This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
If the first sound is a consonant you have to use a. banana a sandwich toffee If the first sound is a vowel you have to use an. orange an apple ice - cream
A – AN – SOME Singular: a or an a banana a cat a monkey A football an ice – cream a door An umbrella a window an eagle
an apple an egg an orange Plural: some some bananas some doors Use some for things you can't count some milk
some monkeys some apples
some oranges some umbrellas
some eggs some eagles
ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB THE DIFFERENCE An adjective tells us more about a noun. Example: an expensive car, a clever girl An adverb tells us more about a verb. Example: He talked nervously. THE ADVERB HOW TO FORM Adjective + ly sad nervous sadly nervously quiet soft quietly softly
Adjectives ending in -y »»» ily happily angry angrily Adjectives ending in le »»» ly terribly capable capably
Adjectives ending in ly in a friendly way / friendly daily daily manner lively in a lively way / manner early early in a lonely way / lonely monthly monthly manner lovely in a lovely way / manner weekly weekly silly in a silly way / manner yearly yearly Irregular forms good well low low fast fast straight straight hard hard extra extra long long doubtless doubtless Double forms hardly nearly lately
hard near late
hard near late
HOW TO USE THE ADVERB Verb + adverb The adverb describes a verb. Example: He drove carefully. verb adverb She sold her house quickly verb adverb Adjective + adverb The adverb describes an adjective. Example: Her necklace was horribly expensive. adverb adjective She was terribly sorry. adverb adjective Adverb + adverb The adverb describes an adverb. Example: They played terribly badly. adverb adverb He did his absolutely correctly. homework adverb adverb No adverb with the following verbs
forms of to be: seem look
am, is, are, was, were, will be, have been, had been get feel turn taste grow become sound smell
ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION nice / kind / good / stupid / silly / intelligent / clever / sensible (1) / (im)polite / rude (2) / unreasonable (3) OF someone (to do something): Thank you it was very nice / kind of you to help me. It's stupid of her to go out without a coat.
nice / kind / good / (im)polite / rude / (un)pleasant (4) / (un)friendly / cruel TO someone: She has always been very nice / kind to me. Why are you so rude / unfriendly to Ann? angry / furious (5) ABOUT something // WITH someone FOR something: Why are you so angry about it? They were furious with me for not inviting them to my party. pleased (6) / disappointed (7) / satisfied (8) WITH something: I was pleased with the present you gave me. Were you disappointed with your examination results? bored / fed up (9) WITH something: You get bored / fed up with doing the same thing every day. surprised (10) / shocked / amazed (11) / astonished (12) AT / BY something: Everyone was surprised by /at the news. exited / worried / upset (13) ABOUT something: Are you exited about going on holiday next week?
afraid / scared (14) / frightened / terrified OF someone / something Are you afraid of dogs? proud / ashamed (15) OF someone / something: I'm not ashamed of what I did.
good / bad / excellent / brilliant / hopeless (16) AT (doing) something: I'm not very good at repairing things. married TO someone Linda is married to an American. sorry ABOUT something: I'm sorry about the noise last night. sorry FOR doing something I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday. be / feel sorry FOR someone I feel sorry for George. famous FOR something: Florence is famous for its art treasures. responsible (17) FOR something: Who was responsible for this noise last night? interested IN something: Are you interested in art? fond (18) OF something / someone: Mary is fond of animals. full OF something: The letter was full of mistakes. short OF (19) something: I'm a bit short of money. keen ON (20) something: We stayed at home because Mary wasn't very keen on going out in the rain. similar TO (21) something:
Your writing is similar to mine. crowded WITH (22) (people,...) The city was crowded with tourists. AM - IS - ARE Long form I am You are He is She is It is Short form I'm You're He's She's It's Example I am late. You are clever. He is happy. She is hungry. It is cold. Negation I am not late. You are not (aren't) clever. He is not (isn't) happy. She is not (isn't) hungry. It is not (isn't) cold. Question Am I late? Are you clever? Is he happy? Is she hungry? Is it cold?
We are You are They are
We're You're They're
We are late. You are sleepy. They are great.
We are not (aren't) late. You are not (aren't) sleepy. They are not (aren't) great
Are we late? Are you sleepy? Are they great?
ASKING QUESTIONS Who - asking for a person and animal: subject: no do, does, did Jane opened the door. Who opened the door? Tom helped in the garden. Who helped in the garden? Who - asking for a person and animal: object: do, does, did They greet their teacher. Who do they greet? He asked Mary about the burglary. Who did they ask about the burglary? What - asking for a thing: subject: no do, does, did His ankle hurt. What hurts? The flower pot fell on the floor. What fell on the floor? What - asking for a thing: object: do, does, did She usually wears jeans. What does she usually wear? They built a castle in the sand. What did they build in the sand? Whose - asking for the 2nd case This is Peter’s pencil. Carol’s father was a drummer. When - asking for the time I saw her yesterday. They came home at midnight.
Whose pencil is this? Whose father was a drummer?
When did you see her? When did they come home?
Where - asking for the place He flew to Manchester. He lives in a big house. Why - asking for a reason He stayed at home because he was ill. They like him because he is always friendly. How - asking for the manner He drove fast. My holidays were great. How long - asking for a period of time They stayed there for a week. He lived in London for a year. How many - asking for an exact amount In this factory work 500 people. 50 kids were at his party.
Where did he fly? Where does he live?
Why did he stay at home? Why do they like him?
How did he drive? How were your holidays?
How long did they stay there? How long did he live in London?
How many people work in this factory? How many kids were at his party?
How much - asking for not exact amount He gets 10 pounds pocket money a month. How much pocket money does he get a month? She bought three bottles of wine. How much wine did she buy? How often - asking for frequency They play tennis twice a week. She meets him every Friday.
How often do they play tennis? How often does she meet him?
THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Monosyllabic adjectives are compared with -er, -est. positive comperative strong small late nice big thin fat stronger smaller later nicer bigger thinner fatter
superlative strongest smallest latest nicest biggest thinnest fattest
London is bigger than Vienna. Disyllabic adjectives ending with y, er, ow, le are compared with -er, -est. positive comperative superlative easy easier easiest
happy clever narrow What is the easiest exercise?
happier cleverer narrower
happiest cleverest narrowest
All the other adjectives are compared with more, most. positive comperative careful expensive Difficult tired Terrible Which dress is more expensive? more careful more expensive more difficult more tired more terrible
superlative most careful most expensive most difficult most tired most terrible
Which dress is the most expensive?
Irregular forms positive good bad much Many little
comperative better worse more more less
superlative best worst most most least
(not) as ... as Ann is as tall as Mary. I think tomorrow it will be as hot as today. This test was not as difficult as the last one. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES General statements and facts If there is a problem PRESENT TENSE I can always talk to Carol. PRESENT TENSE
It's possible that . . . (talking about the future) - Conditional I Colin is an intelligent boy. It is April 15th. The exam is on April 23rd. He has enough time to learn for the exam - he can pass it. If he studies he will pass the exam on April 23rd. PRESENT TENSE WILL FUTURE It's possible but not very probable . . . (talking about a future situation) Conditional II
Colin didn't learn. He played football. It' April 22nd. Tomorrow is the exam. It is possible but not very probable that he will pass the exam. If he studied he would pass the exam. CONDITIONAL PRESENT (would + base PAST TENSE form) It didn't happen and it is impossible now . . . (talking about a past situation) Conditional III It's April 23rd. Colin didn't pass the exam. If he had learned he would have passed the exam. CONDITIONAL PERFECT (would + have PAST PERFECT + 3rd form) Conditional clauses express : General statements, actions that are certainly happening and facts If I have a problem she always helps me. It's possible If he comes I will be happy. It's not probable If he came I would be happy. It's unpossible If he had come I would have been happy. CONJUNCTIONS TIME when, until, till, after, before, since, while, at first, but then Janet was in her room when her mother called. He waited until she came. After Peter had gone to bed he read a book. PLACE where He didn't know where he had put his purse. REASON because, so, therefore / that's why He couldn't help them because he had no time. She was ill and so she couldn't go to the party. CONTRAST but
This city is nice to visit but I wouldn't like to live there.
who (persons), which (things), that
This is the man who won the race. Is this the car which he bought last summer. FUTURE TENSE The will - future is used: 1. to talk about future actions we can't influence or control. 2. to fortell future actions or to express hopes, expectations, fears, offers, promises, refusals,... . Key words: I’m sure, I believe, I expect, I hope, I suppose, I think, I'm afraid, I wonder, I fear, I worry, I promise, I guess or perhaps, possibly, surely, probably, maybe with I / we for spontaneous reactions or making promises I shall is sometimes used instead of I will.
The going to - futur is used: 1. to talk about future things you intend to do, plan, oder decided to do Did you know that Sarah is in hospital? No, I didn’t. I’ll visit her this afternoon. (spontaneous reaction »»» will - future) Yes, I’m going to visit her next month. (planned action »»» going to - future) 2. to fortell future actions for which we have proofs that they are going to happen. The present progressive is used: to talk about future things that are fixed, planned or definitely decided The speaker must refer to the future and not to the present. I am visiting my grandparents tomorrow. What are you doing next Friday? The present simple is used: to talk about times of arrivals and departures of traffic and times of events. The train leaves at 10.20. The bus goes at 8.30. When does the concert begin? THE MODAL VERBS CAN - MAY - MUST NO -s after he, she, it NO do, does in questions He can speak English. She may go there. It must sleep now. Can you come? Sorry, I cannot. May he come to your party? No, he must not.
She can not come at 10.
Note: As modal verbs don’t have a past form (except can) and a past participle (3rd form) you can only use them with the present tense. can must may → → → to be able to have to to be allowed to
Present tense I He, she, it You, we, they am able to drive. is able to drive. are able to drive.
CAN – TO BE ABLE TO I can drive. = I am able to drive. Past tense Present perfect was able to drive. was able to drive. have been able to drive. has been able to drive.
Will - future will be able to drive. will be able to drive. will be able to drive.
were able to drive. have been able to drive. MUST – HAVE TO I must learn. = I have to learn. Past tense Present perfect had to learn. had to learn. have had to learn. has had to learn.
Present tense I, you, we, they He, she, it have to learn. has to learn.
Will – future will have to learn. will have to learn.
MAY – BE ALLOWED TO I may go out – I am allowed to go out Present tense Past tense Present perfect I he, she, it you, we, they am allowed to go was allowed to out. go out. is allowed to go out. was allowed to go out. have been allowed to go out.
Will – future will be allowed to go out.
has been allowed to will be allowed to go out. go out. have been allowed to go out. will be allowed to go out.
are allowed to go were allowed to out. go out. NOTE: I may
I must not I must I need not
MODAL VERBS 2 can to be able to may to be allowed to must should need cannot to be not able to may not to be not allowed to need not should not must not We can speak English. They were able to run faster. On this road wild animals may cross. She wasn't allowed to go to the party In this park you must keep off the lawn. The road is dangerous. You should drive carefully. Children only need to pay half the price.
THE PASSIVE How the passive is formed: FORM OF TO BE + 3rd FORM is cleaned are sold are invited
SUBJECT The room They A lot of guests
ADVERB, ... every day. as pets. to a party.
Put an active sentence into a passive one: Subject Verb Object Active: Bats eat insects.
Insects Subject Subject
are eaten Verb Verb saw
by by Object the burglers
The burglers Subject
were seen Verb
Subject of the active sentence → Agent of the passive sentence Object of the active sentence → Subject of the passive sentence Tenses: Tense Active Passive (form of to be + 3rd form)
Present tense Past tense Future tense Present perfect tense Past perfect tense
invite / see invited / saw will invite / see have / has invited / seen had invited / seen
am / is / are invited / seen was / were invited / seen will be invited / seen have / has been invited / seen had been invited / seen
PAST PERFECT If you tell a story it's sometimes necessary to tell about actions that had happened before the past tense. To express the time when these actions happened you have to use the past perfect. How to form: had (not) + 3rd form Key words: after, before Examples: She needed help because someone had stolen her car. He passed the test because he had studied a lot. After she had done her homework she visited me. When I came home they had already eaten. They had sold everything before they moved to Glasgow. I R R E G U L A R Infinitive (1st form) (to) be am is are beat become begin blow break bring build burn buy catch choose come V E R B S L I S T Past participle (3rd form) been been been beaten become begun blown broken brought built burned/burnt bought caught chosen come
Past simple (2nd form) (I)was, (you) were was were beat became began blew broke brought built burned/burnt bought caught chose came
cost cut dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lead
cost cut dug did drew dreamt/dreamed drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew led
cost cut dug done drawn dreamt/dreamed drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known led
learn leave lend let lie lose make mean meet misunderstand overtake pay put quit read ride ring rise run say see sell send set shake shine shoot show shut sing sink sit
learnt (learned) left lent let lay lost made meant met misunderstood overtook paid put quit read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang sank sat
learnt (learned) left lent let lain lost made meant met misunderstood overtaken paid put quit read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat
sleep smell speak spell spend split spoil spread stand steal swim take (away) teach tell think throw understand upset wake up wear win write
slept smelt spoke spelt spent split spoilt spread stood stole swam took taught told thought threw understood upset woke up wore won wrote PAST PROGRESSIVE
slept smelt spoken spelt spent split spoilt spread stood stolen swum taken taught told thought thrown understood upset woken up worn won written
How to use: 1. 2. 3.
I, he, she, it
was (not) + ing-form
was (not) working
you, we, they were (not) + ing-form were (not) working shows that an action in the past lasted a long time. If an action happened while another action took place. We use the past simple for the short action and the past progressive for the long action. Two past actions happen at the same time. Key words: while, when Examples: What were they doing yesterday?
While I was repairing my bike He was watching TV PAST PROGRESSIVE long action When Tom was cooking PAST PROGRESSIVE long action Regular verbs
she was watering the flowers. while she was reading a book. PAST PROGRESSIVE long action he burnt his hand. PAST SIMPLE short action THE PAST TENSE
How to form: Infinitive (=1st form) + ed = 2nd form Examples: walk + ed laugh + ed want + ed Note: cry carry love hope stop walked laughed wanted cried carried loved hoped stopped
drop dropped Key words: yesterday, last week (month, Monday, October,...), in 1984, ago Negation: didn't (= did not) + 1st form He didn't go to her last party. They didn't like his story. BUT: was not (wasn't), were not (weren't), could not (couldn't) Question: did + 1st form Did he go to her last party? Did they like his story? BUT: Was he angry? Were they late? Could they swim? Irregular verbs Examples: 1st form am, is are get go 2nd form was were got went 1st form see do take have 2nd form saw did took had
PERSONAL PRONOUNS SUBJECT I you he she it we you they
PERSONAL PRONOUNS OBJECT me you him her it us you them THE PLURAL
Singular + s parrot – parrots apple – apples girl – girs
Words ending with y if a consonant is written before. -----> ies lolly – lollies But: boy – boys story – stories toy - toys strawberry – strawberies bay - bays
Words ending with ch, x, s, sh, o -----> es class – classes brush – brushes box – boxes
Some words ending with f, fe, lf -----> ves knife – knives wolf – wolves But: chiefs, safes, cliffs, handkerchiefs Irregular forms man - men goose - geese foot - feet woman - women ox - oxen mouse - mice tooth - teeth louse - lice child - children life – lives
POSSESSIVE CASE That's the way to express that someone owns something. With persons and animals Singular: 's This is Tom's bike. This is Kathy's mother. With things of The colour of the table is black. The second chapter of this book. Plural: s' This is the boys' bikes. This is the girls' mum.
PRONOUNS PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS I you he she it we you they my your his her its our your their THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS a) With a noun b) Without a noun
This is my house. Is this your bike? This is his book. Her pullover is green. Here is its ball. We like our dog. Is this your car? This is their telephone.
No, it's mine. No, it's yours. Yes, it's his. No, hers is brown. Yes, it's its. This dog is ours. Yes, it's yours. No, it isn't theirs.
PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE 1 ) AT - IN – ON General Information: AT We use at for a point: at the window - at the entrance - at the door at the end of the street - at the station - at the top Bill is waiting for you at the bus stop. IN We use in for an enclosed space: in the garden - in the house - in London - in the water in her bag - in a row - in a town There is nobody in the room. She lives in a small village. Special Information: AT 1. We say that someone is at an event: at a party - at a pop concert - at a conference - at a meeting Tom is at a party. 3. We say at someone's house: We were at Bill's house last Thursday. ON 1. We use on with small islands: She spent her holiday on a small island. 2. We say that a place is on the coast / on a river / on a road: London is on the river Thames. Portsmouth is on the south coast of England. 2. We say at with buildings when we say where the event (film, concert,...) takes place: Where where you yesterday? At the cinema. The meeting took place at the headquarters. 4. We say at for a place which is a part of our jouney: We stopped at a very nice village. Does the train stopp at Nashville? ON We use on for a surface: on the wall - on the ceiling - on the floor - on a page on a cover Have you seen the notice on the notice board?
IN 1. We say in when we talk about a building itself. The rooms of Tom's house are small. 2. We usually say in with towns and villages: His parents live in York.
Note these expressions: AT at home - at work - at school - at university - at college - at the station - at an airport - at the seaside - at sea (on a voyage) - at reception - at the corner of a street - at the back / front of a building / cinema / group of people, etc. - arrive at with other places or events IN in the newspaper - in bed - in hospital - in prison - in the street - in the sky - in an armchair (sit) - in a photograph - in a picture - in a mirror - in the corner of a room - in the back / front of a car - arrive in a country or town ON on a farm - on the left - on the right - on the ground floor - on the first, second,... floor - on the way - on the chair (sit) - on the radio - on television - on a horse - on the corner of a street - on the back / front of a letter / piece of paper etc.
2) TO - INTO - BY TO We say go / come / travel / fly / walk / return / drive / have been etc. to a place or event: Last year we flew to London. We went to work at seven. BY We say by to say how we travel: We went to Paris by plane. I usually go to work by bike / by car / by underground / by bus BUT: we say on foot we cannot use by if you say my car / the train / a taxi Then use in for taxis and cars. Then use on for bike / public transport. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AT We use at with times: at 5 o’clock - at 11.45 - at midnight - at lunchtime Tom usually gets up at 7 o’clock. We use at in these expressions: at night - at Christmas - at the moment / at present at the same time - at weekends - at the age of... ON We use on with dates and days: on 12 March - on Friday(s) - on Friday morning(s) on Sunday afternoon(s) - on Saturday night(s) on Christmas Day (but at Christmas) INTO We say go into / come into etc. = enter a room / building etc.: He opened the door and went into the room.
DURING We use during + noun to say when something We use in for longer periods of time: happens: in April - in 1986 - in winter - in the 19th century - in during the film - during our holiday - during the the 1970s - in the morning(s) / in the afternoon(s) / in night the evening(s) In + period of time = a time in the future: Jack will be back in a week. The train will leave in a few minutes. In + how long it takes to do something: I learned to drive in four weeks. FOR We use for + a period of time: for six years - for two hours - for a week I’ve lived in this house for six years. They have been watching TV for two hours. UNTIL We use until/till to say how long a situation continues: Let’s wait until it stops raining. I stayed in bed until half past nine. SINCE We use since + a period of time: since April - since 1992 - since 8 o’ clock It has been raining since one o’ clock. They’ve known each other since they were at school. FROM - TO We use from - to + beginning and end of a period: Last evening we watched TV from 5 to 8 o’ clock. I fell asleep during the film. We met a lot of interesting people during our holiday.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE How to form: I, you, we, they have (not) + 3rd form
he, she, it has (not) + 3rd form is used, if an action happened in the past and there is a connection to the present. There's no exact time expressed when the action happened. Key words: already, just, yet, ever, never, for, since, so far, up to now, not yet, lately PAST Nick has gone on holiday. Have you ever been to Italy? He has already met Sue. He has just eaten something bad. result connection with the present connection with the present connection with the present PRESENT He is not in the office. Do you know Italy? No, I have never been there. He likes her. He feels bad now.
He has been in Spain for ten days. He has been in Spain since Friday.
connection with the present connection with the present
He is still there. He is still there.
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE How to form: I, you, we, they he, she, it have (not) + been + ing form Has (not) + been + ing form I have been waiting she has been working
Is used when a long action has started in the past and has just ended or is still happening. We express how long the action happened. The verbs have to express an action which can be happen a long time. Key words: all day, how long, for, since Examples: I have been working all day. She has been watching TV since 7.30. Nick has been lying in bed for two days.- He is still in bed or has just got up. She has been working since 4 o'clock. She is still working or she has just stopped working. How long have they been playing? PRESENT PROGRESSIVE How to form: I he, she, it you, we, they am + verb + ing is + verb + ing are + verb + ing I am playing. The bird is singing. We are dancing.
Shows an action which is happening when you are talking. Key words: look, listen, now, at the moment, still, at present Note: take make run sit lie Examples: taking making running sitting lying
Look, Ann is running down the street. She is sleeping now. Listen, I'm talking to you!
PRESENT TENSE That's the way to express habits, facts, thoughts and feelings. It is used with general statements and actions that happen sometimes, always, usually,... Key words: often, always, never, every day, month..., usually, sometimes, generally, normally, rarely, seldom, whenever, on Mondays, Tuesdays,... NEGATION (VERNEINUNG) I, YOU + PLURAL DON’T + VERB NEGATION: TO BE, CAN, MUST VERB + NOT
They go to school. I like oranges. We hate peppermint. You have a cold. Monkeys (= They) eat bananas. Bob and I (= We) go shopping. Jim and Carol (=They) sing a song. HE, SHE, IT + S He wants an ice-cream. She likes hot dogs. It drinks milk. The dog (= It) hates cats. Ann (= She) hates chewing gums. Bob (= He) speaks English.
They don’t go to school. I don’t like oranges. We don’t hate peppermint. You don’t have a cold. Monkeys don’t eat snakes. Bob and I don’t go shopping. Jim and Carol don’t sing a song. DOESN’T + VERB He doesn’t want an ice cream. She doesn’t like hot dogs. It doesn’t drink milk. The dog doesn’t hate cats. Ann doesn’t hate chewing gum. Bob doesn’t speak German.
They are not (aren't) at home. We are not (isn't) at school. I am not (I'm not) hungry. We can not (cannot) swim. I must not go out.
VERB + NOT She is not (isn't) at school. It is not (isn't) hungry. He can not (can't) sing.
NOTE - es after - s / - ch / - sh Examples: passes - watches - finishes - ies after - y Examples: study - studies / carry - carries also: do - does / go - goes / have - has ASKING QUESTIONS Who - asking for a person and animal: subject: no do, does, did Jane opened the door. Who opened the door? Tom helped in the garden. Who helped in the garden? Who - asking for a person and animal: object: do, does, did They greet their teacher. Who do they greet? He asked Mary about the burglary. Who did they ask about the burglary? What - asking for a thing: subject: no do, does, did His ankle hurt. What hurts? The flower pot fell on the floor. What fell on the floor? What - asking for a thing: object: do, does, did She usually wears jeans. What does she usually wear? They built a castle in the sand. What did they build in the sand? Whose - asking for the 2nd case This is Peter’s pencil. Carol’s father was a drummer. When - asking for the time
Whose pencil is this? Whose father was a drummer?
I saw her yesterday. They came home at midnight. Where - asking for the place He flew to Manchester. He lives in a big house. Why - asking for a reason (Grund) He stayed at home because he was ill. They like him because he is always friendly.
When did you see her? When did they come home?
Where did he fly? Where does he live?
Why did he stay at home? Why do they like him?
How - asking for the manner (Art und Weise) He drove fast. How did he drive? My holidays were great. How were your holidays? How long - asking for a period of time (Zeitdauer) They stayed there for a week. How long did they stay there? He lived in London for a year. How long did he live in London? How many - asking for an exact amount (genaue Mengenangabe) In this factory work 500 people. How many people work in this factory? 50 kids were at his party. How many kids were at his party? How much - asking for not exact amount ( nicht genaue Mengenangabe) He gets 10 pounds pocket money a month. How much pocket money does he get a month? She bought three bottles of wine. How much wine did she buy? How often - asking for frequency (Häufigkeit) They play tennis twice a week. How often do they play tennis? She meets him every Friday. How often does she meet him? QUESTIONS WORDS WHAT - was WHEN - wann, als WHERE - wo, wohin WHY - warum WHO - wer WHOSE - wessen WHICH - welche(r)(s) HOW - wie HOW MUCH - wieviel What is your name? When does he come? Where do you live? Why are you late? Who is that girl? Whose pen is it? Which book do you like best? How are you? How much is the dress?
HOW MANY - wieviel
How many computer games have you got? REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
To express that you are doing something on your own. (So drückt man aus dass jemand etwas selbst macht.) I you he she it we you they myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves He killed himself with poison. I can do it myself. We can do it ourselves. REPORTED (= INDIRECT) SPEECH Direct speech Present simple Present progressive Past simple Indirect speech Past simple Past progressive Direct Speech Indirect speech go am/is/are going went was/were going went was/were going
had gone had been going
Past progressive Past perfect progressive Present perfect Past perfect simple Present perfect Past perfect progressive progressive Future Conditional I
has/have gone had gone
has/have been had been going going will go would go
Example: Peter said: "Carol is a nice girl." Peter said (that) Carol was a nice girl. 1. Is the reporting verb in the past form (said, told,...) you have to change the tense. (Steht das reporting verb in der Mitvergangenheit (said, told,...) ändert sich die Zeitform.)
2. When you form the reported speech you have to pay attention that the pronouns refer to the correct person. (Bei der Bildung der reported speech ist darauf zu achten, dass sich die Fürwörter auf die richtige Person beziehen.) Examples: Susan said: "My parents are clever scientists." Susan said (that) her parents were clever scientists. Tom said: "I like PE best." Tom said (that) he liked PE best. They said: "We went swimming with our friends." They said (that) they had gone swimming with their friend. Betty said: "Sam told me the truth." Betty said (that) Sam had told her the truth. Direct speech She said He said They said You and your: They told her / him / me / them / us: "George loves you." They told her / him / me / them / us (that) George loved her / him / me / them / us. They told her / him / me / them / us: "George loves your sister." They told her / him / me / them / us (that) George loved her / his / my / their / our sister. They told her / him / me / them / us: "You are clever." They told her / him / me / them / us (that) she / he / I / they / we was / were clever. 3. Expressions of time and place must also be changed. Direct speech Time now today yesterday tomorrow last week, month,... next week, month,... Place here Indirect speech then that day the day before the next / following day the previous week, month,... the following week, month,... there I - my - me I - my - me they - their - them Indirect speech she - her - her he - his - him we - our - us
Beispiel: She said: "I have already seen Carol today." She said (that) she had already seen Carol that day. SOME (somebody, something) - ANY (anybody, anything) We use some und any with uncountable things. SOME: 1. In sentences you expect a positive answer and demands : I bought some very nice postcards. Give me some orange juice, please. 2. In polite questions or pleading : Would you like some more coffee? Do we have some time to go to the cinema? ANY: 1. In questions: 2. In negations: 3. In conditional clauses TENSES PRESENT SIMPLE 1st form / he, she, it + s // they go , he goes with habits and general statements key words: always, often, usually, every, never, generally, seldom, rarely, hardly ever, sometimes, normally PRESENT PROGRESSIVE am / is / are + verb + ing // I am going to express when something is happening at the moment key words: look, listen, now, at the moment Have you got any blue shoes? No, I haven’t got any. If I had any, I would wear them.
PAST SIMPLE 2nd form // he went, they played used to tell or talk about a past action key words: yesterday, last, ago, in 1970
PAST PROGRESSIVE was / were + ing form // he was going used to tell or talk about a long action in the past key words: while, when
GOING TO FUTURE
will + 1st form ( N.: won't) // he will be, she will go
am / is / are + going to + verb He is going to play tennis tomorrow. used to talk about a future action that is planned key words: tomorrow, next
used to talk about the future key words: tomorrow, next
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE have / has + 3rd form // she has gone
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE have / has + been + ing form // he has been going is used like the simle form but only with long actions
used when a past action started in the past and has just finished or is still happening. key words:already, just, ever, never, yet, for, since
key words: how long, all day, for, since
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE had + 3rd form // she had gone used when a action happened befor another action key words: after, before
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE had been + ing form // he had been going used like the simple form but only with long actions key words: how long, before, after
THE WILL FUTURE will + infinitive (=1st form) They will be late. / He will come. Short form: will = 'll They'll be late. / He'll come. Negation: will not = won't They will not be late / He won't come. Question: Will....? Will they be late? / Will he come? Key words: tomorrow, next week (month, year, summer, Monday, weekend,...), in 2020... Examples: I think I will meet her tomorrow. I hope he will be back before 9.30. I think I'll be there at five. How to form: HOW TO USE WORD ORDER Where do we put an adverb in an English sentence? Yesterday Nick bought a pair of skies In Innsbruck Nick bought a pair of skies He bought a pair of skies
in Innsbruck. yesterday.
He In the morning After dinner he he always usually
practiced has meets lessons a friend
on a ski slope on a ski slope at the bar
Adverb of place, Subject Adverb of Predicate Object time indefinite (verb) time NOTE: If there are two adverbs of time the preciser one is first!! Example: He is going to have a skiing lesson at 10 a.m. on Monday. NOTE: A verb is sometimes two or more words!
Adverb Adverb of Adverb of of place time manner
Then the adverb of indefinite time has to be
verb 2 his name. to the party?
put between them:
verb 1 I Ann adverb can never remember doesn’t usually smoke Are you definitely going Your car has probably been stolen He has never tried skiing NOTE: Adverbs of indefinite time go before have to! Example: We always have to wait a long time for the bus. NOTE: Adverbs of indefinite time go after am, is, are, was, were! Example: You are never on time.
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