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Piezoelectric Effect
Discovered in 1880 by Pierre Curie in quartz crystals. The greek word “piezein”, which means “to press” Appearance of an electric potential across certain faces of a crystal when it is subjected to mechanical pressure Examples --- Quartz, Barium titanate, tourmaline

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The effect is explained by the displacement of ions in crystals When the crystal is compressed, the ions in each unit cell are displaced, causing the electric polarization of the unit cell. Because of the regularity of crystalline structure, these effects accumulate, causing the appearance of an electric potential difference between certain faces of the crystal.

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• Quartz crystals (Silicon dioxide, SiO2) is one of the most stable piezoelectric materials • The larger circles represent silicon atoms, while the smaller ones represent oxygen

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Grey- test structure. Red- piezoelectric crystals Blue- Sensor housing The black electrode is where the charge from the crystals accumulates before it is conditioned by the yellow, microcircuit. pressure sensors utilize a diaphragm to collect pressure, which is simply force applied over an area.

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The relationship between displacement (x) and force (F) is
1 x= F k

• where k = stiffness of crystal is large typically = 2×109 N/m

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• Piezoelectric sensors for measuring pressure, force, and acceleration may be modeled by the classical second-order differential equation

1/ k ∆x = 1 2 2ξ ∆F s + s +1 2

ωn

ωn

• ωn = 2πfn is large typically fn = 10 to 100kHz and ξ is small, typically ξ ≈ 0.01.

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The deformation of crystal results in crystal acquiring net charge q proportional to x:

K q = Kx = F = dF k
d=K/k coulombs/N, charge sensitivity to force F, 2.3×10-12 coulombs/N Electrical current is proportional to force F Does not require power supply and the output voltage is within 1 to 30 mV

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Quartz is preferred because: Temperature resistance up to 930°F Very high rigidity, high linearity, and negligible hysteresis Almost constant sensitivity over a wide temperature range Material stress limit of ~20,000 psi
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Typical Application-Combustion Monitoring
Pressures developed during the combustion process is continuously measured by sensors mounted on the cylinder heads

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Pros and Cons
Have a high Stiffness value and produce a high output with very little strain. Ideal for rugged use. Excellent linearity over a wide amplitude. Ideal for continuous online condition monitoring smart systems. Can be used only for dynamic pressure sensing as in case of static sensing the signals will decay away. Operation over long cables may affect frequency response and introduce noise and distortion, the cables need to be protected.

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Figure 1. The direct piezoelectric effect.

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Figure 2. The converse piezoelectric effect.

Conversely, when a piezoelectric crystal is placed in an electric field, or when charges are applied by external means to its faces, the crystal exhibits strain, i.e. the dimensions of the crystal change. When the direction of the applied electric field is reversed, the direction of the resulting strain is reversed.
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Sensor and Actuator
Transducers convert one form of energy to another. Piezo actuators convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. This is why they are referred to as "motors" (often linear motors). Piezo sensors convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. This is why they are referred to as "generators". In most cases, the same element can be used to perform either task.

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BASIC PRINCIPLE
to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. separation of electric charge across the crystal lattice

direct piezoelectric effect production of electricity when stress is applied converse piezoelectric effect (the production of stress and/or strain when an electric field is applied
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Key Properties
The ability to produce a voltage output in response to an applied stress • The ability to produce a strain output (or deformation) in response to an applied voltage. •

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Piezoelectric materials are used in electromechanical devices. In the case of a microphone transducer, sound of a particular frequency results in a strain in the material, which in turn induces an electric field. Similarly in speakers, a voltage input into the piezoelectric material can be converted into a mechanical strain, such as in a speaker transducer.

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Applications

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Application 1

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APPLICATION
CROWD FARM “Magic Carpet.” mechanical movement converted to electricity though on a larger scale in which the mechanics would be supplied by a spongy floor in which embedded blocks move under the weight of passing pedestrians. Grid of piezoelectric cables. floor that could track the movements. The conversion process - generator that uses a rotating coil and electromagnets to produce an electric current from the mechanical movement. lights and sound-depends on where you walked-different sound would play. examples : in some of the museums at MIT. At Georgia Tech -“Smart Floor” –monitor and predict when people were walking across it.

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APPLICATION
COMMUTER A single human step can only power two 60W light bulbs for one flickering second. multiply that single step by 28,527 steps, for example, and the result is enough energy to power a moving train for one second. The East Japan Railway Company (JR-East) -train stations more eco-friendly. piezo elements that would generate electricity as commuters walk through. Tested – Shibuya, reception area. Pass through the gate, a lamp lights up, electricity produced. JR East‘s- new- energy-generators under ticket wickets, a -milliwatt-tracking counter, and 700,000 daily commuters. Vibrations of human footsteps at Tokyo Station to generate up to 100 milliwatts per second per person that walks through. To generate enough electricity to power the wickets themselves and their display panels regularly.
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Blood Pressure Sensor

The Arterial Pressure Transducer (APT) is a piezoelectric transducer that provides fast, accurate blood pressure readings.
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Piezoelectric motor

Piezeoelectric motors are driven by ultrasonic vibrations created from the piezoelectric transducer.

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Piezoelectric drill

A novel drive mechanism, which transfers ultrasonic vibrations of a piezoelectric actuator into larger oscillations of a free-flying mass is the central point of interest during approaches in understanding the USDC: the free-mass impact on the drill bit creates a stress pulse at the drill tip/rock interface causing fracture in the rock.
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