# Lecture 11

Resistive Transducer

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Lecture11:ResistiveTransducer

Resistive transducer
The resistance of a transducer varies as the physical quantity varies (e.g. temperature or displacement) As values of R varies, value of V and i also varies Two basic devices for measurement of temperatures are RTD and thermistor

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Resistive Transducer
a)Thermistor • Semiconductor device • The resistance value of the thermistor changes according to temperature • Increase in temperature causes a decrease in resistance

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• The relation between the temperature and the resistance

1 1 RT = RT 1 exp( β ( − )) T T1
• RT: The resistance value at the temperature T • T: The temperature [K] • R1: The resistance value at the reference temperature • T1: The reference temperature [K] typically, 25°C is used • β: The coefficient of thermistor.
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FIGURE 4.5 Thermistor resistance versus temperature is highly nonlinear and usually has a negativeslope.

Curtis Johnson Lecture11:ResistiveTransducer 5 Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e]

Thermistor Characteristics
Sensitivity – change in resistance 10% per 0C, for nominal resistance of 10kΩ may change 1 kΩ for 10C Construction – semiconductor in various forms discs, beads, rods Range - -200C to 1000C Response time – depends on quality of material Signal conditioning - bridge
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Thermistor: Construction and symbols

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Advantages: • Low cost, small size • High output voltage • Fast response Disadvantages: • Highly nonlinear • Restricted to relatively low temperature

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b) Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) • • • • Electrical resistance is a function of metal temperature As temperature increases, the resistance increases Resistance temperature relationship: R = R0(1+ α ∆T )

with R = resistance of the conductor at temperature t0C R0 = ambience resistance (at reference point) α = temperature coefficients of resistance ∆T = difference between temperature at t and ambience
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FIGURE 4.2

Metal resistance increases almost linearly with temperature.

Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e]

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Common Resistance Materials for RTDs: • Platinum (most popular and accurate) • Nickel • Copper • Balco (rare) • Tungsten (rare)

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Sensitivity An estimate of RTD sensitivity is noted by value of α Platinum – 0.004/0C Nickel – 0.005/0C For 100Ω platinum RTD, a change of 0.4Ω if temperature is changed by 10C Range Platinum RTD –100 to 6500C Nickel RTD – 180 to 3000C Response time 0.5 to 5 s or more, slowness due to thermal conductivity
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• Temperature range (from -200 to 8500 C) • Advantages: • relatively immune to electrical noise and therefore well suited for temperature measurement in industrial environments More stable, have an output response that is more linear, more accurate • Disadvantages: Expensive • Very small fractional changes of resistance with temperature, bridge circuit is needed
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FIGURE 4.4:Note the compensation lines in this typical RTD signal4.4:Note signalconditioning circuit.

Curtis Johnson Lecture11:ResistiveTransducer 16 Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e]

Signal conditioning Bridge circuit Compensation line in R3 leg is required Same resistance change due to RTD leg cause no net shift in the bridge null

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Dissipation Constant
RTD is a resistance, there is an I2R power dissipated by the device cause a slight heating effect, called selfheating Cause erroneous reading, therefore current of RTD must be kept low and constant to avoid self-heating Dissipation constant or PD is usually in the specs of RTD It relates power required to raise RTD 100 C For PD = 25mW/0C: If I2R power loses in RTD equal 25 mW, RTD will be heated 10C
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Dissipation constant (cont.)
Dissipation constant is specified under 2 conditions: free air and well-stirred oil bath Difference in capacity of medium to carry heat away from device The self-heating temperature rise can be found:

P ∆T = PD ∆T = temp rise of self-heating P = power dissipated by RTD from circuit in W PD = dissipation constant of RTD in W/0C
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Example 4.7
An RTD has α0=0.005/0C, R = 500 Ω, and a dissipation constant of PD = 30mW/0C at 200C. The RTD is used in a bridge circuit such as that in previous Figure 4.4, with R1 = R2 = 500 Ω and R3 a variable resister to null the bridge. If the supply is 10 V and RTD is placed in a bath at 00C, find the value of R3 to null the bridge

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Solution
Find RTD resistance at 00C without dissipation effect R = R0(1+ α ∆T ) =500(1+ 0.005(0-20)) RRTD = 450 Ω Without considering self heating, for the bridge to null R3 = 450 Ω (from R1R4 = R2R3) Self-heating effects?? Power dissipated from RTD P = I2R Calculate the current I from bridge
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Voltage supply V = 10V, R1 = R2 = 500 Ω and R3 = a variable resistor to null the bridge

Current I is calculated:

I

I=

10 = 0.011A (500 + 450)

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Solution (cont.)
Therefore power dissipated in RTD: P = (0.01)2(450) = 0.054 W Find the temperature rise P = ∆TPD Temperature rise:

Thus, RTD is not actually at bath temperature of 00C but at 1.80C Resistance of RTD R = R0(1+ α ∆T ) =500(1+ 0.005(1.8-20)) RRTD = 454.5 Ω Therefore, bridge will null with R3 = 454.5 Ω
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0.054 ∆T = = 1.80 C 0.030

c)Potentiometer • Displacement sensor – converts linear or angular motion into a changing in resistor • Simple potentiometric displacement sensor • Voltage divider:

RTH VD = 10V (3.5kΩ + RTH )

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FIGURE 5.1

Potentiometric displacement sensor.

Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e]

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Voltage E is applied to resistor with length L Measure displacement, generate output e (Ohm’s Law)

x e= E L

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Resistive Sensors - Potentiometers
Translational and Rotational

Potentiometers
Translational or angular displacement is proportional to resistance.

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luennot/Luento3.pdf

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Advantages: Cheap, easy to use, adjustable Problem: Mechanical wear, friction in wiper, high electronic noise

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Example: The value of R is 100kΩ and the maximum displacement is 2.0cm. If E = 9V and x is 1.5 cm, determine the value of output voltage e

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Solution

x e= E L
The output voltage e = 9V(1.5/2) = 6.75 V

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Example 4.8: A thermistor is to monitor room temperature. It has a resistance of 3.5kΩ at 20°C with a slope of 10%/°C. It is proposed to use the thermistor in the divider of Figure below to provide a voltage of 5.0 V at 20°C. Evaluate the effects of self-heating

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More on potentiometer

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Potentiometer
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The potentiometer on the MCBXC866 board connects to port 2, pin 6 (P2.6) for generating analog voltage to the on-chip ADC. The analog input is AIN6 and the voltage range is 0-5.0 VDC.
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Rotary Potentiometer
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100 K Potentiometer
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The slide potentiometer changes its resistance linearly with position. The slide potentiometer has about 60 mm (2.3 inches) of travel, and a nominal resistance of 10k ohms ± 20%.
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System Components: PIC Microcontroller: Potentiometer: the potentiometer will control the rpm of the stepper motor. This setting will be read by the A-to-D on the PIC. Stepper Motor: Stepper Motor Controller:
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Motor Potentiometer Assemblies Motor Potentiometer Assemblies have become extremely popular with system designers. Today, Betatronix can supply the complete motor-pot assembly or mount the potentiometer to the motor at our facility.

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End of Lecture 11

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