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**Vol. 44, No. 146, pp. 217–222, 2002
**

A Simpliﬁed Analysis on a Pulse Detonation Engine Model

By Takuma ENDO

1)

and Toshi FUJIWARA

2)

1)

Center for Integrated Research in Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

2)

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

(Received April 19th, 2001)

The performance of pulse detonation engines was analytically estimated by using a simple model. Apulse detonation

engine was modeled as a straight tube. One end of the tube was closed and the other was open, and a detonation wave was

ignited at the closed end. One cycle of the pulse-detonation-engine operation was divided into three phases: combustion,

exhaust, and ﬁlling phases. The combustion and exhaust phases were theoretically analyzed with some simpliﬁcations,

using the Hugoniot relation for the Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave and ﬂow relations for self-similar rarefaction

waves. Based on the simpliﬁed theoretical analysis, useful formulas for impulse density per one-cycle operation and

time-averaged thrust density were derived.

Key Words: Pulse Detonation Engine, Theoretical Analysis, Gas Dynamics

Nomenclature

a : sonic speed of gas

c

υ

: speciﬁc heat at constant volume per unit mass

D : propagation velocity of speciﬁed surface in x coor-

dinate

D

CJ

: Chapman-Jouguet detonation speed of detonable

mixture

f

cyc

: frequency of cyclic pulse-detonation-engine oper-

ation

I

cyc

: impulse density acting on thrust wall per one-cycle

operation

L : length of pulse detonation engine

f

: characteristic length of detonable-mixture injec-

tion

M

CJ

: Mach number of Chapman-Jouguet detonation

wave (= D

CJ

/a

1

)

p : thermodynamic pressure of gas

p

av

: time-averaged thrust density

p

w

(t ) : pressure acting on thrust wall as a function of time

q : heat released in chemical reaction per unit mass

R

u

: universal gas constant

T : thermodynamic temperature of gas

t : time relative to instant of ignition

T

cyc

: period of cyclic pulse-detonation-engine operation

t

I

: time at which x

3

becomes L

t

II

: time at which front boundary of rarefaction wave

originating from open end reaches closed end

t

III

: time at which exhaust of burned gas is completed

u : ﬂow velocity of gas in x coordinate

V

f

: characteristic speed of detonable-mixture injection

x : coordinate along axis of pulse detonation engine,

where x = 0 and x = L correspond to closed and

open ends, respectively

c 2002 The Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences

γ : speciﬁc-heat ratio of gas

µ : average molecular weight of gas

ρ : mass density of gas

τ

f

: duration of ﬁlling phase

Subscripts

1 : undisturbed detonable mixture

2 : Chapman-Jouguet surface of detonation wave

3 : rear boundary of rarefaction wave following deto-

nation wave

ex : open-end boundary of rarefaction wave originating

from open end

N : von Neumann spike of detonation wave

1. Introduction

A pulse detonation engine (PDE) is expected to be a high-

performance next-generation aerospace propulsion engine.

In PDEs, fuel is burned as a self-sustaining detonation wave

propagating through a tube. The combustion as a detonation

wave is close to an isochoric process rather than an isobaric

one. Therefore higher heat-cycle efﬁciency is expected for

PDEs than for conventional aerospace propulsion engines, in

which combustion is close to an isobaric process.

1)

Although research on PDEs has more than a half-century

of history, interests in them have been renewed in the past

several years. Among the worldwide evolution of PDE re-

searches, a comprehensive reviewon propulsion applications

of detonation waves was recently published.

2)

A great part

of current PDE research seems to be more practical than fun-

damental, seriously aiming at the commercial use of PDEs.

Because PDEs are of simple structures, performance es-

timations on them are carried out mostly by methods of

computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD). It is true that perfor-

mance estimations by CFD methods are more accurate than

those by simpliﬁed analytical methods, analytical methods

218 Vol. 44, No. 146 Trans. Japan Soc. Aero. Space Sci.

are often more suitable for understanding the performance

of PDEs in perspective. Although Bussing and Pappas

1)

al-

ready showed an analytical treatment for performance esti-

mations on PDEs, their treatment was not adequate enough

to elucidate the dependence of PDE performance on govern-

ing parameters. In this paper, a simple performance analysis

on PDEs is presented. Using the Hugoniot relation for the

Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation wave and ﬂow relations

for self-similar rarefaction waves, pressure on the thrust wall

is estimated as a function of time. Based on the analysis,

some useful formulas are derived.

2. Model

A PDE is modeled as a straight tube with a constant cross

section. One end of the tube is closed and the other is open.

For simplicity, gases are treated as polytropic gases.

3)

And it

is also assumed that the viscous effects and thermal conduc-

tion are negligible and that ﬂow is one-dimensional. In the

analysis below, one cycle of PDE operation is examined.

Initially, the tube is ﬁlled with a uniform detonable mix-

ture at rest, as shown in Fig. 1(a). The initial undisturbed

mixture is characterized by ρ

1

, p

1

, γ

1

, u

1

(= 0). At time

t = 0, it is ignited at x = 0, and the CJ detonation wave

starts to propagate from the closed end to the open one. The

initiation process of the CJ detonation wave is among the

most important issues for PDEs.

4)

But in this model, this is-

sue is not treated, and it is assumed that the CJ detonation

wave starts to propagate from the closed end, namely x = 0,

at t = 0.

By the passing of the CJ detonation wave through the gas,

the gas is accelerated in the same direction as the wave prop-

agation because the CJ detonation wave is a compression

wave. Since the gas attached to the closed end should be at

rest, the gas between the CJ detonation wave and the closed

end is decelerated. This deceleration is realized in a self-

similar rarefaction wave following the CJ detonation wave.

This situation is shown in Fig. 1(b). The front boundary of

the rarefaction wave coincides with the CJ surface of the det-

onation wave. The gas at the CJ surface of the detonation

wave is characterized by ρ

2

, p

2

, γ

2

, u

2

. The rear boundary

of the rarefaction wave also propagates toward the open end.

The gas at the rear boundary of the rarefaction wave is char-

acterized by ρ

3

, p

3

, γ

3

(= γ

2

), u

3

(= 0), which also charac-

terize the whole gas in region 0 ≤ x ≤ x

3

. In this model, x

3

becomes L at time t = t

I

, and at this instant, all gas in the

tube is characterized by ρ

3

, p

3

, γ

3

(= γ

2

), u

3

(= 0), as shown

in Fig. 1(c). The period 0 ≤ t ≤ t

I

is named the combustion

phase.

At time t = t

I

, another rarefaction wave is created and

starts to propagate from the open end to the closed one. The

front boundary of this rarefaction wave propagates at sonic

speed a

3

, and reaches the closed end at t = t

II

. Figures 1(d)

and 1(e) show this situation. Through this rarefaction wave,

the burned gas is exhausted from the open end of the tube.

The exhaust of the burned gas lasts until time t = t

III

, as

Fig. 1. Pressure distributions at some instants: (a) t = 0, (b) 0 < t < t

I

,

(c) t = t

I

, (d) t

I

< t < t

II

, (e) t = t

II

, (f) t = t

III

, (g) t = T

cyc

. Calculation

was carried out by using a typical parameter set the same as that used in

“numerical example” of the text.

Feb. 2002 219 T. ENDO and T. FUJIWARA: A Simple Analysis on PDEs

shown in Fig. 1(f). The period t

I

≤ t ≤ t

III

is named the

exhaust phase. After time t = t

III

, the tube is recharged with

a fresh detonable mixture, and the recharging of the tube is

completed at time t = T

cyc

, shown in Fig. 1(g). Namely,

T

cyc

is the period of the cyclic PDE operation. The period

t

III

≤ t ≤ T

cyc

is named the ﬁlling phase.

3. Analysis

First, the quantities on the CJ surface ρ

2

, p

2

, u

2

, D

2

are

examined. When the heat released in the chemical reaction

per unit mass q is much larger than the internal thermal en-

ergy per unit mass of the unburned gas c

v1

T

1

, they are written

by the Hugoniot relation as follows,

5)

ρ

2

=

γ

2

+1

γ

2

ρ

1

,

p

2

=

γ

1

γ

2

+1

M

CJ

2

p

1

,

u

2

=

1

γ

2

a

2

=

1

γ

2

+1

D

CJ

,

D

2

= D

CJ

=

_

2(γ

2

2

−1)q.

Since thickness of the CJ detonation wave is generally negli-

gible compared with tube length, the position of the CJ sur-

face is written by

x

2

= D

2

t = D

CJ

t.

On the von Neumann spike, ρ

N

and p

N

are written as fol-

lows,

3)

ρ

N

=

γ

1

+1

γ

1

−1

ρ

1

,

p

N

=

2γ

1

γ

1

+1

M

CJ

2

p

1

.

Second, the rarefaction wave following the CJ detonation

wave is examined. This wave is a self-similar rarefaction

wave whose front boundary coincides with the CJ surface.

Therefore the state of the gas at the front boundary is given

by ρ

2

, p

2

, γ

2

, u

2

, D

2

. The state of the ﬂow inside the rar-

efaction wave is written by the relation for the self-similar

rarefaction wave as follows,

6)

ρ =

_

1

γ

2

+

γ

2

−1

γ

2

x

x

2

_ 2

γ

2

−1

ρ

2

,

p =

_

1

γ

2

+

γ

2

−1

γ

2

x

x

2

_

2γ

2

γ

2

−1

p

2

,

u = u

2

−

2

γ

2

+1

x

2

− x

t

= −a +

x

t

_

≤

1

γ

2

a

_

,

a = a

2

−

γ

2

−1

γ

2

+1

x

2

− x

t

.

At the rear boundary of the rarefaction wave, the ﬂow veloc-

ity is zero:

u

3

= 0.

Therefore the state of the gas at the rear boundary of the

rarefaction wave is given as follows,

x

3

=

1

2

x

2

,

D

3

= a

3

=

1

2

D

CJ

,

ρ

3

= 2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

ρ

1

,

p

3

=

γ

1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

M

CJ

2

p

1

.

Although these solutions are not exactly valid after the time

when the detonation wave exits the open end of the tube, an

estimation

t

I

=

L

D

3

=

2L

D

CJ

is adopted for simplicity. And at time t = t

I

, all gas in the

tube is considered to be characterized by ρ

3

, p

3

, γ

3

(= γ

2

),

u

3

(= 0). In the combustion phase 0 ≤ t ≤ t

I

, the pressure

acting on the thrust wall p

w

(t ) is given by p

3

.

Third, the exhaust phase is examined. At time t = t

I

,

another rarefaction wave is created and starts to propagate

through the tube from the open end to the closed one. The

front boundary of the rarefaction wave propagates with sonic

speed a

3

in the −x direction. Therefore the time required for

the propagation of the rarefaction wave from the open end to

the closed one is estimated by

t

II

−t

I

=

L

a

3

=

2L

D

CJ

.

Therefore, t

II

is given by

t

II

=

2L

D

CJ

+t

I

=

4L

D

CJ

.

The state of the gas inside the rarefaction wave is written by

the relation for the self-similar rarefaction wave as follows,

6)

ρ =

_

1 +

γ

2

−1

D

CJ

L − x

t −t

I

_ 2

γ

2

−1

ρ

ex

,

p =

_

1 +

γ

2

−1

D

CJ

L − x

t −t

I

_

2γ

2

γ

2

−1

p

ex

,

u = u

ex

−

2

γ

2

+1

L − x

t −t

I

= a −

L − x

t −t

I

(≤ a),

a = a

ex

+

γ

2

−1

γ

2

+1

L − x

t −t

I

,

where

ρ

ex

=

γ

2

+1

γ

2

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

ρ

1

,

p

ex

=

γ

1

γ

2

2γ

2

γ

2

−1

(γ

2

+1)

M

CJ

2

p

1

,

u

ex

= a

ex

=

1

γ

2

+1

D

CJ

220 Vol. 44, No. 146 Trans. Japan Soc. Aero. Space Sci.

stand for the state of the gas at the open end during

t

I

≤ t ≤ t

II

. Using these solutions, the mass exhaust rate

per unit area is given by

ρ

ex

u

ex

=

2

2

γ

2

−1

(γ

2

+1)

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

ρ

3

D

CJ

=

_

2

γ

2

+1

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

ρ

3

a

3

.

At time t = t

I

when the exhausting rarefaction wave starts to

propagate, the total mass of the gas per unit area in the tube is

ρ

3

L. When ρ

ex

u

ex

is considered to be the characteristic mass

exhaust rate per unit area, the period of the exhaust phase is

estimated as

t

III

−t

I

=

ρ

3

L

ρ

ex

u

ex

=

(γ

2

+1)

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

2

2

γ

2

−1

L

D

CJ

=

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

L

a

3

.

During t

I

≤ t ≤ t

II

in this phase, the front boundary of

the exhausting rarefaction wave does not reach the closed

end; therefore the pressure acting on the thrust wall p

w

(t )

remains p

3

. On the assumption of temporally linear decay

of the thrust during t

II

≤ t ≤ t

III

, p

w

(t ) is written as

p

w

(t ; t

II

≤ t ≤ t

III

) = p

3

_

1 −

t −t

II

t

III

−t

II

_

,

where

t

III

=

_

_

1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

2L

D

CJ

.

Here the ﬁlling phase and some important quantities are

discussed. The period of the cyclic PDE operation T

cyc

is

written as

T

cyc

= t

III

+τ

f

=

_

_

1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

2L

D

CJ

+τ

f

>

_

_

1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

2L

D

CJ

,

where τ

f

> 0 was used. And thus the frequency of the cyclic

PDE operation f

cyc

is written as

f

cyc

=

1

T

cyc

=

1

_

_

_1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

¸

_

2L

D

CJ

+τ

f

<

1

_

_

_1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

¸

_

2L

D

CJ

.

Since the thrust density as a function of time in this simpli-

ﬁed model is summarized as

p

w

(t ) =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

p

3

(0 ≤ t ≤ t

II

)

p

3

_

1 −

t −t

II

t

III

−t

II

_

(t

II

≤ t ≤ t

III

)

0 (t

III

≤ t ≤ T

cyc

)

,

Fig. 2. Pressure acting on the thrust wall as a function of time. Calculation

was carried out by using a typical parameter set the same as that used in

“numerical example” of the text.

which is shown in Fig. 2, the impulse density acting on the

thrust wall per one-cycle operation I

cyc

is written as follows,

I

cyc

=

_

T

cyc

0

p

w

(t )dt

=

_

t

II

0

p

3

dt +

_

t

III

t

II

p

3

_

1 −

t −t

II

t

III

−t

II

_

dt

=

1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

3 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

ρ

1

D

CJ

L.

In this solution, a

1

2

= γ

1

p

1

/ρ

1

was used. Qualitatively,

the pressure acting on the thrust wall is proportional to

(D

CJ

/a

1

)

2

p

1

, and the duration for which this wall is

pushed by the thermodynamic gas pressure is proportional

to L/D

CJ

; therefore dependency of the impulse is

I

cyc

∝

_

D

CJ

a

1

_

2

p

1

L

D

CJ

∝

D

CJ

2

p

1

ρ

1

p

1

L

D

CJ

∝ ρ

1

D

CJ

L.

When the equation of state for an ideal gas,

p

1

= ρ

2

R

u

µ

1

T

1

,

is used, I

cyc

is written as follows,

I

cyc

=

1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

3 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

p

1

µ

1

R

u

T

1

D

CJ

L.

Furthermore, the time-averaged thrust density p

av

is written

as follows,

Feb. 2002 221 T. ENDO and T. FUJIWARA: A Simple Analysis on PDEs

p

av

=

I

cyc

T

cyc

=

1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

_3 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

¸

_ρ

1

D

CJ

L

_

_

_1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

¸

_

2L

D

CJ

+τ

f

<

1

4γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

3 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

ρ

1

D

CJ

2

.

When the equation of state for an ideal gas is used, it is writ-

ten as follows,

p

av

=

1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

_

_3 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

¸

_

p

1

µ

1

R

u

T

1

D

CJ

L

_

_

_1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

_

¸

_

2L

D

CJ

+τ

f

<

1

4γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

2γ

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

3 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

1 +

_

γ

2

+1

2

_

γ

2

+1

γ

2

−1

p

1

µ

1

R

u

T

1

D

CJ

2

.

The shorter the duration of ﬁlling phase τ

f

, the larger the

time-averaged thrust density p

av

. This is to be expected be-

cause the ﬁlling phase is a dead phase of a PDE operation

cycle. The duration of ﬁlling phase τ

f

can be estimated by

f

/V

f

. Generally in PDEs, tube diameter is much shorter

than tube length. Therefore the detonable-mixture injection

in the radial direction rather than the axial direction may be

effective in shortening the duration of the ﬁlling phase.

4. Numerical Example

We show a numerical example by using a typical parame-

ter set. First we use γ

1

= γ

2

= 7/5. In this case, following

formulas are obtained.

ρ

2

=

12

7

ρ

1

p

2

≈

_

M

CJ

1.3

_

2

p

1

u

2

=

5

7

a

2

=

5

12

D

CJ

ρ

N

= 6ρ

1

p

N

≈

_

M

CJ

0.93

_

2

p

1

ρ

3

≈ 0.79ρ

1

p

3

≈

_

M

CJ

2.2

_

2

p

1

u

3

= 0

a

3

= D

3

=

1

2

D

CJ

ρ

ex

≈ 0.32ρ

1

p

ex

≈

_

M

CJ

4.3

_

2

p

1

u

ex

= a

ex

=

5

12

D

CJ

ρ

ex

u

ex

≈ 0.17ρ

3

D

CJ

≈ 0.33ρ

3

a

3

t

I

= 2

L

D

CJ

t

II

= 4

L

D

CJ

t

III

≈ 8.0

L

D

CJ

t

III

−t

I

≈ 6.0

L

D

CJ

≈ 3.0

L

a

3

T

cyc

≈ 8.0

L

D

CJ

+τ

f

> 8.0

L

D

CJ

f

cyc

≈

1

8.0

L

D

CJ

+τ

f

<

1

8.0

L

D

CJ

I

cyc

≈ 0.85ρ

1

D

CJ

L

p

av

≈

0.85ρ

1

D

CJ

L

8.0

L

D

CJ

+τ

f

< 0.11ρ

1

D

CJ

2

.

Furthermore, we use D

CJ

= 2000 m/s, a

1

= 400 m/s,

p

1

= 10

5

Pa, and L = 2 m as a typical parameter set, which

corresponds to ρ

1

= γ

1

p

1

/a

1

2

= 0.875 kg/m

3

. In this case,

the following values are obtained.

ρ

2

= 1.5 kg/m

3

p

2

≈ 15p

1

≈ 15 ×10

5

Pa

u

2

≈ 830 m/s

a

2

≈ 1200 m/s

ρ

N

= 5.25 kg/m

3

p

N

≈ 29p

1

≈ 29 ×10

5

Pa

ρ

3

≈ 0.69 kg/m

3

p

3

≈ 5.0p

1

≈ 5.0 ×10

5

Pa

222 Vol. 44, No. 146 Trans. Japan Soc. Aero. Space Sci.

u

3

= 0

a

3

= D

3

= 1000 m/s

ρ

ex

≈ 0.28 kg/m

3

p

ex

≈ 1.4p

1

≈ 1.4 ×10

5

Pa

u

ex

= a

ex

≈ 830 m/s

ρ

ex

u

ex

≈ 230 kg/(m

2

·s)

t

I

= 2.0 ms

t

II

= 4.0 ms

t

III

≈ 8.0 ms

T

cyc

≈ 8.0 [ms] +τ

f

> 8.0 ms

f

cyc

≈

1

8.0 [ms] +τ

f

< 130 Hz

I

cyc

≈ 3000 (N·s)/m

2

p

av

≈

30

8.0 +τ

f

[ms]

×10

5

Pa < 3.7 ×10

5

Pa.

If p

ex

is less than pressure outside the tube, the treatment of

the exhaust phase in this paper is invalid. Initial pressure p

1

is generally not less than pressure outside the tube, and p

ex

was estimated to be p

ex

≈ 1.4p

1

in this example; therefore

the above estimation of the exhaust phase is valid.

5. Conclusions

We analytically obtained simple formulas for the per-

formance of pulse detonation engines (PDEs). A PDE

was modeled as a straight tube. One end was closed

and the other was open; a detonation wave was ig-

nited at the closed end. We calculated pressure acting

on the closed end, with some simpliﬁcations, using the

Hugoniot relation for the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detona-

tion wave and ﬂow relations for self-similar rarefaction

waves. The most important formula obtained in this paper is

p

av

≈ (0.85ρ

1

D

CJ

L)/[(8.0L/D

CJ

) +τ

f

] < 0.11ρ

1

D

CJ

2

for

the speciﬁc-heat ratio of 7/5, where p

av

is the time-averaged

thrust density; ρ

1

and D

CJ

are, respectively, the mass density

and CJ detonation speed of the detonable mixture; L is the

length of the tube; and τ

f

is the time required to ﬁll the tube

with a fresh detonable mixture.

Acknowledgment

The authors sincerely acknowledge valuable discussions with Dr.

T. Miyasaka and Mr. K. Murakami.

References

1) Bussing, T. and Pappas, G.: An Introduction to Pulse Detonation En-

gines, AIAA Paper 94-0263, 1994.

2) Kailasanath, K.: Review of Propulsion Applications of Detonation

Waves, AIAA J., 38 (2000), pp. 1698–1708.

3) Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M.: Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed.,

Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1987, Ch. 9.

4) Lee, J. H. S. and Moen, I. O.: The Mechanism of Transition from Deﬂa-

gration to Detonation in Vapor Cloud Explosions, Prog. Energy Com-

bust. Sci., 6 (1980), pp. 359–389.

5) Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M.: Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed.,

Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1987, Ch. 14.

6) Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M.: Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed.,

Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1987, Ch. 10.

and reaches the closed end at t = tII . it is ignited at x = 0. (c) t = tI . Aero. and the CJ detonation wave starts to propagate from the closed end to the open one. Using the Hugoniot relation for the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation wave and ﬂow relations for self-similar rarefaction waves. (g) t = Tcyc . γ1 . the burned gas is exhausted from the open end of the tube. The initial undisturbed mixture is characterized by ρ1 .218 Trans. another rarefaction wave is created and starts to propagate from the open end to the closed one. No. The gas at the rear boundary of the rarefaction wave is characterized by ρ3 . γ2 . which also characterize the whole gas in region 0 ≤ x ≤ x 3 . At time t = tI . Figures 1(d) and 1(e) show this situation. Model A PDE is modeled as a straight tube with a constant cross section. In the analysis below. (b) 0 < t < tI . In this paper. as Fig. the tube is ﬁlled with a uniform detonable mixture at rest. (e) t = tII . 146 are often more suitable for understanding the performance of PDEs in perspective. Pressure distributions at some instants: (a) t = 0. and it is assumed that the CJ detonation wave starts to propagate from the closed end. Japan Soc. Space Sci. Since the gas attached to the closed end should be at rest. their treatment was not adequate enough to elucidate the dependence of PDE performance on governing parameters. This situation is shown in Fig. u 3 (= 0). a simple performance analysis on PDEs is presented.3) And it is also assumed that the viscous effects and thermal conduction are negligible and that ﬂow is one-dimensional. The period 0 ≤ t ≤ tI is named the combustion phase. this issue is not treated. (f) t = tIII . namely x = 0. pressure on the thrust wall is estimated as a function of time. 2. 1(c). and at this instant. The front boundary of the rarefaction wave coincides with the CJ surface of the detonation wave. The initiation process of the CJ detonation wave is among the most important issues for PDEs. 1. By the passing of the CJ detonation wave through the gas. . Vol. the gas is accelerated in the same direction as the wave propagation because the CJ detonation wave is a compression wave. This deceleration is realized in a selfsimilar rarefaction wave following the CJ detonation wave. u 2 . one cycle of PDE operation is examined.4) But in this model. x 3 becomes L at time t = tI . For simplicity. u 3 (= 0). some useful formulas are derived. 44. γ3 (= γ2 ). Calculation was carried out by using a typical parameter set the same as that used in “numerical example” of the text. (d) tI < t < tII . p3 . p3 . 1(b). One end of the tube is closed and the other is open. The gas at the CJ surface of the detonation wave is characterized by ρ2 . as shown in Fig. p1 . The rear boundary of the rarefaction wave also propagates toward the open end. Through this rarefaction wave. Although Bussing and Pappas1) already showed an analytical treatment for performance estimations on PDEs. the gas between the CJ detonation wave and the closed end is decelerated. all gas in the tube is characterized by ρ3 . In this model. p2 . Based on the analysis. The front boundary of this rarefaction wave propagates at sonic speed a3 . The exhaust of the burned gas lasts until time t = tIII . 1(a). Initially. gases are treated as polytropic gases. as shown in Fig. u 1 (= 0). At time t = 0. at t = 0. γ3 (= γ2 ).

an estimation L 2L tI = = D3 DCJ is adopted for simplicity. Analysis First. Tcyc is the period of the cyclic PDE operation. tII is given by tII = 2L 4L + tI = . The period tIII ≤ t ≤ Tcyc is named the ﬁlling phase. γ2 . ρex = pex = ρ1 .5) ρ2 = γ2 + 1 ρ1 . pex . DCJ DCJ L 2L = . x3 = 1 x2 .3) γ1 + 1 ρ1 . the position of the CJ surface is written by x 2 = D2 t = DCJ t. γ1 γ2 2γ2 γ2 −1 (γ2 + 1) 1 DCJ γ2 + 1 u ex = aex = .6) ρ= p= 1 γ2 − 1 x + γ2 γ2 x 2 1 γ2 − 1 x + γ2 γ2 x 2 2 γ2 −1 The state of the gas inside the rarefaction wave is written by the relation for the self-similar rarefaction wave as follows. u 2 = a2 = γ2 γ2 + 1 D2 = DCJ = 2(γ2 2 − 1)q. u 3 (= 0). the quantities on the CJ surface ρ2 . u 2 . ≤ 1 a . 2 1 DCJ . 2002 T. pN = γ1 + 1 Second. and the recharging of the tube is completed at time t = Tcyc . Therefore the state of the gas at the front boundary is given by ρ2 .6) ρ = 1+ p = 1+ u = u ex − a = aex + γ2 − 1 L − x DCJ t − tI γ2 − 1 L − x DCJ t − tI 2 γ2 −1 ρex . The state of the ﬂow inside the rarefaction wave is written by the relation for the self-similar rarefaction wave as follows. In the combustion phase 0 ≤ t ≤ tI . Third. they are written by the Hugoniot relation as follows. γ2 + 1 t − tI γ2 + 1 γ2 γ2 −1 γ2 +1 u = u2 − x 2 x2 − x = −a + γ2 + 1 t t γ2 − 1 x 2 − x a = a2 − . MCJ 2 p1 . γ2 + 1 t − tI t − tI γ2 − 1 L − x . 1(g). The period tI ≤ t ≤ tIII is named the exhaust phase. 2γ2 γ2 −1 ρ2 . the ﬂow velocity is zero: u 3 = 0. γ3 (= γ2 ).Feb. p2 . the tube is recharged with a fresh detonable mixture. E NDO and T. ρN and pN are written as follows. Therefore the time required for the propagation of the rarefaction wave from the open end to the closed one is estimated by tII − tI = Therefore. p2 . ρN = γ1 − 1 2γ1 MCJ 2 p1 . shown in Fig. The front boundary of the rarefaction wave propagates with sonic speed a3 in the −x direction. p3 . Since thickness of the CJ detonation wave is generally negligible compared with tube length. γ2 + 1 2γ2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 Although these solutions are not exactly valid after the time when the detonation wave exits the open end of the tube. MCJ 2 p1 . When the heat released in the chemical reaction per unit mass q is much larger than the internal thermal energy per unit mass of the unburned gas cv1 T1 . Namely. This wave is a self-similar rarefaction wave whose front boundary coincides with the CJ surface. γ2 γ1 MCJ 2 p1 . D2 . γ2 where 2γ2 γ2 −1 2 L−x L−x =a− (≤ a). After time t = tIII . p2 . p2 = γ2 + 1 Therefore the state of the gas at the rear boundary of the rarefaction wave is given as follows. all gas in the tube is considered to be characterized by ρ3 . And at time t = tI . the rarefaction wave following the CJ detonation wave is examined. On the von Neumann spike. 1(f). At time t = tI . 2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 D3 = a 3 = γ2 + 1 ρ3 = 2 2γ2 γ1 p3 = 2γ2 ρ1 . D2 are examined. u 2 . F UJIWARA: A Simple Analysis on PDEs 219 shown in Fig. another rarefaction wave is created and starts to propagate through the tube from the open end to the closed one. 3. γ2 + 1 t At the rear boundary of the rarefaction wave. the pressure acting on the thrust wall pw (t) is given by p3 . a3 DCJ 1 1 DCJ . the exhaust phase is examined.

The period of the cyclic PDE operation Tcyc is written as γ2 +1 γ2 + 1 γ2 −1 2L Tcyc = tIII + τf = 1 + + τf 2 DCJ > 1 + γ2 + 1 2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 1 = 2γ2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 ρ1 DCJ L . Icyc = 0 Tcyc pw (t)dt tIII tII γ2 γ2 −1 +1 = 0 tII p3 dt + γ2 + 1 2γ2 p3 1 − 3 + 2L . And thus the frequency of the cyclic PDE operation f cyc is written as f cyc = 1 = Tcyc 1 + 1 γ2 + 1 2 1 γ2 + 1 2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 L L DCJ 2 ∝ p1 ∝ ρ1 DCJ L . γ2 +1 γ2 +1 Fig. therefore dependency of the impulse is Icyc ∝ DCJ a1 2 p1 where τf > 0 was used. therefore the pressure acting on the thrust wall pw (t) remains p3 . and the duration for which this wall is pushed by the thermodynamic gas pressure is proportional to L/DCJ . the time-averaged thrust density pav is written as follows. Ru T1 Furthermore. the total mass of the gas per unit area in the tube is ρ3 L. Japan Soc. DCJ DCJ p1 ρ1 Ru T1 . On the assumption of temporally linear decay of the thrust during tII ≤ t ≤ tIII . the pressure acting on the thrust wall is proportional to (DCJ /a1 )2 p1 . Icyc is written as follows. Calculation was carried out by using a typical parameter set the same as that used in “numerical example” of the text. tII ≤ t ≤ tIII ) = p3 1 − where tIII = 1 + γ2 + 1 2 t − tII tIII − tII . DCJ t − tII tIII − tII γ2 + 1 2 dt γ2 +1 γ2 −1 Here the ﬁlling phase and some important quantities are discussed. the impulse density acting on the thrust wall per one-cycle operation Icyc is written as follows. 2 ρex u ex DCJ 2 a3 2 γ2 −1 During tI ≤ t ≤ tII in this phase. Since the thrust density as a function of time in this simpliﬁed model is summarized as p3 (0 ≤ t ≤ tII ) t − tII pw (t) = p3 1 − (tII ≤ t ≤ tIII ) . p1 = ρ2 2L + τf DCJ 2L DCJ . At time t = tI when the exhausting rarefaction wave starts to propagate. µ1 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 When the equation of state for an ideal gas. Vol. 2. which is shown in Fig. a1 2 = γ1 p1 /ρ1 was used.220 Trans. When ρex u ex is considered to be the characteristic mass exhaust rate per unit area. the mass exhaust rate per unit area is given by ρex u ex = 2 γ2 −1 (γ2 + 1) γ2 −1 γ2 +1 2 ρ3 DCJ = 2 γ2 + 1 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 ρ3 a3 . 2L . the front boundary of the exhausting rarefaction wave does not reach the closed end. Aero. 2. Pressure acting on the thrust wall as a function of time. Qualitatively. DCJ In this solution. pw (t) is written as pw (t. < 1 + is used. Using these solutions. 44. the period of the exhaust phase is estimated as γ2 + 1 γ2 −1 L ρ3 L (γ2 + 1) γ2 −1 L tIII − tI = = = . tIII − tII 0 (tIII ≤ t ≤ Tcyc ) . No. Space Sci. γ2 +1 γ2 + 1 γ2 −1 γ2 + 1 1 3+ Icyc = 2γ2 2γ2 2 p1 µ1 DCJ L . 146 stand for the state of the gas at the open end during tI ≤ t ≤ tII .

Ru T1 Tcyc ≈ 8.0 p1 ≈ 5. The duration of ﬁlling phase τf can be estimated by f / Vf . This is to be expected because the ﬁlling phase is a dead phase of a PDE operation cycle. Therefore the detonable-mixture injection in the radial direction rather than the axial direction may be effective in shortening the duration of the ﬁlling phase. the following values are obtained. 12 ρ2 = ρ1 7 p2 ≈ MCJ 1.25 kg/m3 pN ≈ 29 p1 ≈ 29 × 105 Pa ρ3 ≈ 0.0 DCJ a3 +1 2L + τf DCJ γ2 +1 γ2 −1 tII = 4 tIII ≈ 8. 2002 T. following formulas are obtained. γ +1 γ +1 1 2γ2 pav = γ2 + 1 2γ2 1 + γ2 + 1 2 2 γ2 −1 5 DCJ 12 ≈ 0.0 DCJ DCJ 0. In this case. Generally in PDEs. we use DCJ = 2000 m/s. Numerical Example We show a numerical example by using a typical parameter set.69 kg/m3 p3 ≈ 5. p1 u ex = aex = ρex u ex tI = 2 When the equation of state for an ideal gas is used.33ρ3 a3 3 + γ2 + 1 2 γ2 γ2 −1 2 γ2 −1 p1 µ1 DCJ L Ru T1 L DCJ L DCJ L DCJ L L ≈ 3. F UJIWARA: A Simple Analysis on PDEs 221 2 pav = Icyc Tcyc 1 2γ2 γ2 + 1 2γ2 1 + γ2 +1 γ2 −1 pN ≈ 3 + γ2 + 1 2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 ρ1 DCJ L MCJ 0.93 p1 ρ3 ≈ 0.11ρ1 DCJ 2 .85ρ1 DCJ L < 0.0 + τf DCJ Icyc ≈ 0. tube diameter is much shorter than tube length.0 DCJ DCJ The shorter the duration of ﬁlling phase τf . E NDO and T. In this case. L 8.85ρ1 DCJ L pav ≈ Furthermore. 4.875 kg/m3 . it is written as follows.Feb. a1 = 400 m/s.32ρ1 pex ≈ MCJ 4.3 2 = 2L + τf DCJ γ2 +1 γ2 −1 MCJ 2.0 f cyc ≈ 1+ γ2 +1 γ2 −1 L L + τf > 8.0 × 105 Pa p1 5 5 DCJ u 2 = a2 = 7 12 ρN = 6ρ1 . p1 = 105 Pa.0 + τf 8. the larger the time-averaged thrust density pav . and L = 2 m as a typical parameter set.79ρ1 p3 ≈ u3 = 0 a3 = D3 = 1 DCJ 2 ρex ≈ 0. ρ2 = 1.2 2 p1 γ2 + 1 2 1 < 4γ2 γ2 + 1 2γ2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 3+ γ2 + 1 2 γ2 + 1 2 1+ γ2 +1 γ2 −1 ρ1 DCJ 2 . First we use γ1 = γ2 = 7/5.0 < 1 4γ2 γ2 + 1 2γ2 γ2 +1 γ2 −1 3+ γ2 + 1 2 γ2 + 1 2 tIII − tI ≈ 6.0 p1 µ1 DCJ 2 .5 kg/m3 p2 ≈ 15 p1 ≈ 15 × 105 Pa u 2 ≈ 830 m/s a2 ≈ 1200 m/s ρN = 5. which corresponds to ρ1 = γ1 p1 /a1 2 = 0.3 2 1 1 < L L 8.17ρ3 DCJ ≈ 0.

. S. 359–389. Aero. with some simpliﬁcations. T.0 [ms] + τf > 8. a detonation wave was ignited at the closed end. 2nd ed. 1987. 10. 2) Kailasanath. Ch. the treatment of the exhaust phase in this paper is invalid. Butterworth-Heinemann. I.7 × 105 Pa. Miyasaka and Mr. Butterworth-Heinemann. E.0 + τf [ms] If pex is less than pressure outside the tube.222 Trans. L is the length of the tube.11ρ1 DCJ 2 for the speciﬁc-heat ratio of 7/5. therefore the above estimation of the exhaust phase is valid.4 × 105 Pa u ex = aex ≈ 830 m/s ρex u ex ≈ 230 kg/(m2 ·s) tI = 2. Initial pressure p1 is generally not less than pressure outside the tube. 146 u3 = 0 a3 = D3 = 1000 m/s ρex ≈ 0.0L/DCJ ) + τf ] < 0. D. and Lifshitz. Energy Combust. 14.0 ms tII = 4. J. 5) Landau. T.: Review of Propulsion Applications of Detonation Waves. E. 1994. Ch. and pex was estimated to be pex ≈ 1. L.: Fluid Mechanics. 1987. L.: The Mechanism of Transition from Deﬂagration to Detonation in Vapor Cloud Explosions. 1987. ρ1 and DCJ are. K. Oxford. . 9. L. H. Prog.. pp. and Moen. Butterworth-Heinemann. K. AIAA J. No. using the Hugoniot relation for the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation wave and ﬂow relations for self-similar rarefaction waves. AIAA Paper 94-0263. 4) Lee. Ch. 1698–1708. 2nd ed. Japan Soc. respectively.85ρ1 DCJ L)/[(8.0 ms Tcyc ≈ 8.0 ms tIII ≈ 8. Oxford.: An Introduction to Pulse Detonation Engines. pav ≈ 8.: Fluid Mechanics. E.4 p1 ≈ 1. G. We calculated pressure acting on the closed end.. 6) Landau. 2nd ed. and Lifshitz. and τf is the time required to ﬁll the tube with a fresh detonable mixture. Sci.0 [ms] + τf was modeled as a straight tube. A PDE References 1) Bussing. D. M. Conclusions We analytically obtained simple formulas for the performance of pulse detonation engines (PDEs). M. pp. Vol. the mass density and CJ detonation speed of the detonable mixture. O.28 kg/m3 pex ≈ 1. Space Sci.4 p1 in this example. Acknowledgment The authors sincerely acknowledge valuable discussions with Dr. One end was closed and the other was open. 6 (1980).0 ms f cyc ≈ 1 < 130 Hz 8. where pav is the time-averaged thrust density. M. D. and Lifshitz.. Murakami. 38 (2000). 3) Landau.. 44. and Pappas. 5. The most important formula obtained in this paper is pav ≈ (0. Icyc ≈ 3000 (N·s)/m2 30 × 105 Pa < 3.: Fluid Mechanics. Oxford.

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