeemitters ........................................................................ ................................................................... Twin-chambertubing Vortex emitters and sprayers ............................................................. .................................................................. Compensating emitters ...................................................................... Flushingemitters Emitter operating characteristics ........................................................... Discharge ............................................................................. Averagepressure ....................................................................... Emissionuniformity .................................................................... Allowable pressure-head variation ......................................................... ................................................................... Total system capacity Pump operating time per season ........................................................... Net water-application rate ............................................................... Computing injection of fertilizer and chemicals ............................................... Pipeline hydraulics ....................................................................... ................................................................. Friction loss in pipelines .............................................................. Head losses through fittings Multiple-outlet pipeline losses ............................................................ Dimensionless pipe-friction curve ....................................... Economic pipe-size selection. ............................................ Life-expectancy costs ................................................. Economic pipe-selection charts ......................................... Laterallinedesign .................................................... ...................................................... Characteristics Spacing of manifolds .....,,.......................................... ii

7-24 7-24 7-24 7-25 7-25 7-26 7-26 7-26 7-27 7-27 7-27 7-29 7-29 7-36 7-31 7-31 7-32 7-32 7-33 7-34 7-34 7-34 7-35 7-36 7-36 7-37 7-37 7-37 7-37 7-37 7-38 7-38 7-38 7-39 7-39 740 7-42 742 743 743 7-44 744 7-46 747
,..**...*.....a...

.................. .................. .................. .................. . . . . . . . . . ..1...II..

748 7-49 7-52 7-54 7-54 7-56

. . s .. .. .. . .. . . * . . .. I ....... .......I.. ... .~... .. ... . .f. . .. . .... . .. .. . .. . . . ..... . . . .7-96 Lateral line design and system layout . ... .. . . . . ..~.... .. .. .. ... .7-98 Main-linedesign . . . 7-71 Dripsystem ... . .1. t . ....... . ) ... . ... ...... . ... .... .. . .. ... . .. ... . ) ) .~. . .. . . .. . 7-113 AppendixC-Listofequations .. .. . . . ... Q. ... . ...... 1 ... .. ... . .. .. .. ... s . ... . . ... .... . .lll . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .I.. .... .. ... .. .... .... ..I .~. . .. ... ... . . ... .... . .. . . ... .. . ... . . .. I . . 7-81 Totaldynamichead .. ..... . .. ... . ..... ....... .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . .... .. . . I . . .. 7-98 Manifolddesign ..... .. . . ... . .. ... . Q... . .. . ....... ....I.HA... .l. s . . . .. . .~. . . . .~. ..... .. . ...~~~... . ... ... .. .... ... .. . . ....... . .... . . . .. .. .. . ... . . .. .. . ... . .. I . .. . .. ... ...... . . .. . . .. .... ). .. . .. ...I. ... . .. .... .. . . .. ...... ....... ... ... 7-84 Designfactors... . .. . . . ... . ... . . .. .. .. ... . .. . .... . . ..... .... . . .. .~ . . . . . ..... . ... . . ...... .. .. .. .. ..1.. .... . . .. ... .. . . . . ... ... . .l.... .. .. ... ... .. . . 1 .. .l... ... e .. .l. . . ..... . . .l.. .. .. . 7-107 AppendixA-Nomenclature ~~... . . . .. .... . ..... ...... .. . . .. . . . . . .. . .... ..... ..~~. . . 7-126 111 . . . ... .. .... ... . . . . . .... .... ...... . .. ... . .. .~~... . . . ...... I .. ... .. ..... 7-58 Economic-chart design method .. .. . . ... . .7-93 Totaldynamichead . .... .... .. ..... ... . . ... . ... . .. .. a .......... .. .. ... . . . . . . . ... .. a 1 .. . . ... .. . .... . .. 1.. .. .. .. . 7-83 Spray system.. line and estimating ........ . . I . . . . .. 1 .. . . . .. ... .7-101 Fieldprocedure... . .... .. . .. .. . . .~...t. . .. .... ... . .. ... . 1 ... .. a .. . .. .. .. . ... . . . . . . . . .. ... . . ... . . . . . ..... .. . ~.. .. . . .. .. t ...~... .. . . ........... . . .... .Puge Locationofmanifolds.~~. ... . ..... .. . . . .. .. . .. ....... .. . ...~t.. . .. . .. .. .. . . ... . .... . . .I..... . . Q. .. .. .. . ... .. . . . . 7-71 Designfactors....l. .. . .. . .. .. . ... .. . . .......7-58 Characteristics. . .. . . . . . ... X. . . ... .I...~~~.. ... ........ . .. . .. ..... .. . .. . . . . . ........ . ... ..~. ... ... .. . . . ....... .. ..~~. . . . .7-79 Main-linedesign . . .. . . .7-94 System design summary .. .. .. .. .. . ......... .. .. ..I..~. ... ... . .. .... . .. .. .. ... . . .. . . . ...l.. . .. . . 7-106 Gross application required .. . ..... ... .. .. . .... . .. .... .~. . . . . ... 7-100 Fieldevaluation. .. .... . ... . . . . . .... . . .. 1 .I. .l.. .. .~. .. ..... ... . . ... . . * .. . I .. . s . ..... . . . .... .... .. . .. . ... . ..t... . . . . .....1. .11... .. . . .. ..... 7-70 Sample designs for trickle irrigation systems . .~I. . . ...... ..... . . . . . ... .. . . .. . 1 ..7-101 Equipmentneeded . ~ ..... .. .. . .. . ...1.. .. .. . . .... . ... . . .. . . ... 7-76 Locating the H. .. . . . .. ~ .. 7-60 General graphical-design method . . .. I ...~... .l.. ....II... . . . ... . . ... . ... .. . . . a . .. .. ... ... . ..~ 7-100 Totaldynamichead ...... .. . . . .. .... ... . 1 ..~~... .. . .. . .. . .. ..... .... . . ... .. 7-109 Appendix B-Pipe friction-loss tables ... . .. ... .. ......... . . . . .. . . ... .“.. . ..~.l..... ...... 7-102 Volumeperday.. . . . .. .. . . ..... .. . . ... . ” .~1. . .... . .. ... .. . .. ... .. . . .~. ...1. . . . .. ... . .. .~.. ... .. ..~.. . .. ... . .. .. ... I ” ... . .. .. .... . . .. ... . .. .. . .. .... .... . .... . . . .. 1 .. ..... . . 7-69 Estimating pressure loss from pipe friction .. ... .. .. .. .... .. . .. ..... . . . .. . ... .. . . . ..... . . ... ... . ... ... . . .. . .. ...... ... .. . .l... .... .7-102 Average depth of application . .. . .. I .... . ........ ... .. .. .. ..l.. ..... . . . . . .. .... ... ..... .... . ... . .. . . . .1.. . ... ... ... . ..7-106 Emission uniformity .. .. .. ... .l 7-57 Manifolddesign... ...... .. . ... .... ... . .... . . 7-100 System design summary . . 7-107 Applicationefficiencies.. . .~.. . . .f.. . ....... .... .. . ~ .. . . . .. . . . .. . . I ..7-71 Lateral line design and system layout . .. ..... . . . .... a .I. ....... ... .. . ...... 7-88 Manifolddesign .... . . .... .. . .. .. . ....... . ... .7-101 Usingfielddata. .. ... 7-94 Designfactors. . .. .. . .... ... ... . . ... . . ... . e . .7-83 System design summary . .. .. ....... .. ... .. ... . 7-64 Alternative graphical-design method ) .. .. a ..l. .. .. . .... ... . .. . . . .. . . ..I... a Illt. . .. . . ..... .. . ... . ..... . . ..... . . .‘* .. .. .. .. . . ... . .. . .. ... . ..7-56 Pressuredifference . . . . . . .~. .. ... . . .. .. . ....... . .... ... . . . .. ... ..... ...... . . .. . . . ..... .. . . .. ..... .. .. ... .. .. .. . .. . .~.... . .... . .. .... ....... I .. .. ... . . ... ~ .... . .. .. . .. . ... .. ..7-84 Lateral line design and system layout .. . .+ . . . .... .... 7-94 Line-sourcesystem ... 7-76 Manifolddesign ..... .. ...... . ... .... . .... ... . . .. ...~.. . . . .. . ... ... .....7-89 Main-linedesign . . . “. ...l.. .. ... . . . . ... . ..

............... 7-17 Typical means for connecting emitters to laterals............................................................ ....... Idealized wetting patterns in a homogeneous fine sandy soil under a drip and a spray emitter ..................... ............................................ (0................ ................ and total costs ...................................................................................... 7-62 Standard manifold friction curves for 2-gpm outlet every 20 ft.......................................... Dimensionless sketch showing terms used in numerical solution of optimum position for manifold .........) values for various sizes of barbs and inside diameters of laterals ................. and (3) using the general graphical-design method .................... Pressure-differential injection system ..... inside diameter) trickle irrigation hose ........................ 7-16 Multiexit long-path emitter ..... .. ............... 7-36 ............... .................................. ............................ Wetting pattern profiles for equal volumes (12 gal) of water applied at three rates ............. Economic pipe-size selection chart for polyvinyl chloride thermoplastic IPS (iron pipe size) 7-50 pipe having minimum acceptable standard SDR (standard dimension ratio) ratings ...................... (21......................................................................................... Typical soil moisture pattern under trickle irrigation.................. leaving much of soil surface dry....................................................................... Drip system for grapes.................. Manifold layout showing inlet connection uphill from center and 7-13 showing pressure-regulated manifolds .. ........................... 7-16 Single-exit orifice-type emitter.................................. 7-14 Various lateral layouts for a widely spaced permanent crop ................ Basic components of a trickle irrigation system ................... operating simultaneously ........................ 7-41 Distribution of a pressure head in a subunit Combined effect of pressure-head and manufacturing variations on discharges 7-41 of individual emitters ................................. Emitter-connection loss (f................................................... ............. Graphical method for determining the discharge exponent (x) in a sample calculation .................................. 7-36 Cross section of a long-path emitter that can be opened for easy cleaning ............... ............ 7-21 toadrysandysoil Relationship between vertical and horizontal water movement in a dry sandy soil for 7-21 various amounts of water and various application rates....... power............ 7-16 Orifice-vortex-type emitter............................................... 7-45 Darcy-Wisbach f-values for l/2-in............. uniform spacing 7-48 between outlets..... 7-34 .......... 7-16 Single-exit long-path emitter ..... 7-49 Influence of pipe size on fixed........................... 7-16 Twin-wall emitter lateral ..............Figures Page 7-1 7-2 7-3 74 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-23 7-24 7-25 7-26 7-27 7-28 7-29 7-30 7-31 7-32 7-33 7-34 7-35 7-36 7-37 7-38 7-39 7-40 In-line drip emitter...................... or II and .............. 7-22 Hypothetical relation of potential production to percent area wetted ................. 7-57 7-59 Graph for selecting location of inlet to a pair of tapered manifolds on a slope ............ ......... .......... .............. 7-17 Flushing-type emitter............. 7-38 Typical two-station split-flow layout for trickle irrigation system with Blocks I and III........ General friction curve for a multioutlet pipeline that has uniform diameter........... 7-63 Standard manifold friction curves for 6-gpm outlet every 60 ft........... 7-65 Graph for determining manifold pipe-friction adjustment factors for trapezoidal subunits Dimensionless manifold friction curves scaled to represent manifold flow rate (q& = 178 gpm 7-66 ............................... 7-39 IV....... and uniform flow per outlet . 7-23 Discharge variations resulting from pressure changes for emitters with variousdischargeexponents(x) 7-33 ................................. Valves at the head of a trickle irrigation system.............. Cross section of a continuous-flushing emitter .................... 7-l 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-8 7-9 7-9 iv ............................... througheachsizeofpipe 7-67 Overlay for design of manifolds (l)............ showing salt accumulation ...................58-in......... Drip system on slope of avocado ranch .......................................................... Effect of flow rate on the maximum particle size passing through a typical free-flow sand 7-12 filter with media of various sizes ......................... ..............................................

. . . . . . .. . . . 7-97 Form for evaluation data . . . . . 7-106 Tables 7-l 7-2 7-3 74 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 Cycling method characteristics of a trickle irrigation system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . emitter pressure developed from manufacturer’s data for 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . I . . . .. . . . . . . . +. .. . . . for various crops . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . q . .. . . . .. . 747 Dimensionless data for plotting friction curves for multiple-outlet pipelines . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04-in.. 7-17 Estimates of area wetted (A. ...Puge 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 7-50 7-51 7-52 7-53 7-54 7-55 7-56 7-57 Friction curve overlay to demonstrate graphical method using a standard manifold curve for designing a tapered manifold for a steep slope . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..7-85 Citrus grove with spray irrigation system.. .. . . . . . . . . . . e . . . . I . . . . . 7-66 V . 7-49 Present-worth and annual economic factors for an assumed g-percent annual rise in energy costs with various interest rates and life expectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . 7-73 Drip-system design factors for a deciduous orchard in the Central Valley of California .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 7-87 Plot of spray diameter vs.... . . .. . . . . . . . . I .7-90 Line-source-system data for Texas tomato field +. . . . I . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . I . . . . .. . s . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . ./(L/lOO) for constructing a set of dimensionless manifold friction-loss curves for manifold flow rate (q. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 7-74 Friction curve overlay to demonstrate graphical solution of manifold positioning and Ah (difference in pressure head along the lateral). .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 7-68 Friction curve overlay demonstrating the graphical solution for using standard manifold curves to design tapered manifolds with a given allowable manifold pressure variation (AH.. .. . . . . . .. . . + . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . II . . .. . . .. . . . 7-72 Orchard layout with sample design for a drip irrigation system . 7-96 Line-source-system design factors for Texas tomato field . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 7-20 Seasonal transpiration ratios for arid and humid regions with various soil textures androotingdepths . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . 7-88 Friction curve overlay to demonstrate graphical solution for determining manifold friction loss (Hf)foraspraysystem.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . I . . ... . . . +. . . . 7-35 Reduction coefficient (F) for multiple-outlet pipeline friction-loss computations in which the first outlet is a full spacing from the pipe inlet . . . . .. . . . . . ... . 7-28 Test characteristics of emission devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I .. .... . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. ... . . . I . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 1 . . . . . . 7-95 Tomato field with line-source drip irrigation.. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . I . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . I .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. I . . . ./(L/lOO) for various field-shape factors (S) . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-26 Minimum (min) and maximum (max) values of EC. . . . .-diameter orifice .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-70 Drip-system data for a deciduous orchard in the Central Valley of California . .. .. . . . . . . . . .7-81 Spray-system data for a citrus grove in Florida . .7-77 Friction curve overlay to demonstrate graphical solution for determining manifold friction loss (Hf) for a drip system . . . . . . . . ... . .. .. .J = 178 gpm and reduction coefficient to compensate for discharge(F)=0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . I . . . . .)... ” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . AH.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .38 . .. +.. . .. . . . . . . . .7-65 Scalar ratios (JF? for constructing dimensionless curves of x/L vs. . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .) in various soils .7-86 Spray-system design factors for a citrus grove in Florida . . . . 7-103 Field measurement of discharge from an emitter . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 7-51 Scaled values of nH. . . . . .. . q . . . . . . . . . . . .

after the development and wide availability of low-cost plastic pipe and fittings. including more than 100 thousand acres in the United States. that commercial trickle irrigation became feasible.Preface Experimental efforts in trickle irrigation date back to the 1860’s. complete sample designs. The chapter is written for engineers and experienced technicians. but it was not until the mid-1960’s. it should also be of value to others interested in the design and application of trickle irrigation systems. It covers logical design procedures for the major types of trickle irrigation systems in current use and contains detailed. This chapter of the National Engineering Handbook describes design procedures for trickle irrigation systems. Today trickle-irrigated croplands and orchards amount to more than 800 thousand acres worldwide. however. vi .

Chapter 7 Trickle Irrigation Types of Systems Description Trickle irrigation is the slow application of water on or beneath the soil surface by drip. soil by capillarity Drip In drip irrigation.” The shape of the emitter reduces the operating pressure in the supply line. tiny streams.-h-line drip emitter. 7-l). 7-l . and spray systems. water is applied slowly to the soil surface as discrete or continuous drops or tiny streams through small openings (fig. subsurface. or miniature spray through emitters or applicators placed along a water delivery line. Water flows from the emission points through the and gravity. bubbler. Discharge rates are less than 3 gallons per hour (gph) for widely spaced individual applicators and less than 1 gphift for closely spaced outlets along a tube (or porous tubing). and a small volume of water is discharged at the emission point. Figure 7-I. The outlet device that emits water to the soil is called an “emitter. Water is dissipated from a pipe distribution network under low pressure in a predetermined pattern. Water is applied as discrete or continuous drops.

water is applied slowly below the soil surface through emitters with discharge rates in the same range as those for drip irrigation.Advant Subsurface In subsurface irrigation. The air is instrumental in distributing the water. Labor costs for irrigating are reduced because trickle systems are equipped with automatic timing devices. water is applied to the soil surface in a small stream or fountain from an opening with a point discharge rate greater than that for drip or subsurface irrigation but less than 1 gallon per minute (gpm). 7-2). In spray irrigation. in which the root zone is irrigated through or by water table control. Discharge rates in spray irrigation are lower than 30 gph. Much of the soil surface remains dry with trickle irrigation (fig. and a small basin is required to control the distribution of water. Trickle irrigation can reduce water loss and operating costs because only the amount of water required by the crop is applied. and subsurface irrigation. whereas in drip. water is applied to the soil surface as a small spray or mist. bubbler. with a lowtension supply of soil moisture sufficient to meet evapotranspiration demands. such as a tree or vine.--Drip system for grapes. agrotechnical. the soil is primarily responsible for distributing the water. Bubbler In bubbler irrigation. this has two benefits. and economic advantages for efficient use of water and labor. 7-2. The emitter discharge rate normally exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. This method of application is not to be confused with subirrigation. leaving much of soil surface 7-2 . A trickle irrigation system offers unique agronomic. First. Figure dry. Trickle irrigation is a convenient means of supplying each plant.

he choice are being introduced.rickle irrigation may improve fertilization efficiency. Use of Rocky Soils and Steep Slopes Trickle irrigation systems can be designed to operate efficiently on almost any topography. 7-3). .-Drip system on slope of avocado ranch. Because the water is applied close to each tree. Fertilizers and pesticides can be injected into the irrigation water to avoid the labor needed for their ground application. Figure 7-3. Greater control over fertilizer placement and timing through t. Thus it is possible to irrigate with water of higher salinity.weed growth is reduced. uninterrupted orchard operations are possible. rocky areas can be trickle irrigated effectively even when tree spacing is irregular and tree size varies. Several highly soluble materials are available. Second. the furrows remain relatively dry and provide firm footing for farm workers. Use of Saline Water Frequent irrigation maintains a stable soil moisture condition that keeps salts in soil water more dilute. and with row crops on beds. and new products t. Systems are operating on avocado ranches that are almost too steep to harvest (fig.hat widen t. so labor and chemical costs for weed control are reduced.

irrigation should continue on schedule to ensure that salts leach below the root zone. Some plants receive too much water. they can become clogged easily by mineral or organic matter particles. the cost is far greater for a trickle system than for a sprinkler or flood system. damage can be prevented by rodent control or use of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) laterals. reverse movement. Clogging Because the emitter outlets are very small. falls after a period of salt accumulation. Deep @Wetted Figure ‘I-A. In others. algae. Clogging can reduce emission rates or upset uniformity of water distribution. Other Hazards If uncontrolled events interrupt irrigation. crops can be damaged quickly because roots can extract nutrients and water only from the relatively small volume of soil wetted. Rodents are known to chew polyethylene laterals. spotty distribution pattern. calcium carbonate. and microbial slimes form in irrigation systems in certain locations. Water movement must always be away from the emitter to avoid salt damage. tendency to build up local salinity. In some instances. cost Trickle irrigation systems are expensive because of their requirements for large quantities of piping and filtration equipment to clean the water. salts also concentrate below the surface at the perimeter of the soil volume wetted by each emitter (fig. terrain. During trickle irrigation. and quantity of water available. Because of spacing.--Typical tion. and. and water in the lines may drain through lower emitters after the water is shut off. +-- Lateral Spacing =---~* Lack of Uniformity Most trickle irrigation emitters operate at low pressures. If a field slopes steeply. Salt Accumulation Salts tend to concentrate at the soil surface and constitute a potential hazard because light rains can move them into the root zone (fig. A main supply line can be broken. particles may form in water as it stands in the lines or evaporates from emitter openings between irrigations. when they are improperly designed. proneness to clogging. System costs can vary considerably depending on the crop. particles are not adequately removed from the irrigation water before it enters the pipe network. One filtration malfunction can result in the plugging of many emitters that then must be cleaned or replaced. some crops require less pipe than others. showing salt Width+ soil moisture accumulation. others receive too little. Rodent. If this soil dries between irrigations. of soil water may carry salt from the perimeter back toward the emitter. 3 to 20 pounds per square inch (psi). Steep terrain may require several pressure regulators in the system. Iron oxide. 74). Percolation pattern under trickle irriga- 7-4 . In general. or the filtration system can malfunction and allow contaminants into the system. and cause plant damage. 74).Disadvantages The main disadvantages inherent in trickle irrigation systems are their comparatively high cost. When a rain of less than 2 in. The degree of automation affects the cost. Chemical treatment and proper filtration of water usually can prevent or correct emitter clogging. the emitter discharge during irrigation may differ as much as 50 percent from the volume intended.

In the former all the nitrogen is in the ammonium form. the injection equipment must be designed with an understanding of the chemical composition of the fertilizer to be used. Most of the nitrogen salts and urea dissolve readily in water. Both urea and nitrate nitrogen stay in solution in the soil and move with the soil water. Ammonium sulfate (21-O-O) and ammonium nitrate (34-O-O) are very common fertilizer materials. Anhydrous ammonia (82-O-O) and aqua-ammonia (24-O-O) can be injected into irrigation water. and in the latter about 26 percent by weight of the fertilizer is ammonium nitrogen and 8 percent is nitrate nitrogen. any exchangeable ammonium 7-5 . depending on how much free lime or calcium carbonate is present. its individual components behave exactly like the dry materials dissolved and injected separately. Also. Ammonia increases the pH. Many commercial fertilizers can be added during the growing season without damaging the system. Wetting a large percentage of the soil volume with root development throughout makes fertility management easier and takes advantage of the natural fertility of the soil. Another problem with ammonia injection has to do with the rise of hydroxide ion concentration in water. ammonium is immobile. clogging problems are associated with the injection of various fertilizers into the irrigation water. The water softener complexes the calcium and magnesium and eliminates the problem. and it should be injected early enough in the irrigation cycle to permit flushing the system afterward. Also. When this mixture is injected into irrigation water. Unfortunately. Following are some of the fertilizers commonly injected: Nitrogen Nitrogen is relatively problem free. Therefore. these materials are highly susceptible to leaching if excessive water is applied.0 Benefits Obtained and Safeguards Required with Fertilizer and Chemical Injections Fertilizer Very little of the fertilizer spread or broadcast over the soil surface moves into the root zone with trickle irrigation. Some types of fertilizers are not suitable for injection because of volatilization of gaseous ammonia. conventional application of nutrients is difficult under trickle irrigation because of the small wetted volume. which causes soluble calcium and magnesium to precipitate in the water and coat the inside of pipes and plug emitters. low water solubility.2). All of these nitrogen materials may be injected with no side effects in the water or irrigation system. Ammonium nitrogen behaves quite differently. but it adds considerably to the cost of fertilization. It is a neutral molecule that does not react with water to form ions. it enters into cation exchange reactions in the soil. thus. much of the required fertilizer. Fertilizer should always be injected over a period of 2 hr or more to maintain a reasonably uniform distribution. therefore. the soil and water must be analyzed to determine whether the fertilizer compounds are suitable. Slow-release fertilizer must be applied directly in the wetted area. In semiarid and arid regions. but fertilizer efficiency is likely to be lost because of volatilization. A small change in either soluble constituent alters the relative amount of the ions in exchangeable form. Urea (44-O-O) is a soluble nitrogen fertilizer. leaching losses from application with excessive water. The fertilizer program to be followed must be considered in designing a trickle system. Because cation exchange reactions are very rapid. Because it is a positively charged ion. Urea and ammonium nitrate are mixed in water to give a fairly concentrated liquid mixture marketed as 30-0-O. In the exchangeable form. must be added directly in the water. Therefore. This kind of problem can be overcome by injecting a water softener ahead of the ammonia gas. fertilizer levels can be maintained at an ideal level (even in sandy soils) throughout the growing season. and problems with the quality of irrigation water. separation of the components in the mixture. But the nitrogen-containing fertilizers mentioned under phosphorus fertilization should not be considered highly soluble because of the interactions involving phosphorus in water and soil. Ammonium applied in water readily converts to exchangeable ammonium and simultaneously generates an equivalent amount of cations in solution. soils are naturally neutral to alkaline (pH 7 to 8. In these kinds of soils. especially nitrogen. ammonium applied in irrigation water is immobilized almost instantly on contact with soil and remains on or near the soil surface. Applying fertilizer in the irrigation water requires less labor and equipment than the conventional spreading methods.

Application rates must be based on analysis of soil and water because trace elements applied in excessive quantities can react with salts in the water and be toxic to plants. These latter deposits usually are not a problem except possibly at the ends of exit tubes and valve faces.0 milliequivalents per liter (meq/LJ coupled with a pH above 7.that exits at the soil surface will likely volatilize. treble-superphosphate is not suitable for injection. Phosphorus is immobile in soil because it becomes insoluble almost as soon as it contacts calcium in the soil.5 indicates a potential problem. From general observations. the injected phosphorus will precipitate as dicalcium phosphate. The quality of the irrigation water must be considered before injecting phosphorus into a trickle irrigation system. zinc. Ammonium phosphate sulfate (16-20-O). They are not the same as the mineral deposits that are left by evaporation and build up on the outside of emitters. If complete details for injecting trace elements into a trickle system have not been field checked. phosphate applied by spray irrigation collects at the soil surface and is unavailable to the crop. Algae are common in most surface water supplies. Organic phosphate compounds such as glycerophosphoric acid can be injected through trickle irrigation systems without fear of precipitation in the system. Trace Elements Phosphorus is difficult to apply by injection.-also can be applied through a trickle irrigation system. An analysis of well water will indicate whether the bicarbonate or iron concentration is high enough to be a problem. which can plug emitters and restrict flow in the pipeline network. Water vaporizes very rapidly from soil after irrigation. however. which is insoluble in water. The trace elements-magnesium. and diammonium phosphate (16-46-O) are suitable for injection when nitrogen and phosphorus are needed. copper. Because most algae need light to grow. boron. The organic compounds are comparable to urea in terms of their behavior in soils. chemicals must be injected into the system to control them. The fertilizer moves freely into the soil and is not readily leached away. however. Subsequent crops will be benefited. phosphate moves in the soil enough to reach the root zone. a bicarbonate level higher than 2. phosphoric acid must be used to meet phosphate needs. iron. If the irrigation water has a pH above 7. Actual dissolution of TSP in water is limited because the monocalcium phosphate of TSP changes to dicalcium phosphate. Flushing the system with a solution of either sulfuric or hydrochloric acid immediately after applying the phosphoric acid prevents clogging. Clogging of emitters by precipitates and organic deposits cannot be prevented by filtration. including foliar sprays or mechanical application and incorporation into the soil. In this situation. which are themselves relatively expensive compared with TSP. Treble-superphosphate (TSP.5 and a high calcium content. Potassium oxide (the most common source) is very soluble. growth inside the system by small algal particles 7-6 . is classified as water soluble but is only moderately so. Phosphorus Potassium Potassium is easy to inject through a trickle irrigation system. and ammonium is especially susceptible to gaseous loss during this time. commonly used. Phosphorus applied by drip irrigation is concentrated at the application points. etc. Phosphoric acid is another form of soluble phosphorus. but they are relatively expensive compared with the soluble forms of inorganic phosphorus. Calcium and Iron Calcium and iron precipitates are a potential problem with most well water. monoammonium phosphate (11-48-O). it is better to use conventional application methods. Chemicals to Control Organic Deposits Precipitates and Precipitates can form inside the pipes and emitters from dissolved minerals that come out of solution if the pH or temperature changes. Therefore. Therefore. Algae and Slime Algae are microscopic plants that produce their own food through the conversion of light energy and nutrients. Several kinds of ammonium phosphate are soluble in water. because the next plowing will mix the fertilizer throughout the plowed layer. Ammonium is very sensitive to temperature and moisture. O-45-0).

however. composition of the precipitate. For algae use 0. efficient. Iron precipitation at the emitter can be prevented by deliberately precipitating the iron and filtering it out before it enters the pipe network. aeration by a mechanical aerator and settling in a reservoir may be more practical. temperature. In treating severe cases of algae and slime.3 parts per million (ppm) or greater and the pH is between 4. and Slime Various types of chemicals can be injected into trickle irrigation systems to control calcium and iron precipitates and organic deposits. however. which are then expelled through the emitters along with suspended silt and clay. If concentrations are as high as 10 ppm.that pass through the filter can be deterred by use of black emitters and black pipe above ground. Normally. a reddish-brown precipitate. Iron Bacteria Iron is present in water in the soluble (ferrous) form. the system is superchlorinated (i. The periodic injection of an acid treatment should reduce the cost of controlling bicarbonates. For iron precipitation use 0. For manganese precipitation use 1. 2. which is inexpensive. bacteria break down the algal particles.5 to 7. An acid concentration that maintains a pH of 5. In the dark. For slime maintain 1 ppm free residual chlorine at ends of laterals. 5. In the presence of oxygen.64 x the ferrous ion content.5 to 1. is believed to be the best method of combating iron bacteria.5.3 x the manganese content. Another way to reduce this cost is to aerate the irrigation water and keep it in a reservoir until equilibrium is reached and the precipitates have settled out.0 and 8. Mechanical injection of air into the water supply followed by filtration is another method of removing iron. 4. primarily bacteria.) 3. Algae. Typical recommended chlorine dosages are as follows: 1. Slime is a generic term for the growth of longfilament microorganisms. Continuous injection of chlorine. The more common are airborne. rate of at least 10 ppm) to oxidize the organic material and clear the irrigation system. (This can vary depending on the amount of bacteria to control. for example 1 ppm. These microorganisms do not produce their own food and do not require sunlight for growth. Iron bacteria can produce enough slime to plug emitters if the water supply has an iron concentration of 0. Treatment for Precipitates. Both algae and slime can be controlled by chlorination. Treatment with calcium hypochlorite causes calcium to precipitate. Chelating the iron with a phosphate chelating agent at two to five times the concentration of the iron molecules should eliminate the problem.0 will control precipitates. an algae detention/destruction chamber is used. open systems are moat susceptible. therefore. 7-7 .. Acid is the best treatment for bicarbonates resulting from calcium precipitation. and type and concentration of the acid. it usually consists of a large pond or concrete chamber to retain the chlorinetreated irrigation water long enough to destroy the algae and slime. The efficiency of chlorine treatment is related to the pH of the water to be treated: the higher the pH.e. equipment. it is oxidized to the insoluble ferric form. For iron bacteria use 1 ppm more than the parts per million of iron present. the more chlorine required. The amount of acid required and the optimum pH are functions of the irrigation water. The least expensive acid should be chosen and used at a concentration that will offset the excess bicarbonates. A chemical feeder can be set to provide a measured amount of chlorine solution to oxidize the iron and other organic compounds present and to allow a chlorine residue. and effective. Oxidation and reduction reactions are the usual means of cleaning iron bacteria from trickle systems. Sodium hypochlorite should be used to treat hard ground-water supplies.0 ppm continuously or 20 ppm for 20 min in each irrigation cycle.

but this practice may damage the injector pump unless it is shut off.-Pumping is the most versatile method for injecting chemicals into trickle irrigation systems. Both engine. on pump parts. fertilizer and chemical injection equipment. Methods of injection are: Suction. Figure 7-6 shows the components of a Venturi-tube-type pressure-differential injection system. the pump injects chemicals at a higher pressure than the pressure of the water that drives it. The pump draws the fertilizer solution from an open tank and injects it by positive displacement into-the ‘irrigation line. high efficiency is the principal requirement.. Positive-displacement piston pumps can be designed and calibrated to give an accurate low or high injection rate. On electric installations. flow controls. require no-external power source. deep-well. Thus. In the design and selection of pumping equipment for a trickle irrigation system. manifold. however. which makes the Venturi tube a very efficient differential pressure device. valves.-Differential pressure also can be used to inject chemicals into the irrigation water. water-measuring devices. Fertilizer and Chemical Injection Equipment Injectors may be used to apply fertilizer or other chemicals directly into the trickle irrigation system.-Suction of chemicals through the intake side of a pump is a simple injection method.-Basic components of a trickle irrigation system. Control Head The control head includes the pumping station. In a differential pressure system. Pumping. the chemical tank is under the same pressure as the main line. Their main 7-8 . the fertilizer pump can be driven with a fractional-horsepower electric motor. Furthermore. it is difficult to monitor accurately the rate of input as the chemical level in the supply tank lowers. and are less expensive than pump injectors. Inline flowmeters may register total flow in standard volumetric units: gallons. Pressure-differential injection systems have no moving parts. Pumping Station The pumping station consists of the power unit (internal combustion engine or electric motor) and a centrifugal. Water-driven fertilizer pumps use the pressurized water from the irrigation line to drive the pump by means of diaphragms or pistons that have a larger surface area than the injection piston. however. The small amount of water that drives the pump (two to three times the volume of fertilizer injected) is expelled. emitters. Automatic volumetric shutoff valves are available for water-driven pumps and automatic time controllers are available for electric-driven pumps. corrosive materials may cause excessive wear rPrimory Filter 3 Flow/Pressure Re Figure 7-5. Venturi pipe sections can be used to create a significant pressure loss. miner’s inch-days.and electric-driven pumps are usually less expensive and have fewer moving parts to be maintained than water-driven pumps. main and submain lines. laterals. Injection can be stopped by letting the chemical tank run dry. and flow/pressure regulators (fig. On engine-driven pumping plants. cubic feet. or others. Most of the pressure is regained in the expansion section. the fertilizer injector pump can be driven by a belt-and-pulley arrangement. but they must be properly maintained. The Venturi throat pressure is lower than the pipeline pressure because of the higher velocity through the throat. Water-Measuring Devices A key requirement of operating a trickle system is knowing how much water is being supplied. The Venturi effect is obtained by narrowing the inlet pipe diameter and then gradually expanding it back to the inlet diameter size. and filtering equipment. or submersible pump and appurtenances. Differential pressure. acre-feet. 7-5). Some flowmeters turn off automatically when a certain amount of water has been applied.System Components A trickle irrigation system consists of the control head.

and safety controls. fish. 3./Regulator Valve The components shown are: cuum SUPPlY Figure 7-6. 7-9 . Contaminants can be classified into two general groups. Valves Valving needed at the head depends upon the method of operating the trickle irrigation system. The type of filter needed depends on the contaminant. physical and chemical. larvae. and seeds and other plant parts are the major organic contaminants. ‘%l Water supply 1. noncorrosive.b Venturi1 Tube : With Chemical injection system. diatoms. The inorganic . small tanks are usually used. Central filtration enables more convenient and efficient control of water cleanliness than does filtration at small segments of the system. Algae. high-pressure tanks are expensive. snails. Filtering to remove from the water debris that might clog or otherwise foul the emitters or sprayers is essential on most systems. control valves. 4.-Valves at the head of a trickle irrigation system. bacteria. Start valve Fertilizer/chemical Fertilizer/chemical Pressure gage Filter Main line solution tank injector pump Figure 7-7. The physical contaminants are suspended solids including organic and inorganic components. even though more labor is required for more frequent servicing.-heesure-differential Break e isure 4L. 5. 2. (1) Start valve (2) Automatic valve (operating according to the volume of discharge) (3) Nonreturn valve (4) Air valve (5) Connections to and from the fertilizer tank (6) Valve for regulating the nutrient solution flow (7) Filter (8) Pressure gage (9) Connection for measuring pressure behind the filter (10) Fertilizer tank Sediment Removal disadvantage is that the chemical solution to be injected must be contained in a tank at the same pressure as that in the main line (instead of in a lightweight tank open to the atmosphere). Because large. Figure 7-7 shows valving for a system with fertilizer and chemical injection.

rivers. ponds. But injecting certain chemicals into the irrigation water to neutralize the adverse effects of unwanted chemicals has proved economical.-In screen filters. Vortex sand separators depend on centrifugal force to remove and eject high-density particles from the water. Example: To provide settle time for a 2-ft% flow. or polyester mesh. Although vortex devices do not remove organic materials. Removing unwanted chemicals requires processes such as reverse osmosis or ion exchange. followed by a sand filter and then a screen filter. ponds. Gravel and graded sand filters consist of fine gravel and sand of selected sizes placed inside a cylindrical tank to filter out heavy loads of very fine sand and organic matter. such as fine and very fine sands. A minimum of 15 min is required for most inorganic particles larger than 80 microns (about #200 sieve) to settle. Consistency of the water quality must be considered. algal growth and windblown contaminants in the pool may cause more filtration problems than sediment. the pool should be long and narrow. and undergoes various levels of treatment. and canals can vary widely in quality and often contains large amounts of organic matter and silt. least expensive. Adequate filtration requires processing all the water entering the system. If construction area is limited. particularly if the water supply is from a well. tend to settle out and deposit in the slow-flow section of pipe near the ends of laterals and when the system is turned off. In fact. Furthermore.contaminants are mainly in the basic range of soil particles. The chemical contaminants are solutes that precipitate and become potential blocking agents. they are efficient for ejecting large quantities of very fine sand or larger inorganic solids before their further infiltration through screens. The water may also be chemically unstable and produce chemical precipitates in the pipes and emitters. The basic parts of a screen filter are the filter screen and basket. and 4 ft deep. Open waters often require use of a prefilter. a pool should be 45 ft long. but it is inevitable. Evaporation may leave the dissolved solids on the outside of emitters to cause plugging if the opening is not protected by the equipment design or installation method. Where possible. and most efficient means for filtering water. Filtering equipment. it must be chemically treated and filtered through various combinations of filters and screens. Municipal or domestic water comes from various sources. open water areas should be avoided if possible. Also.-Screen filters. and slow-moving or still water favor rapid algal growth. Wells usually have good-quality water. such as a settling basin or vortex separator. This behavior is typical fororganic particles having about the same density as water. light. They are also sources of food for slime bacteria that can cause pipe and emitter clogging. sedimentation alone will not provide the desired water quality. the intake to the trickle system should be located so that water from the upper level of the pool enters the system. Warm weather. and emitters. baffles or U-shape construction will be needed. Settling pools. Screen filters. Removal of particles 10 or more times smaller than the emitter opening is recommended because several particles may group together and bridge the emitter openings. the hole size and the total amount of open area determine the efficiency and operational limits. are the simplest. For settling pools to be effective. The particle size of the contaminants that can be tolerated depends on the emitter construction and should be indicated by the manufacturer or known from local experience. Therefore.-Settling basins. nylon. However. The resulting clogging may not be rapid. Fine sand particles also tend to settle along the inside of laminar-flow emitters in which the flow rate is zero along the walls even during operation. and filtration and treatment must be planned for the average worst condition. or reservoirs can be used to remove large volumes of sand and silt. 10 ft wide. precipitates and slimes can restrict flow and eventually block the distribution pipe. The screen is stainless steel. inorganic particles heavier than water. After the water is drawn from the pool. Open water such as lakes. if adaptable. streams. In some instances chemical coagulants are required to control silt and chlorine is needed to control algae. but they can deliver small to large quantities of sand. such as reservoirs and wells. The pool should be sized to limit turbulence and permit a minimum of 15 min for water to travel from the pool inlet to the system intake. 7-10 . which is generally not economically feasible. Control of vegetation and algal growth in the pool may require lining the sides and bottom of the pool to control vegetation and frequent chemical treatment to control algae. Moderate amounts of algae tend to block the screen quickly unless the screen filter is specifically designed to accommodate an organic contaminant. tubing.

because they can collect large quantities of such contaminants before backwashing is necessary. Extreme caution in keeping large dirt particles out of the system is necessary and is especially important during accidents such as main-line breaks. ideal flow rates should range from 40 to 100 gpmJft? of total screen area. Sand filters are recommended when a screen filter would require frequent cleaning or when particles to be removed are smaller than the 200-mesh opening.. the particle is more likely to be caught in the multilayered sand bed than on a single screen surface. and discharge. or whenever the pressure loss across the filter reaches a certain level. When estimating the appropriate discharge for a given screen filter.e. A screen filter can handle a wide range of discharges. if the predominant contaminant is long and narrow. Although they are more expensive than comparable screen filters. Some gravity-flow filters have sweeping spray devices under the screen to lift the contaminants and move them to one side and away. 550. Regardless of the cleaning method. The mean granule size is about 1. Downstream filters. Also. Factors that affect the characteristics and performance of sand filters are water quality. the gravel and sand filter out heavy loads of very fine sands and organic material. Numbers 8 and 11 are crushed granite. and (3) automatic cleaning. At a flow velocity of 25 gpmlft* through the sand bed. and 30. 20.-Graded sand filters consist of fine gravel and sand of selected sizes inside a cylindrical tank. such as a small filter or hose washer screen at each lateral connection. and allowable pressure drop in the filter surface. the collected particles are taken with the water. depending on the percentage of open area. Backflushing with precleaned water is recommended. As the water passes through the tank. and 340 microns for numbers 8. but a filter with a high discharge in relation to its screen area requires frequent cleaning and may have a short life. and then picking it up with a pump and delivering it to the distribution points. A screen filter should be cleaned when the pressure head loss is about 3 to 5 psi or at a fixed time determined in advance. filtration area and percentage of open area. types and size of sand media.. and 30 are silica sands. i. extreme caution should be taken to prevent dirt from bypassing the filter during cleaning. numbers 8 and 11 crushed granite remove 7-11 . or nylon mesh arranged so that water can be flushed over the surface without disassembling the filter. A recommended practice is to use a screen filter downstream from the gravel filter unless the gravel filter has its own backup screen device to pick up any particles that might escape during backwashing. Nylon mesh has the advantage of fluttering during a flushing cycle. desired volume of water between cleaning cycles. which takes place during the filter operation continuously. respectively. 20. A back-flushing filter allows the flow of water through the screen to be reversed. and numbers 16. Typical maximum recommended flow rates for fine screens are less than 200 gpm/fP of screen open area.e. which offers relative strength. such as some algae or diatoms. a standard 200-mesh stainless steel screen has only 58 percent open area. flow rate. The sand media used in most trickle-irrigationsystem filters are designated by numbers. Therefore. percentage of open area in the screen (sum of the holes). so that the collected material is broken up and expelled. consider the quality of water.000. The wire or nylon mesh takes up much of the screen area. Sand media filters are most effective for organic material. and allowable pressure drop. depending on the valving. In designing the system. The most common methods of cleaning are (1) manual cleaning. This total head loss ranges between 5 and 10 psi. washing the filter basket by backflushing or otherwise washing (blowing off) the basket without dismantling the filter. (2) cleaning by repeated washing. 16. Gravityflow filters function by running the water onto a large mesh screen. Gravel filters are often constructed so that they can be backwashed automatically as needed. filter size. sand filters can handle larger loads with less frequent backflushing and a smaller pressure drop. letting gravity pull it through. 11. For example. An equivalent nylon mesh with the same size openings has only 24 percent open area.900. 1. provide an additional factor of safety. on a time schedule.A blow-down filter uses either stainless steel mesh. The head loss in a clean filter normally ranges between 2 and 5 psi. the anticipated head loss between the inlet and outlet of the filter just before cleaning should be taken into consideration. A small amount of sand or organic particles large enough to clog the tricklers could ruin them. Sand media filters. pulling out the filter basket and cleaning it by washing. 825. i.

10. but also needs less frequent flushing for a given allowable increase in pressure drop. respectively. based on an arbitrary 1 unit of pressure drop per unit of time for number 11 medium are: 0.-Modem vortex (centrifugal) sand separators can remove up to 98 percent of the sand particles that would be removed by a 200-mesh screen. Although vortex separators do not remove all the required particles. the same water would be expected to cause a 5-psi increase in about 2 hr across a number 20 medium. Typically. the pressure drop is critical. and the larger medium not only has a lower pressure drop when clean. The flow rate across the medium is an important consideration in filter selection. It is common practice to select the smallest medium possible for a given installation. Automatic backflushing can be activated by a timer or by a switch that senses the pressure differential across the medium. of flow rate on the maximum particle a typical free-flow sand filter with media size of 0 7-12 . and 15 for number 30. 100~ / - 15 20 Bed Flow 25 Rote . automatic backflushing is recommended. Figure 7-8 shows the effect of flow rate on the maximum particle size passing through a typical filter with media of various sizes. In many gravity systems. the maximum recommended pressure drop across a sand filter is generally about 10 psi. however. they are efficient for ejecting large quantities of very fine sand. Vortex sand separators. The rate of pressure drop increase tends to be linear with time. Backflushing must be frequent enough to hold the pressure drop within the prescribed design limits. The relative rates of pressure drop increase. If backflushing is required more than twice daily. 40. if it takes 15 hr for the pressure drop to increase by 5 psi across a number 11 medium. For example. 8 for number 20. this value has been established relative to a given bed composition and filter use. For a given quality of water and size of filter medium. Typical required backflushing flow rates for free-flow filters range from 10 to 15 gpm/ft’ of bed for numbers 30 and 20 media and between 20 and 25 gpmNt* of bed for numbers 16 and 11 media. In practice. The vortex separators depend on centrifugal force to remove and eject high-density particles from the water. and for numbers 20 and 30 media it is about 5 psi. 2 for number 16. The sand numbers 16.2 for number 8. and 16 media is between 2 and 3 psi. such as that from a well that is bringing up sand. 20. and 30 remove particles larger than about onefifteenth the mean granule size or larger than about 60.gprn/ft’ 30 Figure passing various 7-R-Effect through sizes. however. They cannot remove organic materials. The separator should always be backed by a screen filter downstream to catch contaminants that may pass through. especially during startup and shutdown. the initial pressure drop across numbers 8. the level of filtration required may be such that rates about 30 gpm/fV may be allowed. Backflushing flow rates vary with the size of the medium and the construction of the filter. For trickle irrigation. a larger medium may sometimes be desirable.most particles larger than one-twelfth of the mean granule size or larger than about 160 and 80 microns. The larger medium generally causes less pressure drop and has a slower buildup of particles. respectively. Present-day highrate filter technology is based on a nominal value of 20 gpm/fta of bed. the size of particles passing through increases with the flow rate. and 20 microns.

Once these limits have been established. a combination of both means is used to balance the downhill elevation gain.or flow-regulating points may be needed. National Handbook of Conservation Practices. It may be on the surface. If there is any appreciable slope. air and vacuum relief valves. Pressure control or adjustment points are provided at the inlets to the manifold. or header. and total pressure variation allowed for the emitter chosen. Manifolds The manifold.’ lated. Connectior Slope Figure 7-9. Continuous-size tubing provides better flushing.S. pipe size selection for the main and submain lines is not affected by the pressure variation allowed for the subunit. Frequently. the flow velocity. Therefore. Unnumbered. and pressure relief valves must be considered and incorporated as part of the system. standard calculations for hydraulic pipelines with multiple outlets may be used. one pressure-regulating point cannot serve more than one lateral. check valves. the lateral lines are the pipes on which the emitters are attached. A means of flushing and draining the pipelines also should be incorporated into the main line and submain system. On flat terrain. increasing the size of the manifold piping.-Manifold layout showing inlet from center and showing pressure-regulated connection manifolds.Main and Submain Lines The main and submain lines carry water from the control head to the manifold or directly to the lateral lines. The limit for manifold pressure loss depends on the topography. One regulating point may serve two to five laterals (fig. valves or other devices can turn the water to this subunit on and off. Laterals In trickle irrigation systems. Sometimes two laterals per row of trees are needed. 7-9) or one may be required at each lateral. The use of “spaghetti” tubing to provide multioutlet emission points is another way to distribute water. several pressure. Because of these pressure-control-point locations. Design and installation of the main and submain lines should be in accordance with the National Handbook of Conservation Practices. The basic system subunit includes the manifold with attached laterals. Typically. pressure loss in laterals. It is also the point at which flow control can be automated. On steep fields. Other methods of obtaining more emission points per tree are zigzag and “snake” layouts and use of pigtail lines looped around or between the trees. Dep. in diameter. U. connects the main line to the laterals. which are usually made of plastic tubing ranging from 3/8 to 1 in. Served Manifold As with other irrigation pipelines. the downhill elevation gain can be balanced by reducing the pipe size or by moving the connection point uphill to increase the number of laterals served downhill. Agric. but usually it is buried. or both. An uphill pressure loss can be balanced by reducing the number of uphill laterals served. the pipe size should be selected based primarily on the economic tradeoff between power costs and pipe installation costs. 1977430. The layout of lateral lines should be such that it provides the required emission points for the crop to be irrigated. Figure 7-10 shows various lateral layouts for widely spaced permanent crops. the manifold connection to the main line is the point at which in-field pressure is regu‘Soil Conservation Service. Water flows from the manifold into the laterals. uphill 7-13 . in such cases. MomlineMainline. the connection from submain or main line to manifold is in the center of the manifold.

SL = lateral row. spacing. Double laterals for each tree row. D. Single lateral for each tree s. Se = +-----+ B. E. spacing. SW = width emitter spacing. Figure 'I-lO. Sp = plant of wetted strip. Multiexit sixoutlet emitter with distribution tubing.!d Area Wetted Area Lateral Emi*inrc With A.-Variouslaterallayouts for a widely spaced permanent crop. + ----L C. -l- Zigzag lateral for each tree row. 7-14 . Pigtail with four emitters per tree. = row spacing.

Double-chamber tubing is a smalldiameter hose with a main and an auxiliary bore separated by a single wall. orifice emitters use a series of openings. S. Three types of line-source tubing are used in linesource application.5 to 2-R intervals in the outer wall of the auxiliary bore. Continuous-flushing emitters continuously permit the passage of large solid particles while discharging a trickle or drip flow. feet. subsurface. Flushing emitters use a flushing flow of water to clear the discharge opening each time the system is operated. Emitters should be both inexpensive and compact. Emitters are located at predetermined spacing on the lateral and are connected by various means (fig. S. flow. Trickle irrigation with water discharged from closely spaced perforations or a porous wall along the lateral line is called line-source application. long-path emitters use a long capillary-size tube or channel. foggers. = width of the wetted strip. spitters. Ideally. emitters are used to dissipate pressure and discharge water. misters. Si = lateral spacing. or miniature sprinklers are used in spray irrigation. feet. = plant spacing in the row. The double-chamber tubing has widely spaced inner openings punched in the separator wall between the main and auxiliary bores. and vortex emitters use a vortex effect. Each of the methods requires a cycling process. water application. Compensating emitters discharge water at a constant rata over a wide range of lateral line pressures. emitters should have either a relatively large flow cross section or some means of flushing to reduce clogging. Flow Controls and Pressure Regulators Because trickle irrigation is used to obtain high irrigation efficiencies. Flow and pressure must be controlled during each phase of the irrigation-namely. Because of various conditions affecting trickle irrigation. Aerosol emitters. These devices dissipate pressure and discharge a small uniform spray of water to cover an area of 10 to 100 ftp. 7-15 .and pressure-control devices are an integral part of the system. Porous-wall tubing is a small-diameter hose with a uniformly porous wall. Other types of water applicators used in trickle irrigation are line-source tubing and sprayers. feet. feet. setting and operation of the equipment. and water distribution-by hand-operated pressure controls and on-off valves. an assortment of emitters has been developed. feet. S. Figures 7-11 through 7-16 show construction and characteristics of emitters. S. P. For each inner opening. An emitter permits a small uniform flow or trickle of water at a constant discharge that does not vary significantly with minor differences in pressure head. or partial or full automation. three to six exit holes are punched at 0. The pores are of capillary size and ooze water when under pressure. To dissipate pressure. = percent area shaded-the average horizontal area shaded at midday by the crop canopy as a percentage of the total crop area. Trickle irrigation with water discharged from emission points that are individually and widely spaced-usually more than 3 ft-is called point-source application.Definitions follows: of terms used in figure 7-10 are as P. 7-17). This type of emitter can reduce filtering requirements. The point on or beneath the ground at which water is discharged from an emitter is called the emission point. = row spacing. sequential operation. or bubbler irrigation. and should apply the water evenly. = emitter spacing-the spacing between emitters or emission points along a lateral. Table 7-l shows the characteristics of various cycling methods. = percent area wetted-the average horizontal area wetted in the top part of the crop root zone as a percentage of the total crop area. Sprayers should have a low water trajectory and a single large flow cross section. Emitters In drip. Single-chamber tubing is a small-diameter hose with punched openings spaced 2 ft or less apart. Multioutlet emitters supply water to two or more points through small-diameter auxiliary tubing.

-.^^ .-Single-exit long-path emitter. Chamber 7 WATER EXIT WP / WATER ENTRY -/ ORIFICE ^. Es DETAIL A WATER PATH WATER ENTRY THROUGH ORIFICE LATERAL PIPE SECTION A-A Figure 7-ll. Figure 7-X.-Single-exit orifice-type emitter.-Multiexit long-path emitter.-Twin-wall emitter lateral./--WATER LONG PATH PRESSURE DISSIPATOR EXIT LATERAL PIPE--.. VORTEX LONG SPIRAL WATER PATH FOR ENERGY DISSIPATION PRESSURE CHAMEERJ FOR ADDED DISSIPATION Figure WATER EXIT WATER ENTRY 7-14. FOR PRESSURE Ulbbll-‘A I IUN Figure 7-13. Figure 7-12.^.-. 7-16 .-Orifice-vortex-type emitter.

-Emitter Emitb A. On-Line Note: diaphragm shows diaphragm is shown in relaxed position-dotted in operating position line Figure ‘I-17.-Flushing-type emitter. In-Line Emitter It Barb Into 1 Lateral Wall B.-Typical means for connecting emitters Emitter C. from low to high areas Without restrictions To change irrigation depth Change on-time or pressure Manually adjust valve Manually adjust valve To change the order of operation Without limitations Without limitations Possible only by relocating the control lines Resetting at the control board Without any prescribed order Cycling method Hand valve Volumetric valve Sequential operation with volumetric valve Full automation by time or volume Full automation by soil moisture Basis for closing valve Time Quantity of water Quantity of water Manual Hydraulic control Automatic. Figure 7-16. independent of other valves Adjust time or volume Adjust soil moisture sen8or8 Order in which soil dries 7-17 . On-Line With Riser Riser Emitter to laterals. according to soil moisture Time or volume Soil moisture level Hydraulic or electric control lines Automatic.Flexible ring \ Notch I co /Water exit Barb . e Table 7-l. planned in advance Automatic.-Cycling method characteristics Beginning of irrigation cycle Manual opening Manual opening Manual opening of a trickle irrigation Manner of opening next valve Manual system Order of valve operation Without restrictions Without restrictions Adjoining areas.

It is also desirable (essential in steep areas) to plan the irrigation so that valve activation proceeds from lower to higher plots. Full Automation Parts of the system can be operated sequentially with volumetric control valves that are interconnected by hydraulic control lines. Rather than using a fixed-cycle interval for the system. and the first valve must be activated manually to start the cycle again. Because the amount of water 7-18 . Sequential Operation applied is measured. or a single such valve can be used at the control head along with ordinary valves controlling each subunit.Hand-Operated Valves Pressure Controls and On-Off The flow rate is controlled by adjusting the pressure with manual valves set to balance flow rates among the subunits of the system. the circuitry must pass through some type of control panel to eliminate the simultaneous opening of more than the desired number of valves. Partial Automation Operation can be fully automated either by using a central controller operated on a time or volume basis or by soil-moisture sensing. Volume control is well suited to trickle irrigation. The order in which the valves operate can be altered from one cycle to the next. the valves must be readjusted. The volumetric valve requires manual opening and adjustment. because only a limited selection of pressures or flow rates is available with the small. The tensiometer measures the soil moisture tension and signals the valve controlling each subunit. Automation on a time or volume basis requires a control system operating either hydraulic or electric valves. The tubes can be cut to the length that provides the pressure loss required to produce uniform lateral inlet pressures along a manifold with nonuniform pressures. It is important to check and adjust the valves to keep emitter discharges uniform. low-cost valves. Jumper tubes of various diameters and lengths can be used to connect each lateral to the manifold. but it closes automatically. Soil moisture sensors in the plant root zone can be used to activate the controller to open and close the valves. Pressure control is required if mechanical timeclock valves are used. It is customary to use a tensiometer as the moisture sensor. The controller automates the irrigation for an unlimited number of cycles. When the sequencing operation is completed. Because each valve operates automatically and is not connected to any other valve. Trickle systems automatically controlled by soil moisture are not in wide use because of the technical problems associated with the uneven distribution of microlevel moisture. the order of operation is not dictated in advance. the cycle of each irrigation can be started by a sensor in a National Weather Service class “A” evaporation pan or its equivalent. These valves are usually preset for a given pressure or flow rate and often cannot be adjusted or reset. These valves must be incorporated into the system design and not installed as an afterthought. and the valve opens or closes. Another method of flow control is the use of pressure or flow regulators at the inlet to each lateral or header feeding a small group of laterals. precise pressure control is not required at the inlets to volumetric valves. and the uniformity of pressure that can be achieved is limited only by practical design and installation considerations. Semiautomatic volumetric control valves can be placed at the head of each subunit. Both the operating time of each valve and the quantity of water distributed can be changed easily at the control panel. Volume can be controlled most simply with some automation by use of volumetric or mechanical timeclock valves. or by weather instruments. As each valve closes. the jumper tubes serve as fixed precision fluid resistors. In effect. Therefore. The use of volumetric valves does not dictate a special operating sequence. the next valve opens.

valves. After construction or repairs. Carbonate deposits can be removed by injecting 0. components should be lubricated according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. the system should be flushed systematically. The emitters and connections to the lateral hose. 7-19 . Checking the emitters. it must be hand cleaned daily during the irrigation. however. If frequent flushing is required. Determining when and how long to irrigate. Pipeline. The flow passage may slowly close as the compensating part wears out. Emitters should be cleaned. and pumps require little maintenance.-diameter tubing this is about 1. 2. The various methods of cleaning filters are discussed earlier in this chapter. beginning with the main line and proceeding to the submains. Before spring startup and during the irrigation season. Reliable performance of a trickle system depends on preventive maintenance that includes proper filtration. manifolds. Slow clogging causing partial blockage results from sediments. therefore. 6. but some water and emitter combinations require almost daily flushing to control clogging. The use of high water pressure to clean emitters is limited because getting enough pressure to the end emitters is virtually impossible. and field checks of mechanical devices. For %-in. 8. Operating the head valve to begin irrigation. automatic and semiautomatic flush- ing valv. beginning with pressure readings at the header. 5. With this treatment. Normally the filter is designed with 20 to 30 percent extra capacity.Operation a and Maintenance The manner of operating and maintaining all components determines the success or failure Of any trickle irrigation system. 3. Finally. The cleaning required depends on the emitter and the problem. precipitates.0 gpm.es are recommended at the ends of the laterals. A water velocity of about 1. and clay tend to settle in the lowvelocity section of the system. Unless the filter has an automatic backflushing system. 7. Closing the valves on all lines except the one being flushed allows a large flow of water. Some emitters can be disassembled and cleaned manually. 4. must be very strong to withstand the pressure. a contact time of 5 to 15 min in the emitters will normally suffice. replaced. organic deposits.5 to l-percent acid solution at manifold or lateral inlets. or mixtures of these. Normal precautions should be taken for drainage at winter shutdown and for filling in spring. at least on a random basis. Emitters receiving high concentrations of these fine contaminants are susceptible to clogging. The main lines and then the submains should be flushed one at a time with the manifold or riser valves turned off. periodic flushing is a recommended part of a good maintenance program. pipe flushing. silt. and the method is not effective for all types of clogging or on all emitters. Mechanical malfunction can also be a problem in flushing emitters. Air pressure of 5 to 10 atm applied at lateral inlets can remove jellylike deposits from long-tube emitters. Fine sand. Checking the system along all components for proper operation. Setting the chemical and fertilizer injection equipment. Annual flushing is enough for many systems. the lateral hoses should be connected and flushed for about an hour on each operating station. Accurately setting the hydraulic metering valve. Physical deterioration of parts is a concern with pressurecompensating emitters.0 ft/s is required to flush fine particles from lateral tubing. or repaired when emission uniformity (EU) drops 5 to 10 percent below the design uniformity or when the average emitter discharge (q& times EU/lOO is insufficient to satisfy the plants’ requirements for water. at the ends of manifolds and laterals. Operating a trickle system involves the following steps for the owner-operator: 1. The manifolds should be flushed with all the lateral riser valves turned off. Acid treatment may not be practical or 100 percent effective and obviously is ineffective for completely clogged emitters. Others can be manipulated and flushed to get rid of loose deposits. Systematic checking is required to spot malfunctioning emitters. Sulfuric acid should be used for iron precipitates. and laterals. Checking the water meter readings and recording the figures. Acquiring complete information and instructions from the designer and dealer.

treat as coarse to medium soils).8 4. Soil-Plant-Water Relationships.0 = 12. The most reliable way to determine A.2 x 6. by S: gives about the same area as.to 30-gallon container.) equal to the maximum expected diameter of the wetted circle and the optimum emitter spacing (S3 equal to 80 percent of that diameter.8 4.8 x 6.Soil-Plant-Water Considerations Trickle irrigation systems are designed and managed to deliver light. wetting pattern. that of a circular wetted area. is to conduct field tests in which test emitters are operated at a few representative sites in a field and the wetting pattern is checked. = A.0 x 5.8 2.0 4. The following equipment is needed to make a field test: 1. x s.2 x 4. ‘Most soils are layered.2 x 4. frequency. may be larger than the values shown. However.0 = 28. This emitter spacing gives a reasonably uniform and continuous wetted strip. = A. “medium” includes loamy sands to loams. generally medium density’ s. slope.0 = 20. As used here. at a depth of about 6 to 12 in. must be adjusted for trickle application.8 x 3. 7-20 .0 = 20. and frequency of irrigation are adjusted accordingly. The estimated A.-in.0 = 20.5 ft Coarse Medium fine Depth 5 ft Coarse Medium Fine Homogeneous s. A 20.6 x 7.2 Soil or root depth and soil textures Depth 2.8 4. l Table 7-2 gives estimates of A. National Engineering Handbook. may not be precise. 2.0 = 39. A 4-foot stand for the container.5 = 33.8 x 3. in various soils.8 2. x s. “For soils with varying layers and high density. Multiplying S. and horizontal layering of a soil.5 = 5 3. or both that gives higher horizontal than vertical permeability. generally low density s. “varying layers of low density” refers to relatively uniform texture but with some particle orientation.2 5.5 = 9.8 Varying layers.. 3.8 6. = A.0 3. x s.0 = 64. structure.J equal to the maximum expected diameter of the wetted circle and the optimum emitter spacing (S. Because of variation in texture.0 = 7.2 x 9.0 gph for daily or every-other-day irrigations.5 = 9. water application is based on moisture replacement in a small area of the soil.0 x 5. Area Wetted The area wetted (A.2 5. and vertical and horizontal water movement in the soil. the irrigation needs for depth. frequent applications of water that wet only a section of the soil. “varying layers of medium density” refers to changes in texture with depth as well as particle orientation and moderate compaction.0 x 2. and salinity controls are based on maximum moisture storage in the root zone. Table 7-2. (ft’) 2. The estimated A. B’Coarse” includes coarse to medium sands. Section 15. is given as a rectangle with the wetted width (S.8 4. a mathematical relationship to determine A.0 = 12.5 = 1.0 3. consumptive use.0 = 51. and “fine” includes sandy clay loam to clays (if clays are cracked. is given as a rectangle with the wetted width (S.0 x 5.4 x 3. w 1. The flow rate and volume of water applied in a test should be similar to the design values expected for the system under consideration. The table values are based on a common emitter flow rate of 1.2 2.0 x 2.2 x 1.5 = 16.) used in trickle irrigation lies along a horizontal plane about a foot below the soil surface.-Estimates of area wetted (A.0 = 28. This requires determining the wetted area. Under conventional flood and sprinkler water application.0 gph.8 x 6. to meet the objective of trickle irrigation.6 x 4. A lo-foot piece of %.0 ‘Based on an emitter flow rate of 1.)’ in various soils Kind of soil layers’ Varying layers. The values of water requirements. The irrigation procedures given in Chapter 1.$ equal to 80 percent of that diameter. the rate of application slightly exceeds the rate of consumptive use. (ft’) 2.5 = 5. some compaction layering.or jY. the A.8 7.4 x 8.-diameter tubing to attach to the bottom of the container.

Most soils have layers of various densities. textures. the A. Place the container on the stand. Plot the cross section and compute the wetted area.. The 1-gph emitter produced a wider wetted area than the emitters with higher flow rates. With many differences in the texture and high density of the soil layers.-Relationship between vertical and horizontal movement in a dry sandy soil for various amounts of and various application rates. 7. Values of A. the volume of soil wetted depends on the amount of water applied and is relatively independent of the application rate. Fill the container with the amount of water required to provide the expected design daily flow for an emitter. and 4 gph. 2. clay-textured desert soil was dry before the test. 2. 4.. (12 gal) Figure water water ‘I-19. The sandy. as in an irrigation program. A loo-ml graduated cylinder. 6. 7-21 . However. wait 2 or 3 days before checking the wetting pattern. The test is performed as follows: 1. Width inches Figure 7-19 shows the relationship between the maximum horizontal and vertical movement in a uniform sandy soil for various water-application rates. A shovel and soil auger. Light. Position the test emitter. daily applications minimize deep percolation losses but wet a smaller area. Water moves out laterally from the wetted surface area under a spray emitter. Dig a trench 12 to 18 in. without making field tests as described earlier is risky. Figure 7-19 shows that if too much water is applied. the area wetted would probably be larger for the higher flow rates. may be twice as large as the values given for a layered soil in table 7-2 but this can only be determined by actual field checks.4. and calibrate the test emitter by measuring its discharge when the water level in the container ranges from 7 to 4% ft. Release the daily flow requirement through the test emitter.. 3. in uniform soils. which is unusual. 7. 6. They are oRen used instead of drip emitters on coarse-textured homogeneous soils on which many drip emitters would be required to wet a sufficient area. assuming large values for A. or both. Figure 7-18 shows the wetting patterns for about 12 gal of water applied to dry sandy soil at rates of 1. Note that the vertical and horizontal wetting patterns are similar for the three rates with equal volumes of water applied. A watch with a second hand. greater than those given for uniform texture and low-density conditions should 0 0 O/ /“B 0 0 A 1 gph 2 wh 4 wh 100 120 OL 0 a--A. the water could easily move past the root zone depth.. Table 7-2 should be used only for estimation. deep through the test emitter location. The data points in the figure further demonstrate that. The 4-gph emitter did not cause ponding and the 1-gph emitter provided more time for horizontal water movement. intervals from the test emitter. Measure the width and depth of wetting at 6-in. 5. Figure 7-20 shows the comparison between wetting patterns and areas wetted under drip and spray emitters. 20 Moximum 40 Vertical 60 SO Movement-inches Figure 7-18. If the soil is very dry. I gph 2 gph 4 gph for 12 hr for 6 for 3 hr hr . Spray emitters wet a relatively large area of soil.-Wetting pattern of water applied at three rates profiles for equal volumes to a dry sandy soil. 5. With repeated wettings. A turbulent-flow emitter with a discharge rate about equal to the expected design flow rate.

P. bushes. pigtail.) Where A. and multiexit layouts. the P. = one-half the S: values for homogeneous soils (table 7-21. = perimeter of the area directly wetted by the test sprayers. = plant spacing in the row. In areas that receive supplemental rainfall. feet. feet. A.. with zigzag.S. For a trickle system with straight laterals of single drip emitters and emitter spacing (S. Wetting should be kept below 50 or 60 percent in widely spaced crops to keep the surface area between rows relatively dry for cultural 7-22 . If the layout is not designed for maximum wetting and S. of the root zone as a percentage of the total crop area. in equation 7-l must be replaced by Sk For trickle systems with double laterals or zigzag. S. can be computed by equation 7-3. For the greatest A.-Idealized wetting patterns in a homogeneous tine sandy soil under a drip and a spray emitter. the emission points should be placed at a distance equal to S: in each direction.be used with caution until they are checked in the field. For trickle systems with straight laterals of single drip emitters where S. p = e[A. designs that wet less than one-third of the horizontal cross-sectional area of the root system may be adequate for medium. of various soils has been determined.and heavytextured soils. and leaves no extensive dry areas between the double lateral lines. can be computed by equation 7-l. is greater than the optimum emitter spacing (S:) (80 percent of the wetted diameter. e = S. pigtail. = estimate of the soil surface area wetted per sprayer from field tests with a few sprayers. a reasonable design objective is to wet at least one-third and up to one-half of the horizontal cross-sectional area of the root system.) (7-2) The percent area wetted (P. + (MS: x PSI1 x 1oo w @. the two laterals should be placed apart at a distance equal to Sd. feet. feet). feet. spacing between emitters on a lateral. = -$+ P r x 100 (7-l) For double laterals. On sloping fields the wetting pattern distorts in favor of the downslope direction. The actual area wetted will be similar to that on flat ground but the distortion should be considered in the placement of emission points. S. p w = WS: + SW) x 1oo Percent Area Wetted 2(S. S. PS ?M: = (7-3) Where number of emission points per plant.=25 f? Deep Percolalion AW=Isott2 Figure 7-20. and trees. can be computed by equation 7-2. P. feet. = width of the strip that would be wetted by emitters on a lateral at Sd or closer. or multiexit layout. < S& then S: in equation 7-2 should be replaced by S. For a trickle system with spray emitters. = plant row spacing. square feet.S. On steep fields this distortion can be extreme. values provide more stored water and are easier to schedule. However. S. feet. the P. No single right or proper minimum value for the P. This spacing gives the greatest A. systems designed with high P.) is the average horizontal area wetted in the top 6 to 12 in. For widely spaced crops such as vines. with as much as 90 percent of the pattern on the downslope side.) equal to or less than optimum emitter spacing (SJ.

inches per foot... It is reasonable to assume in plotting figure 7-21 that the curve8 should start near zero for areas that have little or no rainfall and that production would increase rapidly with small increases in P. and minor losses are negligible. = percent area wetted. The average low-quarter depth infiltrated is the average of the lowest onefourth of measured or estimated values each representing an equal area of the field.& The F. 7-23 t / Q 0 0 I IO Percentow I 20 Soil Wetted. an irrigation usually replaces the !&. to the average depth of irrigation water applied. Currently data are too few to enable plotting specific curves for potential crop production VB.. and the application efficiency of the low quarter of the area are considered in determining the depth or quantity of water to be applied at each irrigation and the frequency of irrigation. is computed as a depth over the whole crop area and not just the area wetted (A. the average peak daily transpiration rate. When the average low-quarter depth of irrigation water infiltrated is equal to or less than the S. is favored for economic reasons... Figure 7-21 should be used cautiously because crop-soil-climate systems may vary widely. The management-allowed deficit (I&J is the desired soil-moisture deficit (Sm& at the time of irrigation.-Hypothetical percent area wetted. the amount of plant canopies.d plus leaching requirements.. = water-holding capacity of the soil. F mn = (MadmC)@ZDXP. The F.) as previously discussed..) is the depth of water needed to replace the soil moisture deficit (S. Meeting Irrigation Water Requirements - The concept of management-allowed deficit. the P. In arid areas. Average peak daily transpiration rate is a function of the monthly consumptive use rates.. With trickle irrigation the &. in which the vegetation intercepts radiation rays. Capital costs of a system increase with the size of the P.& when it is equal to the management-allowed deficit (Ma. The Mad is expressed as a percentage of the available moisture-holding capacity of the soil or as the corresponding &. In crops with rows spaced less than 6 ft apart.d is allowed to become much more severe before irrigation. relation of potential production to PW . for trickle irrigation can be computed by equation 74. Plant canopy is the area of land surface shaded. for systems providing full plant water requirements.. I 40 1 50 WHC RZD Figure ‘I-21. feet. the El.) (7-4) IO e Maximum Expected : 22 e % 25 Low Roinfoll Where Mad = percentage of management-allowed deficit. Figure 7-21 shows the relationship that may exist between potential production and P. so the smaller P. is equal to the field uniformity coefficient. Maximum Net Depth of Application The maximum net depth of application (F.. however. I 30 P. an irrigation may replace less than 100 percent of the Z&d to leave soil capacity for storing moisture from rainfall.+ In humid areas. Irrigation by sprinkler or flood systems is normally carried out when the Z& equals the Mad.. is the seasonal irrigation efficiency.d is the difference between field capacity and the actual moisture available at any given time. P. = depth of the soil occupied by plant roots. It is also reasonable to assume that production will peak before 100 percent of the area is wetted. The average seasonal El.) is the ratio of the average low-quarter depth of irrigation water infiltrated and stored in the root zone. related to the desired soil moisture stress for the crop-soil-water-weather system.. The application efficiency of the low quarter (El. or required for leaching. the &.practices and reduce evaporation losses. usually approaches 100 percent.

Irrigation Water Requirements. Agric. Cons. can be computed by equation 7-6. Soil. The relationship of Td to modified consumptive use values from Irrigation Water Requirements for trickle irrigation is expressed in equation 7-5.). U. inches per day.). P. is less than or equal to the maximum net depth of application (F. average daily consumptive-use rate for the month of greatest overall water use.). inches. percent. is equal to 1. then F. and to provide for leaching. Transpiration by the crop plants accounts for practically all the water consumed. Service.P&l Where u. and the leaching requirement ratio.5 and 5 ft deep in fine. for the month of greatest water use. and for crops with shallow root zones in medium-textured soils. 1967. Dep. are the peak-use-period transpiration ratio (TJ. The modification is expressed in terms of average peak daily transpiration rate (TJ. The consumptive use estimates developed from procedures in Irrigation Water Requirement9 require modification for trickle irrigation design. EU = lOO(1. minimum emitter discharge computed with the minimum pressure using the nominal relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head. days. gallons per hour. includes sufficient water to compensate for the system nonuniformity and unavoidable losses.+. for trickle irrigation systems is the net amount of moisture to be replaced at each irrigation to meet the consumptive use requirements. = maximum allowable irrigation interval. inches. is equal to 1.Consumptive Use Rate Under trickle irrigation. Technical Release 21..). = percent area shaded.10 for crops with medium root zones in gravelly soils and for crops with shallow root zones in coarse-textured soils. Net Depth of Application The net depth of application (F. inches per year. The T. 3. manufacturer’s coefficient of variation.S. T. qa = 7-24 . can be computed by replacing ud in equation 7-5 with the total crop consumptive use (U). The design emission uniformity (EU) is an estimate of the percentage of the average depth of application required by a system to irrigate adequately the least watered plants. inches per day. T. and for crops with root zones less than 2.. for crops with root zones between 2. inches.01 . The P.a e Where EU = = e = V %I = design emission uniformity.5 ft deep in finetextured soils. _average emitter discharge (of all the (7-7) a *Soil Conservation Service. = T& (7-61 Gross Water Application The gross amount of water to be applied at each irrigation. Equation 7-5 has not been thoroughly verified by field research. the emission uniformity. it is based on a logical analysis coupled with field observations and some field testing. to compensate for unavoidable deep percolation losses are: 1. is the ratio of the average peak daily transpiration rate (Td) to the total water applied. Td = ud[Ps + 0.-~ = (7-5) Where Td = If average peak daily transpiration rate for the mature crop. The EU can be computed by equation 7-7. however.05 for crops with deep root zones in gravelly soils.0 . number of emitters per plant (2 1). 2. inches per day. Seasonal Transpiration The seasonal transpiration rate (T.15(1. for crops with medium root zones in coarse-textured (sandy) soils. nonbeneficial use of water is reduced to a minimum. is equal to 1 for crops with roots deeper than 5 ft in all soils except very porous gravelly soils. is applied per irrigation.. F. can be estimated after determining the land area covered by the plant or tree canopy.and medium-textured soils. (F. Taken into consideration in F. Values of T. Normally F. If less than F. T.

= + 0.d). Fg = EU(1.1. LR.0 . to meet consumptive use requirements may be reduced by the effective rainfall during the growing season (R& inches. is a function of application uniformity.LR) Where (7-12) interval.0 . can be computed by equation 7-6a. . . feet. U use. leakage from the soil. EU = = leaching requirement emission uniformity. Gross Seasonal Depth of Application The gross seasonal depth of application (Fsg). When T. use the Tx values given in table 7-3. The E. values are needed to determine requirements for seasonal irrigation-water supplies and pumping. inches.623? Where S. Fb. (7-W > 0.) and seasonal irrigation efficiency (E. E. 7-25 . The higher Ta values given for humid areas account for untimely rainfall. can In using FCmj to make an economic analysis of pumping costs. per hour. and drainage. F. t = plant spacing. gallons Where = seasonal total crop consumptive inches.L%) (7-8b) 0 - The gross volume of water required per plant per day [Fw. line flushing.LR). can be computed by equation 743a and 7-6b.LR) to satisfy the leaching requirement. Fti. ratio. 1 l/(1. Such losses are due to untimely rains. E.0 . Seasonal Irrigation Efficiency The seasonal transpiration (T. E. feet. leaks.emitters under consideration).0 . percent. = plant row spacing. can be computed by equation 7-12. unavoidable deep percolation losses caused by wetting pattern and untimely rainfall.0-LR. should be used. the F. and losses resulting from poor irrigation scheduling.R. r 0. and W. are subtracted from seasonal consumptive use requirements. EU Ea = Ta(1. inches. The leaching requirement ratio (LRJ will be discussed later. The values R. P. c Ml. = percent area shaded.P&l (7-10) The Tn represents the minimum excess amount of water that must be applied to offset unavoidable deep percolation losses. probability of less rainfall should be analyzed.J or LR. inches.L&) and L& be computed by equation 7-6b. in gallons per day. or both while enough water is moving horizontally.0 . percent. can be computed by equation 7-11. The F. In determining irrigation water storage.1.0 Where F.dj = 0. and W. The F.=s When T. for trickle irrigation can be computed by equation 7-10. inches. The annual net depth of application [FcJ. (7-Q) When Ta > l/(1. = net depth of application. F Can) (u . losses from runoff. the F.WJp. can be computed by equation 7-13.=EU (7-11) F.15(1.). can be computed by equation 7-9. When the seasonal transpiration ratio (Ta) I l/(1.dj] is a value used in the design of emitter flow rate. With good system design and scheduling. = maximum allowable irrigation days. mean values for R. and residual stored soil moisture from off-season precipitation (WA.

F Fsg = E&1. but in high wind areas. the conversion should be made just before or during the low use or dormant season. In very young orchards conversions can be made at any time. daily irrigations are done almost as easily as weekly irrigations. Volume Seasonal The gross seasonal volume (Vi). Even without automation.0 ft Humid < 2.05 1.L&)E. the tree’s root system will then have time to adapt with Optimum moisture levels are easily maintained with a well-designed trickle irrigation system./lOO (7-14) little shock before the peak use period. There is little evidence that root anchorage is a problem under trickle irrigation where P.5 to 5. percent. every other day. acre-feet.20 1.10 1.00 1.05 ‘Seasonaltranspiration ratios (TR) are for drip emitters. acres. plant roots will extend beyond the trickle-irrigated area.10 1.0 “_” LR) Where F an = ES = LRt = Gross (7-13) annual net depth of application. If there is enough precipitation to wet the soil a few feet deep.25 1.00 1. conversions made during the peak use period can severely stress a mature orchard. 1 33 percent.10 1.5 ft 2. seasonal irrigation efficiency. The roots can seek and remain in a constant favorable environment. Conversely. seasonal irrigation efficiency.05 1.0 .15 Fine 1. It is also important to have a large enough volume of moist soil to promote root extension and water uptake. systems are often run daily.10 in arid climates. The root systems of most trees can adapt to the smaller wetted area in a few months. the plant roots undergo little shock or stress from irrigation. leaching requirement ratio.-Seasonal Climate zone and root depth transpiration ratios for arid and humid regions with various soil textures and rooting depths Very coarse 1.0 ft > 5. This root activity is important. It is important to wet a relatively large part of the potential root system to ensure some degree of safety (moisture reserve) in case of temporary system failure. leaching requirement ratio. percent. FanA 12(1. it may account for a significant amount of the water and nutrient uptake. or twice weekly depending on crop needs and agronomic practices. inches.00 1. For spray emitters add 0.15 1.10 a Arid <2.20 1.00 1.25 1. Vi = Where F an A ES LR = = = = annual net depth of application.10 1.05 1. Under frequent irrigation.5 to 5.05 1.5 ft > 5.0 ft 2. Optimum Moisture Levels Plant Response Plant response is about the same to trickle irrigation as to other methods of irrigation.05 to Ta in humid climates and 0.05 1. inches.10 1. of irrigation water required for an acreage under a trickle system can be computed by equation 7-14. Even mature orchards that have been irrigated by sprinkle or surface irrigation methods can be converted to trickle irrigation.0 ft 1. Therefore. area under the system. any root extension that resulted from natural precipitation would be helpful. 7-26 . Thus.05 1.35 Tnl for indicated soil texture Coarse Medium 1. 0 Table 7-3.

min EC. Crop Tolerance and Yield maintain a slight but nearly continuous downward movement of water to control the salts. Knowledge of the electrical conductivity of the irrigation water (EC&. can be estimated by equation 7-15. A light rain can leach these accumulated salts down into the zone of extensive root activity and thereby severely injure plants. the ratio of the equivalent depth of the drainage water to the depth of irrigation water. supplemental applications by sprinkler or surface irrigation may be necessary to prevent critical levels of salt buildup. in determining LR. but it is impossible to avoid having some areas of salt accumulation. which are usually pushed toward the fringes of the wetted soil mass during the irrigation season. Supplemental applications are especially important where irrigation water is saline or where annual crops may be planted in the salty fringe areas of previous years’ wetted patterns. and growth would stop. By applying more water than the plants consume. When irrigations are infrequent. percent. and 50-percent reductions in yield.).. Y= EC. additional irrigation water must be applied for leaching.min EC. can . per year. Applying frequent light irrigations keeps the salt concentration in the soil water to a minimum.e. and the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (EC& mmhos per centimeter. for various crops that is caused by salinity in the trickle irrigation water when EC. i. Harmful soluble salts must be removed from the crop root zone in irrigated soils if high crop production is to be sustained. if the entire root zone were at this salinity. 7-27 . Frequent sprinkler irrigation might give similar results. lo-. The most critical zones of accumulation are along the fringes of the wetted surface (fig. Furthermore. The min EC. the daily irrigations should include enough extra water to For high-frequency Y will be zero.1. irrigation. The minimum (min) and maximum (max) EC. can then be computed by equation 7-16. x 100 max EC. because only a part of the soil area is wetted and needs leaching under trickle irrigation. most of the salts can be pushed or leached below the root zone. the effects of R. These values were extrapolated from test data that gave 0-.Salinity Control All irrigation water contains some dissolved salts. Table 7-4 gives values for min and max EC. is used. (7-15) Trickle irrigation affords a convenient and efficient method of frequent irrigation that does not wet the plant leaves. the leaching requirement ratio (LR. is the theoretical level of salinity that would reduce yield to zero. almost always be neglected. for meeting average consumptive use. With poor-quality water. but saline water causes leaf burn and defoliation of sensitive plants. > min EC. and therefore the salts remain diluted. Most of the natural precipitation available has been accounted for in average annual effective rainfall (Rk. Leaching Requirement if EC. With good-quality water. If the leaching requirement ratio (LRJ is more than 0. are useful in estimating leaching requirements under trickle irrigation. and LR. yields may be better with trickle irrigation because of the continuous high moisture content and daily replenishment of water lost by evapotranspiration.. 25-. Therefore. for various crops.J. . yields with trickle irrigation should be equal to or slightly better than those with other methods under comparable conditions. mmhos per centimeter. the salts become more concentrated as the soil dries. 7-20). The max EC. In arid regions where salinity is a major problem. in arid areas very little of the R. In determining the requirements for trickle irrigation to supply leaching water. If rainfall is less than 6 to 10 in. The theoretical reduction in yield (Y). the plants would not extract water. . Salts that accumulate below the emitters can be flushed down continuously by irrigations properly applied daily or every other day. Daily applications and sufficient leaching keep the salt concentrations in the soil water at almost the same level as that in the irrigation water because there is little drying between irrigations. This hazard can be minimized by operating the trickle system during any rainy period to wash the salts down and out of the root zone. is the maximum concentration of salinity at which yields are unimpaired. helps satisfy the leaching requirement. I min EC. is useful in determining crop tolerance to an irrigation water.

0 U.0 10 10 12 8.5 1.7 1.5 2.8 2.5 Cantaloupe 2.0 6 12 7 7 6 6 6 5.5 15 13. for various crops’ EC. 1976.5 8 6.2 1.8 12 carrot Potato 1.5 4 4.3 1.5 1.7 1. olive Pomegranate Grapefruit Orange Lemon Apple. Org. max EC. and D.5 1.0 1. Note: Min EC&does not reduce yield. Westcot.5 12. tion and Drainage Paper 29. .5 1..5 9 9 7. eliminates yield.7 32 14 14 8 8 8 8 8 6.3 1.8 1.S.0 1.7 1.7 1. 24 20 18 Corn Flax Broadbean Cowpea Bean 1. R. pe= Walnut Peach Vegetable crops Beets Broccoli Tomato Cucumber EC.5 1.5 1.5 10 Sweet corn Sweet potato Pepper Lettuce 1. Irriga- 10 10.W.0 2.3 1.2 1.0 7.7 1.6 1.7 10 Bean ‘Taken from Ayers. (mmhos/cm) Min MaX Crop Field crops Barley Cotton Sugarbeet Wheat Sorghum Fruit and nut crops Date palm Fig.2 16 Radish Spinach 2.5 Apricot Grape Almond Plum Blackberry Boysenberry Avocado Raspberry Strawberry 1.5 8.N.0 15 Onion Cabbage 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.7 1. (mmhos/cm) Min MaX Crop 8. Water Quality for Agriculture.Table ‘I-4. Food and Agric.-Minimum (min) and maximum (max) values of EC.5 6.7 i.8 4:o i.5 t*!: 2:7 1.

In trickle irrigation. or tortuous flow paths. for net LN = annual leaching requirement seasonal application.O . 9.LRJ. F ml = annual net depth of application. centimeter. Chemical treatment to dissolve mineral deposits. 6. Permitted variations of pressure head. The actual LR. by emitter variation within manufacturing tolerances. 2. 8. and farm operation schedules following instructions in Chapter 3. National Engineering Handbook. 7-29 . Use of secondary safety screening. Uniformity of application depends on the uniformity of emitter discharge. 10. A checklist of procedures in designing a trickle irrigation system follows. 3. of the mmhos per Once F. for high-frequency. = electrical conductivity effluent.Design Procedures (7-16) Where net leaching requirement for net application per irrigation. and by clogging. inches. preferably by sprinkle or surface irrigation. Incorporation of flow monitoring. The primary objective of good trickle-irrigation-system design is to irrigate adequately the least-watered plant. If they do. = net depth of application. Degree of flow or pressure control used.” It is important to understand the meaning of the value calculated for LR. = electrical conductivity water. The pressure is dissipated by small-diameter orifices. The LR. Include information on soils. Allowance for temperature correlation for long-path emitters. or in earlier sections of this chapter. mmhos per centimeter. long tubes. L. 7. daily. mmhos per centimeter. Some important design criteria that affect efficiency and performance of trickle systems are: 1. and nothing comes from in between. A general knowledge of the emitter design theory for the various pressure-dissipation methods helps in selecting an emitter design. crops. Relationship between discharge and pressure at the pump or hydrant supplying the system. out. Allowance for reserve system capacity or pressure to compensate for reduced flow from clogging. topography. or F. power source. inches. Equation 7-16 is based on a steady salt balance or. 2. Planning Farm Irrigation Systems. = A step-by-step procedure is normally followed in designing a trickle irrigation system..= Where EC. Some of the steps are discussed in other chapters of Section 15. Design Criteria Emitters dissipate the pressure in the pipe distribution network as the water flows from the lateral hoses into the atmosphere. Inventory available resources and operating conditions. may be needed. “what goes in must come in popular terminology. Determine water requirement to be met with LR. The calculated LR should be adequate to control salts unless they already exceed the crop’s tolerance.0 . Base operating pressure used. of the irrigation EC. Nonuniform discharge is caused by pressure differences resulting from friction loss and elevation. 1. It represents the minimum amount of water (in terms of a fraction of the applied water) that must pass through the root zone to prevent salt buildup. F. 4. short tubes. Efficiency of filtration. water is carried in a pipe network to the points where it infiltrates the soil. = 2(max ECJ ECw (7-17) electrical conductivity saturated soil extract. Irrigation. inches. however. a series of orifices. the total net water requirement may be computed by FJ(l. can be determined only by monitoring soil salinity.LRJ or FJ(l. is determined. or alternate-day irrigation can be computed by equation 7-17. vortex chambers. of the drainage EC&.. an initial heavy leaching. water supply. 5. inches.

3. Select and design emitters. spacing.) for the desired emission uniformity NJ). Initially. and other planning considerations. emitter discharge. 10.) and the emitter reliability (resistance to clogging and malfunctioning). Possible range of suitable operating pressures. and instructions for proper layout. Lower initial installation costs and water savings can be achieved by installing the number of emitters required for each stage of growth. 7. A reasonable design objective is to have enough emission points to wet at least one-third and up to one-half of the potential horizontal cross section of the potential root system. 3. 9. Discharge rate variations caused by emitter variation within manufacturing tolerances. water quality. Also to be evaluated is the effect a particular emitter will have on the cost of the main line and filtration system. Stability of discharge-pressure relationship over a long period. The choice of emitters depends not only on emitter physical characteristics. Some emitter characteristics that affect efficiency are: 1. siltation. 6. Determine requirements for chemical fertilizer equipment. and user preference. diameter of laterals. but the density of emission points required to obtain P. Determine appropriate type of trickle system. Operating the system with less than the ultimate number of emitters usually affects the uniformity of application. but also on emitter placement. schedules. and terrain of a particular location. Determine required sizes of main-line pipe. plant water requirement. Plan field evaluation. This process is one of the most critical factors in the design of a trickle irrigation system. 4. the emitters offering the more desirable features and lower system risks have a higher unit cost. Emitter design and selection procedures require an assessment of discharge. Prepare drawings. cost estimates. relationship to 2. The water required for plant growth increases until the plant reaches its peak-use growth stage. as discussed in Soil-Plant-Water Considerations in this chapter. Determine maximum and minimum operating conditions. Determine appropriate filter system for site conditions. The choice of a particular emitter should follow a detailed evaluation that includes emitter cost and system risks. System efficiency depends on the emitter selection and the design criteria. It is not simply a matter of following a checklist of instructions. Closeness of discharge-pressure design specifications. Emitter discharge exponent. higher water-use effi- 7-30 . 6. the longer the system can be down or an emitter can be plugged before the plants become excessively stressed. Select pump and power unit for maximum operating efficiency within the range of operating conditions.) requirements. Pressure loss on lateral lines caused by the connection of emitters to the lateral. The initial pipe network. Check pipe sizes for power economy. type of operation.a trickle system. Emitter Selection Criteria Selecting emitters requires a combination of objective and subjective deduction. spacing. The two most important items in emitter selection are the percent area wetted (P. The greater the P. 11. 12. or buildup of chemical deposit. (3) determine the average emitter discharge (qJ and pressure-head (h. L 33 percent can usually be based on a 1-gph emitter discharge rate by using the procedures described under Area Wetted. (2) choose the specific emitter needed to meet the required discharge. however. and lateral lines. specifications. and (4) determine the allowable subunit pressure-head variation (AH. There is some interaction between the emitter discharge rate and area wetted per emission point. and the type of emitter to be used. Determine capacity requirements of the system. and maintenance. manifold.. operation. 5. Generally. it requires the designer to reason because the various decisions required are interrelated. The best choice is a balance between (1) higher installation costs and lower water-use efficiency and (2) lower installation costs. 4. 7. 8. 13. Selection requires four steps: (1) evaluate and choose the general type of emitter that best meets the need in the area to be wetted. Susceptibility to clogging. emitter selection depends on the soil. must be designed to meet the needs of the mature plant. 5.

Long-path emitters. and added installation costs at a later date. Velocities of about 14 to 20 ft/s through the emitter passageway also reduce clogging. Because there are so many emission points within a field. line-source tubing fits well with the cropping pattern because it provides the linear wetted strip desired. Ideally.05 to 2. The longpath emitters do not clog as much if velocities are high.060 in. Two characteristics that are a guide to clogging sensitivity are flow-passage size and water velocity in the passageway of the emitter.02 to 0. and tends to clog easily. Some emitters have a flushing feature to reduce clogging sensitivity. Linesource tubing is usually rated at less than 15 psi.ciency.or multiple-outlet emission points. The cost of emitters is not proportional to the number of outlets. When the emitter clogs. and a flow capacity of 0. Emitter discharges usually are rated at a temperature of 68°F and a pressure of 15 to 30 psi. Dual-outlet emitters are often used on vines. Sensitive.5 to 2. distribution tubing is generally used to deliver the water from the emitter to the desired discharge location.01 to 0. These small passageways make all emitters susceptible to clogging and require careful filtration of all the irrigation water.0 gph. where each tree may require several emission points. As well as fitting in with the intended cropping pattern. A long-path emitter has a flow cross section of about 0.008 to 0. even a small difference between the actual and desired discharge rates can add up to a significant difference in pump and pipe-sizing requirements. Emission devices are available that will emit water at individual point locations or along the length of a line. For instance. Emitter sensitivity to clogging may be classified by minimum passageway dimension as: 1. an emitter’s flow channel must be about 0.024 in. and (3) have relatively large passageways or be self-flushing to reduce clogging. (2) discharge at a relatively low rate that does not vary significantly between emitters because of variation within manufacturing tolerances. Cost is especially important in row-crop trickle irrigation because the density of the crop requires a large amount of line-source tubing. Filtering to remove particles 10 or more times smaller than the emitter passageway is a typical recommendation. expected differences in pressure head resulting from friction loss and elevation. Thus. or expected changes in temperature. An orifice emitter has a flow cross section of about 0. emitters should (1) be long lasting and inexpensive. for a minimum passageway dimension of 0. General Suitability General emitter suitability means how well the emitter fits into the particular design and matches the size and water requirements of the crop. it must be kept upright in the field. For row crops such as strawberries or vegetables. a dual-outlet emitter is probably more expensive than an otherwise comparable single-outlet emitter but less expensive than two single-outlet emitters. Some flushing-type emitters require less filtration. Emitters also can provide linear wetted strips for row crops. The point source devices come with single or multiple outlets. Very sensitive.028 to 0. and multiple-outlet emitters are generally used in orchards. the emitting system chosen must be able to deliver the right flow rate at the right pressure. for a minimum passageway dimension greater than 0. The continually flushing emitters have a series of orifices in a resilient material to dissipate the pressure. emitters with more outlets are generally less expensive per outlet.055 in. using either automatic flushing valves or valves connected to a separate pressure source so that all lateral ends can 7-31 . Recent experience with line-source tubing has shown that clogging can be significantly reduced by regularly flushing the lateral. 3. for a minimum passageway dimension of less than 0.060 in.023 in. line pressure builds up behind the particle and forces the orifice to expand and let the particle pass through. Capabilities range from allowing flushing at startup and shutdown to allowing flushing continually. Single-outlet emitters can be used to water small individual areas or can be arranged around larger plants to provide dual. and a flow capacity of 0.10 in. These goals are not easily met in the design of an emitter because they are contradictory to a certain extent. 2. may still require filtering of even the smaller particles to prevent clogging. Relatively insensitive. Sensitivity to Clogging For the low discharge rates required in trickle irrigation.5 gph. With more than one outlet. If the flushing control mechanism depends on gravity. which have the largest passageways for a given flow rate.

shape. In such 7-32 .12 gph. As a general guide. n emitter coefficient turing variation.06 (which is average) and q = 1. The amount of difference to be expected varies with the emitter’s design.05 excellent 0. The greater the sensitivity. Where V A lower standard is used for line-source tubing because it is difficult to keep both the variation and the price low. manufacturing variation can be classified as: Drip and spray emitters v I 0. About 95 percent of the discharge rates fall within (1 f 2v)q. Of course local user experience based on the sensitivity to clogging of the various emitters in use locally is also a good gage of filtration requirements.be flushed by turning one valve. The average of the low 25 percent of the discharge rates is about equal to (1 . The value of v can be computed by equation 7-18. 95 percent of the discharges can be expected to fall within the range of 0. and such materials are inherently difficult to prepare with consistent dimensions and characteristics. rate of the gallons per deviation of of the sam- It is impossible to manufacture any two emitters exactly alike. flushing provides an added safety factor for continual operation of a system.) is a useful concept because more than one emitter or emission point may be used per plant. The value of v should be available from the manufacturer. 4. Essentially all the observed discharge rates fall within (1 f 3v)q. some emitters use an elastomeric material to achieve a pressure-compensating or flushing ability. Clearly an easy way to ascertain an emitter’s sensitivity to clogging is to consider the manufacturer’s recommendations for filtration. Thus.88 to 1. Also.92 gph.10 < v I 0. S = = average discharge emitters sampled.. gallons per number of emitters of manufacdischarge-rate hour.0 gph. and care with which it is manufactured.15 poor 0. Manufacturing Variation s. 2. Even where goodquality water is used. 3.27v)q.07 < v I 0. About 68 percent of the discharge rates fall within (1 f v)q. and surface finish that do occur are small in absolute magnitude but represent a relatively large percent variation. or it can be estimated from the measured discharges of a sample set of at least 50 emitters operated at a reference pressure head. the finer the filtration should be. unbiased standard the discharge rates ple. The system coefficient of manufacturing variation (v.20 0.20 < v good average poor to unacceptable =Jq:+q:.11 < v I 0. materials used in its construction. The emitter coefficient of manufacturing variation (v) is used as a measure of the anticipated variations in discharge in a sample of new emitters. hour.07 average 0. in sample. and row crop production is relatively insensitive to moderate variations in closely spaced water application. in which: 1.. qz * * f g. and the average discharge of the low 25 percent will be about 0. The variations in passage size. because the discharge rates for emitters at a given pressure are essentially normally distributed. for an emitter having v = 0.1. individual emitter values.10 0. The physical significance of v is derived from the classic bell-shaped normal distribution curves.11 marginal 0. This practice should be considered for all emitter laterals. The small differences between what appear to be identical emitters cause significant discharge variations.15 < v unacceptable Line-source tubing v I 0.05 < v I 0. System Coefficient of Manufacturing Variation = = = q1. v=S q +qi--n@VJn-1 (7-18) The v is a very useful characteristic with rather consistent physical significance. especially if nonflushing emitters are selected. the outlets are normally closely spaced.

and the desirability of an emitter that has a discharge-pressure curve with a low x is clear. e ’ is equal to 1. the variation in the total volume of water delivered to each plant is less than might be expected from considering v alone. the variations in operating pressure head within the system are often kept to within f5 percent of the desired average. and e’ is the number of outlets. and v.e. The practicality of using emitters of more than one size in the field should to be assessed. The v. Compensating emitters have a low x. Compensating emitters provide an immediate solution. on the average. the emission uniformity. low-discharge devices. i. 7-lo). their long-range performance requires careful consideration. Therefore. field dimensions and cultural practices affect the maximum length of run.-Discharge changes for emitters with from pressure exponents (x). Some variation between emitters in the area1 depth applied is acceptable. however. each plant may receive its water from two outlets. can be computed by equation 7-19. doubling the pressure doubles the discharge. however. If one common loss element serves several outlets.. is a property of the trickle irrigation system as a whole. the change in discharge varies with the square root of the pressure -3ov -30 -20 ’ Variation I -10 in Pressure variations various I 0 I IO Head-Percent resulting discharge I 20 30 I Figure 7-22. and the terrain. even on smooth fields. then the emitter is really multiple emitters in a single’housing. The emitter discharge exponent (x) measures the flatness of the dischargepressure curve. or both. must be kept reasonably short to avoid excessive differences in pressure. The lateral length. = Where V w (7-19) = emitter coefficient variation. e’ = minimum number or 1 if one emitter one plant. since they all have some physical part that responds to pressure. Relation of Pressure to Discharge The relation between changes in pressure head and discharge is a most important characteristic of emitters. Emitters of various sizes may be placed along the lateral to meet pressure variations resulting from changes in elevation. The compensating emitters usually have a high coefficient of manufacturing variation (v). the emitter selected. but differences in distribution of soil moisture are likely to be unacceptably great when the depth of application varies by more than 2:l between points 3 ft or farther apart. the relation between the discharge and the operating pressure is linear. Sprayers must apply a relatively uniform depth of water to the directly wetted soil surface. If multioutlet emitters with small-diameter distribution tubing are used (fig. One emitter might have a high flow rate and another would probably have a low flow rate. In turbulent-flow emitters. the variations in flow rate for each emitter around the plant partly compensate for one another. is shared by more than Line-source systems may have only one outlet per plant. In laminar-flow emitters. V of manufacturing of emitters per plant. the lateral pattern. Figure 7-22 shows this relationship for various types of emitters.an instance. It should be emphasized that v is a property of the emitter alone. Factors affecting the maximum length of run are the flow rate per plant. In some installations. material fatigue. the proper value of e ’ depends on the design of the individual emitter. and their performance may be affected by temperature. On undulating terrain the design of a highly uniform system is usually constrained by the pressure sensitivity of the average emitter. 7-33 . v. because of the close spacing of outlets. If there is a separate pressure-loss passageway for each outlet. which include the longpath.

the uniformity of the discharge may also change.4. x = 0. Relation of Temperature to Discharge Stress cracking caused by emitter barbs’ stretching the lateral wall can be a problem. the pressure head in systems with turbulent-flow emitters is often allowed to vary by f10 percent of the desired average. Some emitters are designed so that their flow rate depends on the viscosity of the water. But the subsurface method is cost effective only when the emitter spacing is wide. pressure-compensating emitters) may be subject to variation in flow from a change in material characteristics caused by changing temperature. and x may be less than 0. if it ever became necessary to compensate for underdesign or for decreased emitter discharges resulting from slow clogging or emitter deterioration. Compensating emitters are valuable chiefly for use on hilly sites where designing for uniform pressure along the laterals and manifolds is impractical.5 Diameter 0. punched-out holes. Connection Losses 0 On -Line Barb Connection Size inches Standard 0. This potential hazard can be prevented by connecting on-line emitters to the lateral with barbs in properly sized. or where it provides agronomic advantages.5 may be termed “pressure compensating. The emitter-connection friction loss as an equivalent length of lateral (f.head. and the pressure must be increased four times to double the flow.2 0..g. resulting in cracks and leakage. and some compensating ability would also be maintained).) is a useful term in estimating loss from friction in laterals. especially if the lateral pipe lies in the sun. Therefore. and in extreme cases the emitters may blow out. on-line.2 In-Line The three main types of lateral connections are in-line. depends on the size and type of barb and on the inside diameter (ID) of the lateral. Figure 7-17 shows that the in-line connection has the simplest configuration.e. however.e.4 Inside 0. As the water moves through the system and changes temperature (usually warming). x = 0. values for in-line emitters and for on-line barbs of three different sizes as a function of the ID of the lateral. A small decrease in viscosity resulting from water warming as it flows toward the ends of laterals may partially compensate for the usual decrease in pressure.-Emitter-connection of barbs and inside diameters loss (fe) values of laterals for various sizes 0 7-34 . Emitters with parts made of resilient material (e. Most emitters are somewhat sensitive to water temperature because of dimensional changes in the flow passage.3 and 0. because increases in pressure would not increase flow. Absolute flow regulation might be undesirable. a 50-percent head differential would cause only a 13. In-line emitters should be provided with compression barbs or compression ring fittings.0.5. which changes with temperature. The f. Flow-compensating emitters regulate flow to various degrees. All tests were made with clean water at a standard temperature of 68 “F on new emission devices obtained from retail outlets. i. Excess stress causes premature aging at the joint.6 of Lateral-inches 007 Figure 7-23. flow is substantially regulated (i.” Pressure compensation is not a An emitter may be sensitive to water temperature for any of three reasons. When x ranges between 0.11 to 1.0. There is a temperature difference between the air and water in the pipe. 0. On-line-risers are used in subsurface applications. smooth-edged. If flow regulation is absolute. and on-line-riser.to l&percent variation in discharge. The emitter discharge exponents (x) for the devices tested ranged from 0.5. Figure 7-23 gives estimated f. Emitters having x values less than 0... A summary of the test results follows: 1. Performance Test data for a number of emitters are presented in table 7-5.

yes-or-no feature of emission devices; available devices had various degrees of compensation. 2. Measured emitter coeffkients of manufacturing variability (v) ranged from 0.02 to 0.40. Most devices seemed to be manufactured with a consistency of v z 0.06. 3. The temperature-discharge ratio CTDR) revealed a wide range of discharge sensitivity to water temperature. At an elevated temperature, some devices discharged as much as 21 percent less than normal, but one discharged nearly four times normal flow. Several devices, however, were relatively insensitive to water temperature. Generalizing from these data requires care. Emit-

ters of the same design may have quite different performance characteristics, depending on the materials used in their construction and the care and precision with which they were manufactured. Table 7-5 provides a useful guide for the probable characteristics and important features of the various types of emitters.
Discharge Exponent

The emitter discharge exponent (x) characterizes the flow regime and discharge-versus-pressure relationship of the emitter. The emitter discharge Cq), gallons per hour, for most emitters or sprayers can be computed by equation 7-20.

Table 7-5.-Test

characteristics

of emission devices1 TDR’ MFPDB Inches 0.024 (0.012, (0.012) 0.012 (0.012) 0.04 0.06 Flushing ability

Emission device’

X”

v4

113°F

149 “F

-

Orifice Vortex/orifice Multiple flexible orifices Ball & slotted seat Compensating ball & slotted seat Capped orifice sprayers Long path Small tube Spiral path Compensating Tortuous Short path Groove & flap Slot & disc Line source Porous pipe Twin chamber

0.42 0.7 0.7 0.50 0.49 0.15 0.25 0.56 0.53 0.70 0.80 0.75 0.65 0.40 0.20 0.50 0.65 0.33 0.11

0.07 0.05 0.07 0.27 (0.25) 0.35 0.09 (0.05) (0.05) 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.06 (0.08) 0.02 0.02 0.10

0.92
1.04 1.04 1.15 0.83 0.85 0.90 (1.03) (1.03) 1.08 1.16 1.19 (1.10) 1.19 1.11 1.40 1.08 1.00 1.06

0.88 1.07 1.07 1.21 0.79 0.81 0.89 (1.05) (1.05) 1.13 1.22 1.18 (1.15) 1.33 1.24 1.70 1.14 1.00 1.08

None Continuous Continuous Automatic Automatic Automatic Automatic None None None None Manual None None Automatic None None Automatic Automatic

0.039 0.039
0.031 0.028 (0.030) (0.030) 0.031 (0.039) 0.012 0.012

1.0 0.40 2.70 3.80 None 0.61 0.17 (1.05) (1.10) (Oils, None 0.47 (0.10) (1.04) (0.016) None (1.08) ‘Test data at a standard operating temperature of 68 “F. Numbers in parentheses are estimates. ‘Double entries indicate different devices of the same general type. *Emitter discharge exponent (eq. 7-20). ‘Emitter coeffkient of manufacturing variation (eq. 7-18). “Temperature-discharge ratio, the ratio of the emitter discharge at a temperature higher than 68 “F to that at 68 “F. EMinimum flow-path dimension-not meaningful with continuous flushing.

q = kdhx Where kd h

(7-20)

Types of Emitters
Long-Path Emitters Most of the head loss in a smooth long-path emitter (fig. 7-25) occurs in the long-flow-path section. The flow in this section is laminar. Laminar-flow emitters are quite sensitive to pressure differences in the trickle system. The length of the path needed for a required loss of head and a known discharge for a laminar-flow range in a long-path emitter with a circular cross section can be computed by equation
7-22.

= constant of proportionality (discharge coefficient) that characterizes each emitter. = working pressure head at the emitter or sprayer, pounds per square inch.

The x for the discharges at two operating pressure heads can be determined by equation 7-21.
x = 1% (eba)

(7-21) l = hgd’a = 98.6qv Where 1, = h = g d 4
V

hi!

(h,/h,)

(7-22)

Where Q19Q h,, h = emitter discharges, gallons per hour. = pressure heads corresponding to ql, G, respectively, pounds per square inch.

The x for the discharges at two operating pressure heads may also be obtained graphically by measuring the slope of the line connecting the two discharge values and respective pressure-head values plotted on log-log graph paper. Sample calculations.-Determine graphically the discharge exponent and discharge coefficient from discharge-versus-pressure head data for a vortex emitter, and find the head required to produce any given discharge. Given: Emitter discharges (q), at pressure heads (h): 1.00 gph at 10.0 psi, 1.34 gph at 20.0 psi. Find: Discharge exponent (x) and pressure head (h) at which q = 1.20 gph (fig. 7-24).

= = = =

length of the flow path in the emitter, feet. working pressure head of the emitter, feet. acceleration of gravity (32.2 ft/sa). flow cross-section diameter, inches. emitter discharge, gallons per hour. kinematic viscosity of water, square feet per second.

0 -

The spiral effects of flow at entrance and other irregularities in the long-path emitters create considerable turbulence. If turbulence exists, emitter head-loss characteristics computed by equation 7-22 would not be correct and the emitter should be evaluated as a tortuous-path emitter.

h-psi

e
the discharge Figure opened 7-25.-Cross section for easy cleaning. of a long-path emitter that can be

Figure 7-24.-Graphical exponent (x) in a sample

method for determining calculation.

7-36

Tortuousand Short-Path Emitters Tortuous-path emitters have relatively long flow paths. Pressure head loss is caused by a combination of wall friction, sharp bends, contractions, and expansions. Some tortuous-path emitters look similar to ordinary long-path emitters; however, their flow channel is typically shorter and the cross section is larger for the same discharge (9). Since the flow regime is almost fully turbulent, the q varies more nearly with the square root of the working pressure head (h) than with h itself. Short-path emitters generally behave like orifice emitters because the entrance characteristics (losses) dominate the flow in the short tube section. However, many short-path emitters are pressure compensating; this is explained under Compensating Emitters. Orifice Emitters The flow in orifice emitters is fully turbulent. Many drip and spray emitters and single-chamber line-source tubing are classified as orifice emitters. In a nozzle or orifice emitter, water flows through a small-diameter opening or series of openings where most of the pressure head loss takes place. The discharge of the orifice emitter (q), gallons per hour, can be computed by equation 7-23. q = 187ac,ZZglF Where a = flow cross section, square inches. cq = coefficient that depends on the characteristics of the nozzle; cq ranges from 0.6 to 1.0. g = acceleration of gravity (32.2 ft/s’). h = working pressure head of emitter, feet. Twin-Chamber Tubing (7-23)

h’ = working pressure head of the secondary chamber, feet. Normally, the main and secondary chambers of twin-chamber tubing are the same diameter, and there are three to six orifices in the secondary chamber for each orifice in the main chamber. The h’ of the secondary chamber can be computed by equation 7-25.

h’=
Where m =

1 + ms

h

number of orifices in the secondary chamber per orifice in the main chamber.

Vortex Emitters and Sprayers The vortex emitter or sprayer has an orifice containing a circular cell that causes vertical flow. The entrance of the water tangent to the inner wall causes the water to rotate rapidly, resulting in a vortex in the center of the cell. Consequently, both the resistance of the flow and the head loss are greater in the vortex emitter than in a simple orifice of the same diameter. Vortex emitters can be constructed to give an approximate discharge (q), gallons per hour, that can be computed by equation 7-26. q = 187ac,flg Where a = flow cross section, square inches. of the % = coefficient for characteristics orifice; about 0.4. g = acceleration of gravity (32.2 ft/$). h = working pressure head of emitter, feet. The cq value of about 0.4 gives a discharge of about one-third of the flow of a simple orifice of the same diameter. Therefore, for the same discharge and pressure head, the entrance diameter of a vortex emitter can be about 4, or 1.73, times larger than that of a simple-orifice emitter. Compensating Emitters Compensating emitters (fig. 7-16) are constructed to yield a nearly constant discharge over a wide ho.4 (7-26)

Most of the pressure head loss in twin-chamber tubing (fig. 7-15) occurs in the inner orifice. The q of twin-chamber tubing can be computed by equation 7-24. q = 187ac,&?g(h Where h = working pressure head of the inner main chamber, feet. - h’) (7-24)

7-37

m’ = the number of orifices in series in the emitter. The emitter discharge (q). This behavior is typical of the compensating type. As shown in figure 7-26. Often emitter sizes are given in terms of a rated average discharge at some standard pressure head along with a discharge exponent. A peculiar problem of compensating emitters is that the resilient material may distort over a period of time and gradually squeeze off the flow.2 ft/s*). In continuous-flushing emitters.JZg Where hx (7-27) Where a = flow cross section area. feet. For continuous-flushing emitters that have a series of rigid orifices. q = 187ac.-Cross section of a continuous-flushing emitter.range of pressures. 7-38 . gallons per hour. square inches.0. Both long-path or short-path and orifice-type compensating emitters are available. the orifice is sensitive to pressure changes and the orifice material is sensitive to temperature. square inches. ranges from 0.7 (7-28) a = % = Emitter Operating Characteristics Discharge The recommended operating range and the relationship between average emitter discharge (9. Orifice and tube diameters at each given pressure should be computed as shown. even though pressure remains constant. h = working pressure head of the emitter. For emitters with flexible orifices that tend to expand under pressure. onoff flushing and continuous flushing. can be computed by equation 7-28. The first step in determining the volume of the emitter discharge is to select an emitter that has a rated discharge (or the discharge at the midpoint of Figure 7-26.JZ (h/m’)o.0. g = acceleration of gravity (32. % = coefficient that depends on the characteristics of the orifice. On-off-flushing emitters (fig. then shut off. Continuous-flushing emitters are constructed so that they can eject relatively large particles during operation by using a series of relatively largediameter flexible orifices to dissipate pressure. g = acceleration of gravity (32. q = 187ac.6 to 1. can be computed by equation 7-27 for orifice and short-tube compensating emitters. q can be computed by equation 7-29.2 ft/#). an approximate discharge (q). varies from 0. coefficient for characteristics of the emitter. feet. particles larger than the orifice diameter are ejected by localized pressure buildup as they reach each flexible orifice. gallons per hour.) and pressure should be available from the emitter’s manufacturer. but the diameters change with pressure.5 to 0. Flushing Emitters There are two types of self-flushing emitters. q = 187acq4@iGP (7-29) flow cross section. X = discharge exponent. h = working pressure head of the emitter. 7-16) flush for only a few moments each time the system starts operating. depending on the characteristics of the flow section and the resilient material used.

From field test data EU.8 hr/day. or II and IV. When the preliminary value of T. it may be desirable to use another emitter or a different number of emitters per plant to enable operating closer to 90 percent of the time and thereby reduce investment costs. select a reasonable T. The nonoperation time is a margin of safety for system failure or other unexpected down time. the emitter discharge would need to be increased above the rated discharge. hours per day. 2. gallons per day. the variation expected in emission rates must be estimated by some analyti- 7-39 . 5 21.. The h.6 hr/day). either larger emitters or more emitters per plant are required. ha = (Px Where b X = constant of proportionality (discharge coefficient) that characterizes each emitter.J. percent. The time of application (T. for the gross volume of water required per plant during the peak use period can be computed by equation 7-30.8. e The maximum number of hours of operation per day should not exceed 90 percent of the available time (i. 3. and compute a new e. To determine N. operatine simultaneously. between 12 and 21. gallons per hour. < 18. = gross volume of water required per plant per day during the peak use period.the recommended range) that appears to be appropriate for the system. E 10.-Typical two-station split-flow layout for trickle irrigation system with Blocks I and III. and adjust ~a accordingly. Average Pressure Normally. I 10. gallons per hour. = (7-32) Manifold i L Laterals With Emitters l Block I II Block I N d Figure 7-27. select T. If the increased discharge exceeds the recommended range or requires too much pressure. the basic emitter discharge equation needs to be modified. For determining the average emitter pressure head (h.. published data for the emitter are a series of pressure heads vs. discharges.e. gallons per hour. values are: 1. In the design phase. The qa should be large enough to supply the crop needs during the period of peak use when operating about 20 hr per day. can be computed by equation 7-32.6 hr/day. If T.6 hr/day. use a one-station system (N = l). 21. It may be necessary to analyze the system by number of stations @I) to apply water within 21. computed by equation 7-30 is greater than 21. gallons per hour. = average of all the field-data emitter discharges. EU = 100 &I& Where sl: average discharge of the lowest 25 percent of the field-data discharge readings. Emission Uniformity Emission uniformity (EU) from all the emission points within a trickle irrigation system is important because it is one of the major components of irrigation efficiency. use N = 2.6 hr/day (fig. select T. 7-27). but small enough so that it does not cause runoff. If 12 < T.6 hr/day (even for a single-station system). = number of emitters per plant. (7-31) Where Ftiid. = emitter discharge exponent. and adjust a accordingly. feet. for a given discharge can be computed by equation 7-31. Examples of decision strategies for other preliminary T. Let ~a be equal to the rated discharge of the selected trial emitter. If T.6 hr/day. = 21.). Fwd) Ta = eq. for a desired average discharge (qJ.

based on the nominal flow rate-vs. emission discharge coefficient (x) = 0. = system coefficient of manufacturing variation (eq.91 gph. and aging of emitters. and manufacturer’s coefficient of variation (v) = 0. This gives a subunit head-loss ratio of 0.. The uniformity of amounts of water emitted throughout a subunit is determined by the EU. Trickle irrigation design.27 -&)E (7-33a) qa = sure curve. such as full or partial clogging. Glendora. In figure 7-29 the region of emitter discharges is bounded on the sides by the minimum and maximum pressures in the subunit. The allowable pressure-head variation (AH. The particular example depicted is for a subunit on a level field with constant-diameter manifolds and laterals in which AH.27v. The factor in the middle adjusts for the additional nonuniformity caused by anticipated manufacturing variation between individual emitters.cal procedure. can be known. This scheme seems reasonable for evaluating trickle irrigation. This process treats below-average emission rates as more important than those above average and treats the lowest emission rates as more important than those somewhat below average.25. D. v.0 . a group of laterals. in the subunit on a level field is caused by the friction loss. Allowable Pressure-Head Variation EU = lOO(1. changes in water temperature. an estimate of EU can be computed by equation 7-33a or 7-33b: EU = lOO(1. 133 pp. or a single lateral. The manufacturer should provide information about the relation of pressure to rate of emission and also about manufacturing variation for the emitter. it is not practical to consider in a formula for EU all the influencing factors.1.. because loss of pressure is greatest in the first part of constantdiameter manifolds and laterals. It is not possible to look at a design and compute or even satisfactorily estimate the unpredictable variations in emission rates these factors may cause. which gives the qa. The AH. Selecting the ideal design EU requires economic trade-offs. = 0. because all the emitters are operated for the same application time (TJ. Figure 7-29 shows an example of the combined effect of pressure-head and manufacturing variations on individual emitter discharges. (2) water and water-related costs. however. The basic concept and formulas for EU were initially published in studies by Keller and Karmeli. Corp. Four factors must be considered: (1) cost required to install systems with increased EU. The 100 is needed to convert the ratio to a percentage. is not midway between the extremes of pressure. The bottom and top of the region are bounded by the minimum and maximum discharge expected from a test sample of emitters at each possible operating pressure. = 10 ft when the pressure head (h& that gives the average or design emitter discharge rate (qa) is 40 ft. Other items. obtained from the manufacturer or by equation 7-18. in = minimum emission rate computed from the minimum pressure in the system.) is the pressure-head variation between emitters in a subunit that will give the design emission uniformity (ELI)..-pres- = “Keller. 1975. Unfortunately. Figure 7-28 is a schematic of the pressure-head distribution in a simple subunit. e’ = minimum number of emitters per plant. The subunit may be the manifold and attached laterals. which applies reduced amounts of water to the plant and irrigates only a part of the plant’s root zone.’ The basis of their formula is the ratio of the lowest emission rate to the average emission rate. 7-19).72. average or design emission rate.0 . The ratio of in to G expresses the relationship of minimum to average emission rate that results from pressure variation within the system. depending on where the pressure is regulated..033. The emitter characteristics are q. Calif. (3) sensitivity of crop yield and quality to non- - Q 740 . J. and Karmeli. underwatering is a greater hazard than overwatering. Rainbird Sprinkler Mfg. gallons per hour. gallons per hour. In trickle irrigation. The h.)z Where V (7-3313) coefficient of manufacturing variation of the emitter. Topographic data from the intended site and a hydraulic analysis of the proposed pipe network can give the needed information about expected variation in pressure. For a proposed design.1.

80-90 b. uniform topography. “[. = largest flow rate. 88-92 2. EU = emission uniformity. required to satisfy the design emission average or design emitter discharge rate. q.. steep or undulating topography.. uniform topography. sd = standard deviation. steep or undulating topography. determined from equation 7-30 and the system coefficient of manufacturing variation (v. For line-source tubing on annual row crops with: a. 40 h . t3sd 1 IO 20 PRESSURE 30 HEAD. = minimum emitter discharge rate. q. = pressure H.) for the selected emitter and layout. q. i. For emitters in closely spaced (< 6 ft) permanent and semipermanent crops with: a. but usually data are insufficient for such an analysis. 90-94 b. = allowable h. using the q. AH. and (4) market values of the crop. 741 .J can be determined by solving equation 7-33 for s. = pressure head that gives the q. uniformity.11 AH! 50 Figure 7-29. 84-90 3. pressure-head variation. h. uniform irrigation. steep or undulating topography.-Combined effect of pressure-head and manufacturing variations on discharges of individual emitters. 70-85 The minimum emitter discharge that will satisfy the desired EU value (q. 9. qn = minimum emitter discharge.e. = manifold inlet pressure head that gives the cg. uniform topography.Figure 7-28. 86-90 b. = pressure head that gives the average or design emitter discharge rate. For emitters in widely spaced permanent crops with: a.-Distribution of a pressure head in a subunit. An economic analysis of these factors can determine the optimal EU in any specific situation. h. For design purposes. = average or design emitter discharge rate. the recommended ranges of EU values to use in conjunction with equation 7-33 are as follows: 1. s = head.

Total System Capacity Knowledge of the total system capacity (Q. feet. equation 7-36 can be used. is too small for economic design purposes. Ae Q8 = 726NS. From h. for the selected emitter (h. can be determined from equation 7-20.s Where S. Decreases in q. By following the recommended design procedure. acres. hours.z P Pump Operating Time per Season The pump operating time per season (Qt). the AH. spacing between laterals.). on a lateral. feet. + AH. The need for frequent cleaning or replacement of emitters because of decreasing discharge rates can be prevented by designing the system with 10 to 20 percent extra capacity.) Where h. and h.and periodic-flushing emitters or increases in minor leakage from fatigue in emitters and tubing... computed by equation 7-14 and the total system capacity (Q.). S. discharge exponent (x). Qt = 5. = 726. = 726. feet. The system capacity for any emitter layout can be computed by equations 7-35a and 7-3513. Q.) while differentials in both pipe friction and elevation are included. feet. feet. (7-36) Maintaining the design EU requires keeping the pressure head between h. = distance between plant rows. = average or design emission rate.430+ (7-37) - 8 Where = field area. A decrease in discharge rate can be compensated for by operating the system either at a higher pressure or for a longer time during each irrigation application. For uniformly spaced laterals formly spaced emitters: that supply uniA e N % Some systems require extra capacity because of anticipated slow changes in average emitter discharge (q. or both. required to satisfy equation 7-30. (2) increase the number of emitters per plant (e). pressure head that will give the qn required to satisfy equation 7-33 with the design EU.The pressure head that gives g. S. = number of operating stations. gallons per minute.). gallons per hour. . = plant spacing in the row. = = pressure head that will give the q. is necessary to design an economical and efficient pumping plant and pipeline network. or (4) relax the design EU requirement. Both decreases and increases in q. (7-34) Q. = 2.501.h. acre-feet. (3) use a different emitter or rearrange the system to get a higher h. = e1 (7-36b) S1 = spacing between emitters feet.98 Where 9a = (qa per 100 ft of tubing)/lOO. gallons per minute. = number of emitters per plant. can result from mechanical or chemical fatigue of the flexible orifices in continuous. feet. can he estimated by equation 7-37 with the gross seasonal volume (Vi). AH. can result from slow clogging from sedimentation in long-path emitters or compression of resilient parts in compensating emitters. based on a maxi- 0 7-42 .. the options are to (1) select another emitter that has a lower coefficient of manufacturing variation (v). If the calculated AH. can be computed for design purposes by equation 7-34. and @I. feet. h.J with time. Increases in q. For computing total system capacity where linesource tubing is used and the discharge rate is per 100 ft of tubing. necessitate periodic cleaning or replacement of emitters.

Nonetheless.. constant until the emitter discharge characteristics have degenerated by 10 to 20 percent. = average pressure head of emitter. they can also handle situations when minor leakage increases g. is the water applied to the plants at the lowest discharge rate of the emission device. feet. (7-40) The maximum daily net water application that the system can apply in an emergency is 24 hr x F. the cost of providing reserve pressure is less then the cost of providing extra capacity. feet.). . gallons per hour. whereas providing reserve operating pressure requires only a slightly larger pump. Where = manifold inlet pressure head. feet. must be determined by inspection of the graphical solutions. In such cases. Net Water-Application Rate The net water-application rate (F.H. -.. F..6 hr/day during the peak use period.). is a function of the minimum expected rate of emitter discharge (q. inches per hour..FrA (7-41) = fertilizer rate (quantity of nutrients to be applied per irrigation cycle). Where F. X average emitter discharge. systems that have extra capacity can better make up for unavoidable interruptions before the emitter discharge has decreased. the F. pound8 per acre. in the system and can be computed by equation 7-38. h. The application rate is important in irrigation scheduling because it is needed to calculate the number of hours that the system must operate to apply a specific volume of water. feet.. can be computed by equation 7-39. feet. Consequently. Steep downhill manifolds and laterals in which the friction loss is less than the head gain from elevation drops will have lower pressures at the inlet than further down the line.). = difference in pressure head along the manifold. 743 . The F. = number of emitters per plant. and thus cannot be computed until the hydraulic network has been designed.mum operation time of 21. = (H. The q. can be computed by equation 7-40. If the friction head loss in a trickle irrigation system is greater than the head gain from elevation drops. is a function of the minimum expected pressure head (h. Furthermore.HF. = 1. = difference in pressure head along the Oh lateral. gallons per hour. . = emitter discharge exponent. h.604%% Where e = S. feet. depends on the concentration of the liquid fertilizer and the quantity of nutrients to be applied during the irrigation. distance between plant rows. gallons per hour. AH. With an estimated in and the final design emission uniformity (EU). The rate at which any concentration of chemical is to be injected into the irrigation water should be calculated carefully. = S.. Computing Chemicals Injection of Fertilizer and Where 9a = h. Providing extra system capacity necessitates increasing the pump and pipe size.Ah) (7-39) Q . distance between plants in the row. H.. feet. h. The rate of injecting fertilizer into the system (Q).AH. The rate can be computed by equation 741. A possible alternative is to provide enough reserve operating pressure so that the pressure can be increased as required to hold g. 10 percent extra capacity is already available.

Large. pounds per gallon.87 c (7-w head loss from pipe friction. feet. A large tank is a good place to store fertilizer for periods when supply is short. percent. = area irrigated per irrigation cycle. = ratio between hours of fertilizing and hours of irrigating per irrigation cycle. acids. and other liquids as needed. ct + c Where F. low-cost tanks are practical for use with injection pumps. = concentration of nutrients in the liquid fertilizer. Friction Loss in Pipelines A F. = ware make filtration equipment and provide the chemical solution tanks and chemical injection systems as part of their systems for filtration. sg = specific gravity of the chemical concentrate. but also micronutrients. gallons. 4. pipe length. Because chlorine gas is extremely hazardous. 3. Capacity of the fertilizer tanks. will require the use of a separate building and special handling of the gas cylinders. whereas a positive displacement pump can inject not only liquid chlorine and fertilizers. acres. (7-43) Where C = Q.H A H. shutoff is a convenient way to control the amount of fertilizer injected. acres. parts per million. Liquid chlorinators are usually preferred over gas chlorinators because: 1. it is expected that.-The capacity of the fertilizer tanks is an important consideration. and main lines. pounds per gallon. gallons per minute. for installing a gas chlorinator. = area irrigated per irrigation cycle. Most manufacturers of trickle irrigation hard- Plastic is the predominant pipe material used for trickle irrigation laterals. Equation 7-44 can be used to calculate the head loss gradient Q. = desired dosage. = concentration of nutrients in the liquid fertilizer. feet. by the Hazen-Williams formula. The Hazen-Williams formula is the basis for many friction-loss calculations. of this National Engineering Handbook. For more general information on the subject. gallons per hour. A gas chlorinator is used for chlorination only. manifolds. The rate of injecting a chemical such as chlorine or acid (qJ. ID of the pipe.-The rate of injecting chlorine or acid depends on the system’s flow rate. pounds per acre. Required tank capacity (CJ. D4. inches. gallons per minute. herbicides. Rate of injecting chlorine or acid. can be calculated by equation 7-43. 2. water treatment. hours. irrigation system capacity. a high-pressure fertilizer tank should hold enough for a complete application.. 186 L Where hf = L = = : = D = 1. and its use reduces the labor associated with frequent filling. feet per 100 feet. A gas chlorinator usually costs 4 to 10 times as much as a pump. fungicides. Hydraulics. can be computed by equation 7-42. If a large tank is being used. refer to Section 5. = fertilizer rate (quantity of nutrients to be applied per irrigation cycle).050 (%. (7-42) Pipeline Hydraulics This section contains data and information about the hydraulic aspects of pipe systems important in the design of trickle irrigation systems. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 744 . friction coefficient for continuous sections of pipe. and chemical feeding. time of irrigating per irrigation cycle. For a pressure-differential injection system. flow rate in the pipe. C = concentration of the desired component in liquid chemical concentrate. F.

the Hazen-Williams formula with C = 150 underestimates the friction losses by about 30 percent.000 REYNOLDS Figure 7-30. Under these flow conditions. or larger diameter pipes and discharges greater than 50 gpm.0t .oE I I 8 L 2 z 0 5 z IL . NR = 3. hf =fL D - v2 2g (7-46) Where V cc g = velocity of flow in the pipe.O! . However. The NR for 70 “F water flowing through a pipe can be computed by equation 7-45. which shows laboratory test results for plain %-in.Oi 100 PLAIN HOSE I 2 3 4 I I 5 I 6 7891 qooo 15. acceleration of gravity (32. such as the typical M-in. and 150 are plotted on figure 7-30. feet per second. trickle hose (0. inside diameter) NUMBER trickle .O‘ . and the formula predicts friction loss satisfactorily. The C = 150 line. The position of the C-value lines clearly shows a discrepancy in the “smooth pipe” concept in this range of Reynolds numbers. and the C value of 150 is recommended for smooth pipes in Hazen-Williams tables. equation 7-46. 140.O? _ 0 _ 0.R irrigation hose. C = 150 has been used to calculate friction losses in plastic pipe. the Reynolds number (Ns) is greater than 5 x 104. is well below the friction factor of .5%in. (0. The inner surface of plastic pipe is very smooth.-Darcy-Weisbach f values for l/2-in.5%in. ID) superimposed on the Moody diagram. which represents Hazen-Williams smooth pipes. The Hazen-Williams formula was developed from study of water distribution systems that used 3-in. 7-45 .Typically.214: (7-45) The Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (f) in the Moody diagram is related to hf by the DarcyWeisbach formula.cJ . the “equivalent” f values for Hazen-Williams C values of 130. For comparison. The “smooth pipe” line on the Moody diagram is generally considered the ultimate in pipe smoothness. for the smaller pipe.58-inch . This phenomenon is demonstrated by figure 7-30.ft/s2).2.I( . lateral hoses used in trickle irrigation systems.of .

flow rate. National Handbook of Conservation Practices.000.). hose. or Kf values should be supplied by manufacturers or taken from handbooks on hydraulics. h. and pipe and fittings are: (1) graphing friction loss vs. For NR < 2. 197741.25 (7-48) The computation of J may be simplified by combining equation 7-45.000: . feet. hose exhibits characteristics somewhat above the Moody “smooth pipe” line and equivalent to an average C value of about 130. Equation 7-49a can be used to compute J for 5-m.0 log (N&f) (7-47b) (7-47s) the constant for average conditions.000: f=$ and for NR 1 2. and (3) expressing the loss in terms of a velocity head coefficient. These tables of pipe friction loss are based on the Darcy-Weisbach formulas and assume smooth pipe. Pipe friction loss tables. = Kfx Where Kf V2f2g = friction head-loss coefficient for a specific fitting.-Tables of friction loss encountered in the common sizes of lateral hose and PVC thermoplastic pipe used for trickle irrigation systems are presented in Appendix B. This observation strongly supports the conclusion that the Darcy-Weisbach formula represents the friction losses in hoses better than does the Hazen-Williams formula.: J= Equation diameter J= hflOO L = 0.1 Jf = 0. using equations 7-47a and 7-4713 to compute f. Dep. U.000 and 100. accounts for the low range in Nn in trickle irrigation systems.: -WOO L = 0. Equation 7-48 can be used for computing friction losses for Ns between 2. Graphs. feet. Agric. which is the energy head from the velocity of flow..100~ (7-4910) Equations 7-49a and 7-49b are as easy to use as the Hazen-Williams formula. The PVC pipes presented are for the lowest standard dimension ratio (SDR) (or pressure rating) iron pipe sizes (IPS) presented in the SCS standard for “Irrigation Water Conveyance Pipeline.-Equation 7-47b is quite tedious to use for desk computation of friction losses. valves. which 1-46 . Drip System. representing losses for different barb sizes and lateral diameters are shown in figure 7-23. and 7-48 and adjusting “Soil Conservation Service.“4 The friction tables were developed by computer.5 J for larger 7-4913 can be used to compute plastic pipe.75 D4. = velocity head.133 Q’.-diameter or smaller plastic pipes and hoses. feet. f = 0. For D < 5 in. Note that the data points fall on lines generally parallel to the lines on the Moody diagram rather than on constant C-value lines. The three conventional methods for computing the additional pressure-head losses from special equipment.S.0 gpm for %-in. The range of Reynolds numbers shown represents hose discharge rates between 0. (2) expressing the added pressure-head loss as the length of pipe (of the same diameter) that would give the same loss. equivalent lengths. The %-in. Equation 7-50 can be used for computing friction head loss caused by a specific fitting (h. Head Losses Through Fittings Equation 7-49 is developed for smooth plastic pipe without fittings.32 Na-“.80 + 2. and they more accurately predict friction loss for 70°F water flowing in smooth plastic pipe.>. Usually the losses attributed to standard pipe fittings are small and can be grouped in a miscellaneous friction-loss safety factor as shown under Samples of Trickle Irrigation System Designs. The Blasius formula (equation 7-481. 7-46. (7-50) % Friction loss computations. The need for time-consuming interpolation is reduced by using small flow increments.Darcy-Weisbach smooth pipes.2 gpm and 3. Emitter-connection loss equivalent lengths <f. For D > 5 in.

The vertical axis represents the head loss from pipe friction (h& feet.43 0.0) equal to J’F for a specific lateral or manifold pipe diameter. 1.36 0.00 9 0.38 0.85l 1.45 31-70 0.39 0. The F values were computed by dividing the actual computed loss in multiple-outlet pipelines (with equal discharge per outlet) by the head loss in pipelines of equal diameter and length but with only one outlet.37 0.41 0. feet. increasing the equivalent head-loss gradient of the lateral with emitters (J’) is a convenient way to account for the emitter connection roughness.65 10-11 0. the equivalent length of the lateral with emitters (l’). 1’ = l(% + fe se ) Where S.50 16-20 0. and J’. ) e Where J = head loss gradient of the lateral emitters. Table 74 gives F values for various numbers of openings along the pipe.75* 0.36 e 1. flow rate.37 0. = spacing between emitters feet.should be used when the manufacturer does not provide emitter-connection loss data.46 0. The F values are given for use with both the Hazen-Williams formula (flow rate exponent 1.85 is for use with ‘The flow rate exponent of 1. Dimensionless Pipe-Friction Curve The head loss along any multiple outlet pipeline that has uniform outlet spacing and discharge can be represented by a single line as a dimensionless plot. 0 - J'=J( 'es+f.41 0.-Reduction coefficient full spacing from the pipe inlet Number of outlets (F) for multiple-outlet F pipeline friction-loss computations in which the first outlet F is a Number of 1.38 0. divided by L/100. on the lateral.40 0. (7-51b) with Multiple-Outlet Pipeline Losses Head loss from pipe friction (hf) in laterals and manifolds that have evenly spaced outlets and uniform discharge from each outlet can be estimated by equation 7-52.85) and the Darcy-Weisbach tables or equation 7-49a (flow rate exponent 1.42 0. Table 7-6. and length. For computing the friction head loss. feet per 100 feet.by equation 7-51a and substituted for the actual length of the lateral with emitters (l). feet.75 is for use with the Moody diagram or with equation 7-49a. (7-51a) hf = J ‘FL/100 Where J’ F L = (7-52) equivalent head-loss gradient of the lateral with emitters.39 0. can be computed . This general friction curve can be adapted to a specific problem by setting the intercept of the friction curve (at x/L = 1.64 0. along the length divided by the total length of the multiple-outlet pipeline (L). number of outlets. = reduction coefficient to compensate for the discharge along the pipe. feet per 100 feet.75= outlets 1. feet per 100 feet.44 >70 0.47 21-30 0. = pipe length.49 0.54 0. feet.36 equation and smooth-pipe curve on 7-47 .42 ‘The flow rate exponent of 1. feet. can be computed by equation 7-51b. feet. In graphic analysis of lateral head loss.43 the Hazen-Williams formula.40 0.75).55 12-15 0.44 0. Figure 7-31 shows such a plot when the horizontal scale is a dimensionless ratio of any position (x).00 0. tables based on the Darcy-Weisbach 1.85l 0.

75 I. f. gallons per minute. Q D = = = = = 6. by combining Figure 7-31. The dimensionless friction-loss values have been adjusted so that 100 H&L = 10.0 5. ID of the pipe.75 D4. 7-51b. feet. L = total length.0 1OOhfx $7 se. X = any position along the length. 4. but on pipelines that have 12 or more outlets the error is less than 5 percent. The mathematical derivation of equation 7-53 assumes that F is a constant between the end and any point in the multiple-outlet pipeline.0 head loss from pipe friction.0 Then L is replaced with x and Q with Qx/L to obtain the hf.2 0. feet. and 7-52 to obtain: The economics of trickle irrigation is very important to management in modern agriculture.00 at x/L = 1.7 0. and both sides are divided by L to obtain the dimensionless expression: 2.1 0./(L/lOO) data obtained from an outlet-by-outlet analysis of a multiple-outlet pipeline. at any point x from the closed end. uniform spacing between outlets. = head loss from position x to the closed end.6 0. feet. Table 7-7 gives a set of data developed from a hydraulic analysis of multiple-outlet pipeline.0 hf S.9 1. feet.0 Equation 7-53 can now be obtained terms and noting that: J' = Se + f.)275 hfx = head loss from position x to the closed J’ F X = = = end. inches. -=hfx Where L/100 J rF(.6 0.133 Q’. flow rate in the pipe.5 X/L 0. 0.0 0.0 3. equivalent head-loss gradient of the pipe with emitters.0 7. distance from the closed end. emitter-connection loss equivalent length. and uniform flow per outlet.0 Where 8. feet. feet.75 s. This assumption is obviously not true. It can also be determined mathematically by equation 7-53. feet. The essence of economic selection of pipe size for a main line is to find the minimum sum of fixed costs plus operating costs on either a present-worth or an an- 748 . These data are useful for plotting curves such as figure 7-31 with different scales. spacing between emitters on a lateral. reduction coefficient to compensate for the discharge along the pipe. Economic Pipe-Size Selection Equation 7-53 can be derived mathematically by first combining equations 749a.133 _c ( L e KxmQl’~75 D4.3 0. feet per 100 feet.4 0. Equation 7-53 can also be derived graphically from a plot of x/L vs.0 0. feet. fe ) 0.9.0. hf.0 0.5 The shape of the general friction curve can be plotted from an outlet-by-outlet analysis of a typical multiple-outlet line.-General friction curve for a multioutlet pipeline that has uniform diameter. hf.

7-33) was developed to simplify the pipe-sizing process for manifolds and main lines for PVC pipe with lowest SDR (or pressure rating) IPS pipe sizes. The life-expectancy cost can be analyzed on a capital value or on an annual value. and automation. feet. = head lossfrom position x to the closedend. maintenance.45 0.70 0. The optimum pipe size.57 0.37 0. Life-Expectancy Costs To determine the most economical life-expectancy cost of a system. c e nual basis as presented pictorially in figure 7-32. but the power costs decrease. limited.38 7. assuming a g-percent annual rise in energy costs. Table 7-8 lists the necessary factors for either a present-worth or an annual life-expectancy cost analysis.00 ‘x = distance from the closed end.(1 + i) I ’ [ (1: (7-54) The concept of value engineering represented by figure 7-32 can be used for the life-expectancy costs of more complex systems by taking into account all of the potential fixed costs such as various types of basic hardware. especially in designing relatively simple irrigation systems. As the pipe diameter increases.25 0.Table 7-7. L = length of the multiple-outlet pipeline.23 0.t1 + ip ] = (1 + r) . land preparation. or complex. is illustrated in figure 7-32. the fixed costs increase. These fixed costs can then be added to the full set of operating costs.85 0.45 3.52 5.74 4. Usually it is sticient to represent this sum by the cost of the pipe in place and the energy cost (in terms of the fuel required by the pumping plant) of pressure lost in pipe friction.30 0. and management.& 2. but the operating (energy-for-power) cost for overcoming friction losses in the pipe will be large.68 10. Visualize the problem by thinking of selecting the diameter of a water supply line. of pipe eize on fixed. feet.35 0.95 1.81 1.90 100 h& 0. If a very small pipe is used the initial cost will be low.(1 + i) (7-65) 7-49 . Pipe sire - Figure 7-32Anfluence costs.93 0. including energy.20 0.60 0. and total tions. Although the selection of economical pipe sizes is an important engineering decision. because the methods of selection are considered too time consuming. it is often given insufficient attention. feet. power.40 0.49 1. the expected life of the item (n).00 1.05 3. find the minimum fixed-plusoperating costs. pwo-[(l - +rP--(1 +iP ip I (1 + r) .12 100 hf. The economic pipe-size selection chart (fig.75 0.02 0. labor.47 8. mechanical addi- EAE(r) [ (1+ rp .-Dimensionless curves for multiple-outlet x/L 0. The present worth factor of the rising energy cost [PW(r)] and the equivalent annual factor of the rising energy cost [EAE(r)l were computed by equations 7-54 and 7-55 for r z i.55 data for plotting friction pipelines’ XL 0.40 6. hf.65 0. and the estimated annual rate of increase in energy costs (r) must be considered.13 0.80 0. where the sum of the fixed costs plus power costs is at a minimum. for loto a&percent interest rates and 7. In either analysis the interest rate (i).10 0.to 40-year life expectancies.50 0.

-Economic table SDR (standard pipe-size selection chart for polyvinyl chloride thermoplastic IPS (iron pipe size) pipe having minimum accepdimension ratio) ratings. represent 5 to 7 ft/s velocity limitations.\ Ii 1 Ii-ti i i I I+ IO t 6 E 1 I -I-l I I I-+300 600 I 10 30 60 Flow 100 in Pipe . respectively. 9 -- gpm Figure 7-33.) 7-50 . (Solid and dashed vertical lines.

960 1. n values of 20 or less are frequently used.161 0. ¶PW(S%) is the present-worth factor of the rising cost of energy. the time value of unsecured money to the developer table 7-8 some interesting e should be used as the appropriate i value in equations 7-54.253 0. taking into account the time value of money over the life expectancy. Low i values emphasize rising energy costs.5 BHP hr/U.5 8.193 1. gal hr/U. ‘CRF is the uniform-series annual payment (capital recovery factor).160 4.213 1. The n of properly designed and installed PVC pipe should be 40 years.280 9.762 1.240 4.219 3.259 7.728 12.995 0.106 6.171 5.453 1.030 0.961 2.485 4.571 0.848 6. as indicated by low CRF’s.870 5. ‘Interest is the time value of unsecured money to the developer.193 0.997 0. This rate is normally higher than bank interest rates because of the higher risks involved.Table 7-8. gal hr/lOO ft8 hr/kWh @ meter observations can In the consideration of life-expectancy cost.235 3. taking into account the time value of money and the depreciation of equipment .118 0.846 1. ‘EAE(9%) is the equivalent annual factor of the rising cost of energy.574 0.102 9. as indicated by high PW(9Z)‘s and EAE(S%)‘s.954 0.206 1.250 4. 8.942 1. as indicated by PW(O%)‘s.605 0.224 1. but emphasizes energy costs.979 0.566 8.259 10.427 6. However.615 1.5 1.205 4.378 0.594 0. 4.S.661 1. and 7-56. Low i values deemphasize high first costs.214 5.147 1.205 4.781 4.S. 6PW(O%) is the present-worth factor of the constant cost of energy.132 0. 25 PW(9%) EAE(S%) igO%.868 5.327 2.0 BHP hrAJ. years 10 15 20 30 8. Rising energy costs have a maximum effect when i is low and n is high.542 0.151 6. taking into account the time value of money over the life expectancy. %’ 10 Factor PW(9%Y EAE(987 CRF’ PW(O%)B PW(S%) EAE(S%) 7 6.449 1.S. For unsecured agricultural developments.694 23.145 7.420 1.339 4.751 0.712 2. but have less effect on constant energy costs.201 6. the interest rates of high-grade.859 0.129 0.239 4.676 0.-Present-worth and annual economic factors for an assumed g-percent annual rise in energy costs with various interest rates and life expectancies Interest (i).556 0.272 0. 2.152 6.724 4. taking into account the time value of money over the life expectancy. 7-55.601 3.1 (7-56) Gasoline (water cooled) Tractor fuel Butane-propane Natural gas Electricity From 10. Long useful life deemphasizes high first costs.897 1. High i values emphasize high first costs.215 0.914 1.514 9.316 Factor value with indicated life expectancy (n).683 1. longterm securities should be doubled unless special tax benefits are involved.160 6.200 6.019 5.606 8.000 15 20 PW(9%) EAE(S%) &YO%.539 3.854 1.479 3.642 8. The number of brake horsepower (BHP) hours per unit of fuel that can be expected from efficient power units is as follows: Diesel fuel 15. because of obsolescence.S.199 5. 7-51 .163 0.253 13.779 14.over the life expectancy. The standard capital-recovery computed by equation 7-56. but deemphasize energy costs.802 16. 5. gal be made concerning the long-term effects of rising energy costs: 1.583 1.277 3.964 1.306 3.5 9. 3. factor (CRF) was $1 + i)” CRF = (1 + i)Il .2 BHP BHP BHP BHP gal hr/U.412 3.250 40 30.

5.96 ft/lOO ft Step 6-Plot the points representing the Q.38 = 0. For the 3. constant energy costs can be observed by comparing PW(9%) to PW(O%) or EAE(S%) to EAE(O%) = 1. The factors presented in table 7-8 can be used with the present annual power costs (E) and the cost of the irrigation system (C) to estimate the following: 1. pipe this is 132 gpm (see Appendix B).960 100 g-pm = 0.) The chart can be adjusted for a given set of economic conditions and entered to directly select the most economical pipe sizes for nonlooping systems with a single pump station. 4.” (These are the same pipe sizes for which friction loss tables are presented in Appendix B. and 74. The following example demonstrates how the chart is constructed. The ID and weight of 3-m. SDR 41 pipe are 4.2 lb/100 ft.421100 ft the water horsepower savings J(a. The relative effect of rising vs.34 . respectively.& needed to obtain the water horsepower savings computed in step 3.Jm = J(3. E x PW(9%). and 98.$74. Step Z-Determine the yearly fixed-cost differences between adjacent 3.00: $2.100: 0. Step 7-Draw a line with a slope of -1. Step &Draw a set of vertical lines that represent the q that would give a velocity of 5 ftls for each pipe size. 6.2) = $2. Each pair of lines defines the region in which the pipe size common to both lines is the most economical size to use. These lines represent the set of q values that give the same fixed-plus-operating cost with adjacent sizes of pipe for various Q values.6.80 through each of the points plotted in step 6. which is represented by the solid vertical line separating regions 3 and 4 of figure 7-33. SDR 32.00.and 4-in. The equivalent annual cost (E ‘) of the rising (9 percent per year) energy cost. cost per water horsepower per year <C&.100. pipe sizes: h ff3.100($98.and 4-in.and 4. Assuming a Qi of 100 g-pm for the 3.4 lb/100 ft. 3. The present worth of the rising (9 percent per year) annual energy cost.and 4-in. Using the friction loss tables in Appendix B for the 3.0 for any n and i.0242 whp/lOO ft $100. pipes with C wbp = $100. respectively. The annual cost of the constant energy cost. The present worth of the irrigation system.and 4-in.0.’ used in step 4 and q found in step 5 on log-log graph paper as in figure 7-33.42/100 ft = 0.0242 whp/lOO fi x 3. For the 3-in. The annual fixed cost of the irrigation system. C.-Figure 7-33 was developed for PVC thermoplastic pipe with the lowest SDR (or pressure rating) IPS pipe sizes presented in the SCS Standard “Irrigation Water Conveyance Pipeline.280 in.4 Step 3-Determine . Obtain the ID and weight per foot of pipe of each size being considered. PVC pipes in this example. E x PW(O%).OO/lb. E x EAE(S%). Economic Pipe-Selection Charts needed to offset the annual fixed-cost difference between adjacent 3.4) = 0.284 in. E. Since velocity restrictions override eco- 7-52 . These flow rates can be determined by trial and error with head loss gradient (J) values from calculation of pipe friction loss or from tables of friction losses.958 ft/lOO ft Step &Determine the rate of pipe flow that will produce the required hRa. Step I-Assume: cost recovery factor (CRF) = 0. the point is Q: = 100 gpmandq=95gpm. and PVC pipe cost = $l.00 Step I-Assume a convenient system flow rate (&a and compute the difference in head loss between the adjacent pipe of different sizes (hg.and 4-in. regions.) = $100. pipes with CRF = 0. so that charts for PVC pipe of other sizes or wall thicknesses can be developed. and those of 4-in.5 pipe are 3. 2.4) = 1. The present worth of the constant energy cost.b) J(a). pipe at emitter discharge (q) = 95 g-pm: Development. This example shows construction of the line separating the 3. C x CRF.in.b) between adjacent pipe of different sizes.

(To hold velocities below 5 ft/s. equation 7-37. W&.WJ Where Qt EAE(r) P UC EP BHP P” average pump operating time per season. the constant must be changed so that Af = 1 for the C. (7-59) &MW. = brake horsepower. determine the system flow-rate factor (Af) by equation 7-58.OO/lb. feet. The zone between adjacent lines defines the region of Q-vs. For economic pipe-size selection charts developed from other economic factors. pipe regions at a flow rate of 132 gpm. CRF. = pipe cost. by equation 7-60.). difference pump and pipe friction losses bepump and manifold inlet in elevation between the manifold m (+ is uphill = .nomic considerations.hp. The negativesloping lines represent all the possible Q-vs. taking into account the time value of money and depreciation of equipment over the life expectancy. (The dashed extensions are for velocities of 7 ft. (7-58) AEl = 7-53 . first compute the Cwhp by equation 7-57. and pipe cost/unit used. is computed by equation 7-59.) The economic pipe-selection chart for PVC thermoplastic IPS pipe with minimum acceptable SDR rating (fig. Drip System.l. stay within the solid vertical boundary lines.hr f AEl (7-60) Next.and 4-in. To use figure 7-33 for a system with various economic factors. dollars per pound. Where !$ = sum of the tween the at m. the vertical line defines the boundary between the 3.. table 7-8 or equation 7-56. The procedure using the economic design chart and main-line design strategy as presented under Sample Designs for Trickle Irrigation Systems. feet. gallons per minute.. and CRF values. Figure 7-33 is universally applicable for the most economical selections of pipe size in any sized series system for the economic boundary conditions used. To do this. = unit of power. dollars per kilowatt-hour.00. adjustment = The constant 0. Step 3-Compute the pressure head required to overcome pipe friction plus elevation difference between the pump and each manifold inlet at mKI&. gallons per minute. Uses of this chart for manifold and main-line design are presented for drip and spray systems under Sample Design for Trickle Irrigation Systems.-q values when the pipe size that is common to both lines is the most economical selection. = system flow rate under consideration.001 in equation 7-58 is the number that gives Af = 1 with the economic factors used in developing figure 7-32. involves the following: Step l-Enter the vertical axis of figure 7-33 with Q. and CRF = 0. = the equivalent annual cost factor of the rising energy cost. 7-33) is based on pipe cost at $l. C whp = $100. C whp= (QtXPJEAWl (7-67) Where CRF PC = capital recovery factor. Appendix B.-q values for each of the adjacent pairs of pipe sizes that will give the same sum of fixed costs plus operational costs.) Step 2-Determine the head loss from pipe friction (hf) in each section of pipe by equation 7-49a or 7-49b or from the pipe friction tables. the total system capacity (QJ must be adjusted to compensate for various c&h./s. table 7-8 or equation 7-55.’ and select an “economic pipe size” for the q in each section of main-line pipe.100. = pump efficiency. = unit cost of power. Q. The system flow rate for entering the economic chart (QJ. hours.' = AtQs Where Q.

) where the manifold plus attached laterals make up a subunit.is downhill).). = head loss gradient of the smaller pipe.5 AH. The length of a pair of laterals (L) is equal to the manifold spacing (S. 7-54 . about three-fourths of the head loss occurs between the average emitter and the inlet. they are referred to as a pair of laterals. The general location of the average emitter that yields q. The spacing of manifolds is a compromise between field geometry and lateral hydraulics. starting from a common manifold connection.60 and x/L = 0. The Ah for a given S. and (3) estimated differences in pressure within laterals. where the flow is greatest. the manifold should be shifted uphill from the center line. the head loss curve flattens (see fig. Thus. = head loss gradient of the larger pipe. lateral spacing of emitters on the lateral. If the ground slopes along the laterals (rows). = ne = g. the design procedure is based on laterals that have an average emitter flow rate (9. For simplification. As practical limits for preliminary design purposes. This observation helps in computing the S. has been determined for the critical manifold. on level ground the pair of laterals should have equal lengths (1) and the manifold spacing (S. and in designing the layout of the pipeline network. Step 4-Once the (Hf. The effect is to shorten the upslope lateral and lengthen the downslope lateral so that the combination of pipe friction loss and elevation difference is in balance. The average emitter pressure head (h. = w&3 (7-62) This section presents the procedures for determining lateral characteristics such as: (1) flow rate and inlet pressure. gallons per minute. Flow rate. gallons per hour. feet per 100 feet. feet per 100 feet. and set of lateral specifications is about the same for laterals on level fields as for laterals with slopes of as much as 2 percent. can be computed by equation 7-62. Inlet pressure. For example. As flow in the lateral decreases because of water being discharged through the emitters.J1 Where AH = desired pressure-head increase between two points. can be computed by equation 7-61. Furthermore.).62 for constantdiameter laterals. 7-31) so that only about one-fourth of the total loss takes place between the average emitters and the end. feet. The manifold should be positioned so that.-The flow rate of a lateral (ql). at h. the size of other main-line branches can often be reduced. Length. The amount of the shift can be determined either graphically or numerically. the laterals in figure 7-27 are paired. the minimum pressures in the pair of laterals (one to either side of the manifold) are equal.-Sometimes it is useful to know the inlet pressure required by the average lateral in a system. feet. . JS Jl Lateral Line Design ch=g--== 1 % Where S. The exact length of the smaller diameter pipe that will increase the head loss between two points by a specified amount (LJ. The length of a single lateral that extends in only one direction from a manifold is designated by 1. Characteristics Several general characteristics of laterals are important to the designer. Other prospects for reduction are sections of main line that connect points that are downstream and have lower elevations than the critical manifold. is between x/L = 0. number of emitters along the lateral..). it is usually most economical to supply laterals to both sides of each manifold. average emitter flow rate. On fields where the average slope along the laterals is less than 3 percent. feet.) = 21 = L.-When two laterals extend in opposite directions from a common inlet point on a manifold.) is computed as the head that will give q. AH x 100 Ls = J.to manfold and . (2) location and spacing of the manifolds that in effect set the lateral lengths. (7-61) pressure-head differences (Ah) can be limited to onehalf of the allowable subunit pressure-head variations (0. feet.

It is impractical to use more than two pipe sizes. constant-diameter laterals are used.Z 2 Where . In such a lateral. the average pressure would occur at the midpoint. feet. If a lateral were tapered so that the friction loss per unit length were uniform throughout.75hfp(0. can be computed by equation 7-63c. because they are convenient to install and maintain.aE1. and the pressure head at the closed end of the Tapered laterals.62 and the closed end is 2. In computing hf for tapered laterals.67 when end effects and the values at x/L = 0. feet. (hl).75 = o.for laterals running downhill.z)~. when calculating hl for a tapered lateral. Tapered laterals are sometimes used on steep slopes where the increase in pressure from the slope would result in too much pressure at the end. Z = location of the inlet to the pair of laterals that gives equal minimum pressures in both uphill and downhill members (expressed as the ratio of the length of the downhill lateral to L. feet). . For further details on design of multioutlet pipeline. but tapered laterals may be less expensive.67 112. for a pair of constant-diameter laterals with L = S. all the computations involving equation 7-52 (and those using monographs or slide rule calculators) must include the closed end of the lateral or manifold. + 0. the term 3hf/4 in equation 7-63~ would be changed to hf/2.5Y5 = h.15 (which are not included in table 7-7) are accounted for.05 and 0. The location of 100 h& = 2.1) (7-63a) hfP = friction loss in a lateral with length L. For tapered laterals.‘~I . 2.62 hf AEl = head loss from pipe friction. 7-55 .67 can be determined by letting the friction gradient (J’F) = 10.(hf + AEl) Where by equation 7-64a (7-64b) e=(10.=h. + 0. + O.00 or about one-fourth.00) 2. therefore. The average value of 100 h& is 2.Data in table 7-7 demonstrate the above as follows: 1. h. h. laid on a uniform slope can be computed by equations 7-63a and 7-63b. = h. and (2) no water flows beyond the last outlet of the pipe section being considered. replace hd4 with hf/3. can be computed or 7-64b. When computing h.00 (which is the value used in generating table 7-7) and solving to obtain: lateral 013. The inlet pressure head that will give h. by equation 7-64a. Step 3-The hf for the tapered lateral will equal the hf found in step 1 plus the difference in the two hf values found in step 2.75 + (1 . The portion of the total friction loss between x/L = 0. feet. h.-Usually. hf must be computed in a three-step process: Step I-Compute hf by equation 7-52 for the full length of the lateral that has the larger diameter pipe. = change in elevation (+ for laterals running uphill from the inlet and . Step 2-Compute hf values for both the large. feet. = h.-(++q) h.) AEl = absolute difference in elevation between the two ends of the pair of laterals.. refer to Manifold Design.llh+ (7-63b) For a single constant-diameter lateral laid on uniform slopes.and the small-diameter pipes for a lateral length equal to the length of small-diameter pipe and determine the difference between these values. 3.75hfpIz3. feet.67/10. This must be done because use of the reduction coefficient CF) involves the assumption that (1) the discharges from all outlets are equal. replace 3hf/4 with 2hf/3 in equation 7-63~. For level fields this reduces to: hl = h.

draw a line representing the ground surface such that (a) the line is tangent to the friction curve and (b) the drop in elevation or slope is properly scaled. and the intersection between the two curves is the optimum manifold location for the given S.-The graphical solution is based on the general friction curve. Once the friction loss for a given length of lateral has been computed. and compare the latter with 0. so that it falls midway between tree spacings. and (h& = = original and new lateral length.5 AH. feet. it is most convenient to have the same S. If it is much smaller. pipe pipe Conversely. Step 3-Assume that hf = the pressure head difference along the lateral (Ah).) apart. in accordance with the criteria listed above..5 on figure 7-31. Step 2-Determine the lateral pipe friction loss (hf) with laterals half as long as S. 7-51 and 7-52). (eq. Step I-Locate the best manifold positions by moving the overlay down until the dashed friction curve coincides with the ground line at manifold position (x/L) = 1.Spacing of Manifolds The manifold spacing (S. as shown in figure 7-9. feet. (7-65a) Where 1. the field is level.5 times the allowable subunit pressure-head variation (AH. on level fields laterals should extend an equal length (1) to either side of the manifolds so that 1 = half the manifold spacing (E&/2). The location of the manifold that will give the same minimum and maximum pressures in the uphill and downhill laterals can be determined either graphically or numerically. and topography. S. feet.) (eq..e.. the length of lateral (lb) that will any desired (hfh. (Note: this lateral will have twice the flow rate used in step 2’of the manifold-spacing procedure. give Location of Manifolds As discussed earlier. The dashed curve represents the uphill lateral. A detailed example is presented under Drip System in Sample Designs for Trickle Irrigation Systems.) Step &Adjust the manifold location uphill by as much as 3/4 of the tree spacing (E$) or downhill by as much as l/4 S. Step 6-Determine the maximum head variation along the pair of laterals (ah). and reduction coefficient to compensate for the discharge (F) for a single lateral equal in length to the S. values for specific problems must be multipled by lO/J’F. A detailed example of the graphical determination is presented under Drip System in Sample Designs for Trickle Irrigation Systems. Step 3-On the overlay. original and new lateral friction losses. can be computed by equation 7-65b.. The procedure is as follows: Step I-Inspect the field layout and select a reasonable S. Furthermore.0.) Step 2-Place an overlay on figure 7-31 and trace the friction curve and horizontal boundaries. On sloped fields the manifolds should be shifted uphill from the center line of the subunits. i. Graphical solution. found in step 1. S. and lb (hf). figure 7-31. Ah/F -- L ( Ah 100 L/100)’ 10 (7-66) 7-56 . This is obviously the optimum manifold location for a level field. The procedure is as follows: Step I-Determine the equivalent head-loss gradient (J’). For use of the O-to-10 dimensionless horizontal scale. 7-34). feet. may be increased.) in orchards should be such that adjacent manifolds are a whole number of tree spacings (S. The dashed curve is a mirror image of the x/L = 0 to 0. If Ah is much larger than 0. which is a rearrangement of equation 7-53. the friction loss for any other length of lateral can be computed by equation 7-65a. should be decreased. by first determining the maximum distance the friction curves are above the ground surface line (which is equivalent to the scaled value of Ah divided by L/100) and then determining Ah by equation 7-66. throughout the field in all crops.5 position of the solid friction curve. (Note that the solid and dashed curves intersect at x/L = 0.

For laterals on downhill slopes of less than 0. friction curve needs to be raised so that it does not dip below the ground line.Where L (100 Ah/L)’ = = S.75 . 7-67 . feet.-Dimensionless sketch showing terms used in numerical solution of optimum position for manifold.(1 . L [J’F(x/L)2. Step 5-Adjust the manifold to fall midway between two tree rows as in step 5 of the graphical solution. when S > J’. Step 2-Find the tangent location (Y) by equation 7-67 when the average slope of the ground line (S). = S1. Al-& = SYL/lOO) Ah.) or less. Figure 7-34 shows the dimensionless terms used in the computation that follows. This is the amount the J’ F + S’ For steep slopes the maximum Ah may occur at the closed end of the downstream lateral. percent.. Step l-Determine J’ and F for a single lateral equal in length to S. This is the x/L where the friction curve is tangent to the ground. Y = 1.5 times the allowable subunit pressure-head variation (AH. based on equation 7-53 and presented under Drip System in Sample Designs for Trickle Irrigation Systems. y = (S/J')"'. x/L = manifold position. maximum scalar distance between the friction curve and the ground surface line in the graphical solution. I J’.57(J ‘)-“. S’ = SY .57(1. However. Methods for computing Ah are stated in step 6 of both the graphical and numerical solutions for manifold positioning (see above).75 (7-69) To satisfy the equation. and then by trial and error find the appropriate x/L value that will satisfy it.x&)2.75 + S ’ . first determine the quantity on the left.75 (x/Ly. S-S’J’F (7-68) the optimum x/L that satisfies a - Numerical solution.S(x/L)I Ah = 100 (7-70) V-67) Step 3-Solve for the unusable slope component (S ‘) by equation 7-68. Step &For laterals on relatively mild slopes. As mentioned earlier. Ah should be about 0. J’F = friction gradient. To check for this possibility.-The numerical solution. follows the same logic and procedural steps as the graphical solution.75 Step 4-Determine equation 7-69. the maximum Ah along the pair of laterals can be determined from the x/L value that represents the actual manifold location selected by equation 7-70.F)L/lOO Pressure Difference The pressure head difference (Ah) along the laterals must be known for estimating the final emission uniformity (EU) of the system.3 (7-71a) (7-71b) Figure 7-34. for some designs the manifold placement is dictated by other considerations and Ah must be determined by some other means.J’F(Y)2. figure 7-34. Y = tangent location. S’ = average slope of the ground line. determine the difference (Ah) between the downstream-end and minimum pressure heads by equation 7-71a or directly by equation 7-71b..

). feet. For simplification. the line allowable subunit pressure variafeet. and inlet pressure needed to give the desired average emitter discharge (9. flow rate. unusable slope component. greater of Ah or Ah. the design procedure is based average emitter flow rate (e). The effect is to shorten the uphill manifold and lengthen the downhill manifold so the combination of friction losses and elevation differences are in balance. or uphill slopes. Step I-For relatively mild slopes the maximum difference in pressure head (Ah) along the lateral can be computed by equation 7-72.) and equation 7-63 and 7-64 can be used to determine hl and h.) (I) 7-58 .. (AH.). pipe sizes to keep within the desired pressure-head Manifolds are usually tapered and designed to use pipe of two. the diameter of the smallest pipe should be no less than one-half that of the largest pipe. three. on laterals with the Thus. On fields where the average slope along the manifolds is less than 3 percent. For adequate flushing. (This is higher than the 5 ft/s used for main lines because the outlets along the manifold are always open. The inlet from the main line should be positioned so that starting from a common main line connection the minimum pressures along the pair of manifolds (one to either side of the manifold) are equal. For steep slopes the maximum difference may occur at the closed end. Ah can be assumed equal to the lateral inlet pressure head (hl) minus the pressure head at the closed end (h.S) (7-72) differential. The allowable manifold pressure-head variation may be computed by equation 7-73. (Q) is assumed to be constant. This can be done with the aid of a selection graph for tapered manifolds and either graphically or numerically for single-pipe-size manifolds. average slope of the ground line. determine the difference between the downstream and minimum pressure heads (Ah) by equation 7-71 or equation 7-71b. so water-hammer shock is dampened. except that the equivalent head loss gradient (J’) and the reduction coefficient to compensate for the discharge (F) should be determined for the length of lateral under study rather than for the manifold spacing (S. For steeper downhill laterals.Ah ’ (7-73) - Equation 7-72 is the same as equation 7-71 with x/L = 1 because the manifold would be located at XL = 1 in figure 7-34. the manifold inlet should be shifted uphill from the center. Where AH. Use the following steps to compute Ah for laterals on slopes steeper than 3 percent. The velocity should be limited to about 7 ft/s in manifolds.). The main line layout is a compromise between field geometry and manifold hydraulics. Step 1 through 3-Follow steps 1 through 3 of the numerical solution above for determining the position for the manifold on sloping fields. equations 7-63 and 7-64 still are valid as long as the slope is fairly uniform. The numerical procedure is similar to that described for positioning lateral inlets. To test for this possibility.percent. the lateralpressure variation. Thus on level ground the pair of manifolds should have equal lengths. . for manifolds the lateral flow rate Characteristics Manifold Design This section presents the procedures for determining the characteristics of a manifold. However. Ah’ = = the tion. level ground. or four sizes. percent. + S’ . This is apparent in figure 7-34 where the pressure is lowest at the manifold position (x/L) = the tangent location (Y). serving rectangular subunits. = AH. Where the ground slopes along the manifolds (across the rows). +J’F Ah = 100 Where J’F S’ S = = = friction gradient found in step 1. it is usually more economical to install manifolds both uphill and downhill from the main line. a different procedure must be used to estimate Ah because the highest and lowest pressures will no longer be at hl and h.

= 750 ft for the downhill manifold and L. For pairs of manifolds of a single pipe size serving rectangular subunits.5 L. as in figure 7-9. the main pressurecontrol (adjustment) points are at the manifold inlets. 1. For example.-As a rule. Assuming that (AH.000 ft and S = 1 percent. and select a suitable pipe size so that the head loss for a manifold with L.two manifolds extend in opposite directions from a common inlet point. The length of a single manifold (L. ST = = (7-74) number of row (or lateral) spacings served from a common inlet point. therefore.). percent. structures. = allowable manifold pressure variation. spacings The inlet location that will balance the minimum uphill and downhill pressures is not precise for tapered manifolds because it depends on the selection of pipe sizes and lengths. . Length. the slope ratio is 0 and the distance from the downhill end (x) = 0. The length of a pair of manifolds (L. (AH. Furthermore.-For optimal hydraulic design. = 0. Proper location of the inlet to pairs of sloping manifolds can increase both uniformity and savings of pipe costs. The manifold Inlet position. The pipe cost savings result from replacing the larger diameter pipe at the inlet end of the long downhill manifold with the smaller diameter pipe used for the short uphill manifold. = 1. If only one manifold is connected at an inlet point.). the design is termed a single-manifold configuration.).0 Ratio 30 S(Lp/lOO) . = row spacing. Inlet pressure. The figure’s use greatly simplifies the selection process. $ =‘length of the pair of manifolds. feet. which is the center of the pair of manifolds. the procedure for locating the inlet is essentially the same as that described for locating lateral-line inlets. However. = 0. .). = Kn.11% Where (n. therefore.. Where a pair of manifolds lies on a contour. feet. with L. To use either the graphical or numerical procedure outlined under Lateral Line Design. For example. S = average slope of the ground line. 7-59 .-Graph for selecting location of inlet to a pair of tapered manifolds on a slope. feet. sometimes the inlet must be positioned to balance system flow rates where manifolds making up pairs are operated individually.0 . 5. L. roadways. they are referred to as a pair of manifolds. Figure 7-35 was developed as a guide to selecting the inlet location for tapered manifolds. replace S.1/2X% a Where n. the average slope of the ground line (S). from figure 7-35.). Therefore. = (n. is usually equal to that computed by equation 7-75. the manifolds serving blocks I and II in figure 7-27 are a pair. field boundaries.5 ft for a pair of manifolds with L.).75 L. row spacing. for single manifolds the inlet location is fixed. S. or existing facilities often dictate the location of main lines and manifold inlets.) can be computed by equation 7-74. x z 0.0 Figure ‘7-35. the inlet to pairs of manifolds should be located so that the minimum pressure in the uphill manifold equals that in the downhill manifold. the manifold inlet pressure must be known to properly manage the system and determine the total dynamic head required. Obviously. topographic features such as drains. x = distance of inlet from closed end. the manifold inlet location can be found as follows: slope ratio = 2.m 4. feet. L.]. = 250 ft for the uphill manifold. = L42 is less than the allowable manifold pressure variation [(AH. if the manifold is on the contour. = number of row (or lateral) served by the manifold. the inlet should be in the center of the pair.-When L.0 r 0 IO Slope 2.

Where ah’ = difference between the lateral inlet pressure and h. For tapered laterals: H. draw a horizontal line across the graph. = length of the manifold used in computing h. Step 3-Calculate the adjusted system flow (QJ for entering the chart.6 for manifolds with two pipe sizes. H. For tapered laterals Oh’ should be estimated graphically. It can also be estimated graphically.+nh’+aH. = difference between the manifold inlet pressure and hl. Where g.. feet. Step 2-Determine the system flow-rate adjustment factor (A& by equation 7-58.‘.75 for manifolds with one pipe size.) the vertical axis of figure 7-34 with Q. = upper-limit flow rate for the pipe with the next smaller diameter. It can be estimated by: AHA = MHf + 0. gallons per minute. Design Method (7-76b) (7-76a) the annual cost per water horsepower (C. gallons per minute. Step &Calculate the lengths of each size pipe by equation 7-78. Step &+-Determine the pressure head loss from pipe friction (Hf) in the tapered manifold. and M = 0. = (7-77) AH& flow rate in the manifold.).‘. feet.. M = 0...‘=&a.5 OEl in which M = 0. feet.inlet pressure head (H. For a pair of manifolds use the flow rate in the downhill [larger] manifold. hl can be determined either by equation 7-63 or graphically.).) The general procedure for using the economic chart is presented in Pipeline Hydraulics. (This is equal to the number of laterals served by the manifold times the flow rate per lateral.+nHg Where h lateral inlet pressure that will give the average pressure head (h. gallons per minute. and record the flow rates (along the bottom axis) where this line intersects the upper limit of each pipe-size region. 7-60 .=h. These are the flow rates at which each subsequently larger pipe diameter should be used. ~~ = qd %I qd-1 L In Step 4-Enter (7-78) Where Ld qd Economic-Chart An economic pipe-size selection chart such as figure 7-33 can be used to select pipe sizes and lengths for manifolds serving rectangular subunits. Step l-Compute = &. gallons per minute. The chart used for a design should be specifically constructed for the pipe materials and wall thicknesses (or pressure ratings) that the design calls for. feet. The general theory for doing this is outlined in the Lateral Line Design section. (Figure 7-33 is designed for PVC thermoplastic IPS pipe with the minimum SDR ratings. = length of pipe with diameter d. For laterals with one tubing diameter on uniform slopes.) by equation 7-57. for subunits with single pipe-size laterals can be computed by equations 7-76a and 7-7613. = upper-limit flow rate for the pipe with diameter d. feet. feet. Select no more than four pipe sizes so that the smallest pipe is no less than half the diameter of the largest pipe. by equation 7-77.5 for manifolds with three or more pipe sizes. A detailed example of the numerical process is presented under Drip System in Sample Designs for Trickle Irrigation Systems. The procedure for the economic chart method for designing tapered manifolds is as follows: q&i L.=h.

* To use the graphical method for determining the head loss from pipe friction: Step l-Lay a piece of tracing paper on figure 7-36 or 7-37 (depending on ql) and draw lines through the origin along the abscissa and ordinate. Step 4-Slide the overlay down so that the upper end of this curve (for the smaller pipe) coincides with the curve for the (next) larger pipe at the flow rate where pipe size should change and trace the curve to the next pipe-size change point. k = (L. percent. For uphill = Hf manifolds: = Hf + S(L.4 and 10. Step 6-The series of head loss segments represents the head loss in the tapered manifold. flow rate. the outlet discharges are equal to the average discharge to each pair of laterals. gallons per minute. 5 1. or when AEl < Hf.) for the tapered manifolds by equations 7-81a.. If AH. Step 7-Estimate manifold pressure-head variation (AH.) The Hf values given in figures 7-36 and 7-37 are both based on 0.. For large adjustments calculate a modified system flow rate (Q$ by equations 7-62a. feet. Step 5-Repeat step 4 until the traced set of curve For downhill manifolds AH.2 gpm.. The Hf values obtained from the figures must be multiplied by a scale factor (k) to reflect the actual manifold discharge per unit length.XO. Where S = slope of the manifold.l(nH. Figure 7-36 is based on manifolds with 2-gpm outlets every 20 ft and figure 7-37 is based on manifolds with 6-gpm outlets every 60 ft. AH. > l.l k = (S$q&O. 7-82b. taken from graph overlay in above steps. For level manifolds: OH.. Small adjustments can usually be made by inspection. feet.4 gpm and figure 7-37 for discharges between 3. and 7-81~. Step &If AH.l Where gpm/ft) gpm/ft) (7-79a) (7-79b) segments reaches em./q.l .Step Gb-Figures 7-36 and 7-37 were prepared to provide a graphical solution that greatly simplifies the calculation of the head loss in a tapered manifold. in Sample Designs for Trickle Irrigation Systems. The actual Hf can be computed by equation 7-80.1 gpm/ft. 7-81b. Use figure 7-36 for manifold outlet discharges below 3. feet. @If) = pressure-head loss in the manifold from pipe friction. can be determined graphically. it can be approximated by: AH.). Hf An example of the graphical solution is presented in figure 7-42 under Manifold Design./lOO) (7-81b) (7-81a) = S1 = lateral q1 = lateral spacing.[S(O. (Note that when a manifold feeds pairs of laterals.y)$$l (7-81~) 7-61 . the manifold pipe sizes must be adjusted to reduce Hf.1 times the allowable manifold pressure variation (AH. the design is satisfactory. = Hf . feet. Step 2-Draw vertical lines at flow rates representing the divisions between successive pipe sizes obtained in step 4. Hf = M&p> Where (7-80) actual pressure-head loss in the manifold from pipe friction. Step 3-Trace the curve representing the smallest diameter pipe between the origin and the flow rate at which the next largest diameter pipe should begin. C = number of pipe sizes used in the manifold.). and the sum of the head losses in each segment is proportionate to Hf at em on the overlay.... Drip System. The figures are plots of the head loss curves for manifolds made up of PVC thermoplastic IPS pipe with different nominal diameters with the minimum SDR ratings. The dimensionless k can be computed by equations 7-79a and 7-79b.

-Standard manifold friction curves for 2-gpm outlet every 20 ft.Figure ‘7-36. 0 N 0 .

U 7-63 .Figure 7-37.-Standard manifold friction curves for 6-gpm outlet every 60 ft.

using the weighted (by length) uphill and downhill values for the amount (AHA) the manifold inlet pressure differs from lateral line inlet pressure. -HS(L&OO) manifolds: And for downhill Q. however. for S. (ql). L. Use Hf in equation 7-81a. 5. The alternate graphical method is designed to use the standard manifold curves (figs. feet. It is more time consuming than the economic-chart method (which can be used only for rectangular subunits). by equation 7-77a or 7-77b. kll). the reduction coefficient to compensate for the discharge (F) used to compute friction loss in multiple-outlet pipelines and the ratios for plotting the dimensionless pipe-friction loss curves must be adjusted for the subunit shape.). = actual length of the manifold. General Graphical-Design Method The pressure head loss from pipe friction in a manifold (Hf). 2.. To do this: 1. can be computed by equation 7-84. (n& = number of plants in the row at the closed end of the manifold. gallons per minute. beginning with Q. 3.lool (7-82c) Step *Repeat steps 4 through 8.‘: until (AH. is satisfactory. 7-64 . using the largest and three next smaller pipe sizes. A simpler graphical method can. = number of plants in the average row in the subunit. Find the value of J in Appendix B. by equation 7-83. (n. gallons per minute./lOO) Where head loss gradient of a pipe. The shape factor of the subunit (Sf) is defined by equation 7-83./lOO) (7-84) The graphical-design procedure for manifolds of a single pipe size is the same as that given under Lateral Line Design. Hf = JFF. 7-81b.“’ Qf!+L. but it is more precise. 7-36 and 7-37). F. as specified in step 8. First compute S. flow rate into the lateral (pair) at the closed end of the manifold. compute H. = + MI. = manifold pipe-friction adjustment factor. feet per 100 feet. JF’ = scalar ratio for field shape. For level manifolds: (7-82a) For uphill manifolds: (7-8213) Where (7-83) ” = (AH. (The diameter of the maniJ = = JF’(L. The general graphical-design method that follows can be used for tapered manifolds that serve either rectangular or nonrectangular trapezoidal subunits. 4. This will be the smallest pipe that will give a manifold pressure-head variation (AH.) c the allowable manifold pressure variation [(AH. gallons per minute. be used on rectangular subunits. Find F in table 7-6.. However. Step Z-Determine four scalar ratios for field shape (JF ‘) values for manifold flow rate (q. Then find F. figure 7-37. feet.).). or 7-81~ to find AH.(L. Step IO-For pairs of manifolds that operate simultaneously from the same regulating value.“= (OH.. Compute Hf by equation 7-84.. 6. = average lateral (pair) flow rate along the manifold...). The general graphical method for designing tapered manifolds is as follows: Step L-Determine the largest pipe size to be used in the manifold.1 by equation 7-81 or possibly one pipe size larger. in figure 7-38.).. The general graphical-design procedure for tapered manifolds (or laterals) is the same for both rectangular and nonrectangular trapezoidal subunits..).and 7-82~ for reentering the economic pipe-size selection chart.

80 0.“. 7-66 .06 0. Step 3-Set up a table to organize the dimensionless data for plotting a set of curves scaled to represent each of the four sizes of pipe.63 0..85 3 1.31 0.45 0.48 0.3. largest flow rate (Q) in the appropriate table for pipe size in Appendix B.‘.02 0. for the largest flow rate (G) given for the required pipe size.10 0.59 0.) First select the proper values for JF ’ Table 7-O. (See table 7-9. .305 0.60 0.06 0.’ 0 = 0.2. .41 0.50 0. 1.03 0.081 0./(IJloO) for constructing a set of dimensionless manifold friction-loss curves for manifold flow rate (q.057 0.02 0.‘* a (7-86) 0.fold’s smallest pipe should be at least half the diameter of the manifold’s largest pipe.) and JF 3 x/L’ 0.36 0.90 1.04 0./n/lOO) JF” at indicated pipe size (in.374 0. gallons per minute.245 0.868 Velocity limit 0.24 0.14 0.8 Where J.03 1.002 0.003 0. S.38 AH.13 0.01 0.66 0.25 0.85 0.65 0.99 0..59 0.30 0. feet per 100 feet.49 0.16 0.36 0..00 1.42 1.24 L 2% 4.86 1.10 0.““‘.51”“‘.5 20 g.. .01 0. as J. J = JX(+.0 Shape Factor.18 0.23 0.95 1.16 0.25 0.35 0..27 0.59 ‘It is normally sufficient to use only the 0.40 0. 0. 0.19 0.31 0.19 1. The required J value can then be computed by equation 7-85. INote that scalar ratios (JF’) from table 7-10 were divided by 10.) = 178 gpm and reduction coefficient to compensate for discharge (F) = 0. select from the table the value of the head loss gradient of the manifold pipe (J).037 0. 1.70 0.41 0. 0.08 1.26 0.01 0.75 ratio 0.02 0..-Scaled values of AI-I..35 0. ad- = Figure 7-38.452 0.193 0.149 0.06 0.90 Velocity limit 0.) If the range of flow rates given by the appropriate table in Appendix B does not include the required ~1.13 0.638 0.5 1.112 2 11.02 0.05 0.72 0.005 0.023 0.39 0.1.09 0.540 0.000 1.20 0.442 0 0.013 0.38 0.-Graph for determining manifold pipe-friction justment factors for trapezoidal subunits.0 values of x/L.55 0.747 0. feet per 100 feet. J value from Appendix B for the largest flow rate in the table for the required pipe size.10 0.

draw a sloping line from 0.) Then draw a second line above and parallel to the ground slope line and passing through (i + S) at x/L = 1.40 6. L = length of manifold.94 2. = manifold pressure-head variation.47 0.08 0.23 4.95 1.33 10.34 1.47 8.13 0.68 10.96 1.83 2.93 1.-Scalar JF ’ ratios for constructing dimensionless curves of x/L vs.00 6. Step 6-Place a transparent overlay on the set.10 0. no need to compute values representing velocities greater than 7 ft/s.54 0.25 0.01 0.05 3.75 0.16 7.56 7.05 3.85 4.31 0.89 8. (See the solid and dashed lines in figure 7-41).42 0. Then draw a second line below and parallel to the first and passing through 0.12 1.70 4.00 0.60 0.25 9.00 0.02 0.12 1. This set of curves represents a set of four singlesize pipe manifolds drawn to a single dimensionless scale. 0.00 0.37 0. There is.5 2.25 0.19 0.44 0.40 0.68 0.00 10. then trace the horizontal and vertical scales and the left Table 7-IO.30 1. however.20 0.55 4.38 1.03 0.52 5.73 2.73 6.00 2.) Step 7b-For steeply (down) sloping manifolds (or pairs of manifolds) where S > 3j.35 0. This represents the allowable pipe-friction loss following the same proportional scale as the set of pipe friction curves.39 8. Step &Determine the dimensionless allowable head-loss ratio (i> by equation 7-86.42 5.50 0.70 0.80 0.96 0.30 0.11 0.34 0.90 10.06 0.65 0. of dimensionless pipe-friction curves.46 X/L Figure 7-39. Then multiply the JF’ values found in step 2 for each of the four pipe sizes by each of the JF’ ratios from the table.00 7-66 . Furthermore.92 8.91 3.58 2.01 0.47 3. draw a sloping line from the origin to S = AEl/lOOL at x/L = 1.2.15S at x/L = 0 to (i + S) at x/L = 1.66 4.97 5.95 7.5 Sf = 1.38 7. values should give enough data points. Then draw a second sloping line parallel to the first and passing through 0. 0. (This line represents the ground slope drawn to the same scale as the friction curves.45 3. .0 0.50 1./(L/lOO) for various field-shape factors (S# line through the origin and through j at x/L = 1.26 0.9Cj + S) at x/L = 1.55 0.0 1. vertical boundary (see figure 7-40).05 0.45 0.20 0.93 2. the full 0.81 1.23 0.ratio vs.-Dimensionless manifold friction curves scaled to represent manifold flow rate (q.90 3.49 1. .1. AH. Step 7a-For level manifolds draw a sloping JF' ratio for indicated Sf X/L 0.80 0. Step I-Plot the data tabulated in step 3 on regular graph paper with (x/L) as the abscissa and AH&L/loo) as the ordinate (see figure 7-39).38 0.95 2.64 0.04 0.05 6.0 0.74 6.74 4. x/L for the nearest Sf from table 7-10.90 0.26 1. Step 7c-For mildly (down) sloping manifolds (or pairs of manifolds) where S < 3j.57 5. AH.15 0.69 1.02 0.00 10. x = position of point on manifold.12 1.) = 178 gpm through each size of pipe.9j at x/L = 1.57 0.66 3.20 6. (See the solid and dashed lines in figure 740.

2 0.5 L/l00 0. X = position of point on 7-67 .8 Figure 7-40. = manifold pressure-head variation.7 0.0 4-in o. L = length for design of manifold.9’A L/l00 Hm 7 / / / / 0.in 0.675 I I I I I I I’ // 3-in / 0. graphical-design method. I i > I I I I I I I I 0.9 / / / Average Slope / Friction I A YTI 0. of manifolds Cl).3 0. (2).7 0.0 0.8 0.6 0.9 ) 0.4 0.6 I I I I I 0.4 0.1 I. and (3) using the general AH.1 0.2 Z.-Overlay manifold.325 I /IA// / / I I / 1 0.5 x/ L 0.3 0.

/ Hf (feet) 48. q. = manifold flow rate. I$ = manifold pressure-head loss from pipe friction..5 I 8.' 4 ------ -_- \ 2-inch 65.35. curve for designing a tapered manifold 7-68 .4 3-inch Fipe 0 qnl (gpm> IIi 77 Figure 741.-Friction curve overlay to demonstrate graphical method using a standard manifold for a steep slope..7 1' / 8.

gallons per minute.. = actual flow rate in the manifold. Then draw a sloping line parallel to it and passing through 0. Now trace the friction curve until it intersects with the previous curve segment. draw a slopinglinefromO. Step 7’-For level manifolds draw a sloping line through the origin and j ’ at k. (7-87) Where J *. however. Then draw a second line below and parallel to it 7-69 . and slope along the manifold (S) must be properly scaled to compensate for the difference between the standard curves and the manifold under study. Slide the overlay down until the friction curve of the second pipe size is tangent to the lower limit line.9 j ’ at b. Slide the overlay down until the intersection of the average friction-slope line coincides with the x/L = 1 intercept of the friction curve of the largest pipe to be used. (7-W) S’=&!&=E$=~ Where S’ L. Steps 2. 4. then trace the horizontal and vertical scales and draw a vertical line at q. draw a sloping line from the origin to S’ at q. %n AEl = elevation (from S) properly scaled for the manifold under study. Graphical-Design Method allowable manifold-pressure variation [(AH. it will he necessary to extend the friction curve well beyond the average friction-slope line. (See the solid and dashed lines on figure 7-42.]. Trace the friction curve from its intersection with the previous friction curve to its intersection with the average friction-slope line. Alternative The alternative graphical-design method is similar to the general method except that. Step 5’-The standard manifold curves give the manifold pressure-head loss (Hf) for a 0. and 4 in the general procedure can be eliminated. Therefore. This time.) Step 7c’-For mildly (down) sloping manifolds (or pairs of manifolds) where S’ < 3j ‘. After selection of the proper set of standard manifold curves (see step 6b under Economic-Chart Design Method). = scale factor computed by equation 7-80a or 7-80b. 2. and step 1 can be more easily handled by trial and error. feet. feet. The procedure for drawing the composite curve is as follows: 1. This can be done by equations 7-87 and 7-88. value properly scaled for the manifold under study. = difference in elevation along the manifold. 3.>. Slide the overlay down. Step &The most economical design of each manifold is defined by the pairs of lines developed in step 7.Step 7d-For manifolds running up slope.. repeating step 2. the a transparent overlay on the set of standard manifold curves. (See the solid and dashed lines in figure 7-41. feet. the procedure’ is similar to steps 5 through 8 of the general graphical-design method.). Therefore. The final design is represented by a combination of dimensionless pipe-curve sections representing various pipe diameters and lengths. begin with step 5 ’ so the comparison can be better visualized. draw a slopinglineforSatx&=OtoOatxL=1.) Step 7b’-For steeply (down) sloping manifolds (or Step 6’-Place pairs of manifolds) where S’ > 3j ‘. (This line represents the ground slope drawn to the same scale as the friction curves.) Then draw a second line above and parallel to the ground slope line and passing through (j ’ + S ‘I at em. the set of standard manifold curves presented in figures 7-36 and 7-37 can be used. This eliminates the need for computing and drawing a special set of curves for each set of design conditions..=Oto(j’+S~at~. feet. 3. for rectangular subunits.. feet. = k (AH..l5S’atq. Start at the origin and trace the friction curve of the smallest permissible pipe from the origin to its intersection with the average friction-slope line. (see figure 7-42). = actual length of the manifold.1~gpm/ft average manifold discharge. Then draw a horizontal line from j at x/L = 0 to XL = 1..

(Hf). Ll L (F. and (F.25. Step 8’-This is the same as step 8 for the general graphical-design method.’ (H. line. The H.] differs from the lateral-line inlet pressure [hll). (F. running up slope draw a manifolds 92 sloping line from S’ at h = 0 to 0 at h. feet.). The estimated (Hf). and a line representing the average manifold pressure (H. Locating the H.-4m 100 I20 140 160 180 Figure 7-42. Adjust the overlay and count squares until the above conditions are satisfied as shown in figure 7-41. is being estimated. 28 58 I I20 178 0 20 40 60 80 4.) that lies parallel to the slope. line is positioned so that the areas between it and the friction curve are the same above and below.).). If the lengths and subunit shapes are the same. will be quite accurate as long as the proportional lengths of the various sizes of pipe in tapered manifolds remain constant and the difference between (F.-Friction curve overlay demonstrating the graphical solution for using standard manifold curves to design tapered manifolds with a given allowable manifold pressure variation (AH.9(i ‘+S 3 at h. feet.passing through Step 7d’-For 0. . cl1 = flow rate in the manifold for which <Hf). Estimating Pressure Loss From Pipe Friction The pressure head loss from pipe friction (Hf) can be estimated from the Hf of a similar manifold (or lateral) by equation 7-89.). qm = actual flow rate in the manifold. = friction adjustment factor for the original manifold. = +L 1 Where (Hf). feet. is represented by the distance H. = friction adjustment factor for the manifold for which (Hf). Hf = manifold pressure-head loss. place the transparent overlay on a piece of graph paper with one heavy grid line. is being estimated. (~~1. Line and Estimating LHg A graphical technique for estimating the manifold head loss can also be used to estimate AH& (the amount the manifold inlet pressure [H. = flow rate in the original manifold..). The nHH&. $+ Sl ($. 1 (7-89) = estimate of the pressure head loss from pipe friction for the manifold.1.). gallons per minute. gallons per minute. = length of pipe in the manifold for which (H& is being estimated. Then draw a horizontal line from j ’ at em = 0 to qm. To aid in locating the H. is less than 0. = pressure head loss from pipe friction for the original manifold. = length of pipe in the original manifold. the discharges can vary over a wide range without reducing the accuracy of the @If)Z estimate. feet.

42%. 7-43) and the orchard layout map (fig. Positioning the manifolds and designing the laterals (with both graphical and numerical solutions) for sloping rows.23 in. 3.. P.).0 ft. + 0. (7-61 Emission uniformity (EU). WHC = 1.1 . Computing system capacity and total dynamic operating-head requirements. (Table 7-2 can help predict the areas wetted by an emitter.7811 Td = 0.23 x 1. allowable head variation (QH.S.Mad = 30%.0 x 6 x 8.87 in.3542 FIz = 1. because the actual interval used is a management decision and does not affect the design hydraulics. i) Td = 0.78 + 0.42% (7-l) Drip System The following drip-system design is for a typical deciduous orchard. u.83 in. = 8. IrriU.23 = 5.74[0. The steps for developing these factors are outlined in the trickle-irrigation design factors sheet (fig. Tech. the example emphasizes the following procedures: 1. = 29. Water Requirements.78)1 T. = 0.Ps)l = 36. = 78% (field data).lft. Net depth of application (F.0.0 F. 1. field test data and observations at existing systems are preferable. e’ = 4. 7-45). 4. = 24 ft. Determining AH.).23 in. S. Design Factors Before designing the hydraulic network.). Dep. the allowable variation in pressure head that will produce the desired uniformity of emission.78 + 0.) Maximum net depth of application (F.2810. a uniform S.15 = 0.. Td = 0.30 x 1. assume daily irrigations./day ii) T.). 5. = 24 ft. RZD = 6. the number of stations RJ). Field observations of trickle irrigation systems in the same area have shown that the wetted diameter produced by 1..-F.23 in.0 ft was selected.0 x 0. F.-An emission uniformity of 90 percent is a practical design objective for drip systems on relatively uniform topography.231f If = 1.).74 in.8 in. and the average emitter discharge (qa) and operating pressure head (h.5 x 100 w 24 x 24 P..0~gph emitters is between 8 and 9 ft.15(0. 1967. F = 0. however. For a continuous wetted strip. the designer must determine the emitter spacing (S.15(1. and hours of operation per season (Q. 2.0 day. Soil Cons. = 6. The data that should be collected before beginning a design are summarized in the trickle-irrigation-design data sheet (fig. for July. Selecting the emitter or emission point spacing (S. Designing the manifold and selecting economical pipe sizes for both manifolds and main lines../day. If = 1./day.). = 35.0. Therefore. average emitter discharge (qa). the spacing between emitters in the row should not exceed 80 percent of the wetted diameter. for the 24-ft tree spacing. In addition to illustrating the general process for designing a drip irrigation system.15 in. Conservation Service.8 x 6.0 . 4 = 8.1510.28 in.0 days If (7-61 Design irrigation interval (days) &).0 p = 4. = 1. the lateral spacing @I). = 35./yr (days) (7-51 Maximum allowable irrigation interval (I&. This data sheet serves as a guide and provides a convenient place to record results of the various trial and final computations.-From Irrigation Water Requirernentd U = 36.).-If = 1 day will be used in developing the design factors.). Release 21. P. 7-44). = 0. Serv.0 ft.5 Et (field data). %oil gation Agric.15(1. S. 7-71 . of 6. SW= 8.83/31 = 0.15 in (7-4) Average peak daily transpiration rate (Td) and seasonal transpiration rate (‘I’&.23 in.0 . the duration of application (T.). average emitter pressure head (h.-Td = 0. = U[P.Sample Designs for Trickle Irrigation The following sample designs illustrate cedures of this handbook. the pro- Percent area wetted (P&--S.

I II

Project Land a) b) c) d) 1; e) f) g) h)

Name--Happy and Water

Green

Farm

Date-Winter

1978

Resources I1 (acres), effective A rainfall moisture (in.), from Ws (in.), R e 115.68 3.7 0 800 -EC w 1.4 Good

Field Field Average Residual off-season Water Water Water Water and Soil

no. area

annual

stored soil precipitation supply storage quality quality (gpm) (acre-ft)

(mmhos/cm), classification

III

Soil a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) 1)

Crop texture water-holding (ft) capacity (in./ft), WHC Silt 1.8 10 None deficiency (X), Mad 30 Almonds spacing root area (ft depth x ft), (ft), Se x Sr RZD Ps use rate for (in./day), rate LR the ud (in.), U month 0.28 36.74 0 24 x 24 6 78 loam

Available Soil Soil depth

limitations

Management-allcwed Crop Plant Plant Percent

shaded,(%),

Average daily consumptive-use of greatest overall water Season Leaching total crop

consumptive-use (ratio),

requirement

IV

Emitter 4 b) c) d) 4 f) g) h) Type Outlets Pressure Rated Discharge Coefficient Discharge Connection per head discharge exponent, of emitter (psi), h q Vortex 1 15.0 1.0 0.42 v kd (ft), fe 0.07 0.32 0.4

@ h, (gph), x

variability,

coefficient, loss equivalent

Figure

7-43.-Drip-system

data

for a deciduous

orchard

in the Central

Valley

of California.

7-72

&,=648gpm

6-inch

Tree

Spacing 24ftx24f/

I

-

1 + 24fr

rood

+--,

54

rows

+ 24-ft

rood

-

Emission

uniformity

(EU) = 91% Maximum net daily in rate head application

96 ft

21/2-inch 3/2 tt 2-inch 120 ft

cL T-l2oft

(Fm)

= 0.27

m =648ft-+

Q, = system TDH = total 'rn = manifold Lm = manifold
system. (Lateral lines are 0.58-k

flow

dynamic spacing length

M2-inch
I v4-inch

e

Figure 744.-Orchard SDR 26 polyvinyl

layout with sample design for a drip irrigation chloride (PVC), and main lines are SDR 41 PVC.)

polyethylene

(PE),

manifolds

are

7-73

I II

Project Trial

Happy Green Farm Design

Date-Winter

1978

4

Emission

point spacing points

layout (ft x ft), Se x Sl e'

St. line 6 x 24 4 35.42 (in.), transpiration 0.23 interval (days), (in.), F g If (days), If 5.0 1.0 0.23 90 F g per plant 0.26 93.30 Ta 23.33 F,, 1.15

b) Emitter 4
Emission

per plant, I%), P,

d) Percent 4 f) d

area wetted

Maximum net depth of application Ave. peak-of-application rate (in./day), Td Maximum allowable irrigation interval daily

h) Design Irrigation 0 j)

Net depth of application Emission uniformity application F

(%), EU (in,), required (m/d) (hr/day),

W Gross water

1) Gross volume of water
per day (gal/day),

m) Time of application
III Final a) b) c) d) 4 f> d h) U 1) k) 1) m) n) 0) design Time of application Design irrigation

(hr/day), interval

Ta (days), If F

21.0 1.0 0.26 1.11 ha (ft),
AHS

Gross water Average Average Allowable Emitter Percent

application discharge pressure

(in.),

emitter emitter

g (gph), q,

head (ft), variation Se x Sl

44.65 16.05 6 x 24 35 1

pressure-head spacing

(ft x ft), (%), PW N (gpm),

area wetted

Number of stations, Total system capacity irrigation

Q, (%), ES Vi Q,

647.37 90 319.94 2,686 112 91

Seasonal

efficiency (acre/ft).

Gross seasonal Seasonal Total

volume

operating

time (hr). TDH

dynamic head (ft), uniformity

Emission

(%), EU

Figure 7-45.-Drip-system

design factors for a deciduous orchard in the Central Valley of California.

Average

peak daily

transpiration

ratio

CT,).-

Because the crop is deep rooted and the soil is medium texture, T, = 1.00 as discussed in Gross Water Application under Soil-Plant-Water Considerations. Leaching requirement ratio (L&).-Obtain EC, = 1.4 mmhos/cm from figure 7-43. Obtain min EC, = 1.5 mmhos/cm and max EC, = 7 mmhos/cm from table 74 for almonds. 1.4 9 LR, = -2c7j = 0.10

F (&d) = 93.3 gal/day, e’ = 4.0. The qa that will apply the desired in T, = 21.0 hr is 21*o = 9a

volume

of water

qa

4.0 q, 93.3 = 4.0 x 21.0 = 1.11 gph.

93.3

(7-30)

(7-17)

-

ii) Proper leaching should not reduce yield, because EC, < min EC, (see equation 7-15). Gross water application (F.&-T, = 1.00, LR, = 0.1, F, = 0.23 in./hr, EU = 90%. i) When the unavoidable losses are greater than the leaching requirement, i.e., T, 2 Ml.0 - LRJ, or ii) When LR, I 0.1, then extra water for leaching is not required during the peak use period and F, should be computed by equation 7-8a. iii) 0.23 x 1.00 0.90 F, = 0.26 in. F, =

Average emitter pressure head &J.-q gph, h = 15.0 psi, x = 0.42, G = 1.11 gph. i) Compute emitter discharge coefficient the standard emitter flow-rate data given.
1.0 = kd(15.0)0’42 kd = l.0/(15.0)“.42 kd = 0.32 gph/(psi)“.42 ii) The adjusted value of h, that will

= 1.0 (kd) from

(7-20)

give q, is

(7-31)
h, = 19.33 psi or 44.65 ft.

(7-8a) Allowable pressurehead variation (OH~subunit).-e’= 4, v = 0.07, g, = 1.11 gph, EU = 90%,
b = 0.32, x = 0.42, h, = 19.33 psi. i) A subunit is that part of the system beyond the last pressure-regulation point; i.e., if a valve is used to adjust the inlet pressure to a manifold that has no other pressure regulator, the area served by the manifold is a subunit. The object is to limit the pressure variation within a subunit so that actual emission uniformity (EU) will equal or exceed the assumed value of EU. ii) Rearranging equation 7-33a, the minimum permissible flow, G, is 1.11 x 901100 ” = 1.0 - (0.07 x 1.27/,/Z) q, = 1.05 gph. iii) The minimum permissible that would give qn is pressure head (h,)

Gross volume day [F(*&.-F,
If = 1 day. F

of water required per plant per = 0.26 in., S, = 24 ft, S, = 24 ft,

0.623 x 0.26 x 24 x 24 1 Fcgp,d) = 93.30 gal/day
@Id) =

(7-9)

Time

of application

(‘I’J.-Fcpp,d,

= 93.30 gal/day,

e = 4, Q = 1.0 gph. i) T, = 4g:*fo T, = 23.33 hrlday > 21.6 (7-30)

e

ii) Adjusting qa would bring T, to within the allowable limits, i.e., 90 percent of 24 = 21.6 hr/day. Because T, = 23 hr, one station will be used for the system and the qa will be increased to give 93.3 gal/day in 21.6 hr or less. (If T, E 12 hr, two stations can be used, and if T, z 6 hr, four stations can be used.) iii) For added safety and convenience of operation let T, = 21.0 hr. Average emitter discharge (q&--T, = 21.0 hr,

(7-31)

7-75

(%)= (!h)’ = > h n = h (!!!2)1’x
qa ha a% h = (9a\“x(~)1’x kd Qa

26.9 x 115.7 vi = 12(1 - 0.1)90/100 Vi = 320 acre-ft. Seasonal operating Q, = 648 gpm. 5,430 x 320 648 Qt = 2,682 hr time (Q&Vi

(7-14)

n

= 320 acre-f&

= (cln)l’~ kd
h,

= (1.05/0.32)““‘42 = 16.93 psi. variation in pressure

Qt =

(7-37)

iv) Therefore, the allowable head for the subunit, OH,, is AH, = 2.5(19.33 - 16.93) AH, = 6.0 psi or 13.86 ft.

(7-34)

Total system capacity (Q&.-A = 115.7 acres, q, = 1.11 gph, n = 1.0, S, = 6 ft, S1 = 24 ft.

Q, = 726 x 115.7 x 1.11
1.0 x 6 x 24 Q, = 648 gpm

(7-35b)

Seasonal irrigation efficiency (E,).-EU = 90%, obtain Tk = 1.00 from table 7-3, LR, = 0.10. i) The seasonal irrigation efficiency is the product of EU/lOO, the expected efficiency of irrigation scheduling, and the inverse of the proportions of the applied water that may be lost to runoff, leaching, or evaporation, or any combination of the three. ii) Because a commercial scheduling service will be employed for this operation and little runoff, leakage, or evaporation is anticipated: Ts < Ml.0 - I&).

Lateral Line Design and System Layout The procedure for designing a lateral line involves determining the manifold spacing and lateral characteristics, manifold position, lateral inlet pressure, and pressure difference along the laterals. The procedure for selecting the manifold spacing is presented under Lateral Line Design. It is convenient to have the same spacing throughout the field. Manifold spacing (S,>.-S, = 24 ft, S, = 6 ft, g, = 1.11 gph, ID = 0.58 in.; from Appendix B, J = 5.73 ft/lOO ft.; f, = 0.4 ft; from table 7-6, F = 0.36; AH, = 16.05 ft, S, = 24 ft. i) Inspection of the orchard layout shows that three manifolds, each serving rows of 54 trees, would be the fewest to meet the criteria, i.e., two manifolds for the west 80 acres and one manifold for the east 40 acres. ii) The difference in pressure head (Ah) for the level laterals serving 27 trees on either side of each manifold can be calculated as follows: 1 = 27 x 24 1 = 648 ft, and 648 1.11 q1=7xm ql = 2.00 gpm. Taking emitter into account the added roughness connections to the laterals, (7-62)

iii) Considering the above, the seasonal irrigation efficiency (E,) will be E, = 90%. (7-l 1)

Gross seasonal volume (Vi).-U = 36.74 in., R, = 3.7 in., W, = 0, P, = 78%, E, = 90%, A = 115.68 acres, LR, = 0.1 i) The annual net depth of application [Fc,,,] is Fcanj = 33.0410.78 + 0.15(1.0 - 0.78)1 Fc,,) = 26.9 in. ii) The gross seasonal volume required (Vi) is of irrigation (7-10)

from the

J’ = 5.73( 6’06+60’4 ) J’ = 6.11 ft/lOO ft.

(7-51b)

water

7-76

5.03 1 = 648( 14. J’F = 2. = 2. for 1 = 648 ft.26-ft head loss computed for a 648-ft-long lateral in equation 7-65a. values from a specific problem must be multiplied by (lO/J’F). (7-52) iii) This Ah is considerably greater than 0.5AH. Thus.5%.11 ft/lOO R.36.26-ft head loss computed for the 648-ft-long lateral by equation 7-65b.05 ft. = 27 x 24 = 648 ft. = 2 x 22 x 24 = 1. F = 0. This was already done (see previous section.20).8 0.6 0.). For use of the O-to-10 dimensionless scale. 0. = 16.]. Ah = hf = 6. 10 on the vertical scale of the overlay represents J’F = 2. as shown in figure 7-46. part ii. L/100 L/100 = 6.11 x 0. and AH. = allowable subunit pressure-head variation.20. 8. k/100 x 0. AH. Graphical and Ah&J’= determination of manifold position 2. so AEl = 0.36 x 6.. i) Now compute J’F for a single lateral equal in length to the manifold spacing OS. The lateral length that would produce h = 0.48 Ah = 14. in which J’F = 6.36 = 2.2 0. iv) Construction was simplified and improved by selecting six equally spaced manifolds so that S. and the head difference along each pair of laterals can be estimated by again using the 14.1 0.3 0. the west 80 acres of the field could be supplied by three manifolds. iii) Next. x = position of manifold along lateral.03 R can be found directly by using the 14. S.75 6.27. S = 0. Thus.26 ft.24+&324 hf G 2. draw a line representing the ground surface on the overlay.Therefore. and would leave too little margin for differences in pressure head in the manifold. = 8.20 R/100 ft.056 ft. Manifold spacing [S.5 x/t 0. ii) Place an overlay on figure 7-31 and trace the friction curve (solid line) and the vertical lines on both the right and left sides of the figure.48 ft.9 tq Figure 746.4 0.1 ft.7 0.5 AH.-Friction curve overlay to demonstrate graphical solution of manifold positioning and Ah (difference in pressure head along the lateral).26) 11275 Thus. but the east half would need two manifolds.11 x 0. AH. hf z 14. 1 will be 324 ft. L = length of lateral. 7-77 .5 (7-66) 1 = 526 ft (about 22 trees) This would give a manifold spacing of . The left end of this groundsurface line should pass through zero on the vertical scale at Xn = 0 and the right end (at x/L = 1) should pass through AL)+& (L/100 =.

5 ft/lOO ft. J’F = 2.11 ft/lOO ft. will be the same for each subunit.. iii) Next. 648 and at 17 trees. which is the solid straight line on figure 746.62)2.24) . as shown by the dashed sloped line on figure 7-46.48 ft.40 x 6.on figure 7-32.20 fi/lOO ft.08 = o 1g 2. Taking values from the overlay for the manifold at x/L = 0. To represent this manifold position.06 ) = 5 6 6.40. move the overlay down on figure 7-31 until the dashed friction curve coincides with the adjusted groundline at x/L = 1. J = 0..20 * ’ and then by trial and error find the x/L that balances the equation.20(0.: (0.5 .6 ft. solve for the unusable (S1 (see figure 7-34): S’ = (0. where the dashed friction curve intersects the friction curve on the overlay as shown on figure 7-46. Ah = 2.e. This is represented by a line parallel to and above the adjusted groundline on the overlay. the manifold position and the head loss in the average lateral. F = 0. S = 0. Draw a line parallel to the groundline and tangent to the friction curve.’ The pressure at the upper end of the upslope lateral can be kept above the adjusted groundline by placing the manifold with 17 trees on the downslope laterals and 10 trees on the upslope laterals. ii) Find the tangent location (Y) by Y = (0. x/L = 17 trees/27 trees = 0.24)2.62)2.6 x 16. Make sure this line intersects both vertical axes.2\ 0. i.(1 . x/L = 16 x 24 = 0.5 x 0. x/L = l7 ’ 24 = 0 63 648 .11)1”. This position falls between the 16th and 17th trees from the lower end of the downslope lateral: at 16 trees.75 = 0. (7-66) iv) To locate the best manifold position.75 Y = 0. This is the adjusted groundline.0.73 ft/lOO ft. A reasonable maximum allowable difference in pressure head along the pair of laterals is 0.61.-J determination of manifold position 2.59. (7-67) slope component (7-68) Numerical and Ah.63 as shown by the solid line in figure 7-46. vi) The maximum variation in pressure head (Ah) along the pair of laterals is represented by the maximum distance that the upslope and downslope iv) The manifold position can now be located by satisfying equation 7-69.24. plot a line the following distance (number of units) above the adjusted groundline as shown in figure 7-46.36.0. vii) Because uniform manifold spacings have been chosen and the field has a uniform slope.20. L/100 = 6.20 = 10 x la80 = 0.0. = 5. v) This “exact” manifold position is at x/L = 0. To satisfy the equation.2.40 - curves are above the adjusted groundline. J’ = 6.6 ft. first determine the term on the left: S-S’J’F 0.75 S’ = 0. 7-78 .5/6.63. To represent this allowable pressure head.48 Ah = 2.63 and allowing for the scale factor: Ah mm Ah L/100 and Ah = 0. Units 10 = 2. i) Determine J’F as in step 1 of the graphical solution.6 AH.5%. move the overlay so that the upslope (dotted) fiction curve crosses the friction curve on the overlay at x/L = 0.75 . as discussed earlier.08.

Thus.63) .15 . PC = 1. change in elevation.6 ft.65 + 0.. = 75%.75(14.2 is reasonable). 7-79 . and for a pair of laterals. = 27 x 2. Lm = 648 R.63)3~75 + (1 . EAE = 1. PUc = $O. AH8 = 16. the lateral inlet pressure can be determined by equation 7-63a as h1 = 44.. from the graphical solution for lateral lines. Manifold length and main-line position.v) The value of x/L = 0. = 2. a power conversion factor of 1. = 44.(0. the maximum permissible velocity controls minimum pipe size regardless of the other criteria. Maximum permissible velocity. 2. determine Ahc = 0. iii) There are access roads in place of the center row of trees in the west 80 acres and in the east 40 acres.63Y51 .11 h.0. However. the manifold is tapered by balancing the allowable limit with pipe friction and change in elevation.0 gpm. qr. the minimum pressure in a pair of manifolds is equal (like the manifold position for pairs of laterals as discussed earlier). = 27 x 24 = 648 ft. A balance between the pipe’s initial cost and the pumping cost over the pipe’s expected life (described under Pipeline Hydraulics).08 x 6.2 BHP-hr/kWh (taking into consideration the motor transformer and line de& ciencies. Therefore. as discussed earlier. ii) Main lines should be positioned so that starting from a common main-line connection.42 = 46. A balance between friction loss.0 gpm. q.48 Ahc = 0.-q1 = 1. Qa = 54 gpm.. = 14.. 3.500 ft.26)[C0. and allowable variation in pressure.0 gpm.0.48[2. Therefore. To check for the possibility that the maximum Ah may occur at the closed end of the downslope lateral. AEl = 3.65 ft.O436/kWh.63.205 (20% for 20 yr).. parallel main lines are needed.05 ft.62 falls between the 16th and 17th trees from the lower end. i) For economic reasons and for acceptable AH.5 ft.63)z~75 + 0.686 hr. Pipe sizes selected on the basis of economics are considered acceptable if variations in pressure do not exceed allowable limits. Econombchart method of manifold design. Manifold flow rate (q&.20(0. the pair of laterals should be of equal length. For pairs of laterals with a constant diameter. Er.5 x 0. 1 rows of trees Sr = 24 ft manifold ) (7-7la) = 44. The manifold flow rate is the number of pairs of laterals along each manifold times the flow rate per pair: q.65 + 2.Qt = 2. BHP/PU = 1.5 ft.594 (9% inflation).00.6311 Ah = 2. Lateral inlet pressure head &$-ha h+.08 . Because the ground is level in the direction of the laterals. the manifold should be located to supply 17 trees along the downslope laterals and 10 trees along the upslope laterals.. the length of each manifold is L. qlP= 2. If limits of pressure variation are exceeded. Manifold Design Selecting pipe size for tapered manifolds involves three criteria: 1. = 54.4 ft. Ah’ = 2.24/2)[2(0.0 = 54 gpm.24 ft. vi) The maximum pressure-head variation (Ah) along the pair of laterals can be determined from equation 7-70 by use of the x/L value that represents the actual manifold location selected: Ah = 6.0.26 ft.(3. z = x/L = 0. pairs of manifolds extending in opposite directions from a common main-line connection normally should not exceed a total length of 1. CBF = 0.

l..594 (75/100)(1. G = 46..36 . which is: P s i i p f For 2?4-in.2) CWhp $207lwhp per year.0 (7-78) % L = L9. (7-69) The numerical method for determining Hf is as follows: e iv) The maximum pressure in this and most other typical trickle systems is less than 100 psi..38.0 gpm. F* = 0. q .0 gpm.36. 5 .47. 16.0 x 648 = 120 ft 20.05 .0 . To do this. ld = 120 ft.0 Lz% = 648 . la = 240 ft. = 1.0 54. Therefore. Hf = AH.38 x 648) % t l l 2 2 r Im c r + % % o F ra o 1 2 4 5 ea i0 i0 i 5 4 f tslre ba en n q . JI = 1. first determine the head loss from pipe friction (Hf). Thus PVC pipe with the minimum available (or allowable) pressure rating can be used..5 ft..0 gpm.lI = 648 ft. and because there is no slope along the manifold. 2 s = A(l. Record the flow rate (horizontal axis) where the 55gpm line intersects the upper limit of each pipe size region.6 = 13.02 x 0.2.0 .686 x 0. and extra pressure head can be used to reduce sizes of the pipe in all of these. Q . 6 . = (7-73) iii) Determine the adjustment factor (Af) to adjust QBto Qi for entering the proper unit economic pipesize selection chart: A = f o ’ o’ o i 0= 1 7ol ‘ 0.38 x 522)l (hfj2%= 1..0436 x 1. 2 . = 0.38. F.0 gpm.‘o-O x 648 = 312 ft 54. qd = 10.. and Q. FS = 0. mt =n 1 5 =n 2 2 = 40 n = 50 wo u .00 ’ ’ (7-68) and check this against AH. 0 . ii) First compute the cost per water horsepower per season by equation 7-57: 2.. 4 1 n e n Number o Ae J 0 0 0 0 o f c 0 3 7 Or&+4 P= + 1 .. G = 20.41. Figure 7-33 is the unit economic pipe-size selection chart for this set of PVC pipe sizes.10.-.0 x 648 = 120 ft 54. equals the friction loss along the manifold KM. l t e i o n s e h w ort l l ea a e v) Compute the length of pipe of each size. i) All manifolds in the system serve similar areas.01 x 54 QL = 55 gpm. qI = 54.J x 0..&. assuming uniform outlet discharge along the entire 7-80 . JS = 1. = C whp = length of the manifold by: h = 10. the manifold flow rate (qm) will be adjusted and used as the adjusted system flow (Qa to select the most economical pipe sizes.(1.21 ft.205 x 1. FI = 0.(120 + 120 + 312) = 96 ft vi) Determine the allowable difference in manifold pressure head: (AH. e . 1 .02... and f Chart z rb el @ eao Adjusted1 m a eu f t w l A a o st lto w r t ) e m 0a. Enter the vertical axis of figure 7-33 with Qi = 55 gpm. lZ = 552 ft.= ‘6’ .

so Hf = AHm and AH. which is almost identical with the value obtained numerically.4 + 4..-h1 = 46.. Hm = 46. AHm = 7. For 1%in.& = 4.4 ft.-Friction curve overlay to demonstrate graphical solution for determining manifold friction loss (Hf) for a drip system.50.(0.61 = 7. pressure.0.9 ft.54 ft.95 (hf)is = 0. = Wz~ + (hfla + (h&.38 + 0.1) = 1.47 x 120) I 20 40 I 60 The field is level.For Z-in. The scale factor for converting graph values plotted from figure 7-36 is k = 648/54(0.91 ft.38 x 552) IO 20 46 54 . and velocity criteria.21 + 4. Jd = 0. sizes may be reduced to take advantage of any excess pressure head that might result from differences in elevation or from higher pressures required for other branches of the system. for determining Hf is as follows: Because the flow rate per outlet along the manifold (ql) = 2.78 + 1. After the initial pipe sizes are selected corn an economic chart. AH& = 0.5 ft.95 and (h&iti = &J. LLHA= (0.JZAI x 0.0 = 50.9 ft. The graphical method Figure 7-47.F& - 1 1 = -i&o. AH.78 ft.0 gpm.5AE1.2 Therefore.38 ft. by equation 7-80. Jd = 0. qm = manifold flow rate. Manifold iulet pressure (H&.41 x 2401 66.55. 7-81 (7-76a) . Hf = 1.4 ft.(0.58 x 0-41 x 24ON (hf12= 4.. use figure 7-36 to make the overlay figure 747 as described in step 6b of the Economic-Chart Design Method under Manifold Design. Js = 2. x 0.69 .58.50 x 0.2(6.47 x 12O)l &lis = 1. and Wis = &JAb 1 .6 = -I&+(l. Main-Line Design Selecting pipe size for main lines is based on economic.5Hf + 0.54 AHm = 7.69. J* = 1.+ + (hf)is = 1. and = d(2.. additional savings are often possible in branching systems by reducing pipe sizes along specific branches to the limits imposed by pressure or velocity criteria. (7-79a) This value is less than (AH& = 13. In such cases. For l?&in. Therefore pipe sizes selected by economic criteria are acceptable.5X7..9) + 0. Js = 0.55 x 0.

60 P=O 1.00 6. (7-59) iii) Enter the vertical axis of figure 7-33 with 436 gpm and determine the most economical size of PVC pipe for each flow section. @I& = 1. determine the friction loss in each section as shown in the following table based on equation 7-52. After selecting the minimum pipe sizes. Je = 0. indicating lengths of pipe and rates of flow along the various sections of pipe.24 = = = = = = = @hh w 6.01. (H&.48 9. i) The pipe sizes between the pump and the critical manifold inlet cannot be trimmed without increasing the pump head requirements.-&. = 7.14 + + + + + + + 8.& = 7. and the pump must supply (Hf& = 7.34 3.24 3.26. the above (H&.26 0.24 1. Reducing main-line pipe size.50 1.65. the larger of the two branch flow rates must be adjusted for entering the chart: Q. Because the manifolds require the same inlet pressure head.68 3.95 ICritical.24 3.48 6.90 7.16’ 5. Jd = 1. Ja = 1.00 6. figure 7-33.60 L - - 0. Flow &pm) 432 324 216 108 216 108 Pipe (in.05 Pump I Oz648gpm 9CXJfti 43Zgpm gooft i A 648ff 324gpm 648ft F Compute the pressure head required to overcome pipe friction and elevation difference (Hfe)m between the pump and each manifold inlet point by using equation 7-60 as follows: i) Section Fromto P-A A-B B-C C-D P-E E-F Inlet vt1 P=O 6. = 5. ii) The (H& values in (i) show that the critical manifold inlet is at point B.26.65.41 ft before tapering section B-C.90 0.47 0.47 100 9.20 3.16 ft to overcome pipe friction and elevation along the main lines. ii) The unit economic pipe-size selection chart.05 Point Location of critical manifold inlet. i) First sketch the main-line layout. (H& = 5.54 3.-QS = 432 gpm. Ja = 0.05 2. Point A B C D E F * - /IEl (ft) 1. P-A A-B B-C C-D P-E E-F Af = 1.16 ft.14 ft before tapering section P-E.34 3. values clearly show that the pipe sizes in sections B-C and P-E can be reduced or trimmed without increasing the system head requirements.05 2. is used to select the first set of mainline pipe sizes.48 6.4 ft is supplied at point B.Economic pipesize select.01 x 432 Qi = 436 gpm.26 0.16 ft. all other requirements for manifold inlet pressure head will be more than satisfied. Sect.68 3. the pipe sections downstream from the critical inlet point and along other branches can be trimmed so that the corresponding manifold inlet points also require (H&.60 ft.90 7. However. To hold velocities below 5 ft/s.50 1.48 h 8.20 3.10 3.) 6 6 6 4 6 4 L J’ 0. Because the flow is divided immediately after the pump. iii) Furthermore. LIXE= 900 ft.10 3. stay within the solid boundary lines. 7-82 . if the required H* = 50. = 1.16 5.ion.

along with a brief writeup of the system specifications and a bill of materials. . These three figures. 10. AH. pipe in section B-C. . . pipe in section B-C.5. . pipe between P and E can be increased by (AH)r_x = 7. . . . . . v = 0. .56 x 100 = 1. = 7. . .1. . .04 Flow meter . .0 ft). .68 ft. . . .14 = 6. . . . . Z3.-x = 0. plus friction losses from valves and fittings. . .9 .02 ft. . . Main control valves . e’ = 4. . . pipe in section P-E = 900 . System Design Summary The final system-design layout is shown in figure 7-44. . the emission uniformity. . . Ah = 2. .26 = 112 ft. . and 112 ft of 4-in.H)s_c = 7.02 x 100 1. . .6 qnlQ = 0. . form the complete design package. . the friction loss in the 6-in.4 ft.56 ft at point D. (L&c iii) With 536 ft of 6-in. . . iv) Using the same logic and procedures along the east branch of the system. . For scheduling irrigation. . . ha = 44. . . . pipe. and the peak daily net system application should be: Final emission uniformity (EU).65 . . the net system application rate. Z3. . .9 ft). . . . . . manifold (7. . . . Tl’he flow characteristics of the vortex emitters used in this design are not expected to change with time. So the remaining should be (L&x length of 6-in.56 ft can be elimsome of the The exact increase the This unnecessary gain in pressure head inated to reduce pipe costs by replacing 6-in. i) Compute the ratio of minimum emitter discharge to average emitter discharge in a subunit by equations 7-38 and 7-39: 50. . . .4 . . .87 ft. .S$ pressure regulator .26 (6) (7) Total head to overcome pipe friction Hfe = 7. . .1 ft). Taken from manufacturer’s or standard charts. . 112.65 ft. . . . Tnjection pump used. 5Not used in this system. . . . . . .97 ft. pipe with 4-in. . F’ressure Hm = (2) ft 50. . The (H& will also increase by 1. Suction friction loss and lift .60 = 1. . . . .0’ Filter-maximum pressure-head differential .42.07. Total Dynamic Head The total dynamic head (TDH) required of the pump is the sum of the following: %A3 7-83 .7.2 and elevation along the main line. length of the smaller pipe (LJ that will head loss by AH is (3) (4) (5) (7-61) 1. . . and the length of 4-in. . . . .ii) is: The gain in pressure head between B and C Item (1) Manifold inlet pressure head .16 . . . . *Automatic back-flushing filter to be set to flush when pressure differential reaches 10 psi. .1z Valve and fitting friction losses: -’ Fertilizer injection . pipe taper in section P-E from equation 7-61 should be 6. . . . Lateral or header pressure regulators . .1 ft). .95. 6. .4 @. . and elevation from water surface to pump discharge. . .16 ft. . . The design data are presented in figures 743 and 745.2. extra fittings. . . . which might actually increase the system cost because of the additional pipe size. . .3 lAssumed value that includes suction screen. . .7 44. eFriction-loss safety factor taken as 10 percent of lateral (2. . . . . .0.65 . . . and more complicated construction. . . .. . . . Lateral risers and hose bibs . . . = 7.0. . and filter (23. Hm = 50. . . . . .66 Friction-loss safety factor at 10 percent . . . .433 = 467 ft.16 ft. . . This value is so close to the system (Hf& that further tapering would require a short length of 3-in. . .42 (L4h-E = (L4)p_x = 433 ft. .16 . . Additional pressure head to allow for -’ deterioration of emitters . = 1 ]0. . . . the Hfe at point C will increase to the system (H&. 0. . . . . .!54 Manifold inlet valve and l. main line (18. which gives (Hfe)n = 6.. . for (H& = 7. . . . . Stiety screens at manifold or 2T5 lateral inlets. friction in suction pipe and foot valve. . . .

3.= 0. The particular spray emitter selected wets a “butterfly”-shaped pattern that can be approximated by a circle with two 40 ’ pie-shaped wedges cut out. G = 1.0115 x 24 = 0. i) Fmn = $$ 46. ii) The total wetted soil area is larger than the surface area wetted because there is some outward soil water movement. i) The surface area (AJ wetted directly by the spray at the rated pressure of 25 psi is 280 A = 04*5)x 8 4 ’ 360 A8 = 128. The maximum net daily application rate is Fmn= 0. final or actual expected system EU will be EU = lOO(1 .ii) Assuming all the manifolds to be adjusted to the same inlet pressures. respectively. except the percent area wetted. figure 7-48.15(1. In addition to illustrating the general process for designing a spray irrigation system. the system may be operated 24 hi-/day to make up for lost irrigation time. and the field layout map. Pipe sizing for tapered manifolds on a nonrectangular field.58 in p Spray System The following spray design is for a typical citrus grove./hr (7-40) (7-33a) Maximum net daily application rate (F&. 2.40% This represents an acceptable design. PS = 14.43 ft?. Sr = 24 ft. x 0.28 in. Net application rate (F. Design Factors The values obtained for the spray design factors are presented in figure 7-50. e = 4. Details for computing most of these values.20 = 2.After a breakdown. Computations for design. Sample design computations developed under Drip System are presented more briefly in this section.89.%)I loo Td = 0. EU = 93%.25[-Z. ii) Td = 0. Economic pipe sizing for tapered manifolds (both graphical and adjusted economic-chart method solutions) on a rectangular field. Percent area wetted (P&.0 ft. Sr = 25 ft. 93 (4 x 1.0115 in. From information provided by the manufacturer. The total wetted soil area can be estimated by adding one-half of the SL value for homogeneous soils taken from table 7-2 to the perimeter of the wetted surface soil (PS).~0.556 and kd = 1.0/2 x 46)l x 100 W 15 x 25 PW= 46. the emitter exponent and coefficient of discharge are x = 0.5r = 45. = 11128 + (2.9 days 7-84 .5WO.-Diameter of surface area taken from figure 7-50 is 14. The data that should be collected before beginning a design are summarized in the trickle irrigation design sheet. The wedges are opposite each other and result from water being deflected by supports that hold a deflection cap above a vertical nozzle. = 15 ft.071)0. figure 7-49. for fine sandy (coarse)-textured soil. For the “butterfly’‘type wetting patterns.40 x 0.J. as shown in figure 7-20.-Sp = 24 ft./day iii) If = 0. e = 1.11) ‘XI = ‘6” ’ 100 (24 x 24) Fn = 0. and the relation between pressure and wetted diameter is plotted as shown in figure 7-51.20 in. si = 2.95 EU = 91%.7 x 6.5 ft.11 gph.55 ft iii) From equation 7-3. have already been presented under Drip System. The diameter of the wetted circle and the nozzle’s discharge are both functions of the operating pressure.0 . Manifold spacing for multistation systems. PS can be assumed equal to the circumference of the full circle.0 x 100 Fm. Si. the example emphasizes the following procedures: 1..

U 0.0 11. x exponent. A #l 32. ud Season Leaching IV Emitter a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Type Outlets Pressure per emitter head (psi). fe 0.I II Project Name--Florida Spray Design Date-Fall 1978 Land and Water Resources a) b) c) d) Field Field no. LRt rate (in. Sp x Sr RZD 15 x 25 6 75 depth area shaded (%). Mad 30 citrus limitations Managemnt-allowed crop Plant Plant Percent spacing root (ft x ft)./ft). kd v 0. area (acres).02 requireraent 280' spray 1 25.).042 1.). Re Residual stored from off-season Water supply Water storage Water quality Water quality and Crop Soil texture water-holding (ft) capacity (in. h q total crop consuxaptive-use (ratio). of variability. Ws 39. classification ECw Pit -0.7 Available Soil Soil depth 10 None deficiency (%).556 Rated discharge Discharge Coefficient Discharge Connection @ h (gph).4 Figure 7-48. loss equivalent (ft). .3 0. WHC soil moisture precipitation (in. Ps Average daily consumptive-use rate for the month of greatest overall water use (in.0 e) f) g) h) III Soil (gpm) (acre-ft) (rmuhos/cm).).69 coefficient.-Spray-system data for a citrus grove in Florida.23 Average annual effective rainfall (in.25 4a.0 1.3 Excellent Fine sand 0.o 0./day). (ft).

0 in..02.02. 7-86 .. ix) From equation 7-30 (rearranged).3 in.5 hrlday and use N = 4 to give 18 hrlday operation..5 Cl = I78 gpm Pump TDH = I40 ft (7-31) ha = 25. WS = 1. v) From table 74.53 psi or 12. 1. Re = 39.0 in.5%.23 x xii) QS = 726 x 4 QB= 178 gpm.70~in.40 = 4. $$I Round off to 4.20 in. Figure 7-49.0 = 0.5c25. i. i) The annual net depth of application from equation 7-10 is vii) F(zr/dj 0. ii) From equation 7-14. 32. (7-34) 11. polyethylene and manifolds and main lines are polyvinyl chloride pipe.-Citrus grove with spray irrigation system.20) AHa = 5.42 15 x 25 (7-35) iv) Fn = 0.20 2 l/(l . i) Entering table 7-3 midway between the coarse and very coarse soil-texture columns for humid zones and for root depth over 5 ft plus 0.51. max EC = 8 mmhos 0.15C.40 gal/day = viii) Ta = 51.20.042 x 1.23. assumed EU = 90%.02. = (7-6) Seasonal irrigation efficiency (ES).(0. (7-17) ii) Because TR 2 Ml.LRJ. Gross seasonal volume(V$-U = 48..40 = 11.-EU = 90%.20 x 1.70 ft.0 .20(1.660 = 23.42 x 9OllOO ‘II = 1.3 = 0.623 x 0.Re .0 x 11. 11. h* = +!$+110.86 gph.01100 + 0.05 for spray emitters gives Ts = 1.02) EB = 76.20 Al& = 2... use equation 7-12 to compute EB as 90 (7-8a) “” ’ laoo = 0 22 90/100 * in * ES = 1.0 in. = 10.0 x 4. By equations 7-31 and 7-38.3 (7-9) (7-30) J?Fan = 8.41 .-J) 51.O Fan = 6.e. qa = 1.27m) q.55 hrlday 1..00. xi) From equation 7-33a (rearranged).41 psi or 58.0 in.0 .0. ‘Rt = 2(8) vi) Tr = 1. Lateral lines are 0.0.02) = 1.0 .76 it. U .22 x 15 x 25 = 1 F @.42 gph. e LR = 0.WS = 8.

42 58. Pw application rate depth 0./hr).). line Emitter Emission 15 x 25 per plant.22 qa ha (ft)./day).0 689 140 90 Seasonal Gross efficiency (acre-ft).70 12.0 0. uniformity Gross water application 0. AH S (days).22 51.-Spray-system design factors for a citrus grove in Florida.50 1.75 15 x 25 46 4 pressure-head spacing (ft variation x ft). interval Fm Td (days). If If Percentage MSX~UIU. wetted of 1 46. peak transpiration ~~aximnm allowable Design irrigation of irrigation interval (days). (in.20 90 Ave. 11.58 0.). TDH EIJ rate dynarcic uniformity Net water-application (in. EU (in.40 4.5 22.). C%). Se x Sl e St.40 (in. seasonal volums Seasonal Total Actual operating head tinva (hr).). (in. P N (gpm). interval 1 a If 4. I g Gross water Average Average Allowable Esritter application discharge pressure emitter emitter Cgph). (in. system capacity Irrigation Qs C%). I n 0. (ft).044 Figure 7-50.I II Project Trial Name--Florida Design Spray Design Date-Fall 1978 Edssion point spacing points area kvJut (ft x ft).55 Gross volume of water per day (gal/day). I g Fn Net depth Ercission application (%I. net C%). W Se x Sl Percent area wetted Number of Total stations. Es Vi Qt 178 76. head (ft).9 1 0. F Time of III Final Design Tinus of Design application irrigation application required Cgpid) (hr/day). (%j. 7-87 .20 2. per plant Ta (hr/day).

-Plot of spray diameter vs.3 x 32.6915 &Oe5 = 15. Two pairs of manifolds plus a fifth manifold for the small triangular section in the southwest corner can be laid out to divide the field into four equal stations.38 ft.5 ft from figure 7-20.430 x 22.39 x 270/100 hf = 6. fe = 0.-diameter lateral by equation 7-65b is 6.ii) A main line can be placed running north-south midway between the east and west boundaries of the grove. ql=rT ql = 3. the manifold layout.69 from Appendix B. Qt = Lateral Line Design and System Layout Lateral-line design procedures are essentially the same for drip and spray irrigation systems.01. hose and serving 18 trees to either side of each manifold is 270 11. because three stations would operate only 13.7-in.4.18 fttlO0 ft. J = 14. and there is no dominant slope.50 ft. Neither arrangement is satisfactory. iii) From equation 7-37.01(15 &Om4) = 6. - J’ = 14. iii) The spacing between the pairs of manifolds and the length of laterals in the rectangular sections is Sm = (72 x 15)/2 = 540 ft.36 ft. the manifolds should run east and west.0. 7-88 .58-in. s = 11.38 h. Therefore.04-in. v) This exceeds 0.17 ft/lOO ft hf = 6. and the maximum pressure-head variation along the laterals. There are 52 rows of trees with an average of 72 trees per row.5AHs = 6.43 (7-62) Figure 7-51.02) Vi = 22.38 ft. the maximum length of a 0. 5.75 From equations 7-5lb and 7-52. Either the laterals must be shortened or larger diameter pipe used. F = 0. hose gives J’ = 6. i) There must be at least one manifold for each of the four stations (N = 4) determined in the design factor computations.39 from table 7-6.6 178 Qt = 689 hr. The tree rows run north and south. This requires dividing the field to operate with either three or six stations. = 193. fe = 0.43 gpm. I I 1 5 IO oreo- I5 ft I 20 Diameter of wetted surface iv) The pressure head difference (AhI for the level laterals having 0. Se = SP = 15 ft. emitter pressure developed from manufachrer’s data for 0. J = 6. 6.18 x 0.58-in.23 Vi = 12(76. Manifold spacing (S&. = 2’W 15ag8 ) ~2.17 x 0. For hf 5 6.98 ft.39 x 270/100 hf = 15.6 acre-ft.-diameter orifice. vi) Repeating part (iv) with 0. No adjustments in manifold position are necessary to compensate for slope effects.43 gph.5/100)(1 . The design procedure includes determining the manifold spacing. as shown in figure 7-49. and hf = 15. AH8 = 12.-S& = 15 ft.5 hr/day and six stations would operate 27 hrlday.76 ft. 1 = 270 ft.

2 1 0 fi i n l M e. 3 )s n ( )a ( t .70 + 3/4 (6. h l = 5 a lg f ah n r6 f .r t c t a n f r eoq u a t i 7 n m o 5 7 : e hu c nb s i e le i ca t e d t b t n t e e s y e c h o n o em i c c h a r t i e h m p a b rtr y o g m h F e r e t o e h r o c d t . eL = p2m a . 7 4 8 ( l r o eh ap r w a t bea l a n c a da es t a t i o n ls M a n i f o l d r e e s l 1 t e s a Q q h1 s g pu m e7 m =e . t . . = $ + .6 b f 3 7 t h = h .26 ft.i 7 ee s a l 5 6 7 6. o s eu s b . r . 4 3 m 6 b ie q u a t i7 n . a a n . e t r r ua g h t i c o nt 7 T . 2 o h . t l 0 .J.p y h e e p a rr o h p h a g r t t g he e m n e i s u eist a b l e r f t aa o pl r e r e d n ta m i g n u t b n u o i w o sl r l Iot na f h p e e z o i a f r eoq u n t i 7 n m a o -d 5 8 : e x a m p lae . d o h E t c o e n m o m r i f c o . l p a M ai n i fr opl d i s p igf e e r e p z e.. a n 6 3 4 0 . p ha a k r t cg e l i m u ta q b e r n l y o u e r t n a t i w / O 2 . e B fd e a u s e 1 ( 4 ) 6 .l pressure head 1 ( c 3 ) . 0 1 2 ( A H= & 6. C A = 0 f R . . i 8 r ( e 1 ) 1 ( 2 ) Maximum variation of 1atera.c = 1 Of 2 t o m a . 5 . s r f t il r i e e p r n s t lt hr ee e a dd e d a h e s u l c e e b e a s r t . s t n i o n i u t a = r7 5e s % a s o n a l e p.se c u bh .ei 5 t0a 7s a r l 0 ) 8 = f t ( ft o . 4 9 5 7 -E8 = 1 .r a r e t Fa i dp tna t sno ca o f e m o i r rl a t e r so l ls n a e v e l p E . 0 3 0 . g p m 7 . 5 .6 x 0 x 1 8 . f 5 0 t .l ir B ) e l a t e vf e i eni h s l e a t c m aul i i d n se el n h ee he a st l bn p e ei t n c o t h ff a i he e n el d d d F t e r ov h s ur b u n ri e se a ac s t e tt h b r t y d p h l u o s sf ie n a q m ut t e a s h o t l e l e n g s d l o f i n m a em t ( 1s 2 .n = 2 y o F E 2 0 e 0 i n s wl o o ta nf a i i r s p t h k e e r a l . t m h l w e ib lc o lm tp a r f d t h r le e e e oo h d r e s s e t di no t u rf b u h s e e c t a n g u 0 x 5 . f 5A 0 A 1 = = e d t f H2 77 s H ( 6 .50) n. + 3/4 h + 9 f a q = 1.q) u a t i o n e y 7 5 s . a p) r n s ls u rhe e ( a e e t hl e d = r0 f t a .l h a g r o T hei ic s s e c l n ty r f au h lg o t 6 o c . l% . ek c yf i dTn al m u ao t h a a s r hp n e v e e a d r e d m e t i s A a y n u s ts e d d j i f l ) o aw t m u b s Q e r ( e t s n m o z r h ef ai o n u i sr p ew i t t dhi a m e toh r e ot p e f e e c o m p u t fs d e c . 8 e z i D . r h t Manifold layout. slr Bd ) ea l t e vf i oe fi enc i s ln e a a i h t m el u d h s h b l aeo i t dg t s o l n et e r oe le s f t q a u a r l v u e o b o s t h ir i n ( i ed n t t e x ha s c a r e e s s i i hf n 7o -w 4n 9 . g 4 p 3 m f.t e reieno gp c o i o mpiec z i .1 t / = s2 ( ) f 3 ) 2 rA e [ f m a n fi f o l d p i r ( 6 .6 . .A = l hh = .. qd= 3 . 7 8 7 8 Manifold flow rates Cq. 3 5 C. . . t s s 7& s 1 2 3 i Q k o 1 871) 1) 1) + 3 = 1 4 4 ( nA ) H = & 3 . 3 4 ( 5 ) l E AL i . o i 6 h r / y e a8 .l ( lr A ea th vf e )i eni h s l e . a n l W k / r h P = $ H U O B . A = 0 f . g 8 p 6 m = .) y .58 f 1 t M a n i f oD d l a e a e n s n o xt ci o m a u t h f p d a g m un d d eo e t c i n o e t r ms p e e r i tp s s u y D n r S i pd i n e Manifold Design l e a r o i t a g i m re S t r aT s f I m o r y S p i D e s l i g n s . 9 5 9 Cw c = d s u o u n i thso t t eth b b c e h o m n o a e mt i cn h h d ea p r t h 0 0 1 1 5 7 x 1 .y n o e w n dt h h o o f f h i i c n he e . s l a r e t p a ao i r f l q = 6 p . 0 5 2 f n5 = 5 r 2 = t2 2 1 .e n t e ln h r s e t s m a l l e h ti n p l e eot sh h a at lh of a t f ps e s n t h e . e . 0 20 .6 7 . b l / O a O i = 2 0 Pn = $ C . c eT r 7 - 8 9 . l b ) a e ie p T o c i e h e n u e nf c e tee f w o s oo a thil o n sle s q tr r u i s : S I I I V ff t d I I I M a n i f w l dt o ( ( I ( ( &5 4 z ) is o B s t i or a h 5 r cr o2eocwr a f r r e ) t s a t e e ue s fn s a i n r oe n ( oa m l adt or r e o a wis )t r l w s o td i e d t o m a l i nn g t imea n i fn l h d ol (e L b me .p oe . gd e ti i tc o snn hm e nsi f a de d r a f e a o lo r p r t u r n e h = 63. of 3 b t a o e e t s 8 f s i u e i hf n 7o 4 9 -w.n i f n l d i a o a a m np o d = s A = t i o n 0 x 1 . 2 6 . a h m a ndi f o n d e l a w en s d t .s t3c h o 3eo a Lp m t Q e .) s f c -u i e e e sptoc o i oi mpaec r s i g t e ln h i n e l = 58.

42 3 4 Chart &pm) 40 50 120 178 Adjusted &pm) 41 48 117 178 Outlet no. from equation 7-77.flow rates are equal: Qs = q. = 178. 112. replacing it with 3-in.28 2.92 6.05 1.J gives 4-in.5 637. is 9. G 6 ft can be obtained by modifying QL and repeating the procedures used in step (iii).--Friction cnrve overlay to demonstrate graphical solution for determining manifold friction loss (Hd for a spray system. pipe would probably be more economical. gpm. Q. = 0.40 3. - Enter figure 7-33 with 68 gpm to obtain: Pipe size (in.. 3-in. pipe called for..) 2 2% 3 4 Total Length @I 150 25 250 212.5 ft 300 ft 50 ft 175 ft are close enough so further adjustment is not required. the standard manifold curves presented in figure 7-37 were used. = 6-&46) = 68 gpm and L?IH~ = Hf = 6.5 ft.21 Q. Because qlr = 6.26 ft.40 0.36.2 ft exceeds (AH.54 63 15 186 209 473 0 20 40 60 80 qiiwm IO0 I20 I40 I60 From equation 7-81a for the flat field. Therefore.2 ft. By equation 7-79a. 7-90 . the set of pipe sizes must be increased.86 gpm. by equation 7-82a. the pipe sizes can be adjusted by inspection or another cut can be made by adjusting Q. 6 7 17 26 The computed lengths by equation tion losses from figure 7-37 are: Pipe size (in.4 ft. iv) Because LIH~ = 9. When this calculated value of LIH~ exceeds the lo-percent limit. 2?&in.) 2 2?.5 7-78a and fric- Weight (lb) 1.37 (lb) 63 204 209 476 and LIH~ = Hf = 9.l) k = 0. Valves within 10 percent of (AH. qm = manifold flow rate.5 637.26 ft Figure 7-52.) 2 3 4 Total Cft) 150 275 212. k = (637JYl78XO. iii) Selecting the pipe sizes and computing the manifold pressure-head variation @H.5 (3 1. The most economical mixture of pipe sizes that will give AH.92 6.& = 6. 2-in. LLH~ = Hf = 6. vi) An example of the graphical method for obtaining Hf is presented in figure 7-52..& = 6.! v) Because there is very little 2%~in. This would reduce the final pipe ~ array to: Pipe size Length Weight (in..94 1.26 x 178 = 46 gpm. The modified system flow rate.

9 .3 ft. 9 0 .26 ft. it is apparent that 4-.0. . 3-. ii) Determine the JF’ values for each of these pipe sizes for a flow rate of h = 178 gpm. Notice that the total weight (and consequently the cost) of the pipe is essentially the same as determined by the economic chart method. i) In the alternative graphical method.4 ft. 7 “ 3 8 3 5 5 $ . . (AH& = 6. and 8 ’ of the Alternative Graphical-Design Method under Manifold 7-91 iii) The rectangular units have a shape factor. and (3) is: Pipe size h t g t 1 9 h 2 d 7 0 . v t f i w m e e r o hf 0 n . figure 7-38 is used in place of constructing figure 7-39.0 5 7 9 ) ( 5 8 - t 1 and AHm = Hf = 6.38. the scaled JF’values given in vs. eJ = 2 i 8 v n g i r e o hB f. then draw a second sloping line parallel to the first and passing through 0 = 0. n i ( 2 2 g 3 n 4 o T ) k J f c 1 8 2 2 6 ’ i e 5 4 4 t h I g i b 0 5 x6 s 0 7 e W 0 5 5 1 2 4 n % e t 9 h e T i lI a J o nhe i pt.2 . The procedure for drawing the composite curve shown on figure 740 is given in the Manifold Design section (see step 8 of the General GraphicalDesign Method).26 ft. (AH& = 6.7) = 6. multiply the scalar JF ’ ratios from table 7-9 by the above JF’ values to obtain table 7-10. FB= 1 by equation 7-84. Hf = 17.= 647. 1 1 t ai s 7 l a ( = at x/L = 1.26 % d 637.36Cl7.p t A w o h l pf t 5 . Alternative graphical method. rectangular sub- J 2 4 .88 j General graphical method..) 1 l 1 4 3 2 2 7 9 0 7 6 9 1 1 . F = 0.. Hf = 0.. and by equation 7-80. To construct a dimensionless plot containing a set of curves scaled to represent each of the four sizes of pipe.26 j’ = m = 17.36. and F’ = F = 0. ) 4. (2).51100 = ‘*“’ a This represents the allowable pipe-friction loss on the same proportional scale as the pipe friction curves of figure 7-39. . the scalar JF’ ratios for plotting friction curves for the various-sized pipe are given in the middle column of table 7-9. x 0.From figure 7-51. 1 8 1 4 1 2 vi) Place a transparent overlay on figure 7-39 and trace the horizontal and vertical scales and boundaries. 2-1/2-. Using J values from Appendix B: Pipe size (in. and 2-in. and the method is applicable only for rectangular subunits.7 ft. h = 178 gpm.98 at x/L = 1.-From table 7-6. iii) Following steps 6 ‘. ii) First compute j ’ by equation 7-87 to properly scale (AH. 7a’. as shown in figure 7-39. . vii) The combination of pipe diameters and lengths that will give a solution close to the most economical solution with a AHm = 6. as shown on figure 7-40. Draw a sloping line through the origin and through j = 0.&: 6. v) Determine the dimensionless allowable headloss ratio by equation 7-86: j = L&O0 0 W _ - 6. Fs = 1.98 =9 0. table 7-10. Therefore.38 for 26 outlets. viii) A summary of the general graphical design for manifolds (l).-k = 0.26 ft will have a friction curve defined by the two sloping lines. J-p’ 0 9 5 L 1 4 . pipe should be considered.5 ft. The alternative method saves the time required to construct figure 7-39. 7m = py Q 1 g b 8 J . L. as shown by the dashed line on figure 7-40. Sf = 1 by equation 7-83. (For more details see figure 7-47 under Drip System. iv) Plot x/T_. but the lengths of the pipes of various sizes are somewhat different. . The resulting curves are the dimensionless friction curves scaled for each pipe size under consideration.s 2 s a p u r e .) units. i) From the first trial of the economic-chart method. because the subunit is rectangular.0.37 ft.

67 gpm.3 ft.) hc 2 2?4 3 4 Totals w o l F range kpm) 0-28 28-58 58-120 120-178 Length w 100 107.59.h = 11. (Hf& = 3.76 (7-83) e t oa Length (ft)n 236 76 226 99.5 637. and (3) is: Pipe size (in.88.& = 34. iii) The general graphical design procedure for nonrectangular subunits is the same as for rectangular subunits. iv) From figure 7-38 the shape adjustment factor for manifold (4) is FB = 0. which cannot be used beneficially. i) Manifolds (4) and (5) serve nonrectangular subunits.0. A summary of the graphical manifold (4) is: Pipe size (in. For manifold (4). pipe) by equation 7-79 is L4 z (17’ .38. F’ = 0. and for manifold (5) it is 7-92 .88. the flow rate is (qm)d = 11. however. that results from having manifolds (1) through (4) all the same. the approximate AHm can be computed by equation 7-89 as @ = x f= h and for manifold (5).43 gph. it is (S& = 7 l4 = 20 . (2).64 gpm. (q& = 178 gpm. should more than offset the material cost difference. the adjusted pipe-friction reduction coefficient is F’ = 0. (q& = 144 gpm. that requires about 62 lb more pipe. F = 0.5 c 208 ft.12’) 178 637.67 gpm in 2-in.54 for 34.5 ft of extra pressure head. J = 1. qa = 11. therefore. (2). ii) In manifold (4).43 x 7 x 26 60 (q. the shape factor is 22 0.8 ft G (Hf)d = (AH& This leaves 2.5 dg u Weight (lb) . from Appendix B..88. for manifold (5) (n& = 14 plants and (n& = (14 + 0)/2 = 7 plants. st inn s uu b tr From figure 7-44. pipe. which serves 26 tree rows. (FAs = 0. = Hf = 6..34. from table 7-6. (S& = 0.76. construct figure 742. Se = Sr. design results for G m n e o .) 2 2% 3 4 Total h.38 = 0.. .. However. and (3) are also used for manifold (4). scalar F ‘J ratios must be selected as outlined in the Manifold Design section of Design Procedures for Trickle Irrigation Systems. (q& = (11. A sample computation (for the length of 4-in.43 x 7)/60. the F factors from table 7-6 must be adjusted and the x/L vs. plus the savings in design effort. for manifold (4) (n& = 22 plants and (n& = (22 + 36)/2 = 29 plants. (F$l = 1.3 ft. l 99 47 168 98 412 a - and AH. If the pipe sizes and lengths used for manifolds (1).43 x 29)/60.88 x 0.Design. iv) A summary of the alternative graphical design for manifolds (1).5 and AHm = Hf = 6.5 222 208 637. (ql& = (11..43 x 29 x 26 60 (qm)a = 143. The simplification of construction. This construction procedure is similar to the procedure that was used to produce figure 7-40. (F& = 0.

54 x 6.) 7 . = Hf = 6. 4 D g e s n i = 6 3 ft.75(5. because all stations have the same flow rate. 4 ft.& = 5. 6 (in. 275 ft of 3-in. 6 manifold (5). (7-84) ample of the use of the economic-chart method of .. Manifold (5) uses all 2-in.59 x 1.3 ft. an analysis by the graphical method for manifold (5) yields: P i Hm = 6 ii) Fr o + 3 . (2).5 ft of 4-in. A detailed ex5 Ts ol t a ad n e AH. and (3).4 ft. pipe as shown in part (v) of the section on the economicchart method. the flow is: The weight with all 2-in.& = 0. and velocity criteria. r (& h 1 fe l= 6 s o ft. and equation 7-52 with J values from ..59). For simplicity of design and better flushing capabilz i e ity.2 . pipe. (AH& = 0.v) For manifold (5).) 1 % 1 % 2 2 % L s i - i Length p (ft. pressure. This would give (AH. ii) Compute the hf for each main-line pipe section. 2 = 6 3 ft. pipe is 268 lb. 5 main-line design was presented under Drip System. Therefore. ls e (AH& = 6 ft (3 pipe sizes).79 ft. The cost savings afforded by doing this are significant. Therefore. Simplifying the bill of materials. Ei c p o sn e o l me c i tc i i) The highest main-line friction loss will occur at Station IV when manifolds (4) and (5) are in operation.p diameter pipe. 6 . (AH& = 0.5(6. . This will require only: Manifoldnumber (1 2 (1 3 (4) (1 5 T P I78 gpm Extra pipe 6b) 2 2 2 6 4 7 -1 8 7 (1) o t a l This extra pipe will cost $87. and 212. 8 . field layout. based on $l. and installation by minimizing the number of pipe sizes used is important.and 1%~in. Use the economic pipe-size selection chart.) from the project. which serves a triangular subunit (Fs = 1. The slightly higher cost of materials would be more than offset by eliminating the two sizes of pipe (l%.) 10 n 0 8 0 37 7 8 6 z i 0 3 Weight e e (lb) 2 1 a 2 2 18 5 5 0 217 5 M Hm = 6 Selecting pipe sizes for main lines is based on eco. (AH& = 5.OOllb. dufigure r 3 t 7-33. M a i n p ni H. 7a (6) - . + 4 . and the field is nearly level.375 (AH. (The value of Q = 46 gpm was coml puted for the manifold design in the section on the economic-chart method for rectangular subunits part [ii]. (This is obvious.4) = 3.54 and F’ = 0.) When Station IV is operating. only a summary of the design procedure will be presented here. pipe. the recommended final design is: Manifolds (1) through (4) use 150 ft of 2-in.8 ft (all 2-in. pipe. i) For manifolds (1).e 6 Appendix B.8) = 4.. nomic. manifold (5) could sbe constructed of all 2-in.).

. . AHm = 6. 17. . = 0. .4 . . . Line-Source System System Desigu Summary The final design layout is shown in figure 7-49.16 6. . . . . the example emphasizes the following procedures: 1.0 14. form the complete design package. . . (21 Pressure head to overcomepipe friction and elevationalongthe main line . . figure 7-53. . iii) The pressure head required to overcome pipe friction and elevation differences with AEl = 0 KH&J between the pump and each manifold is: Section Point A E Fromto P-A A-B B-C Inlet @) :0 14:3 + E & 8. (7) Additional pressure head to allow for emitter deterioration. . .43 i) Fn = l.3 2. . .5 Lateral risers and hose bibs . 6. . . qa = 11. . . . 2.. . . .SS6 ‘Pipe selectioncontrolledby 5 R/s velocity restriction. .40 2.0 ii) After a system breakdown. .044 x 6 Fmn= 0. .. . . . and (3).0 6. . . .3 Safety screens at manifold or lateral inlets . ha = 58.0 See Drip System for comments. . . 2. . The design data are presented in figures 7-48 and 7-50. . .(F EU = 90%. e = 1. . . lO. . . and the field layout map. . . . . .. . . . The data that should be collected before beginning a design are summarized in the trickle irrigation design sheet. .556. . . .7. (ft) 8.-5$. . . (21.43 gph.lhr = 15 ft. . . . . . . . = 0. . .604(loo x l5 x 25) F.54 100 2. .70 Z) 3. . . . 7. .. . friction and lift . 23. each of the four stations can be operated 6 hrfday to give F .16 manifolds (11.6. . . . .6. .70 5. . .171 1. . ..17l 1. . . . .8.7 Point G-U. . Manifold inlet valve and pressure regulator . For irrigation scheduling the emission uniformity.-Hm = 66. . . and peak daily net system application should be: Final emission uuiformity (EU). . . . . .. . . .8 (6) Friction loss safety factor at 10 percent. .044 in. . EU = 10011 . . e = 1. .% (7-33a) Total Dynamic Head The total dynamic head (TDH) required of the ptunp is the sum of the following pressure-head requirements: Item (1) Manifold(51 inlet pressure head . . . . These three figures.26 in. . . 2. v = 0. . . .7 qJq& = 0.0 (4) Filter-maximum pressure differential . . for 7-94 The following line-source system design is for a typical field of staked tomatoes in Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . x o. . .0 Flowmeter . . . . 90 x 1 x 11. Graphical design of downhill manifold so that friction slope closely follows ground slope. ./day. . . . Total 140. S = 25 ft. . . .3 Lateral or header pressure regulators . Calculation of emission uniformity for linesource tubing. . .3 17. 3. . . . . . . . . 10.0 ii) If all manifolds are adjusted to have the same inlet pressure. . In addition to illustrating the general process of line-source irrigation design.95. . . Ah = 6. . . . Main-line control valve .0 (3) Suction line. i) Compute the ratio of the minimum emitter discharge to average emitter discharge by equations 7-38 and 7-39: qJq = 166. ft ’ (7-401 68. . Net application rates (Fn and F-).1 (5) Valve and fitting friction losses: Fertilizer injection . . . net system application rate.Section P-A A-B B-C Flow &pm) 178 178 34 Pipe (in.cwz)]o. . . . .042. .5 a 58. figure 7-54. x = 0. . . .8 . .) 4 : L J 1. . .32 4. The design computations that follow are made as brief as possible except for concepts that have not already been dealt with under Drip System and Spray System. . along with a brief writeup of system specifications and a bill of materials. . .4. .5. . . . . .

R e d) Residual stored soil moisture from off-season precipitation (in.-Line-source-system forTexas tomatofield.35 25 0. Sp x Sr Plant root depth (ft). q Discharge exponent. Field area (acrea). fe 1 4.12 0.4g 0.1 6+ None 30 Tomato 3x5 2.). h Rated discharge @ h (gpm).0 0 c) Average annual effective rainfall (in.00332 N/A Clay loam 2. Ws e) Water supply (gpm) f) Water storage (acre-ft) g) Water quality (mmhos/cm). kd Connection loss equivalent (ft)./ft).04 Figure7-53.0 0. WHC Soil depth (ft) Soil limitations Managemnt-allowed deficiency (%). ECw h) Water quality classification 200+ III Soil and Crop Soil texture Available water-holding capacity (in. A Date-Spring 1978 i/l 4. ud of Seasonal total crop consumptlve-use rate (in.5 50 0. RZD Percent area shaded (%). Ps Average daily consumptive-use rate for the xmxith greatest overall water use (in. v Discharge coefficient.0065 0. x Coefficient of variability. data 7 - ./day).70 1.). D Leaching requirement (ratio). Mad Crop Plant spacing (ft x ft).I Project Name--Texas Line-Source Design 11 Land and Water Resources a) b) Field no. LR+_ IV Emitter Mono-wall tubing Outlets per emitter Pressure head (psi).).

figure 7-55 has been filled out. it is really not necessary to compute all of the design factor details in figure 7-55. 0. i) From table 7-2 (fine-stratified) for equation 7-1.15(1. e). 2.0 . ix) Although there is only one orifice per plant. w 2 x l*rYl 5 x (7-35b) e x I()() 7-96 .tday iv) From table 7-4.25 x 3. 0.0 1. Thus.04 psi 4.54 ft. irrigation could be achieved with a water supply one-sixth as large as that available.00 BO/lOO = 0 25 in ’ * (7-8a) E - 320 ft A Vi) F(@/dj= 0.0065 ) (7-31) (7-34) h.0065 x 80/100 qn = 1.0057 gpm. iii) Td = 0.12 x 1.04.5c4.00.04) AHS = 2.0 3x5 PW = 100%. because no adjustments in the application time were called for.5 x m 100 F mn = 1. and a brief summary of the computations is included.0 . b). d).0 F &r/d) = 2.-Tomato field with line-source drip irrigation. Part II of figure 7-55.48 = 3. (ID) polyethylene tubing that discharge 0. assumed EU = 80% F = 0.5 mmhos. Therefore.34 Ta = 2 x o. or six times as much land could be irrigated with the same water supply.1 x 2.0 .0 x 5. the manifold is buried polyvinyl chloride pipe. so that each tomato plant will have access to water from at least three outlets.70 x 1 QS = 177 gpm.5 x 5. Computations for design. the water spread is more than 4 ft.0 = 0.-$$)I (7-5) Td = 0. If the water supply were much smaller or the area irrigated significantly larger. the design factor details would be needed. Lateral lines are single-chamber 0.l3 qn = 0.39 1.625~in.4333 gpm!lOO ft. (7-17) Tr = 1. g).0. c). and h) in the Final Design. = AH8 = 2.ii) 30 100 Fmn = x 2. are repeats of the data already computed. and LRt = v) 2(12*5) 1.39 = 3.34 gal/day.27f. max ECe = 12.4 psi or 5. vii) Design Factors For a small field with a large water supply.623 x 0.3. and the irriga.20 x I. e’ = 3 in equation 7-33a.351% + 0. tion only takes about 3 hi-/day. p = viii) Lines a).20 in.0( 0. x) QS = 726 x 4. and 0. Thus.0057 l/O.00 hrlday (7-30) Figure 7-54. because the entire system can be operated simultaneously.6 in.

20 80 0. E Vi S efficiency a0 7. P W Maximum net depth of application Ave.I 11 Project Name--Texas Trial Design Emission Line-Source Design Date-Spring 1978 point layout (ft x ft). Total system capacity Seasonal irrigation 177 (%)./day). If Net depth of application Emission uniformity (in. 7-97 . I N (gpm).0717 Figure 7-X. El) (in.0 2 100 (in. e area wetted C%). AHs 1 (days).0 215 131 a6 Gross seasonal Seasonal volume (acre-ft). interval irrigation interval (days).0 100 1 spacing (ft x ft). Qs W area wetted Number of stations.6 0. F Jz discharge head (gph).5& 1. If Gross water application Average Average emitter emitter (in. Se x Sl Line-source 1. ha variation Allowable Emitter Percent pressure-head 5.2A (ft).5 x 5.). qa (ft). operating time Chr).-Line-source-system design factors for Texas tomato field.25 rate (in.). EU rate (in.5 x 5. peak transpiration Maximum allowable Fm Td 1. Se x S (%).00 1 0. F Cgp/d) Time of application tI1 Final Design Time of application Design irrigation (hr/day). Emitter spacing Emission Percent points per plant.17 3.00 Chr/day). T interval per plant 1. Fn Total dynamic head Actual uniformity Net water-application 0.). Qt (ft). Fn (%).25 0.39 9./hr). Ta a 3.). TDH (%). If Design irrigation (days). I g Gross water application Gross volume of water required per day (gal/day).20 8 1 0.

ID tubing in Appendix B): J = 0.5 R. tubing Three possible manifold con&gurations that will stay within the small allowable (AH&. simpler.5AHs = 2.0 acre-ft.5 ft. = 13. the manifold layout.625-in. and more durable than a system requiring flow or pressure regulators. ID single-chamber tubing are available. The procedure includes determining the manifold spacing.51) = 11.5 loo xii) Fcanj= CXi - I)[$$ + 0. and the maximum variation of pressure head along the laterals. This established the system layout (the manifold spacing and layout). 1 = 319. Se = 1.e. it was decided that to simplify operation and maintenance only one operating station would be used.36 x (7-14) Ah = 2.1 ft.625-in.5 ft). The graphical methods of designing manifolds are e better than the economic-chart method for design- 7-98 .38 gpm. AEl = 0. the farmer wanted the tomato rows to run east-west and the manifold to be buried along the west side of the field. iv) The 0. the lateral size (or sizes in the case of tapered laterals). Manifold Design (7-63c) e ii) Both 0. Because the water supply is large. AH8 = 5. Furthermore.04)(80/100) Vi = 7. Es = EU = 80% (7-11) first.625)4. F = 0.625~in.5 60 ql = 1. an EU of at least 80 percent. iii) Because the laterals are laid on the contour. 5.xi) From table 7-3 (fine..824-in. h1 = 9.51 ft. tubing should be satisfactory because Ah < 0.430 x 7. provided that the desired design precision could be achieved. Ts c l/(l. even though chlorination was used. Trying the 0. Single-chamber tubing was recommended for this design because it can be flushed.51 ft.0 Qt = 177 Qt = 215 hrlyear Lateral Line Design and System Layout Lateral-line design procedures are essentially the same for all trickle irrigation systems. Ah = hr and Ah = 2.18.18 x 0. Flow regulators or jumper tubes of various lengths used to compensate for excessive pressure variations. For a single lateral with a constant diameter on a level field. Clogging problems were anticipated because the irrigation water contains 3 ppm of iron. LateraI-pipe size selection and head variation (Ah).O .70 vi = 12(1 . Headers and pressure (or flow) regulators used as shown in figure 7-5.133 x (1’38)1’75 (0.8 in. 3. as shown in figure 7-54.625-in.5 x Q = 1. compute the J value by equation 7-49a (because there is not a table for 0.03 ft.77 ft. A tapered manifold carefully selected so that the friction slope closely follows the ground slope. and 0.03 ft on the relatively steep 2-percent slope are: 1.8 x 4. and with excellent scheduling. from table 7-6. hr = 2.39 -319. 2. = 3.0751 (7-10) F [an) 13.24 ft.-h* = 9.75 J = 2. i.0.39 gph. which leaves (AH& = 3. It was decided that a carefully tapered manifold would be ideal for meeting the farm’s long-term requirements.54 ft. A tapered manifold system should be cheaper.36.24 + 3/4(2. 319.-qa = 0.LIQ. i) The lateral flow rate is: 0. 2. (7-62) (7-37) Lateral Wet pressure head (W.

The sloping dashed line which is j ’ = 8. To determine the lengths of different-diameter pipes from tigure 7-34: for l&in. The procedure for drawing the least-cost composite curve is given in step 8’. Inasmuch as the field is rectangular. Manifold inlet pressure @J. the standard manifold curves presented in figure 7-36 were used.e.)*. therefore 7-99 . By equation 7-79a..38 = 177 gpm.38 gpm.4 = 21. q = 1. k = (sXO. and 8’ in the Alternative Graphical Design Method. involving four pipe sizes. which are discussed under Spray System. = 2 x 177 = 35.4 > 3(8.4 ft at h = 177 gpm represents the ground slope drawn to the same scale as the standard manifold friction curves in figure 7-36. the flow rate is q..4/177) x 640 = 99 ft. ii) Because the manifold serves 128 rows. this control is difficult with the economic method. Alternative graphical method.ing downhill lines with a small (AH. It is positioned so that the crosshatched areas (defined by it and the 2.. and the length of the manifold is Lm = 128 x 5.. determine j ’ by equation 7-87: 3. Step 7b’ was used because S’ > 3j’. the alternative graphical method was used because it is much faster than the general graphical method.i6. The thin line parallel to and above the ground-slope line is the average lateral emitter pressure line.6 graph units above it. pipe. With the graphical methods the AHm can be accurately controlled. is: Pipe size (in.4).4 ft above the The two-pipe design would have the same pressurehead variation (AHm = 2. pipe-friction curves) above and below it are about equal.1 AHm = 2.4 ft.4 ft..2 ft.-k = 0. but would require 13 lb more pipe. 48. S = 2%. h1 = 11.. 10 iv) Following steps 6 ‘. The savings in layout and installation costs afforded by eliminating two sizes of pipes would probably more than offset the extra cost for pipe.) 2 3 Total Length (ft) 237 403 640 Weight (lb) 99 299 398 S. v) One design possibility.03 ft.36 x 6.l ft. 7b ‘.and 3-in.27. i) The amount the manifold inlet pressure differs from hl (AHA) can be estimated graphically as demonstrated on figure 7-41 for the 2.0 = 640 ft because the length to the tirst outlet was a full (rather than a half) row spacing.3 and (21.2 ft) as the original design. k = 0. e A simple manifold configuration would be a combination of 2. i. pipe-size design. Any combination of lengths of pipe of different diameters that will satisfy the design requirements will have a composite friction curve defined by the two sloping lines.) 1?4 2 2% 3 Total Length (ft) 99 77 144 320 640 Weight (lb) 27 32 89 237 385 of This design produces a pressure head variation AHm = 0. The solid sloping line from the origin to S’ = 35.36.03 j’= m = 8.0 ft. i) Because ql = 1. as indicated by the dashed curve extensions on figure 7-41. weight of original solution = 385 lb. iii) In accordance with the instructions in step 5 ’ in the Alternative Graphical Design Method under Manifold Design. The manifold inlet pressure is 4.-& = 5.and 3-in. = 128 x 1.. A summary of the two-pipe-size design is: Pipe size (in. 35.7 . (AH& = 3.3/177) x 640 = 77 ft. for 2-in. and S’ by equation 7-88: slope line represents the upper limit of pressure variation. construct figure 7-41.in. (27.36.1) k = O..38 gpm.and 3.

... CL3 - _ i 12.AHA = 0.......2 .. System Design Summary The final design layout is shown in figure 7-54...-Hm = 12..... Ah = 2... v = 0... form the complete design package.72 in/day.2..... ii) In a 24-hr period the system could apply x .. EU = 86%. @. ft? 12... pipe./qa by equations 7-38 and 7-39: q.. Additional pressure head to allow for emitter deterioration .48 * ii) Compute EU by equation 7-33a: 7-100 ..51 ft.39 gph. EU = 100 x 11 ...11 + 1... 7-54) there are only a few feet of main line and this should be 3-in. f...... along with a brief writeup of system specifications and a bill of materials.. net system application rate. For irrigation scheduling the emission uniformity... Main-Line Design For the tomato field layout (fig..8 78.... . qa = 0.... i) By equation 7-40......).. x = 0..7 ft..... use e ’ = 2 because of over-lapping spread of water. .. e = 2.5 9.... Filter-maximum pressure differential....48. See Drip System for comments. This is far higher than necessary for meeting contingencies...36 x 4.. i) compute q... ..Hm = 2.... La39 Hm = 1.. Dynamic lift from well .24 ft......0717 in/hi+.......2 3.. Fn = 1..... and peak daily net application should be: Final emission uniformity (EU)........ Total Dynamic Head The total dynamic head (TDH) required is the sum of the following pressure head requirements: Item 0) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Manifold inlet pressure ....7 = 12...2 ft.8 ft..8 ft. ha = 9.12. Sr = 5 ft.94 Gl EU = 86%.....7 4.. Friction-loss safety factor .-SP = 3 ft....121 x 0.2.604 x & F......1 9......0717 = 1.-1*27 x 0.....8 .. and by equation 7-76a.....6 AHA = 1...... The design data are presented in figures 7-53 and 7-55.0 23. Valve and fitting losses ... and the system can be expanded to cover more than six times as much land with the same water supply... Net application rates (Fn and F.. = 0. These three figures.94.. Total...4 F mn = 24 x 0.. Main line.....2 = 0.6 131.

6. Measuring tape 10 to 20 ft long. frequency. PVC pipe cut in half lengthwise makes a good trough. 3. Shovel and soil auger or probe. 7. Location of emission points relative to trees. 6. Uniformity of field emission (EU ‘I must be known to manage the quantity of application.Field Evaluation 0 Successful trickle irrigation requires that the frequency and quantity of water application be scheduled accurately. Convert each reading to milliliters per minute before entering the data in part 14. the discharge may be rated by the manufacturer in flow per unit length. Fill in parts 1. inspect the screens for breaks and the screen fittings for passages allowing contaminants to bypass the screens. and 8. Pressure gage (O. 2. 2. two near the one-third points. Sheet metal or plastic trough 3 ft long for measuring the discharge from several outlets in a perforated hose simultaneously or the discharge from a 3-ft length of porous tubing. 10. Sketch the system layout and note in part 9 the general topography. and if practical. General topography. 3. Manufacturer’s emitter performance charts showing the relation between discharge and pressure.to 6-in. Soil moisture deficit (S. 8. 4. 9. one should be near the inlet. 1. measure the discharge at two adjacent emission points (denote as A and B in part 14) at each of four tree or plant locations on each of the four selected test laterals. Spacing and size of trees or other plants being irrigated. manifold in operation. The data needed for fully evaluating a trickle irrigation system are: 1. The number of blocks is the total number of manifolds divided by the number of manifolds in operation at any one time.to 5psi range) with “T” adapters for temporary installation at either end of the lateral hoses. Check and note in part 5 the pressures at the inlet and outlet of the filter. 6. 3. and operation sequence of a normal irrigation cycle. Copies of figure 7-56 for recording data. Graduated cylinder with 250-ml capacity. 4. 2. and the fourth near the outer end.1 9.or 7-101 . 2-in. Funnel with 3. 7. For laterals having individual emitters. (A piece of l. 5. Utiortunately. diameter. Rate of discharge at the emission points and pressure near several emitters spaced throughout the system. (See tigure 7-57. vines. 7. (When perforated or porous tubing is tested. EU’ often changes with time. Additional data indicated on figure 7-56. Locate four emitter laterals along an operating manifold (see figure 7-27). plus recommended operating pressures and filter requirements. Field Procedure The following field procedure is suitable for evaluating systems that have individually manufactured emitters (or sprayers) and systems that use perforated or porous lateral hose. Stopwatch or watch with an easily visible second hand. 4. which deal with the emitter and lateral hose characteristics. the system’s performance must be checked periodically. Fill in the blanks of figure 7-56 while conducting the field procedure. Losses of pressure at the filters.. Duration. 2. Changes in rate of discharge from emitters after cleaning or other repair. Equipment Needed The equipment needed for collecting the necessary field data includes: 1. and 3 concerning the general soil and crop characteristics throughout the field. Percentage of soil volume wetted. divide by 63. 7. and manifold where the discharge test will be conducted. 8. To convert milliliters per minute to gallons per hour. or other plants.J and managementallowed deficit CM& in the wetted volume. Determine from the operator the duration and frequency of irrigation and his estimate of the management-allowed deficit (M& to complete part 4. 5. therefore.) Collect the flow for a few minutes to obtain a volume between 100 and 250 ml for each emission point tested.) 5. and uniformity of emission point spacing. Record the system discharge rate (if the system is provided with a water meter) and the numbers of manifolds and blocks or stations. Fill in parts 6.

Therefore. the MLIP on each manifold should be determined. On the downstream end the pressure can be read after connecting the pressure gage in the simplest way possible.J. can be found by substituting the plant and row spacing &. or the tree locations where several emitters are closely spaced. On the inlet end this requires disconnecting the hose before reading the pressure. only one reading is needed at each location. When evaluating a system that has two or more operating stations. This measurement is difficult and requires averaging samples taken from several positions around each tree. Locations of individual emission points. e . can be thought of in much the same manner as the container positions in tests of sprinkler performance. 13. For level or uphill manifolds. square feet. taken from part 12. Using Field Data In trickle irrigation all the system flow is delivered to individual trees. Therefore. the MLIP will be at the far end of the manifold. figure 7-56. check the soil moisture deficit (S. F. 8. soil auger. (7-90) Where number of emission points per tree. Check the percentage of the soil that is wetted at one of the tree locations on each test lateral and record it in part 16. Essentially no water is lost except at the tree or plant locations. only one reading should be made at each location. 10. 11. collect a discharge reading at each of the 16 locations described above. if the pattern of plant distribution or spacing is uniform. % = = The average depth applied per irrigation to the total cropped area (FL). inches. For manifolds on undulating terrain it is usually on a knoll or high point. This adjustment is needed if the tested manifold happened to be operating with a higher or lower MLIP than the system average MLIP.604eq:T* E Sr x Sr a (7-91) 7-102 . Measure and record in part 15 the water pressures at the inlet and downstream ends of each lateral tested in part 14 under normal operation. vines.J in the wetted volume near a few representative trees in the next block to be irrigated. Determine the minimum lateral inlet pressure (MLIP) along each operating manifold and record it in part 18. and record it in part 17. uniformity of emission is of primary concern. is useful for estimating M*. use the second formula printed in part 19. Because the plants are served by only a single emission point. Determine the average and adjusted average emission-point discharges according to the equations in part 11 and 12. For relatively wide-spaced crops such as grapes. AW = area wetted per tree or plant from part 16. Because these are already averages from two or more outlets. Determine the percent area wetted by dividing the wetted area by the total surface area between four trees. If the emitter discharge exponent (xl is known. shrubs. adjusted average emission-point discharge of the system. inches.It can be computed by equation 7-90. below the surface around each tree. where one single outlet emitter may serve one or more plants. 12. 9. For perforated hose or porous tubing.. x SJ for AW in equation 7l90. gallons per hour. %‘A can be computed by equation 7-91. This requires cycling the system. hours. Determine the discharge correction factor (DCF) to adjust the average emission-point dis- charges for the tested manifold. or shovel-whichever seems to work best-for estimating the real extent of the wetted zone about 6 to 12 in. Average Depth of Application The average depth applied per irrigation to the wetted area (F&J. or other plants. If an interval of several days between irrigations is being used. Use the probe.. It is best to select a tree at a different relative location on each lateral. = 1.These steps will produce eight pressure readings and 32 discharge volumes at 16 plant locations for individual emission points used in wide-spaced crops that have two or more points per plant. T* = application time per irrigation. For downhill manifolds it is often about two-thirds down the manifold. figure 7-56. use the 3-ft trough and collect a discharge reading at each of the 16 locations described above.

me days.-Form for evaluation 7-103 . Hose: diameter in. loss Filter pressure: Emitter: mske . Soil: Irrig: texture duration ft. System discharge gpm. length System layout. per plant per say ft. root depth 3. date years. frequency inlet psi. material . no. 7. Maa psi. and test locations: 10. spacing ft 2. gph) = 1 gph) = 1 Figure 7-56. available moisture hr. point spacing F&ted discharge per emission point Emission points per plant . 4. observer . 9. general topography. age . giving gph at 8. outlet . Average test manifolcl emission-point discharges at (sum of all averages Manifol' = (number of averages Low 114 = (sum of low 1/4 averages (number of low 114 averages data. Location Crop: me .1. of manifolds and blocks psi gph gph 11. 5. spacing ft % infft 7 o9 in psi ft psi gal. percentage of area covered or shaded . 6.

.-Form for evaluation data (continued).12. Adjusted average emission-point discharges at System = (DUG LOW 114 = (DCF ) X (manifold average gph) = gph) = psi fph gph ) X (manifoldlow 1/4 13.0 gph = 63 ml/min) Lateral location on the manifold 113 down ml pph 2/3 down ml far end gph ml gph inlet end A down B Ave. LLlSee item 19. 113 A 2/3 down A B Ave. Comments: 14. Discharge test volume collected in Outlet location on lateral inlet end ml gph min (1. Figure 7-56. far end A B Ave.

___& psi psi psi 16.-Form . Wetted area per plant ft2 % --- ft2 % 17. 7-56. 18. _ -______- 19._~psi + 1.5 X (average MLIP .15. Estimated average Smd in wetted soil volume -- in Minimum lateral inlet pressure (MLIP) on all operating manifolds: Manifold: Pressure-psi: -Test A __- B C D E F & Ave. = -~--~ or i f the emitter discharge exponent x = DCF Figure (average MLIP = [(test MLIP for evaluation data (continued).5 X (test MJJP = average MLIP psi) = is known. Discharge correction factor (DCF) for the system is: DCF psi) 2. Lateral inlet Closed end psi psi ft2 % ---- psi psi ft2 % --~ ---.

lq. the overall EU’ will be lower than the EUA of the tested manifold. The EU’ is a function of the emission uniformity in the tested area and of the pressure variations throughout the entire system. percent.djl. taken from part 12.-Field measurement of discharge from an emitter. (7-93) . e Figure 7-57. If the manifold inlet pressures vary more than a few percent because of design. ERF = average MLIP + (1. gallons per hour. design irrigation interval. hours. can be computed by equation 7-92. eq:Ta If Some trickle irrigation systems are fitted with pressure-compensating emitters or have pressure or flow regulation at the inlet to each lateral. Where the data on emitter discharge are from an area served by a single manifold.Emission Uniformity The actual field-emission uniformity (EU ‘) is needed to determine the system’s operating efficiency and to estimate gross requirements for water application. days. application time per irrigation. ET& = 100 q. figure 7-56. can be computed by equation 7-93. F’&p/d) Where number of emission points per tree. throughout the system by equations 7-94a and 7-94b. management. gallons per hour. most systems are provided with a means for pressure control or regulation only at the inlets to the manifolds.5 minimum 25(average MLIP) Where Average MLIP = average of the individual MLIP’s along each manifold. adjusted average emission-point discharge of the system. or both. gallons per day. pounds per square inch. pounds per square inch. pounds per square inch. taken from part 12. (7-94a) MLIP) e = ~ Minimum MLIP Ta If = = e 7-106 . = lowest lateral inlet pressure in the system. An estimate of this efficiency reduction factor (ERF) can be computed from the minimum lateral inlet pressure along each manifold (MLIP). the field emission uniformity of the manifold area tested (E&J. However. Volume Per Day The average volume of water applied per day for each tree or plant lF(!. figure 7-56. Where q: and qi = system low-quarter and overall average emitter discharges.

and again determine the average discharge and pressure of the same group of emitters. Therefore.it is underirrigated. the minimum gross depth of application (FJ should be equal to or slightly greater than the values obtained by equation 7-8a or 7-8b. Application Efficiencies Gross Application Required Because trickle irrigation wets only a small portion of the soil volume. and if Fcddj > F&.. and the uniformity of field emission (ELI’). and 3 at two other locations and average the x values for the three tests. however. EU’ = (ERFXEU. the field is being overirrigated. If F(@. 3. some margin for safety should be allowed.. The ERF approximately equals the ratio between the average emission-point discharge in the area served by the manifold with the minimum MLIP and the average emission-point discharge for the system. It is always difficult to estimate Smdbecause some regions of the A concept called “potential application efficiency” (of the low quarter) (PEl.6 or lower than 0. Step 3. Determine x by equation 7-21. Subtract the depth of effective rainfall since the last irrigation (R$. It is a function of the peak-use transpiration ratio (TJ. using the average discharge and pressure-head values found in steps 1 and 2. The average volume of water actually being applied per plant each day [F&r.. the leaching requirement (LRJ. the system EU ’ can be approximated by equation 7-95.&)I loo Where Ps = percent shaded. The value of x can be estimated from field data as follows: Step 1. Calculate F. 2.$ is useful for estimating how well a system can perform.). good.. inches.4.15(1. ERF=( minimum MLIP )X average MLIP (7-94bl In systems where the variations in pressure are relatively small and the emitter discharge exponent (x) G 0. Step 2. Fn = (F. and less than 70 percent. For this reason.. between 80 percent and 90 percent.% + 0. excellent. When the unavoidable water losses are greater than the leaching water requirements. Using Fs computed by equation 7-8a or 7-8b. This can be estimated by standard techniques based on weather data or pan evaporation data. inches. 70 to 80 percent. Smdmust be estimated from weather data or from information obtained from evaporation devices.R:)I?.) (7-95) wetted part of the root zone often remain near field capacity even when the interval between irrigations is several days. Determine the average discharge and pressure of a group of at least six emitters along a lateral where the operating pressure is uniform.. the soil moisture deficit (S. Step 4.5.0 . and because there is no practical way to check for slight underirrigation. poor. As a general rule. Reduce the operating pressure by adjusting the lateral inlet valve.dj. the two methods for computing ERF give essentially equal results. When estimating Fs by equation 7-8a or 7-8b for scheduling irrigations. (7-96) General criteria for EU’ values for systems that have been operated for one or more seasons are: greater than 90 percent. .The ERF may be estimated more precisely by equation 7-94b. let EU be the field value (EU’) and estimate the net depth of irrigation to apply (Fn) as follows: 1. by equation 7-96. 2. fair. the average daily gross volume of water required per plant per day [Fcsr&lcan be computed by equation 7-9. the differences may be significant. for variations in pressure greater than 0.2 times the average emitter pressure head (hJ or x values higher than 0. Repeat steps 1.& must be replaced frequently.dJ computed by is equation 7-92. Such estimates are subject to error.dj< Flfl. Tr > 7-107 . Estimate the depth of water that could have been consumed by a full-canopy crop since the previous irrigation (I?.dj.

PE. and those of LRt. the actual application efficiency of the low quarter (Elq) is less than PElq. This may cause either excessive buildup of salt along the perimeters of wetted areas or a reduced volume of wetted soil. In such areas the Elq can be estimated by equation 7-98. draining of lines.0 .can be computed 7-97a EU’ = T~(l. When an area is underirrigated and F(&. with equation 7-16.dlis less than the average daily gross volume of water required per plant per day lF~~. gallons per day. In such areas the LR.Lw. gallons per day. 7-108 . When an area is overirrigated.lJl._. average volume of water applied per plant per day.LRa by equation “I’ (7-97a) PElq can be computed and when Trc l/Cl.0 . and flushing (unless leaks are excessive) (see equation 7-95). except for possible minor water losses from leaks..0 . Therefore. by equation 7-97b. PE. The system PElq may be low because the manifold inlet pressures are not properly set and ERF (see equations 7-94a and 7-94b) is low.LR+). the PElq estimated with the system EU’ is an overall value for the field. or both will not be satisfied.& then EI~ will approach the system EU’..q = EU ’ (7-97b) The values of Tr appear in conjunction with equation 7-8a. A trickle irrigation system has no field boundary effects or pressure variations along the manifold tested that are not taken into account in the field estimate of EU’. In such a system the manifold inlet pressures should be adjusted to increase the uniformity of pressure and consequently ERF. JQq Where G =E = (7-98) %pldl = gross water required per plant during the peak use period. the Tr.

fx a o c a h e t u r a t e d r g n h k r ow hir = po h oe i a m n a e ir n fd n r e t e um t i r( t r as ec c tm s ne p me s e m ( f e d w C n E = eo l e c t r i c e lho t i r r f i g a t i or n b a h c c a w p me rr e t eu m i a( t r tne e cr m s s g n irk r ow hh = po h e rh etst im dnu otp ( e t s a a e d r e p g s i n qc h ) u a I E eAs = c t o e l h v a ap t i oo f a . 1 e 7 - 1 . e 2 r t p e E = re q u i ev a n n l n E f l ei ez oe td rc a f A a l e u t a h ( c o n e r a n r a t t tu e e q s e c a or s r g y d e i nE e al e c& t r i r c e l o.p i o cn w e o e n sr n t p a Fu = m i 8 pa a dl j u s t m e n t f a E = p f a i E ’ l = e q t u i vaa l e c n t ho otn r si n g = F d j i f o f r a ce f (t i p n ir 9 r( e u fs J i a I a u s t me e hnl tn o a g c o f m r c e pe y n ee t i c r a o n ns ) t ea r g y & F (i r = fa na d j u l s t ame e hn t f o f r m a c a q ili E l d = p pt a l c a c ce f f oi cw ittie n c f yf e ho o l u r o f w h ( i iHb c fhe s& n s g e i t r e t r auq F a s a h n o e ( t =E i c g crS ni o )l sd p se o a a s pi p t fh ( E n =) p P f ofmi c ip e n sc e y u e e E = s 8 i r r i g e a f tf i i oc n e n c y i t a c B ir = a y t i s) at g vor ( f ir3f e 2 e s. t u d o c a h f . l i e n r n n e H = t o a m l i rfer ie c pa lt i n g g c a t y i o c n u i r g i r r i t l g n i nnu r a gu ef h t di o n ml e p n a r n eh t i t o r o af d l ( f e uoh ( e t ) ) sr r v =Z .e q =f rt e ep r l l de a t n u t u r G .Appendix A-Nomenclature l E A = d i f f e i r e n e ew t enb e h t e p e n c el uv m f cl o e r wuq s ( r eh c n i a a )s e a d f s i pa ai u t mim p o f f ia eul h n t t d s e rec a ( r i y f er l e d )s a o s d n ao m t n e n l i if t ng i tm t d (f e o f s y a d hja u so t sm e nwt l f at w e d n r a o n a ce r F f a ud c c r e c a s rus o f i a i dr l ew e h t a b e y R E t= e f f i c r it e n c ey e d o i s s i E m = d U e eu n i f o ( m i t p r s y i e r e y a r pe r auq s ( s f e e t ) n o i s E n i r m e t f l( d p e h o r i z ao n w a l e t r a b 1 f ob s e s tl ’o oU i w =l u t m f o o f i ie y e a e u t t i d o d s iE ie e n lu n di f o ho t im y f a e r m t A Um = f e c aif r ue r auq s ( ls s f e o e t ) fi a tr ( e a ep e s r t c P H B = b r h o r sk e pe o w e r a r f e p f = D i a p f r a c t c i F = r pe o e o f f c dt c o m ueoe n st an t e r po f e h c tt o c e dhor t s e d e i f c n e o ii m n n C d i ec h l t d op n i gcnp a i se e ht a) a r h n le c c n o i c t ( q p u e r e g a r e v a e : d edi l pe a r p e p ih r r e g t a t t i o no = p r t i h i n n o p u i au e z i s e e e s nd s f p h tm m i b E ) h of a t i t a a (lr a t l de r s s ed h de i o c o ( c ces pi r r d pn a d e p p o roc g a r ee s ) s e h n o i c F * a= act nin n l d p ne o a t e pi p t fn ( h u i m c r i f c f= fe o c r o f c ono i t c en n o u s n t i s o e g* r e v a Ff = a ’ w edi l pe a r p e p ih r r e g t a t t i o no d p t i h s he c n i w a (r e e a t t p e i p h i s e fiu l n c = ce eo o t i s r r fct g s a t i o nn y o F = c c t o n f tm r t i i r i z e n l f f e cq o= c s dn e p e dh e ah t t c t o n h a c t s dnu o pa( r ) e o l l ar n p g e ho t n f o z ee fz = e m l i e t l t e oq u rs v l-a s l c n o i e t e n ep ct = ra t c a n ( k g a l l n e s ( fo e) Cw = a D i rd p a fh a e ia r t c g ah t i o r i l r oc e p o nw sdah o t r snn p r o w e t u a Fc = i g l a s p oe o sp s t t ee ( o r l h r e ph w ah t c e r r s n e o p o i w e r( s e a s o n ) e a =e r a r d dF R lCet i pa c r f i u I duaci t F q = g t rv eo o w os oar rt ey epa r s f l u o l l a g ( r e p d a y ) c ar d = n f icl o i w d ( F ga r e va d e = w v) o ew l ppa r ft e p pr l d i oa e l a n c n iD n = oi d i l no p (i lf s p e i a r ey da d ( r e e p d g p a y ) F C D cs o r r ef c t i o c n i s a h h n M o I muc i x am r ct nt n g d p e o eap a c )= d e iF m t = a e i l pi o t fh ( r n o i t a c I i I lF p= n a t e p s ehr n i ( a e t c r p he o u r ) h m p i p rt ft ( h i ) a = s o e eu p p f o s nr o p c t I a I ict ni= n l e d p n e o a o r e i b s e m n r F e e s n F = do e o w A p ac fh t t e b rf cu y c l ra l o p m l a n ut ) o i c r nb s i p n i eci r e i g ( a rt i o n r mum i n i m a e’i = s r m n e o ev u h o s e p f mr t a n o e c r e ) f w r h e i n a a l cc g o n n i w t z a i b t l ei F r = rr e or f s dt ua pf ( r e p ia o mc p h a h t n r o t n e s e rf . f= gross e w ar p h r e tn et m e ot r ne e c lm n i ( p m h op a l a ep g u s e ( k es e d r p a ry ) d e Cn E = e l e c t r i c e lo t s .

= difference in pressure head along the manifold (feet) AHA = amount the manifold inlet pressure differs from hI (feet) (AH.= desired pressure-head increase between two points (feet) Ah = difference in pressure head along the laterals (feet) Ah ’ = amount the lateral inlet pressure differs from ha (feet) (100 &IL)’ = maximum scalar distance between the friction curve and the ground surface line in the graphical solution ha = pressure head that will give the qa (feet) Ha = average manifold pressure hC = pressure head at the closed end of the lateral (feet) AhC = difference between the downstream-end and minimum pressure heads (feet) he = friction head loss caused by a specific fitting (feet) Hf = pressure-head loss in the manifold from pipe friction (feet) hf = lateral head loss from pipe friction (feet) Ehf = sum of the pipe-friction losses between the 1 pump and manifold inlet at m (feet) (h& = original lateral pipe-friction loss (feet) (h&.)~ value properly scaled for the manifold under study (feet) = equivalent head-loss gradient of the lateral with emitters (feet per 100 feet) = head-loss gradient of the larger pipe (feet per 100 feet) = head-loss gradient of the smaller pipe (feet per 100 feet) = J value from Appendix B for the largest flow rate in the table for the required pipe size (feet per 100 feet) = scalar ratio for field shape = friction gradient found in step 1 of the graphical solution if If j J *.. h2 = pressure heads corresponding to qI. J J’ Jl JS JX JE ’ J’F k = scale factor for adjusting manifold pressurehead values taken from standard manifold curves kd = constant of proportionality (discharge coefflcient) that characterizes each emitter Kf = friction head-loss coefficient for a specific fitting 1 L 1’ la l 1C Ld Lm Ln LN LP LS L& = length of a lateral (feet) = length of a pipeline (feet) = equivalent length of the lateral with emitter (feet) = original lateral pipe length (feet) = new lateral pipe length (feet) b = length of the flow path in the emitter (feet) = length of pipe with diameter d (feet) = length of a single manifold (feet) = net leaching requirement for net application (inches) = annual leaching requirement for net seasonal application (inches) = length of a pair of manifolds (feet) = length of the smaller pipe that will increase the head loss by AH (feet) = leaching requirement ratio 7-110 ..... required to satisfy the EU (feet) Hr = ratio between fertilizing time and time of actual irrigating per irrigation cycle AHS = allowable subunit pressure-head variation that will give an EU reasonably close to the desired design value (feet) MI h1 = working pressure of the secondary chamber (feet) hI. G.bj= difference in head loss between adjacent pipes of different sizes (feet) (H& = pressure head to overcome pipe friction and elevation along the main line (feet) (h&.. = friction loss along the manifold (feet) hfP = friction loss in a lateral with length (L) (feet) hfX = head loss from a point “x” to the closed end of a multiple-outlet pipeline (feet) (H&I = pressure-head loss from pipe friction for the manifold (feet) (Hf)2 = estimate being made of the pressure-head loss from pipe friction for the manifold (feet) h1 = lateral inlet pressure that will give ha (feet) Hm = manifold inlet pressure head (feet) AH. = new lateral pipe-friction loss (feet) hc*. respectively (pounds per square inch) = annual interest rate = maximum allowable irrigation interval (days) = design irrigation interval (days) = dimensionless allowable head-loss ratio = head-loss gradient of a pipe (feet per 100 feet) = (M&.& = allowable manifold pressure variation (feet) hn = pressure head that will give the q.

& = discharges (gallons per hour) = individual emitter discharge rates % %* *a (gallons per hour) r = annual rate of rising energy cost Re = effective rainfall during the growing season (inches) & = effective rainfall since the last irrigation (inches) 7-111 . which is the desired soil-moisture deficit at the time of irrigation (percent) MLIP = minimum lateral inlet pressure (pounds per square inch) average MLIP = average of the individual MLIP’s along each manifold (pounds per square inch) minimum MLIP = lowest lateral inlet pressure in the system (pounds per square inch) n = number of emitters in the sample n = expected life of the item (years) N = number of operating stations h = number of emitters along the lateral (n& = number of plants in the average row in the subunit (n& = number of plants in the row at the closed end of the manifold = number of row (or lateral) spacings served by nr the manifold Nn = Reynolds number (n& = number of row (or lateral) spacings served from a common inlet point PC = pipe cost (dollars per pound) PS = average horizontal area shaded by the crop canopy as a percentage of the total crop area (percent) PU = unit of power PUC unit cost of power (dollars per kilowatt hour) = Pw = average horizontal area wetted in the top part of the crop root zone as a percentage of the total crop area (percent) PEI~ = potential application efficiency of the lower quarter PS = perimeter of the area directly wetted by a sprayer (feet) PW(r) = present worth factor with energy cost rising at rate r q q = emitter discharge rate (gallons per hour) = average discharge rate of the emitter sampled (gallons per hour) Q Q = flow rate in the pipe (gallons per minute) = average of design emitter discharge rate (gallons per hour) d C average of all the field-data emitter discharges (gallons per hour) rate of injection of the chemical into the qc = system (gallons per hour) qd = upper limit flow rate for the pipe with diameter d (gallons per minute) q&i = upper limit flow rate for the pipe with the next smaller diameter (gallons per minute) rate of injection of liquid fertilizer into the qf = system (gallons per hour) = lateral flow rate (gallons per minute) ql (q& = average lateral (pair) flow rate along the manifold (gallons per minute) (q& = flow rate into the lateral (pair) at the closed end of the manifold (gallons per minute) = flow rate for pair of laterals (gallons per QP minute) b = flow rate in the manifold (gallons per minute) G = minimum emission rate computed from the minimum pressure in the system (gallons per hour) & = average discharge of the lowest quarter of the fielddata discharge reading (gallons per hour) Q8 = total system capacity or flow rate (gallons per minute) QL = adjusted flow rate for entering the economic design chart (gallons per minute) Q[ = modified adjusted system flow rate (gallons per minute) Qt = average pump-operating time per season (hours) & = largest flow rate (Q) in the respective table for pipe size in Appendix B (gallons per minute) ql = flow rate in the original manifold (gallons per minute) is q¶ = flow rate in the manifold for which (Hf)% being estimated (gallons per minute) ql.L1 = length of pipe in the original manifold (feet) L* = length of pipe in the manifold for which (H& is being estimated (feet) m = number of orifices in the secondary chamber per orifice in the main chamber ’ = number of orifices in series in the emitter :iXl = management-allowed deficit.

difference between field capacity and the actual soil moisture in the root zone soil at any given time (inches) = plant spacing in the row (feet) = row spacing (feet) = width of the wetted strip (feet) = specific gravity of the chemical concentrate V* = system coef&ient of manufacturing variation Vz/2g = velocity head: the energy head from the velocity of flow (feet) WB = residual stored moisture from off-season precipitation (inches) WHC = water-holding capacity of the soil (inches per foot) emitter discharge exponent any position along the length X = distance from the closed end (feet) x/L = relative distance from the closed downstream end compared to the total length of a pair of laterals or manifolds X X = = S’ Se SL Y Y Z = theoretical reduction in yield (percent) = tangent location Z Sf Sl Sm E& location of the inlet to the pair of laterals that gives equal minimum pressures in both the uphill and downhill members (ratio of the length of the downhill lateral to L) kinematic viscosity of water (feet squared per second) V Z SP Sr SW sg Ta = irrigation application time required during the peak use period (hours per day) Td = average daily transpiration rate for the month of greatest water use (inches per day) Tr = peak-use period transpiration ratio Ts = seasonal transpiration ratio Ts = seasonal transpiration (inches) TDH = total dynamic head (feet) TDR = temperature-discharge ratio = seasonal total crop consumptive use (inches) average daily consumptive-use rate for the ud month of greatest overall water use (inches per day) %I = total consumptive use rate for month (inches) = U = coefficient of manufacturing variation of the emitter = velocity of flow in the pipe (feet per second) V Vi = gross seasonal volume of irrigation water required (acre-feet) v 7-112 .wetted diameter estimated from field tests or table 7-2 (feet) = shape factor of the subunit = lateral spacing (feet) = manifold spacing (feet) = soil moisture deficit. drip emitter spacing that provides 80 percent of the . S. along the manifold) properly scaled for the manifold under study (feet) = spacing between emitters or emission points along a line (feet) = optimum emitter spacing. which is the amount the friction curve needs to be raised (feet) = elevation (due to the slope.RZD = depth of the soil profile occupied by plant roots (feet) S S S S’ = unbiased standard deviation of the discharge rates of the sample = average slope of the ground line (percent) = slope of the manifold or lateral (feet per foot) = unusable slope component.

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