This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Systematic position: Division : Bryophyta- The true roots are always absent, they lack vascular tissues and homosporous. Class Hepaticopsida: -Gametophyte dorsiventrally differentiated thallus, chloroplasts devoid of paranoids, rhizoids without septa. Order : Marchantiales- Ventral portion of thallus parenchymatous ,scales and rhizoids present on the ventral side of thallus ,rhizoids smooth walled and tuberculate. Family Ricciaceae,: Rosette –like ,dichotomously branched thallus ,sex organs in the middorsal groove,sporogonium simple capsule and not differentiated into foot, seta, and capsule. .Genus: Riccia:- Thallus usually rosette –like,scales present on the margins, Assimilatory filamentous are vertical and unbranched. Habitat or occurrence: The genus Riccia with about 200 species, is cosmopolitan in its distribution and commonly grows in moist soils especially during the after rains .About 29 species have reported from different parts of India. Riccia belongs to the common Indian
species are Riccia siliata, R. hitra, R. discolor, R. glauca, R. gangetica, R. melansspora, R. hirta, R.crystallina Majority of the species are terrestrial, a few are free floating or submerged aquatics e. g. R. fluitans, R. natans. The plant R. crystallina occurs at an altitude of 14,000 ft. in Western Himalayas. External morphology(Gametophyte phase) In Riccia, the gametophytic plant body is the dominant phase in the life cycle. • The gametophyte is a prostrate, dorsi-ventrally flat, dichotomously branched, green, fleshy thallus. • Each branch is either linear or wedge-shaped or obcordate and as the dichotomous branches grow together from one place, the plant usually exhibits a shape of a rosette or a circular patch. • Each branch is thick in the median region and thin towards the margin. Each branch shows a conspicuous, longitudinal furrow along the mid a notch at the tip where the growing point is located. • On the ventral surface are present two types of outgrowths, multicellular scales and the
unicellular rhizoids. The scales are multicellular, pink, red, violet or black and one transverse row. The scales are more crowded near the apex and overlap the growing point. In the mature portion, each
This layer hears two types of out multicellular one-celled thick . tubular hair like structures which attach the thallus to the substratum and absorb water and nutrient solution. Usually each vertical air canal is enclosed by four vertical cell rows. The tuberculate or pegged rhizoids having peg-like processes in the inner layer of the wall which project inwards into the lumen. The smooth-walled rhizoids having smooth inner wall with colorless contents.The rhizoids are two types. rows are also present. natans) both scales and rhizoids are absent. Each air pore is bounded by 4 to 8 colourless enlarged terminal cells of the vertical rows. Internal morphology: • In vertical cross section the thallus. R. present on the dorsal surface of the thallus. They are analogous to the roots of higher plants two . wit intercellular spaces. Scales mainly protect. Mature rhizoids lack protoplasm. shows differentiation of tissues distinctly arranged in two horizontal zones . . the growing point and increase absorptive surface. forming a single layer called the lower epidermis. elongated. fluitans.scale splits up into two so that there seem to be two rows of scales along the two margins of the thallus. compactly arranged. and containing starch granules as reserve food. • The rhizoids are unicellular. • The upper dorsal assimilatory zone is composed of chlorophyll bearing cells arranged in isolated vertical rows or tires and are separated by narrow vertical air canals. The lower surface of the tissue containing small cells. an upper assimilatory or photosynthetic zones and a lower storage zone. • The assimilatory region gradually merges into a ventral colorless region made of compactly arranged undifferentiated parenchyma tissue the storage zone. which form a loose discontinuous one-celled thick upper epidermis. sometimes eight atmosphere. In aquatic free-floating species (R. The cells of the storage zone are thin-walled. Each air canal communicates with the external loose through air hares.
The growing point containing the apical initials is located at the bottom of a notch at the tip of each lobe. a period . Vegetative reproduction: The vegetative reproduction in Riccia takes place by the following methods: • Fragmentation: In this method progressive death and decay of the older part of the thallus from the posterior end reaches the dichotomy. fluitans) special adventitious branches.sometimes more.Once the apical initials are established in the young thallus all further growth is brought about by their activity and growth of the daughter cells. Reproduction: The gametophytic plant body reproduces vegetative and sexual methods after attaining a certain stage of maturity. perennis) at the end of growing season.They are arranged in a horizontal row and vary in number usually from 3 to 5 . discolor. • Adventitious branches (A) : In some species (R. Apical Growth: The growth in length of the thallus lobes takes place by means of groups of apical initials . Then each surviving branch grows independently by epical growth and finally develops into a new plant. the two surviving branches become separate. Rhizoids are produced mid-ventral region where the scales arc produced at the margins. the apex of the thallus grows down into the soil and becomes thick forming a thick tuber-like body. R. • Tubers: In some species (R. arise from the mid These branches get detached and develop into new thalli. similar to parent thallus.scales and the unicellular tubular extension of epidermal cells called rhizoids.
The sex organs develop on the floor of the mid -dorsal longitudinal furrow in an acropetal succession formed (old) sex organ is behind and the last formed (new) sex organ is near the growing apex. glauca) gemma-like bodies are formed at the tips of rhizoid. the apices of thalli grow down into the soil .e. glauca) or the sex organs may develop on different thalli i. union between a motile flagellate male gamete and a resting nonflagellate female gamete takes place.e. R. these apices come up and develop into new plants. the plants are heterothallic or dioecious (R.e. Sexual reproduction: Sexual reproduction in Riccia is oogamous type i. The gamete bearing organs i. discolor . sex organs in Riccia are multicellular and are called antheridium (male) and archegonium(female) respectively.e. R.gangetica. • Persistent apices: In R. personii). • Gemma like body: In (R. discolor. .The plant other than the underground apices die. These structures ultimately develop into new plants. Under favorable condition. Both the types of sex organs may develop on the same thallus i.at the end of growing period.The tuber which easily survives of drought resumes growth with the commencement of favorable season and develops thallus. the plant is homothallic or monoecious (R.
• Next gelatinization of jacket cells towards the apex marks it more breakable. • Each androcyte mother cell. • A central mass of cuboidal cells enclosed by the jacket layer are the androgonial cells or androcyte mother cells. The antheridial chamber communicates with the dorsal surface by a pore. •Each androcyte ultimately metamorphoses into a single biflagellate antherozoid or spermatozoid. • During metamorphosis cell walls of the androgonial get disorganized to form a semifluid mucilaginous content in which the mature antherozoids float freely. • The antheridial body is surrounded by a single single-layered wall or jacket made of thinwalled cell. .Antheridium: • A mature antheridium of Riccia is a pear-shaped body within an open antheridial chamber which is formed by the overarching tissues. • The pear-shaped antheridal body has got a flat broad base and a conical apex. • The antheridium is attached to the base of the antheridial chamber by means of a few-celled stalk. oozes out of the antheridial chamber to the dorsal surface of the thallus. • Then the semifluid mucilaginous content of the antheridium containing the antherozoids. • When water enters into the antheridial chamber the gelatinized jacket cells absorb it and swell and finally break open. divides diagonally to produce two triangular androcytes. on maturity.
. • The archegonium is attached to the base of the archegonial chamber by means of a short few -celled stalk. the neck. swells and sets up a force which pushes the cover cells apart. • The venter consists of a single layered wall having more than six cells in perimeter and encloses a lower large egg or female gamete with an upper small ventral canal cell.Archegonium: • A mature archcgonium is a flask-shaped body embedded within a chamber called archegonial chamber which communicates with the dorsal surface by a pore. when water enters into the archegonial chamber. • The flask-shaped archegonium is differentiated into a basal swollen part venter. • The tip of the neck is covered by four specialized cells called cover cells • When the archegonium is matured. • Shortly before fertilization.the mucilaginous mass imbibes water. • The wall of upper tubular neck consists of 6-9 tires of elongated cells arranged in 6 vertical rows which encloses a narrow central canal consisting of 4-6 neck canal cells in a single row. the canal cells (neck and ventral canal cells) degenerate. and an elongated protruding tubular portion. leaving a mucilaginous mass. Thus a free neck canal is formed from the apex of the archegonium to the egg.
After rain water is retained as a thin film in the dorsal furrow of the thallus and acts as a medium for the movement of antherozoids. The antherozoids thus attracted. is a more or less rounded structure containing the mature haploid spores. • In the meantime. the amphithecium and a central mass of cells. embedded within the gametophytic plant tissue and is without foot and seta. the endothecium. This fluid supplies nourishment to the developing spores. the zygote secretes a wall and increases in volume until it nearly fills the cavity of the venter. the archesporium. arrive near the egg travelling down through the neck canal. the cells of the venter divide to form a two layerd venter enclosing the developing sporophyte. embedded within the gametophytic thallus. Prior to the fertilization the mucilage that is out of the archegonium attracts the antherozoids towards the archegonium. designated as sporogonium. Water also acts as a medium for transportation of antherozoid towards the egg. • After fertilization. amphithecial layer and also inner layer of the venter degenerate to form a nutritive viscous fluid. • The archesporial cells are finally differentiated into spore mother cells with dense thick cytoplasm and nurse cells with watery vacuolated cytoplasm. . • The spherical mass then differentiates into a peripheral cell layer.Fertilization: For fertilization water is necessary. • The mature sporophyte. The zygote is the first cell of the sporophytic generation. Structure of the sporophyte:The mature • The mature sporophyte of Riccia is a globular capsule. • The spore mother cells now undergo meiosis or reduction division resulting in haploid (n) spore tetrades(four spores). the nurse cells. Finally a single antherozoid (n) fuses with the egg (n) and forms a diploid (2n) zygote. • The spore tetrad usually remain attached to one another and are finally separated. Water helps liberation of antherozoids by the rupture of the antheridium. a structure called calyptra. • The endothelial cells divide and form a sporogenous tissue. • The zygote now divides in both vertical and transverse planes and produces a more or less spherical mass of 20-40 cells. • Simultaneously. • The amphithecium forms the jacket or wall of the sporophyte. commonly.
The rhizoid emerges out near the base of the germ tube. Germination of spore and formation of the new haploid gametophyte: The spore germinates under favourable moist conditions. A mature spore shows three layers of wall—the outermost thin and cuticularised exosporium. Structure of spore: Spore is the first cell of the gametophytic generation. as a result the massive black exosporium bust and the thin endosporium enclosing the spore contents protrudes out inthe form of a tubular outgrowth called the germ tube. and encircling gametophytic tissue haploid.• The mature sporogonium does not contain a single diploid cell the envelope formed from the outer layer of calyptra. the middle cuticularised mesosporium and the innermost endosporium. The cells of the germ disc soon divide and redivide to form a multicellular thallus which remains fixed with the soil by rhizoids. Each spore is pyramidal or tetrahedral in shape with a clear triradiate mark at the proximal face. haploid spore. The germ tube elongates and divides to form an eight celled germ disc. . • The spores are liberated only by the decay of venter wall and surrounding gametophyte tissue.During germination the spore takes water and swells up.
Dr. Botany Ruia College Matunga Mumbai-19 . Shankhadarwar.Life cycle: In the life cycle of Riccia the haploid gametophytic generation is independent and is the main vegetative body. it is a peculiar condition found only in Riccia.e. Mature sporophyte or sporogonium is made up of haploid cells only. The asexual reproductive phase i. It reproduces both vegetatively and sexually. Prof. It is represented only by the sporogenous tissues which are diploid cells. Assist. Sunil D. sporophytic generation is dependent upon the gemetophyte and is embedded within it.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.