This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Submitted by: xyz Course: MBA ID Number: abcd Submitted To: Mr. bbvd Dated: 21/10/2011
PROVIS IONAL TITLE The proposed t it le of t he t hes is is as fo llo ws: ³Promotion of UK Retailer Brands through Direct Marketing: Case Study of TESCO´
Introduction A huge range of phenomena have been detected subsequent to the initiation and
expansion of the private label program in recent retailing worldwide. A great deal of different associations between retailers and manufacturers have been found out by the researchers in the academic domain (e.g. Dawson and Shaw, 1989: Segal-Horne and McGee, 1989; Davies, 1994; . Ogbonna and Wilkinson, 1998), also a relationship has been established between retailer and store perception.(Steenkamp and Dekimpe, 1997). Consumer shopping behavior has produced much literature and writings in terms of customer¶s perception of retailer brands in contrast to national brand products and also on purchasing products of retailer brands. (Lichtenstein et al., 1993; Richardson et al., 1996a; Baltas, 1997; Grunert et al., 2006), and finally the responsibility of the retailer brands in a broader perspective ( Raju et al., 1995; Bhasin et al., 1995; Burt, 2000) Now this research has moved one step further from national view to global market perspective in the current environment where forceful worldwide expansion of retailers for instance Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Tesco and many others is under review. The latest technology has assisted them and they have enjoyed many benefits of it. In many product categories some have been providing private brands. When competing with each other these retailer brands have been
when the customers had acknowledged the pertinent additional worth. in spite of the fact that they knew that there might be a collapse in the market even then took the risk of making the investment. several organizations together with the retailers had made investment of a significant amount of money in making their own brand.1 Retailer Brands The brand capitulate an enormous amount of advantages. 2. 1992). Because it has become one of the main and essential aspects including the firm¶s economical benefits due to brand-owner perception. Keeping this in view this was extensively recognized. Literatu re Revi ew Keller (2009) and Aaker (2008) both defined the brand as one of the main essential and economical qualities. Moreover. By the way. besides. brands plays an important part in escalating the sales capacity and incomes.. No doubt. they are ready to pay the finest price (de Chernatony et al.in firm position with the help of technological advantages which enables them to regulate consult and collaborate with their suppliers. Hence. Quite a lot of investigators had believed that the use of . For instance. As observed by Burt and Davis (1999) that during 1970¶s and 1980¶s that the escalation pace of retailer¶s publicity surpassed the manufacturer¶s brand in order to make a long lasting icon for the branding method. in 1996. the brand becomes a blockade for the opponents. it might be thought that there will be no chance of getting a profit if the company does not adopt the branding method. Hoch contended that national brands needed to carry on making investment in brand edifice. King (1970) had elucidated that brands are favoured by customers since they propose additional worth and on top of it the merchandise. this clarifies that why a company makes huge investments in developing a brand as their foremost precedence. 2.
Though it did not indicated that it had been manufactured by the retailer or not. the policy of naming a brand has turned out to be a launch pad branch out retailer¶s brands into an assortment of market sections. Ultimately. Moreover. 1988). Alternatively if we look at the theory of ³own label´. 2002). Its retailer brand merchandises are being sold in autonomous retailer¶s supplies. subsequently the beneficiaries who are related to the companies deeds indirectly instead of directly the brands execute the same function for the beneficiaries as they do for the consumers and brand owners. What is significant here is that this description included the idea of naming a brand and the places where the merchandise is put for sale to Schutte¶s (1969) explanation. Similarly. are being sold entirely by that retail company¶s selling points. Roussell and White (1970) explained own label as merchandise offered for sale with a retail company¶s House brand name. and about 35 percent had been professed in a different way by unlike customers. countries. Meticulous concentration must be given on the restrictions on the vicinity of sales since the perimeters differentiating the business regions of retailer brand merchandise has turned out to be vague in the current periods. Especially. retailer brands had sustained to progress as per the different aims of retailers. producers and retailers. Tesco has exported its retailer brand merchandises to their non rival¶s retailers in Europe (McGoldrick. The symbolic instance is Spar in the grocery section in Europe. retailer brands are classically more multi-sensory in character than producers of product brands .publicity restrain the entrance of other branded goods in the market (Bagwell and Ramey. Further than the past environment of retailer brand appearance. it is essential to have a glance at the advantages which a shareholder gets from the brand. In harmony with the Clarkson¶s (1995) idea which categorize investors as a principal beneficiary who is directly accountable for the handling of the company beyond advantageous or disadvantageous qualities.
improvement in services. for producing more efficiency information technology should be employed. The retailer brands have now begin to focus more on these retailer brands as they are productive in terms of profit and generating . These plans include low cost operation policy. The profitability of the manufacturers suffers a setback with a rise in retailer brands (Narasimhan and Wilcox. marketing tactics should be employed. The leading manufacturers still reign supreme but these stores are only a little behind them (Burt and Davis. 2004) By a case study we will substantiate the fact that with information technology at disposal. The academics and practitioners find private brands a very interesting area of research because all of this above given information. In England now the grocery retailer have applied a new technique whereas they have now opened up a lower cost lower quality product store and also they have opened high money high quality store. The retailer has to subsist in the market with their own ideas with the help of enhanced administration skills and a aggressive retail atmosphere. Both positive and negative aspects are associated with retailer brands. . Information technology has played a key role in this case. 1999). and further expansion of retailer brands especially. retailer brand failure is an impossible to occur and in contrast to suppliers they are more firmly placed in expanding and supervising their respective brands. 1998) and a plus point is that they have greater gross margins as compared to national brands (Hoch and Banerji 1993). the layout of store would be renewed.and can depend on well to do customer¶s perceptions to influence on their even-handedness (Ailiwadi and Keller.
This labor intensive and technology oriented field of marketing is based of the creativity. sales team potential. 1998). technical and managerial staffs with market researchers are also needed to make. 2. Now the center of attention of the retailer is retailer brands (Narasimhan and Wilcox. it means to address the customers personally thorough mails. This customer focused strategy has given customer the .1.3. marketing products directly to consumers minimizes the marketing distribution channels and introducing more sales force top handle the customer calls. 2. cost more per customer communication. telephones. Consumer Focused Marketing The main attribute of direct marketing is that it is customer focused. long term client relationships and their frequent feedback not only help to widens the customers base but also to develop the product regularly. but it is proved helpful in establishing accurate data bases if customers and their needs. Though. or even person al visits.competiveness. maintain and extend the customer data base (Kotler et al 2009). Companies which are unable to be competitive in mass markets due to less advertising and marketing budgets and small capital investments can thrive in the business through direct marketing attempts. and interpersonal skills of customer relationship managers (keller and Kotler 2006). Also. For a manufacturing company. the efforts of marketing are not started after the production of goods or services bit it starts right from the designing processes (Kotler et al 2006). strongly supplemented by the exponential growth in information technology sector. Also. Financial viability of these marketing options is needed to work out efficiently to maintain the cost benefit ratios (ibid).3 Direct Marketing Direct marketing is relatively a new technique.
and target the profitable segments in the consumer and business markets. This strategy is focused on the needs.27) declared that a marketing strategy is a function of selected target market and all strategic decisions follow the preferences of this market. p. this can be achieved through effective marketing intelligence and communication only (Martin 2005: 124) 2. in agriculture sector.it is generally assumed that it is better to identify an under served segment rather than to confront existing competition on its own ground´. Also.2 Target market Haines (1999. the marketing mix elements are designed in the same way as in traditional marketing communication.3. companies¶ effort to identify. Kotler et al 2006). companies and manufacturers need to focus on customer needs and do the required market research to explore the consumer behaviour and attitudes. locate. wants and feedback of consumer that is determined by the attitudinal factors and factors affecting on the buying decision of the consumers.1 Product . The product. Therefore. pricing.central position in enterprise decisions. The company either targets the whole market of current and potential consumers or the segment of this market. p. and promotion activities are totally dependent on the customers¶ feedback and market demands. distribution. According to Haines (1999. Research studies have shown that it is one of the most important drivers in direct marketing that constitute the success of the marketing strategy (see Harsh 2003. The designed marketing mix and promotion offers should match the various needs of the target customers in a specific segment.30) ³«. The elements for manufacturing sector marketing are as follows: 2.4 Direct Marketing Mix In direct marketing.4. 2.
Pricing objectives of the producer. prices are determined by the commodity¶s elasticity of demand and supply. The important decision is the channel of distribution.8). (2004. if company is directly involves with customer than minimum intermediaries are involved in product distribution (Keller and Kotler 2009).61). competitor¶s price strategy and market dynamics decide about the pricing strategy (Minton 2005). p. sampling. The objectives of the manufacturer could be of .4.2 Placement Placement of the product/s depends on the distribution channel and marketing strategies followed by the company. The decision about product determines the future market. p. products are not only made available on the point of sales but are directly provided to consumers through personal selling. 2. defined product as the physical form of a tangible product or service with its µfunctional¶ characteristics (features) and µnon functional¶ attributes like appearance and packaging.3 Pricing The pricing strategy of the company is the determinant of its competitive position in the market. Also.4. In direct marketing strategy. In agriculture sector. The value associated with the price charged is also the determinant of brand premium and status of the company in eyes of consumer. use or consumption that might satisfy a want or need´. Designing and developing the individual or series of products should be consistent with the business philosophy and brand promise. another management scholar Dunne (1999. The appropriate amount of money needs to be charged in accordance with the price perception of the target consumer or the price set by competitor. product is termed as ³anything that can be offered to a market for attention. revenue and profitability of the firm. acquisition.According to Kotler et al. exhibitions. or testing of product. 2.
4 Promotion Kotler et al (2004. and reinforce the repurchases of the products. tempted them to purchase it. marketing techniques and promotions normally increase profitability and monitoring efficiency at a higher rate that the traditional promotion methods. personal selling and customer relationship management are the major means of communication. . As Giera (1999. 2. p. online sales.115).110) declared promotion activities are the means to communicate the benefits and promises of the products to the target market. advertising and publicity are major means of promotion. company earns more in profits and long term customer relations. 2010 is still the recovery period for UK economy. low cost food products and discount coupons have become the latest trends in retail industry of UK. UK Retail Industry Background The signs of recovery have been observed in global economy. In mass marketing. Similarly. middlemen¶s share in profit decreases.business survival. The main reason is the prevailing downturn of UK economy which has raised the unemployment and decreased the disposable income of UK consumers (Datamonitor 2010). through direct marketing. p. companies in retail industry have increased their lucrative offers. Also.4. profit maximization or some combination of these objectives (Haines1999. in turn. p.113) stated that motivated direct. 3. whereas in direct marketing. cost leadership. Promotional activities make the product or service visible to the consumer.
and empty retail stores were a common sight in cities and towns in this period.1: UK Spending on Food as % of Overall Consumer Spending 2004 to 2008 Source: Euromonitor (2010) The financial slump in the UK that happening from middle of 2008 has affected on spending manners and retail expenses with insightful allegations for UK retail sector. Fig. the superstore chains alone accounting for more than 10% of GDP and contain over 11% of the labour.Fig 4. Many large retailers like Woolworths have closed down. 2: Food stores market share in England . Retail sector is extremely significant in UK economy. The other retails have faced a decrease in consumer assurance and purchasing power.
clothes and monetary . even credit cards too. The products needed by people in all places whether national or foreign. What ever the customer needs they have decided to provide like telecoms. Fifty percent of the grocery market comes under their radar.Courtesy: Euro monitor (2010) 4. Tesco sells it all at low prices which the consumers find hard to ignore. furniture. The secret behind the success of Tesco is their target of selling products for everyone. electronic equipment. biggest retailer of UK. DVDs. Sainsbury has had a hard time keeping up with Tesco in this domain. But this is working in their favor too as consumers can get everything all in one place rather than different places. Sainsbury has items for people who come from middle class background whereas Tesco has broadened this perspective and has items for class of people encompassing all. apparel. Tesco has gone much further as apparent by the spirit of competition that they have initiated to capture all domains of business not just food and grocery domain. Case Study Description The company selected for this study is Tesco. The home appliances.
The main objectives of the research are as follows: y y Evaluating theories of direct marketing related to the fertilizer sector marketing. affiliation with contractors. Why do the owners of the brands make its brand profitable? This topic has been the centre of attention of researchers. casings. 5. The Aims and Objectives of research We should think of retailer brands identical as other brands as well to study its distinctiveness. The retail sector has observed a huge amplification in internationalization. item choices circulation. The purpose of research Acquiring an organization. supplier growth. More over Sainsbury is working in retail. 6. Not much literature has been produced on the aspects of retailer expansion. banking and property domains too. Only investigating retail brands deeply will provide the answers required. Now this area of research should be the centre of concentration as to how the expertise of retailer brands has given their knowledge and expertise to local and overseas markets. the style of product display and many other factors influence the market shares of the retail brands. labeling the brand. a connection must be present that defines the supervising and expanding the retailer brands and their method and retail internationalization. Then the second area of research is how consumers perceive and treated retailer brands. Identify and evaluate the farmers and land owners¶ attitudes and buying behaviors in agricultural products in rural areas of Pakistan. .services are being provided too.
In this research study. This interpretation is important to be rightly taken to make a research successful. y To identify the suitable mediums and channels can be used by Fauji Fertilizers to reach target consumers through direct marketing. Once we understand the mechanism behind these retail brands then we better understand their response in consumer perceived value of brands. The process of research describes that how a specific criterion is determined. and 3) establishment of new theories. In a research study. According to Flyvbjerg (2006) this is one of the effective tools where researches are further validated by . This research studies is a comparative analysis of the two UK based stores Sainsbury and Tesco where the understanding will be further enhanced by considering them for research. case study can be used to understand the information that is determined by the practitioners (Cepeda and Martin. The research must cover all the aspects. 1.y Discuss the policies and techniques used by Fauji Fertilizer to market its products in rural areas of Pakistan. Research Methodology Research and methodologies used in research determine the true criteria that a research study is based on. The case study refers to the three criteria 1) Determining mathematical aspects. 2) validating the present theories.5 Research Questions The proposed research questions for this study are: 1) What are the affects of workforce diversity on firm¶s performance in recession? What are the initiatives and challenges faced by Starbucks employees due to work force diversity 7. case study method is implemented. 2005).
7. for instance the rate of happenings. The proposed sampling technique for .1 Research Approach There are two types of researches which can be put apart and those are qualitative and quantitative studies. 7. According to Saunders et al (2009).hypothesis and research techniques. only few population parameters are chosen to carry out the survey on selected part of population. Therefore. Some other practitioners prefer case study method due to its property that it can be verified on hypothesis production. The selection of representative sample is necessary to assure the measurement validity. sampling is performed to augment the accurateness of outcomes.. These parameters included specification of relevant population. Qualitative study had been defined as the chance to examine a topic as genuine as feasible.2 Sample Designing Sample design has to be finalized before gathering the primary data. sampling frame. quantitative study entails mathematical statistics or imperfect facts that can be advantageously measured and can fluctuate from easy calculations. and the sample size have been finalized before conduct of actual survey. raise accessibility of population essentials. and for a better pace of data-collection phase (Saunders et al. Probability and non-probability sampling are two major forms of sampling. 7.3 Sample selection and size The generalization is possible by the use of suitable sampling method. 2003). to more compound figures for example test scores or prices. the sampling method. In research. The primary data collection for the present thesis is based on non-probability sampling which is also termed as judgmental sampling. over presentation of data is possible with overlapping samples. This method of sampling is a suitable choice in the descriptive context of this study.
this can mean using several kinds of methods or data. including using both quantitative and qualitative approaches´ (p. . triangulation functions to ³strengthens a study by combining methods.4.4 Triangulation of study In order to increase the credibility and authenticity of the data. This triangulation includes achievement of validity.4. et al. who contributed in survey research and purchase commodities from mega malls (Blumberg. 7. 2005).this research is µstratified random sampling¶ which is used for the random selection of consumers to analyze their purchasing behaviors. 7.2 Validity ..1 Reliability The first angle of present research is reliability which can be fulfilled by the inner uniformity of the responses and accuracy of respondents. all consumers are member of appropriate sample population (Blumberg. Proper collection of responses and careful explanations of questions have increased the reliability of the collected data.. 7. various ways of data collection are used to achieve the triangulation of research. British native consumers are selected for the survey along with a group of immigrants and other ethnic groups living in the metropolitan areas of the country. In order to explore the consumption behavior of consumers in recession. reliability and transferability of data. In present study. the population consists of all included consumers. According to Patton (2001). The applicable sample population is noticeable from the investigation of problem statement. 247). 2005). et al.
In this research construct validity has been assured by using priorly established consumer behaviour theories in question formation and content validity is assured by appropriate sample selection and proper survey procedure. Firstly. Secondly. It explains as the extent to which the outcomes of quantitative investigation can be generalized in other frameworks. Finally.4.3 Transferability The last measure of triangulation in this research is µtransferability¶. The present study accomplished reliability and validity by the application of many approaches. 7. which can be understood only within the context. in this case the transferability can be achieved if the same study can extend to larger population of UK consumers in diverse shopping locations. . a contextual framework has been used by the help of already established theories to assure the external validity for the research. Transferability is the extent to which the present study can be generalized.5 Data Collection The proposed research will be conducted in two different phases. and will employ the methodology of questionnaire surveys to collect data from a range of audience. phase one will largely be collecting quantitative data. Key research themes have been addressed and used by the researcher in this study extensively. research variables are clearly outlined with greater transparency and internal consistency. 7.The validity of a survey is the degree to which variations in responses reveal disparities in the calculated attribute. Phase two will involve two case studies in which the data are expected to be more transient. reliability and credibility has also been achieved by discussions with academic specialists in context of consumer behaviour.
Work Plan The project will be stared in August. The research question will be answered in a detailed manner by studying the Tesco and Sainsbury case study. Work plan August September October November Dec Compilation of aim and objectives Search Literature review Selection of methodology .The present study will revolve around two stages. 8. this will continue with hypothesis development and later on literature review will be done. The first stage is to gather quantitative data using survey and questionnaire flare technique. Also. The staff and employees of both the organizations will be interviewed and various aspects of retail brands will be analysed. During this one month period retailer brands will be determined. covering letters will be send to Tesco and Sainsbury team and the organizations will be visited for this purpose to gather data later on. The second stage will revolve around case study method where the details of the study will be analyzed using case study description and the methodology will remain persistent throughout the study.
it will require great effort for this to accomplish it. it cannot be said that the research will provide results which are 100% valid. Revision and editing Binding and submission of dissertation Limitations The main issue that this research confronts with is the resources and time issue.Collection of data Prepare questionnaire. . interview Analysis of data Compilation of information and recommendations. Since. it will take six months for this research to be completed. Quantitative data will comprise more than 100 but below 150 samples which is not sufficient to draw proper results. Therefore.
The scope of this research is quite significant as agriculture is the major sector of Pakistan¶s economy and new marketing models for fertilizer business will surely add up the knowledge base about consumers¶ attitudes and perceptions .Chapter IV: Conclusion The proposed study discussed above is related with the discovery of direct marketing opportunities of direct marketing to the rural sectors of the Pakistani market. topic is introduced and reviewed with the help of academic journal articles and marketing text books in corresponding area of study. In this proposal.
851-876. Management Decision. pp.4. (2007). Ailawadi. J.9. Journal of Retailing.80.L. Distribution and Consumer Research.163-185. (2004). S. Follow my leader? Lookalike retailer brands in non- manufacturer-dominated product markets in the UK . Beldona S. pp. No. Vol. G. D. and Wysong.16.REFERENCES Aaker. Management. 3rd ed. . D. A review of case studies publishing in Management Decision: Guides and Criteria for achieving quality in qualitative research . Fall.83-87. No. (2008). Putting the brandµ back into store brands: an exploratory Journal of Product and Brand examination of store brands and brand personality.4. (1999). K. Understanding retail branding: conceptual insights and research priorities . The International Review of Retail. "The power of the branded differentiator". and Davis. Doing Your Research Project: A guide for first-time researchers in education and social science. L. and Keller. Cepeda. L. and Martin. Vol. Vol. Vol. pp. No. S. No.226±235. (1993).331-342. S. MIT Sloan Management Review. pp. Open University Press Burt.2. No. A. Bell. pp. (2005). K.43.6.
71.. Harvard Business Review. pp. K.597-608. Vol. S. S. Brunso. Vol. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. S. Grunert.37. No.8. (1998).. pp. Vol. No. and Wilcox. K. pp.A. pp. Vol. The Role of Price in Multi-Attribute Product Evaluation . Hoch. Davies. pp. No.8.245-260. Journal of Consumer Research. de Chernatony. A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance . (2000). Consumer preferences for retailer brand architectures: results from a conjoint study . The Brand Report Card .55-76. No. pp. Thompson.2. No. Flyvbjerg. pp. No. Dawson. (1995). (2006).M. T.. Esbjerg. (1993). Keller. I. Branding in an Era of Retailer Dominance .104-120.57-67. L. Vol. (2006). Look-alikes: Fair or unfair competition? The Journal of Brand Management. Academy of Management Review.7. International Journal of Advertising.12.195-199.J.3. pp.A.T. (1989).2. January.4. London . S. (1985). M. what is brand J. (1970).2. and Banerji.34. King.20. and Juhl.. S.219-245.23. No.12.1. K. J.J.34. No. Vol.W. B. Narasimhan. Vol. (1996). Vol. pp. J. Journal of Business. G. and Johansson.Clarkson.2. Review. Erickson. The move to administered vertical marketing systems by British retailers . Bech-Larsen. Vol. Hoch. J.G.147-157.573-600. Qualitative Inquiry. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research . How Should National Brand Think about Private Labels? Sloan Management Review.K. Vol. (1989).89-102.42-52.L. pp.4. European Journal of Marketing. and Shaw. No. H. L. R. pp. Private Labels and the Channel Relationship: A When do private labels succeed? Sloan Management Cross-Category Analysis . C. (1995).
McGoldrick. J. D. K. (Eds). Lewis.35. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. P. No. pp. M.5. and McGee.5-11. 2nd ed. (2009).33. Martenson. D.544-555. Schutte. Pellegrini. P. J. Reddy. (2002). and Dhar. Vol. J. and Keller. No.L. in Segal-Horne. S. Marketing Management.. (2006). No.S. Ridgway. pp. pp.K. April. B. P. Raju.S.7. R. Vol. Sethuraman. N.2. and Thornhill.. No. (1993)..2. (1995). The Introduction and Performance of Store Brands .. pp. Vol. R. Private Label Reviewed . Routledge. Pearson Prentice Hall.K. E.6. London. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. No. Saunders. (1989). Management Science..F. 2nd ed.6. and White. S. . P. pp388-404. Journal of Marketing Research. L. Retail and Marketing Channels: Economic and Marketing Perspectives on Producer-Distributor Relationships. satisfaction and store loyalty . R. The Semantic of Branding . Richardson. Lichtenstein.41. Research Methods for Business Students. and Wilkinson. Walter Thompson Co. Roussell. Retail Marketing. Corporate brand image.77±86. Ogbonna.234-235. Price perceptions and consumer shopping behaviour: A field study . (1998). Power relations in the UK grocery supply chain .30. (1997). (2007). McGraw-Hill. pp. Vol. Strategies to cope with retailer buying power . (1970). and Netemeyer. J. S. Vol.957-978. Vol.. (1969). A. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. Journal of Marketing. are store brands perceived to be just another brand? Journal of Product and Brand Management. R.Kotler.6.Ltd.
and Dekimpe. (1997). Thousand Oaks. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. pp.917-930.E.G.M.K. J-B. Vol. M. The Increasing Power of Store Brands: Building Loyalty and Market Share . Long Range Planning.Steenkamp.6. R. 2nd ed.30. (1994). No. CA: Sage Publications . Yin.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.