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1. What is sentence? Set of words with complete senses is known as sentence.

A sentence is a group a words that gives full meaning. Ex: a. Raja goes to college every morning at 10.30 am. b. The leaves are green c. The birds are flying in the sky Simple Sentence: A sentence which has only one subject and one predicate. Ex: The cow gives milk. The fox is cunning animal. The parts of sentence A sentence has two parts. They are called The Subject: and The Predicate The Subject tell us about the person or animal or thing who does the work or who acts. The Predicate tell us about what the subject does. Ex: a. the cow eats grass. b. She is dancing c. The cat drank the milk. d. They work in the field e. The children play games. Subject The Cow She The cat They The children Predicate Eats grass Is dancing Drank the milk Work in the filed Play games

Kinds of sentence There are four kinds of sentences. Assertive Sentence Imperative sentence Interrogative sentence Exclamatary Sentence 1. Assertive Sentence An assertive sentence says something for certain or definite or makes declarations Ex: He is going to college Maven is a good boy The Sun rises in the east The road is very wide Sugar is sweet 2. Imperative Sentence An imperative sentence, we express order commends and also request. Ex: Do not open the door Stand up on the bench Come in, please

Kindly give me a cup of milk Dont go out 3. Interrogative Sentence Interrogative sentence asks questions or make enquires. Ex: Where are you going? What is he doing? Are you drinking coffee? How did he lose his bicycle? 4. Exclamatory Sentence The Exclamatory sentence which express surprise, fear etc. It expresses sudden feeling of joy, sorrow, anger, wonder and the like. Assertive sentence Viday is typing a letter I have completed my work I own a car She helps me He went to belgaum Sita nursed the sick Hari cheats the customers Sunil patted the oxs back Tapan is a naughty boy They were full of sturdiness and singing I will tame you They have many cleaned words to say I am your teacher He went directly to the waiting man Negative sentence They are not making noise You did not tell the truth Budda has not questioned the caste system It is not important to record He would not replay it tomorrow Sita did not teach the poor children We are not going to talk I would not like you to listen to me I had not panned it Assertive They are playing hockey Ravi is not working hard He goes to Chennai She sang well Ram is quite good at studies Hari charges higher prices It was very wicked It was very perfect day I am coming out of the shadow Negative Sentence Viday is not typing a letter I have not completed my work I do not own a car She does not helps me He does not go to belgaum Sita does not nurse the sick Hari does not cheats the customers Sunil did not patted the oxs back Tpan is not a naughty boy They were not full of sturdiness & singing I will not tame you They have no many clean words to say I am not your teacher He did not go directly to the waiting man Assertive Sentence They are making noise You told the truth Buddha had questioned the caste system It is important to record He will repay it tomorrow Sita tought the poor children We are going to talk I would like you to listen to me I had panned it Interrogative Are they playing hockey? Is Ravi not working hard? Does he goes to chenni? did she sang well? Is ram is quite good at studies? Does hari charges higher prices? Was it very wicked? Was it a perfect day? Am I coming out of the shadow?

I shall help you in very way

Shall I help you in very way?

PARTS OF SPEECH (What is parts of speech) The words which are used in the formation of sentence are called parts of speech. There are eight parts. They are 1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. verb 4. adverb 5. Adjective 6. Preposition 7.conjunction 8. Interjection 1. Noun: A noun is a word used to denote a person, place, animal, and thing Ex: Atoka was a wise king Santee works hard Rona is a good girl My sore is a beautiful place. 2. Pronoun: The word which is used instead of noun is called Pronoun. Ex: She is a good girl. He is my brother They are students She is cooking Kinds of Pronoun a. Personal Pronoun Ex: He b. Reflexive Pronouns Ex: c. Demonstrative Pronoun Ex: Those mangoes are mine d. Indefinite pronoun Ex: Anyone some somebody e. Distributive pronoun Ex: everybody each f. Relative Pronoun Ex: g. interrogative Pronoun Ex :which who whose Verb Verb is a word which is used to express the action of Noun or Pronoun Ex: Rave thrown a stone Krishna is a grazing the cows The rat runs away from the room They have come home. They are two kinds of verbs. 1. Main verb 2. helping verb (auxiliary verb) Helping verbs: is used with the main verb Ex: am, have, have been, had, had been, has, were, may be can , can be shall, could. Ex: I am playing cricket We are going to cinema He is running The have already arrived here. Irregular verbs are irregular in the past simple in the positive only (not in the negative or question form): go went She went home yesterday,

sit sat I sat down, write -- wrote She wrote for hours. ADVERB Express the nature of action and it also called the detail of verb. It is used to say something about the verb. Ex: The train moves slowly Dear goes fastly He walks quickly She speaks loudly Adverbs of manner Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives by adding ly: quick --> quickly; polite politely; careful carefully Note these irregulars: good -> well; hard -> hard; fast --> fast; early --> early; late --> late;loud --> loud or loudly. He's a good worker. He works well. She's a hard worker. She works hard. She's a fast runner. She runs fast. Practice Write the adverbs. quick slow fast careful Polite rude brave early stupid dangerous bad intelligent good hard clever nice Comparison of adverbs Most adverbs are used with more and most: slowly > more slowly, most slowly dangerously--> more dangerously, most dangerously One-syllable adverbs add er and est: hard harder, hardest; fast --> faster, fastest; loud --> louder, loudest

The irregular comparisons are: well Better best badly worse worst little less least far farther/ farthest/ further furthest Frequency adverbs with the Present Simple The adverb goes between the subject and the verb: I often see them. we rarely talk to them. I seldom go out in the evenings. occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently, and normally can also be at the beginning or end of a clause: / see them occasionally. Sometimes we talk to each other. Normally I go out in the evenings. Note: always is sometimes used with present continuous to express annoyance, always goes between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: Sams's always borrowing my tilings without asking! Peter's always complaining about his job Practice Choose the correct word and write it in its proper place in these sentences. 1 I see them nowadays - the last time we met was ten years ago. {never / often / always) / never see them nowadays - the last time we met was ten years ago. 2 You're lucky: we have ice cream, but we've got some today, (hardly ever / normally / nearly always) 3 Peter's playing football instead of doing his homework, (seldom / hardly ever / always) 3. We go out now - we can't afford it. (hardly ever / sometimes / frequently) 4. I don't finish work before eleven o'clock, so I see the children before they go to bed. (always / never / usually) 5. I sit here when I come to the park - it's my favourite place, (hardly ever / occasionally / always) Link words: and, but, so, then, before, after, because Practice Write one of the above words in the correct place in these sentences. Use each word for two sentences. Where two answers are possible, choose the more likely one. 1 I got out of the car ..and.. walked into the house. 2 The weather was lovely________________we stayed in the garden. ADJECTIVE It is used to say something about the noun. It speaks about the quantity of noun. It also speaks about the number and quality of a noun. Ex: Leela is a good girl Soma is strong boy They gave him ten mangoes There is some rice in the bag. Possessive adjectives

Each pronoun has a possessive adjective: I > my you > your he > his she her we > our you > our they --> their it > its Kinds of Adjective a. Quantitative Adjective Show the kind or quality of a person or thing; as Ex: Kolkata is a large city He is an honest man b. Qualitative Adjective Shows how much of a thing is meant; as Ex: I ate some rice He showed much patience He has little intelligence He has lost all his wealth C.Demonstrative Adjective Point out which person or things is meant; as Ex: The boy is stronger than Prasad Those rascals must be punished

I hate such things

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES These adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms: Adjective Comparative Superlative Good Better best Bad Worse worst Little Less least Much More most Far further / farther furthest / farthest COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE Number of syllables Comparative Superlative One syllable + -er + -est Tall Taller tallest one syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double the final consonant: Fat Fatter fattest Big Bigger biggest Sad Sadder saddest two syllables + -er OR more + adj + -est OR most + adj

ending in: -y, -ly, -ow ending in: -le, -er or -ure these common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet Happy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happy Yellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellow

Simple Simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simple Tender Tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tender If you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST + Note: Adjectives ending in '-y' like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replace the y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative form Busy busier busiest Number of syllables Comparative Superlative three syllables or more more + adj most + adj Important more important most important Expensive more expensive most expensive Examples: a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVES Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective. The usual order is: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material Value/opinion delicious, lovely, charming Size : small, huge, tiny Age/Temperature : old, hot, young Shape : round, square, rectangular Colour : red, blonde, black Origin : Swedish, Victorian, Chinese Material : plastic, wooden, silver Examples: a. a lovely old red post-box b. some small round plastic tables c. some charming small silver ornaments FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVES Adjectives tell us more about a noun. They can: Describe feelings or qualities: He is a lonely man They are honest people Give nationality or origin: Pierre is French This clock is German Our house is Victorian Tell more about a thing's characteristics: A wooden table. The knife is sharp. Tell us about age: He's a young man My coat is very old Tell us about size and measurement: John is a tall man. This is a very long film. Tell us about colour: Paul wore a red shirt.

The sunset was crimson and gold. Tell us about material/what something is made of: It was a wooden table She wore a cotton dress Tell us about shape: A rectangular box A square envelope Express a judgment or a value: A fantastic film FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVES 1. Adjectives are invariable: They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of the noun. A hot potato Some hot potatoes 2. To emphasize or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use 'very' or 'really': A very hot potato Some really hot potatoes. (BUT see alsoModifiers/Adverbs) 3.Position of adjectives: Usually in front of a noun: A beautiful girl. After verbs like "to be", "to seem" , "to look", "to taste": The girl is beautiful You look tired This meat tastes funny. After the noun: in some fixed expressions: The Princess Royal The President elect a court martial the adjectives involved, present, concerned: a. I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people who have something to do with the matter) b. Here is a list of the people present (= the people who were in the building or at the meeting) Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have a different meaning: An involved discussion = detailed, complex A concerned father = worried, anxious The present situation = current, happening now PREPOSITION Preposition is word used before a noun or pronoun in a sentence to show how the noun or pronoun stands in relation with a verb or an adjective or another noun or pronoun. A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a noun equivalent to show in what relation that noun or noun equivalent stands to something else in that sentence. A preposition can be one word or a group of words. Ex: The crow on the tree There are cows in the field He is fond of sweets (On, in, of, by, for, at, into, upon, off, from, to inside, outside, without, within, about , beyond, with beside, since, around, beneath, under, through, up, down, between) at in, on at is used for a place when the exact position is not very important: He was standing at the gate. We were waiting at the station. on is used when the place is seen as a line or surface:

The cat sat on the table.

There was a picture on the wall.

in is used when the place is seen as having volume or area: The dog was in the car. My keys are in my bag. Prepositions of movement (to, at, or away from a place) She ran to the gate She walked away from the gate. She stood at the gate.

on, onto, or off a line or surface (a wall, table, floor, etc.) put the money onto the table. The money fell off the table. The money's on the table.

in, into, or out of a box, car, or anything with volume in (to) out (of) The dog jumped into the car. Take the dog out of the car. Certain verbs with to or at Listen to me! Look at me! Some verbs are followed by to or at, and some verbs do not use a preposition: She told me the news. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME (at, in, on ) at a point in time: at four o'clock, at bedtime on a day or date; on Monday, on July 6th, on your birthday in a period of time: in the morning, in April, in the summer, in 1987 Notes at night, on Monday, in the morning, on Monday morning until, before, after before and after can be followed by a noun, pronoun, clause or gerund: I'll see you after lunch.. John arrived before me. She phoned after the party started. We had some coffee before starting the meeting. 1 I learnt to speak some Turkish. I went to Turkey. / learnt to speak some Turkish before I went to Turkey. 2 They stayed awake. Their daughter came home. 4 I'm going to stay here. It's time to go home. 5 I'm going to finish working. I'm sixty. 6 The meeting started. I arrived. 7 We waited. The ambulance came. 8 Are you going to carry on working at the cafe? You can find a better job. 9 I'd like to visit the Acropolis. I leave Greece. 10 He usually has a big breakfast. He goes to work. The dog's in the car.

Kinds of preposition: a. Simple preposition: (by, for) b. Compound Preposition (about, over) CONJUNCTION Conjunction is a word used to connect the two words or two sentences. (And, but, so, or, because, since, although, unless, if yet, as, as if, where, than, when, that, while, before, after, though, till, than, until, although, whether, in order that) Ex: Time and tide wait for none. Is it coffee or tea? He is tall and thin He ran way because he was afraid Singh and Riana are sisters. Dont talk while you are writing INTERJECTION An interjection is a word used to express sudden feeling of joy, sorrow, anger, surprise and the like. An interjection is a word of exclamation expressing sudden feeling of excitement. 12 Ex: Hurrah! I have secured the fist rank What a beautiful flower rose is! How big this temple is? How great he is? What a precious thing diamond is! What a useful thing iron is! Kinds of Interjection a. Expressing a joy b. Expressing a sorrow c. Expressing a surprise d. Expressing a recognition e. Expressing a contempt f. Expressing an approval / admiration

THE TENSES The Tenses are associated with verbs. The word tenses means time. The Tenses tell us about the time of action or event that takes place. The tenses tell us about when actually a work is done or was done, or will be done. Kinds of tenses There are mainly three kinds of tenses. They are Present tenses, Past tenses, Future tenses. 1. Present Tenses a. Simple present tenses Simple present tense shows that action or work take place at present but it does not say when actually the work begins and when it ends. It simply says that works take places at present. Ex: I drink milk He drives the car She clean the floor They eat fruits. Interrogative (present Tenses) 1 Does he go to college everyday? 2 Do you write a letter? 3 Are you read Hindi? 4 What do you do in this house? 5 Does he climb on the tower 1 2 3 4 5 Negative (present Tenses) He does not go to college He does not write a letter He does note like to read Hindi She does not eat He does not know how to catch

B.Present Continuous Tenses The present continuous Tenses show that the work has started presently but it going on continuously. It means the work has not yet been completed. Hence the verb is said to be in the present continuous Tenses. Ex: He is working in the field. The child is weeping. We are going to school. We are running. Interrogative (present continuous Tenses) 1 Am I reading? 2 Is he going to college? 3 Is she coming to your dinner? 4 Are they killing? 5 Am I working in this school? Negative (present continuous Tenses) 1 I am not drinking any cold drinks 2 You are not going to college 3 She is not dancing on the road 4 You are not looking happy 5 I am not going to cinema hall C. Present Prefect Tenses

Present Perfect Tenses shows that the work which has started something now (before) has been just now finished or completed, have been in progress for quite sometime (or over period of time). Perfect means complete. So, the work said to be in the present perfect tense. Ex: The birds have built a strong nest. They have made beautiful kites He has repaired the scooter Interrogative (present Prefect Tenses) 1 Have you killed a deer? 2 Have you known him? 3 Has he left his home? 4 Has she met her friends? 5 Have you seen a good picture? Negative (present prefect Tenses) 1 He has not taken 2 She has not finished her job 3 You have not spoken in Hindi 4 I have not won this game 5 I have not finished this lesson d. Present Prefect Continuous Tenses The Present prefect continuous Tenses shows that work which has started some thing now (before) has been temporarily (once) completed but again it has been set in operating to go on for long. It means the work has been going since long time, to stop ultimately at something. Ex: It has been raining since morning. They have been waiting for him. He has been reading the books since afternoon. He has playing the game since evening. Interrogative (present Prefect Continuous Tenses) 1 Have I been reading since morning? 2 Has chandru not been eating the food for two days? 3 Has she been cooking for two hours? 4 Has he been sitting on the rock since morning? 5 Have they been waiting for him? Negative (present prefect Continuous Tenses) 1 He has not been climbing the pole for three minutes 2 I have not been dancing since 5 oclock 3 She has not been singing for two hours 4 I have not been working since morning 5 She has not been cooking for two hours 2. Past Tenses a. Simple past tenses The simple past tenses show that verb or action took place in the past time. But does not say when actually the work begins and when it ended. It simply says that the work begin and ended in past. Ex: They broke the pot He sold his cow for Rupees. 8000. He held the ball correctly The baby drank milk. Interrogative (Simple past Tenses) 1 Did he bring a note book? 2 Did you drink tea? 3 Did she come at morning? 4 Did he write a letter? 5 Did she bring a toy? 1 2 3 4 5

Negative (Simple past Tenses) I did not go He did not sing a good song She did not speak It did not play He did not write a letter

b .Past Continuous Tenses The past continuous Tenses shows that the work had started in the past time, it was going on continuously. It means that the work had not yet been completed. Hence, the work is said to be in the past continuous tenses. Ex: They were going to the temple The dog was barking He was ploughing the land The cows were eating the grass. Interrogative (Past Continuous Tenses) 1 Was he going to college? 2 Were you cooking meals? 3 Were they playing? 4 Was it sitting on the table? 5 Was it raining? Negative (Past Continuous Tenses) C. Past Prefect Tenses Past prefect tenses shows that the work which had started in the past time had just then been finished or completed, having been in progress quite some time (or over period of time) perfect completed. Ex: He had requested them to help him They had gone out when he arrived there She had given a diamond ring to her sister. He had participated in all the games. Sl.No Interrogative (Past Prefect Tenses) 1 Had he bought your site? 2 Had she reached your school? 3 Had he broken the chair before the bus came? 4 Has she seen this dog with you? Negative (Past Prefect Tenses) 1 I had not been beaten to him before he told 2 He had not broken the chair before the bus came 3 She had not seen this dog with you 4 He had not bought your site 5 He had not reached your school D. Past Prefect Continuous Tenses The past prefect continuous tenses shows that the work had been started in the past had been temporarily (once) complete but again it had been operation to go on far long. It means that work had been gone since long time, to stop ultimately at sometime. Ex: She had been previously learning in our school. He had been writing the poetry before joining the army. He had been working as a professor when he was sent aboard. Sl.No Interrogative (Past Prefect Continuous Tenses) 1 He had been working for ten hours.

2 3 4 5 1 2 3

She had been weeping for two hours Child had been sleeping since 8o clock He had been writing the books before joining the school He had been working as commissioner when he was sent abroad Negative (Past Prefect Continuous Tenses) Had she not been cooking the food for three days Had he not been working for 3 days Had child not been sleeping since yesterday

3. Future Tenses a. Simple future tenses Simple future tenses shows that the work or action has not yet begun and that will take place sometime later. So, that the work or action will take place in future. Ex: She will return the book in about a week. If you study hard, you will get the first rank. Sl.No Interrogative (future Tenses) 1 Will you come? 2 Will she meet Ravi on Monday? 3 Shall I play boot ball? 4 Shall he go to school? 5 Shall she sing a good song? Negative (future Tenses) 1 I shall not go to the school 2 She will not come from Hyderabad 3 She will not go now 4 You will not go to market He will start a hotel in few days.

B .Future Continuous Tenses Future Continuous Tenses shows that the work which will start sometime later, that is, in the future time, will continue thereafter for quite some time. Ex: From next month onwards, he will be getting more salary. Tomorrow by this time, we shall be traveling in the bus. Sl.No Interrogative (future Continuous Tenses) 1 Shall I be dancing? 2 Shall I be cutting the plants? 3 Shall I be playing match at this time next morning? 4 Will he be going? Negative (future Continuous Tenses) 1 They will not be coming tomorrow 2 Shall he not be reading a book 3 Shall I not be playing match at this time next morning C. Future Prefect Tenses Future perfect tenses shows that the work which will begin in the future tie or which has already begun and it is in progress over a period of time, will be completed. Ex: Before, his retirement, he will be served the department for twenty years. Tomorrow by now, they will reached their place. Before you reach the bus stand, the bus will have arrived there. Sl.No Interrogative (future perfect Tenses)

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

Shall I be dancing? Shall I be cutting the plants? Shall I be playing match at this time next morning? Will he be going? Negative (future perfect Tenses) They will not be coming tomorrow Shall he not be reading a book Shall I not be playing match at this time next morning

d. Future Prefect Continuous Tenses Future Prefect Continuous Tenses shows that the work or action which has already begun and has been in progress over a period of tie will continue to be in operation in the future time. Ex: Next this day, he will have been running his school for forty years. Tomorrow by now, she will have been celebrating her second marriage anniversary day. Present Tense Past Tense Past participle Give Gave Given Go Went Gone Come Came Come Take Took Taken Do Did Done Look Looked Looked Clean Cleaned Cleaned Drive Drove Driven Pour Poured Poured Drink Drank Drunk Sing Sang Sung Work Worked Worked Bind Bound Bound Bend Bent Bent Arise Arose Arisen Write Wrote Written Hope Hopped Hopped Become Became Become Break Broke Broken Ride Rode Ridden Grow Grew Grown Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Buy Bought Bought Build Built Built Bring Brought Brought Blow Blew Blown Open Opened Opened Shut Shut Shut Wonder Wondered Wondered See Saw Seen Hide Hid Hidden Walk Walked Walked Make Made Made Bite Bit Bitten Eat Ate Eaten Pay Paid Paid

Read Know Forget Forgive Hit Ring Rise Send Shake Reply Return Run Sell Mean Leave Lead Tell Understand Hold Keep Fly Feel Fall Lose Sleep Throw Stand Swim Steal Spread Spend Sweep Wear Weep Withhold Withdraw

Red Knew Forgot Forgave Hit Range Rose Sent Shook Replied Returned Ran Sold Meant Left Led Told Understood Held Kept Flew Felt Fell Lost Slept Threw Stood Swam Stole Spread Spent Swept Wore Wept Withheld Withdrew

Red Known Forgotten Forgiven Hit Rung Risen Sent Shaken Replied Returned Run Sold Meant Left Led Told Understood Held Kept Flown Felt Fallen Lost Slept Thrown Stood swum Stolen Spread Spent Swept Worn Wept Withheld withdrawn

Articles An Article is a word used before a noun to show whether that noun is the singular form or plural form. There are three articles. They are A, AN, and The. A and AN are used before nouns each denoting a singular form. The is used before nouns denoting both singular and plural numbers, but particular definite persons, things, etc,. Example on the Article A It is a tree. He is a student. She is a singer It is a book It is a chair. There is a cup on the table. Example on the article An(AN is used before words beginning with vowels, a,e, I ,o , u) It is an elephant It is an ink-bottle It is an orange It is an ass. It is an umbrella. Examples on the article The (The is used before nouns denoting great persons etc., in the world, as

The Mount Everest is the tallest peak in the world. The Atlantic Ocean stretches between Europe and America. Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India. The Ganga is the most sacred river. COMPREHENCE Sequence A group of things that are arranged in or happen in an order is called sequence. Ex: 1. He did a great deal of penance 2. There was a hill called brahmagiri 3. Brahma was pleased and granted his wish. 4. He had no children. 5. On that hill there lived a sage named kavera Answer 2. There was a hill called brahmagiri 5. On that hill there lived a sage named kavera 4. He had no children. 1. He did a great deal of penance 3. Brahma was pleased and granted his wish. SYNONYMS Synonyms are words of the same grammatical class that have a similar meaning. Baby : Infant Buy : purchase Sick : ill Walk : step Fast : quick Harm : damage Funny : amusing Hard : difficult Close : shut Old : aged Smart : wise Student: Pupil Pretty : attractive Freedom: liberty Dead : deceased House : home Exit : leave Search : seek Noon : midday Easy : simple Silly : foolish Little : small WORD FORMATION COMPOUND WORDS. A compound word is a combination of two or more separate words that functions as a single word and has its own special meaning. 1. Hand - Hand bag 2. Pen - Pen knife 3. Money - money cap 4. Tea - Tea spoon 5. Wedding - Wedding card 6. Honey - Honey moon 7. Fire - Fire wood 8. Heat - heat engine 9. Guilty - Guilty person TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCE To transform a sentence is to change it from one grammatical form to another without altering its sense. Use of IF or IF NOT 1.I fail to maintain the standard, I demand of you, you may criticize me. If I fail to maintain the standard I demand of you, you may criticize me. 2. Tell me the truth or I will flog the skin off your back. If Tell me the truth or I will flog the skin off your back. 'IF' SENTENCES AND THE 'UNREAL' PAST In this section you will find information on sentences containing the word'if', the use of conditional tenses, and the 'unreal past', that is, when we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to past time. IF AND THE CONDITIONAL

There are four main types of'if ' sentences in English: 1.The 'zero' conditiona l, where the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present: 'IF' CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE If + simple present simple present If you heat ice it melts. If it rains you get wet In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. They are often used to refer to general truths. 2.The Type 1 conditional, where the tense in the' if clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future 'IF' CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE If + simple present Simple future If it rains you will get wet If you don't hurry we will miss the train. Nouns- Singular & Plural There are some general rules for changing the singular form of a noun to its plural form. Eg: Common nouns. Pen(singular) Pens(plural) Collective nouns. Army(singular) Armies(plural) Proper, abstract & material nouns can have plural forms when they are used as common nouns. All of you must be aware that the most common form of forming a plural by adding an s to the noun. Eg: Hand Hands House - Houses Plural of the nouns ending in x sh or ch (ahissing sound) is ormed by adding es at the end. Eg: glass glasses box boxes brush brushes bench - benches Plural of the nouns ending in a y and having a consonant before y is formed by changing y into ies. Eg: army armies lady ladies baby babies fly flies If there is a vowel before the y, we just add s to the noun to form its plural. Eg: monkey monkeys boy boys toy toys donkey donkeys day - days key keys There are some nouns which are used in plural sense, though they look singular. Eg: These cattle (not cattles) These people These folk Some nouns are used in singular form. Eg: This scenery is beautiful. All this information was wrong.

Furniture is sold here.

Some nouns have the same form both in singular and plural. Eg: This deer. These deer. This sheep. These sheep. This fish. These fish. Compound nouns form their plural by adding s to the important word. Eg: mother-in-law - mothers-in-law step-son - step-sons passer-by - passers-by maid-servant - maidservants. Singular Man Plural Men

Head Dog Book Brother Formula Radius Goose Mouse Foot Tooth Life Thief

heads dogs Books Brothers Formulas Radii Geese Mice Feet Teeth Lives thieves

PUNCTUATION The word punctuation comes from the latin word Punctum which means the right use of putting in points in writing. The Full stop The full stop indicates the close of a sentence. The sentence following it would invariably start with a capital letter. Example: He is one of the good boys. The Comma(,) Just as the full stop is the longed pause, the comma represents the shortest pause. Ex: Health, wealth and peace go together. He lived wisely, prudently and honestly. The Quotation Marks / Inverted Comma Quotation marks (inverted comas) are used to mark off the actual words of a speaker, or a quotation. Inverted Comma and Apostrophe Apostrophe is used to show the omission of a letter to letters. Ex: I dont know, doesnt Ive etc QUESTION MARK (?) It is used at the end of an Interrogative sentence. Ex: Do you know this gentleman? What are you doing there? The Exclamatory Mark (!) The exclamation mark is used after words or sentences expressing surprise, joy, sorrow, or a wish. Ex: What a naughty boy! How heartless they are! COLON (: ) These are some important cities in karnatka: Bangalore, Hubli, Harihar. Semi Colon ( ;) Ex: Here court was pure; serene. Degrees of Compression

(Three degree of comparision, positive, comparative degree and superlative degree) Sudha is a tall girl. Ramani is taller than sudha. Geeta is tallest in the class. The sentence 1. merely tells us that height without saying how much of it has, the sentences 2 to tells ramani compare with sudha. Sentence 3 geetha is the tallest in the class (all the class) Positive Comparative superlative Small Smaller Smallest Clever Cleverer Cleverest Young Younger Youngest Tall Taller Tallest Great Greater Greatest Sweet Sweeter Sweetest White Whiter Whitest Large Larger Largest Brave Braver Bravest Happy Happier Happiest Red Redder Reddest Thin Thinner Thinnest Fat Fatter Fattest Big Bigger Biggest Good Better Best Bold Bolder Boldest Wise Wiser wisest ANTONYMS (OPPOSITES) Antonyms are words of the same grammatical class that have opposite meanings. Short Long Good Bad Understand Misunderstand Strong Week Thick Thin Honest Dishonest Outside Inside Wrong Right Legal Illegal Comfort Discomfort Valid Invalid Healthy Unhealthy Expected Unexpected Pure Impure Wanted Unwanted Absence Presence Regularly Irregulary Safe Unsafe Satiable Insatiable Black White Reasonable Unreasonable Open Close Co-operation Non-co-operation

Wicked Pleasant Major Like Clean Able Cold Active Angry Artificial Cheap Brave Difficult Cunning Bad Careful Down Duplicate Efficient Essential False Fortunate Familiar General Grateful High Humble Heavy Hard Hopefu Interesting Important Kind Last Left Meaningful Tight Superior Sufficient Suitable Slow Regular Dangerous Same Modern Positive Necessary Obedient Old Pleasant Perfect Proper

Virtuous Unpleasant Minor Dislike Unclean Unable Hot Inactive Calm Natural Costly Coward Easy Honest Good Careless Up Original Inefficient Inessential True Unfortunate Unfamiliar Particular Ungrateful Low Hughty Light Soft Hopeless Uninteresting Unimportant Unkind First Right Meaningless Loose Inferior Insufficient Unsuitable Fast Irregular Safe Different Ancient Negative Unnecessary Disobedient New Unpleasant Imperfect Improper



RHYMING WORDS The word having the same sound at end of lines of verses are called rhyming words. Ex: lay gay, eye die, ring sing, so go. Smile Awhile Upright Height Health Wealth Greed Need Mild Wild Brought Thought Stair There Wicket Cricket On Gone Fears years Sound Found Snow Know Tent Bent Creep Peep Cool Pool Eye Sigh Crept Wept Bright Night Aspire Fire Beat Feet Art Heart Grasp Clasp Spears Tears See Thee Chain Brain Far Star Just Dust Say Gay Folly Jolly Sing Spring Gold Cold See E Ant Grant Rain Gain Borrow Sorrow Friend Lend By I Mine Fine Note Throat Higher Weather Eats Gets Gloom Bloom Fears Years Rough Cough Shadow Meadow Urge Purge Paid Raid

Paws Jaws Pool Fool Great Late Beauty Duty sun one book look pear share walk talk read feed car bar cat hat Man fan Sick kick bright light funny bunny glad lad late mate bad lad rude dude long song fat cat to do swiss miss mouse house cross boss funny money GENDERS There are four genders, they are: Masculine gender, Feminine gender, Neuter Gender and Common Genders. Masculine Gender (All male categories) God, father, brother, uncle, king, husband, emperor, actor, aster, poet, lion, tiger, dog, cock, land lord Feminine Gender (All female categories) Goddess, mother, sister, aunt, queen, wife, empress, poetess, land lady, tigress, lioness, actress.. Neuter Gender Tree, table, bench, chair, house, mountain, field etc. Common Gender Students, audience, devotees, players, umpires, applicants, people, passengers, etc. Masculine Feminine Man Woman Poet Poetess Brother Sister Father Mother Uncle Aunt God Goddess King Queen Husband Wife Master Mistress Actor Actress Land lord Land lady Horse Mare Cock Hen Author Authoress

Boy Tiger Dog Lion Peacock

Girl Tigress Bitch Lioness Peahen

CAPITAL LETTERS Capitals are used: 1. To begin a sentence. 2. to begin each fresh line of poetry 3. to begin all proper nouns and adjective 4. for all nouns and pronouns 5. to write the pronoun I and the interjection Letter writing Letters are of three kinds, such as 1. Social letters: letters to relatives and friends 2. Business letters: 3. Official Letters There are six points of form a letter such as a. heading b. greeting c. communication or content d. polite leave e. signature (of the writer) f. address on the envelop (readers address) a. Heading: It consists of address of the writer and date on which it is written. b. Greeting: like dear father, dear brother, dear sister, dear son, dear sir, dear teacher, gentle man. c. Communication or content: whatever the writer wants to say. d. Polite leave Taking: marks the end of the letter with words like yours lovingly, your affectionately, your loving son, your loving daughter, yours faithfully, yours truly, yours sincerely c. Signature (of the writer): It enables the reader to know who exactly has written him the letter. f. Address on the Envelop: The address of the reader of ther letter is written on envelop of the letter fully and neatly. 1. Write a letter to your friend inviting him to the marriage of your sister (social Letter) No. 16th, 4th cross Jayanagar Bangalore Date: 10-aug-08 Dear Ravi I am keeping myself in good health here. I wish to hear the same thing from you. My sisters marriage is fixed. She is going to marry a handsome doctor who is settled in Bangalore. The marriage is fixed for 5th February, 09. I heartily invite you to the marriage of my sister. I am sending the invitation card along with this letter. Please come to the marriage and please us all. I hope you do not disappoint me by keeping yourself away from us. No more to write now.

Yours loving Prasad, (Signature) Leave letter To The Head Master, Alike school Alike Sir Kindly requested with this letter to give one day leave for attending my sister marriage on 15th june 2010. therefore, I am not able to attend the class. Date: 10-jun-2010 yours obedient student Place: Bangalore (Prasad) 7th standard Letter to father Alike 1st june 2010 Dear Father I am healthy and also same expectation from you. My examination will be commenced on next month 19th. I am studying hardly for the examination. So I cant come to the home. Your loving son Prasad Paragraph writing What is a paragraph? It is a group of sentences that introduces, presents and developsone main idea about the topic. And it can be divided intot hree major parts. A. The Topic Sentence It is normally the first sentence of the paragraph. It conveys the overall point of the paragraph. It helps the writer focus on the idea written about. It helps the reader know about what the paragraph is all about. B. The Supporting Details They are sentences used to support the main idea stated in the topic sentence. They give more information about the main idea through examples. They say in details what the topic sentence says in general. They should be clear evidence that what the topic sentence says is trustworthy. They should be strong convincing points on which the topic sentence can rely upon. C. The Concluding Sentence It is a reflection of the main idea pronounced in the topic sentence. It sums up what the topic sentence and the supporting details talk about. It is the closing sentence that reminds the readers of what they have to value. It is compulsory for the completion of the paragraph unity. It eventually indicates the end of a paragraph. It prepares the reader for a smooth transition to the next paragraph if there is one.

Practice Imagine you are asked to write a paragraph about ASPIRIN, which of the following topic sentences you would prefer to open your paragraph with: 1. Aspirin is a pain killer drug, but it has side-effects. 2. Aspirin can be a fatal poison. 3. Aspirin is used to calm down headaches but it attacks the stomach. Simple paragraph Aspirin can be a fatal poison. People are used to taking aspirin whenever they feel pain. It is true that aspirin is an efficacious pain-killer for example in headache cases. However, aspirin is like any other medicine can be dangerously harmful. Any unregulated use of it may result into the damage to the lining of the stomach, prolonged bleeding time, nausea, vomiting, ulcers, liver damage, and hepatitis. It is scientifically proven that excessive use of aspirin turns it into a toxin. Its toxic effects are Kidney Damage, severe metabolic derangements, respiratory and central nervous system effects, strokes, fatal haemorrhages of the brain, intestines & lungs and eventually death. Thus, the careful and regulated use of aspirin is most advisable so as not to turn into a deadly poison Essay Writing Essay writing improves your skills as a complete communicator. It improves your writing skills, allows scope to express better and combines communication skills with knowledge about the subject. Essays, if well written, convey a message to the reader who looks at your points of view and feels Special preparation needs to be done for good essay writing: 1.1 Defining The Subject: You should have a clear conception of the subject of the essay. A little bit of homework before you start writing goes a long way in creating good ideas. 1.2 Collecting Material: For a number of topics, you need to collect more information 1.3 Logical Arrangement: Now you can decide on the line of the essay; the logical order in which you can arrange your points you have selected. But you must put them down according to some plan. 1.4 Filling The Content: Now that you have the outline and the way you want to write, you can start filling in the content in the logical order. Verb do It is used as a principal and a helping verb Subject Present I, you, we, they Do Did He, she, it Does Did

Past done done

Past participle

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Making questions Questions are formed for all tenses except present simple and past simple by changing the position of the auxiliary verb {am, was, will, etc.) and the subject (I, you, she, he, etc.): You 're going Are you going? He has gone - Has he gone? Questions are formed for the present simple and past simple by using do, does, or did: They work here. Do they work here? She lived here. Did she live here? Practice Make questions from these statements.

1 She likes travelling Does she like travelling? 2 They're working. Are they working? 3 He was playing tennis. 4 She went to school today. 5 They live here. 6 She's eating at the moment. 7 They drove to the station. 8 She's reading. 9 He had breakfast early. 10 They came today. 11 She drives to work. 12 He left this morning. 13 He was writing a letter. 14 They watched television. 15 She's at home. 16 They went home. 17 She likes horror films. 18 He's walking home. 19 They were eating ice cream. 20 They gave him the money. Make ten questions from the box below, and give the answers. Who Why When Where What What time How How much Are you going? Did they leave? Is she talking to? Did they come here? Are you looking at? Did it cost? Example: Why did they leave? Because they wanted to catch the train. Who asked you? Who did you ask?: question words as subject or object Who drove the car? Who did you see? What happened? What did you do? who and what are sometimes the subject. who and what as subject + verb: Alison asked you. Who asked you? Alison. who and what are sometimes the object. who and what as object + question form of verb: You asked Steve. Who did you ask? Steve. Who stayed with you?

NOT Who did ask you!

but Who did Jane stay with? (Preposition at the end.) Practice Write the questions. 1 Who came to see me you? Raj came to see me. 2 Who___________________ last night? Ravi met barbar. 3 What_________________you_________reading?.I like reading books. 4 Who________________________? Priya made the cake 5 Who_________________________? Helen found the car key. 6 What________________________ A cigarette started the fire 7 What________________________? I want some help. 8 Who____________________You? Ravi told me 9 What___________you_________? I said nothing. 10 Who_______________________? Ravi came with sitha Short responses using so, neither, nor so + auxiliary verb + subject is used to say that something which is true about one thing or person is also true about another thing or person: 'I can speak Spanish.' So can I.' ( = T can speak Spanish too) The negative form is neither/nor + auxiliary verb + subject; 'Mike didn't win the prize/ Neither/Nor did Bill' {= And Bill didn't win it) If there is no auxiliary verb in the first sentence, do / does / did is used: 'Leo plays tennis.' 'So does Tom.' 'We went to the cinema last night.' So did we.' Practice Write responses to these statements using So or Neither/Nor and the word in brackets. 1. I've got a cold. (I) So have I. 2 Peter doesn't eat meat. (Steve) Neither/nor does Steve. 3.Sarah had a baby last year. (Jo) 4 We're going away for the New Year, (we) 5 I'd like to have a pet. (I) 6 Harry hasn't finished his essay. (Paul) 7 I won't be able to go to the meeting. (I) 8 Jenny could read when she was three. (Fiona) 9 I wasn't very interested in history when I was at school. (I) 10 You should do more exercise, (you) Short responses: / think so, I hope so 1 think I hope so are used to give a positive answer to a question, or to agree with someone without repeating what the other person said: Is it Tuesday today?' 'Yes. I think so.' (= I think it is Tuesday.)

Is it ready?' 'I hope so.' (= I hope it's ready) The usual negative forms are I don't think so, and I hope not: 'Will there be many people at the meeting?' I don't think so.' I think it's going to rain.' I hope not.' Practice Underline the correct or most likely response. 1 'Is Auckland the capital of Australia?' a 'I don't think so.' b 'I hope not.' 3 'Will I have to go into hospital?' a 'No, I don't think so.' b 'Yes, I think so.' 4. 'Will the house be finished before next year? b 'No, I don't hope so.' b 'Yes, I hope not.' 5 'I think it's going to be sunny this weekend.' a T think so, because I'm playing tennis on Sunday.' b 'I hope so, because I'm playing tennis on Sunday.' 6 'Are there 31 days in July?' a 'I hope so.' b 'I hope so. 7. I think Mr. Ravi going to give a speech a. I hope so, He's really boring.' b 'I don't think so.' He's really boring. 8. 'Do you think there will be any food at the party? a. I don't think so b. I don't hope so Modals 'Modals' are the small verbs like can, must, and might, which give certain meanings to main verbs. There are twelve modal verbs: Could Would should can shall will may Must Might date Ought (to) Need (to) Positive is formed by putting the modal between the subject and the main verb: We should stay. You ought to go. He might come. Negative is formed by adding not (or n't) after the modal: We shouldn't stay. You ought not to come. He might not come. Questions are formed by changing the position of the modal and the subject: Should we stay? Shouldn't we stay? Ought you to go? Oughtn't yon to go? Might he come? Mightn't he come?

Notes need can be needn't [modal form) or don't need to (verb form). Negative questions generally use n't. If not is used, there is a different word order: Shouldn't we stay? Should we not stay? Using modals in questions and negatives Practice Rewrite these sentences as questions or negatives, according to the instruction given. 1 I must go to the hospital tonight, (negative) / mustn't go to the hospital tonight. 2 James can play the piano, (question) Can James play the piano? 3 Peter can pay for us. (question) 4 We must go to the passport office today, (negative) 5 We can go to the bank tomorrow, (negative question) 6 You should phone the school today, (negative) 7 You can answer all the questions, (question) 8 She can pay for the lessons, (negative) 9 You can talk to Mary for me. (question) 10 Peter can check the times of the trains for us. (question) 11 We must say goodbye to Alan and Sue. (question) 12 They can stay here for a week, (negative) 13 We can buy a return ticket here, (question) 14 They should help you. (negative) 15 He can understand me. (negative question) can, could can: (i) know how to, be able to: J can swim. Mary can speak French. (ii) can: be allowed to: You can sit here. My mother says I can't go out tonight. could: knew how to: Emily could swim when she was two. couldn't: (i) wasn't able to: I'm sorry, I couldn't come yesterday. I couldn't go to work this morning. (ii) could/couldn't (ii) used in the second conditional [> Exercise 59} If you gave me the money, could I do the shopping? Requests: both can and could are used in requests. Could is a little more polite: Can I have a. glass of water, please? Could you open the door for me, please? Notes can refers To the future if it is followed by a time word {next week, tomorrow, etc): I can do it for you next month. In the negative: can * can't or cannot could * couldn't or could not. Practice Complete these sentences using can or could. If two answers arc possible, write them both. 1 .Could.. n't you find John yesterday? 2 .Can/.Could. I come and see you tomorrow? 3. you pass me the salt, 4.. you play the guitar? 5. why.. the children go to the cinema tonight? 6 you help me with my suitcase, please?

7.. you drive my car if you had to? 8. you answer the phone for me? 9 why you come to the disco tomorrow? 10 It was very difficult to hear; I,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, what she was saying? 11.. I smoke in here. may, might may and might indicate present or future possibility: He might arrive soon. He may arrive soon. She might be angry if yon do that. She may be angry if you do that. May I? or May we? are used for polite requests, in the same way as Can I? or Can we? It is a very polite form: May I ask you a question? May I have a glass of water, please? Notes may is occasionally used in formal English to mean to be allowed to: Guests may bring husbands or wives if they wish. may and might are usually used in question form only with / or we: other persons more often use the positive with Do you think ...?: He might be late. * Do you think he. Might be late? The negative of may is may not. (NOT mayn't). The negative of might is might not or mightn't. Practice Rewrite these sentences using may or might. Where two answers are possible, write them both. 1 Maybe he'll get a new job. He might/may get a new job. 2 Do you think I could have one of these cakes? May I have one of these cakes? 3 Maybe there's some tea in the pot. 4 Would you mind if I asked you how old you are? 5 Visitors are not allowed to stay in the hospital after ten p.m. 6 Do you think I could have one of these sandwiches? 7 I think the car is in the station car park. 8.Is it all right if I use your phone? 9. Guests are allowed to wear casual dress. 10 Maybe she'll move to London. 11 There's a possibility that the show will be cancelled. 12 Maybe she'll be elected. 13 1 think that Andrew will collect the money. 14 Maybe Peter won't come to the cinema tomorrow. 15 Maybe it'll rain this afternoon. Verb have It is used as a principal and a helping verb have to be there at 9 o'clock: have + to-infinitive subject Present Past Past participle I, you, we, they Have to Had to had He, she, it Has to Had to had The verb have + the to-infinitive. Note: have + fo-infinitive has its own meaning and in this way it is like a modal verb.

However, it does not have the form of a modal - it is an ordinary verb and we can use it in any tense. The form of the positive, negative and question is the same as for other verbs. USE have + to-infinitive = It is very important to do something/It is necessary to do something. not have + to-infinitive = It is not necessary to do something. have + to-infinitive is very similar in meaning to must but we can use it for all tenses. We can say: We must leave early, or We have to leave early, but only We had to leave early last night. (We do not use must in the past.) must and have + to-infinitive have different meanings in the negative: You mustn't stay here. It's very dangerous. ( = It is very important that you don't stay here.) You don't have to wait for me. I can get a taxi home. (= It is not necessary for you to wait for me, but you can wait if you want to.) Practice Complete the sentences with have + to-infinitive in the correct form and one of the verbs below. Use have in the present simple. read explain shout be stop come get up sleep talk send open answer decide take turn 1. I .have to be.. at work at 9 o'clock in the morning, (positive) 3. she.all the phone calls at work, (positive) 2 We ..don't have to get up...early at weekends, (negative) 3. she.all the phone calls at work, (positive) 4you..all these books for the exam? (question) 5. I. which job I want before the end of the week (positive) 6 You.- I can hear you. (negative) Rewrite the sentences adding have + to-infinitive in the correct tense and form. 1. Did you take a taxi home? Did you have to take a taxi home? 2.I've used the bus for the last two days. I've had to use the bus for the last two days. 3 I do the washing once a week. 4 We didn't go to college yesterday. 5.Did you get up early this morning?

6 I'll start work next week. 7 I've always worked hard. 8 The children go to bed at 8 o'clock. 9 They don't work on Saturdays. 10 Did you take your lunch with you? 11 She worked very hard for her exam. 12 I usually cut the grass once a week. 13 She didn't cook the dinner last night. 14 Do you pay to go in? 15 I usually stay at home on Wednesdays. Complete the sentences with mustn't or the correct form of not have to. 1 She ..doesn't have. to., come if she doesn't want to. 2.we_________________miss the train. It's the last one tonight. 3. I________________do this work tonight. I can do it tomorrow. 4. I_________________clean the floor today. I cleaned it yesterday. 5. we________________ forget to lock all the doors before we go away. 6. They__________ sit in the sun for too long. They might get burnt. 7. we_____________ stay in a hotel in London. We can stay with my cousin. 8. We________________ spend too much money tonight. We have only got a little left. Silent Letters in Words There are certain words which have a particular letter or letters that are silent and therefore the pronunciation of the word is different. B Silent in words like Comb Dumb Debt C - Silent in words like Scene Scent D - Silent in words like Judge Edge G - Silent in words like Resign Sign GH Silent in words like Brought Though H - Silent in words like Hour Honor K- Silent in words like Know Knee L - Silent in words like Talk Half N Silent in words like Autumn P - Silent in words like Psychology Pneumonia Night

T - Silent in words like Listen Catch U- Silent in words like Tongue Guard W - Silent in words like Write Answer HOMONYMS A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning. The words may be spelled the same, such asrose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as their, there,carat,caret, andcarro t, or to, two and too. Here are two or more homonyms in each sentence. Read the sentences carefully and then underline the homonyms. The first two sentences have been done for you. 1. The wind blew my blue shirt into the pool. 2. Cheryl rode along as we rowed the boat from the island to the lakeside road. 3. Ive never seen such a beautiful scene. 4. We want a site for our home that will be out of sight. 5. The seam in the tent doesnt seem to hold back the rain. 6. Due to the dry weather, we do not see any dew on the grass. 7. I knew they had a new gnu at the zoo. 8. Some people know that you add to find the sum. 9. Theyre hanging their coats over there. 10. I ate the eight cakes that were on my plate. 11. How many ways can I tell him that he weighs too much? 12. They banned the crude band from playing at the concert. 13. She only won one ticket to the show. 14. We must raze the old building before the suns rays can raise the temperature. 15. Well find a tropical isle where Ill walk down the aisle with my bride. 16. Youre crazy if you pierce your ankle! Pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word is pronounced or spoken. Ways To Improve Your Pronunciation 1. Listen to the English news regularly - CNN - BBC - Star News 2. Be attentive when you hear others speak. 3. Look up the dictionary for the correct pronunciation of words. 4. Read the paragraph loud loudly and then tape it. After listening to tape correct your mistakes and speak again. The formation of the mouth and placing of the tongue is important for correct pronunciation. Looking into a mirror will help. 5. Enjoy the company of people who speak fluent English. 6. Buy tapes of speeches of great leaders of the world and listen to them. A skillful speaker never pronounces a word in a way that is alien to the habits of his listener. The three most common mistakes that happen while pronouncing: -- carelessness -- a put-on accent -- pronunciation that is too careful

Take for example: Two most commonly used words : Either Neither When pronounced as Either and Neither, no one notices them. But if they are pronounced as Eyether and Nyether, they will be certainly noticed and the chances are that they will cause irritation. THE QUANTIFIERS NUMBERS Thecardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) are adjectives referring to quantity, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) refer to distribution. Number Ordinal Cardinal 1 one first 2 two second 3 three third 4 four fourth 5 five fifth 6 six sixth 7 seven seventh 8 eight eighth 9 nine ninth 10 ten tenth 11 eleven eleventh 12 twelve twelfth 13 thirteen thirteenth 14 fourteen fourteenth 15 fifteen fifteenth 16 sixteen sixteenth 17 seventeen Seventeenth 18 eighteen eighteenth 19 Nineteen nineteenth 20 twenty twentieth 21 twenty-one twenty-first 22 twenty-two twenty-second 23 twenty-three twenty-third 24 twenty-four twenty-fourth 25 twenty-five twenty-fifth 26 twenty-six twenty-sixth 27 twenty-seven twenty-seventh 28 twenty-eight twenty-eighth 29 twenty-nine twenty-ninth 30 thirty thirtieth 31 thirty-one thirty-first 40 forty fortieth 50 fifty fiftieth 60 sixty sixtieth 70 seventy seventieth 80 eighty eightieth 90 ninety ninetieth 100 one hundred hundredth 500 five hundred five hundredth 1,000 one thousand thousandth 100,000 one hundred thousand hundred thousandth

1,000,000 Examples:

one million


There are twenty-five people in the room. He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934. Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after the earthquake. I must have asked you twenty times to be quiet. He went to Israel for the third time this year. Fractions and decimals Said Written Said Half 0.5 point five a quarter 0.25 point two five three quarters 0.75 point seven five Percentages Written Said 25% twenty five percent 50% fifty percent 75% seventy five percent 100% a/one hundred percent Some Tips To Learn English Better Read an extract from a book everyday. Newspaper editorials make good reading material. Read articles in magazines and try to rewrite them in your own words. Use the language as often as possible, but also try and be a good listener. Listen to the news broadcast on the radio and also on the television. It will help you improve your pronunciation. Maintain a register and keep noting down your grey areas. Go through them every week and try to correct your mistakes. Intonation and emphasis on the right word at the right time is very important. Read aloud a passage from a book or a poem, record it and then correct intonation as you listen to it. The dictionary should be your constant companion. When in doubt about the meaning or pronunciation of a word, always refer to the dictionary. Note down some new words and phrases, which you think could be used in your day to day conversation, in your register. Group discussions are extremely important. Select a topic of your choice and discuss it with a group of friends. It will boost your confidence and will also allow you to think of new sentences. Select a topic and try to speak about it for at least a minute in front of the mirror. Who is applied to persons only; as, "The man who was here." Which is applied to the lower animals and things without life; as, "The horse which I sold." "The hat which I bought." That is applied to both persons and things; as, "The friend that helps." "The bird that sings." "The knife that cuts." What is a compound relative, including both the antecedent and the relative and is equivalent to that which ; as, "I did what he desired," i. e. "I did that which he desired." Relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike. Who is either masculine or feminine; which and that are masculine, feminine or neuter; what as a relative pronoun is always neuter. That and what are not inflected. Who and which are thus declined: Sing. and Plural

Sing. and Plural N. Who N. Which P. Whose P. Whose O. Whom O. Which Who , which and what when used to ask questions are called Interrogative Pronouns . Tenses Present Can May Shall Will Ought Past Could Might Should Would Ought Passive Participle (Wanting) " " " "

There are nine auxiliary or helping verbs, viz., Be , have , do , shall , will , may , can , ought , and must . They are called helping verbs, because it is by their aid the compound tenses are formed. TO BE The verb To Be is the most important of the auxiliary verbs. It has eleven parts, viz., am, art, is, are, was, wast, were, wert; be, being and been . AM COME--HAVE COME " I am come " points to my being here, while "I have come" intimates that I have just arrived. When the subject is not a person, the verb to be should be used in preference to the verb to have ; as, "The box is come" instead of "The box has come." PAST TENSE--PAST PARTICIPLE The interchange of these two parts of the irregular or so-called strong verbs is, perhaps, the breach oftenest committed by careless speakers and writers. To avoid mistakes it is requisite to know the principal parts of these verbs, and this knowledge is very easy of acquirement, as there are not more than a couple of hundred of such verbs, and of this number but a small part is in daily use. Here are some of the most common blunders: "I seen" for "I saw;" "I done it" for "I did it;" "I drunk" for "I drank;" "I begun" for "I began;" "I rung" for "I rang;" "I run" for "I ran;" "I sung" for "I sang;" "I have chose" for "I have chosen;" "I have drove" for "I have driven;" "I have wore" for "I have worn;" "I have trod" for "I have trodden;" "I have shook" for "I have shaken;" "I have fell" for "I have fallen;" "I have drank" for "I have drunk;" "I have began" for "I have begun;" "I have rang" for "I have rung;" "I have rose" for "I have risen;" "I have spoke" for "I have spoken;" "I have broke" for "I have broken." "It has froze" for "It has frozen." "It has blowed" for "It has blown." "It has flowed" (of a bird) for "It has flown." N. B.--The past tense and past participle of To Hang is hanged or hung . When you are talking about a man meeting death on the gallows, say "He was hanged"; when you are talking about the carcass of an animal say, "It was hung," as "The beef was hung dry." Also say your coat " was hung on a hook." THE PRONOUNS Very many mistakes occur in the use of the pronouns. "Let you and I go" should be "Let you and _me_ go." "Let them and we go" should be "Let them and us go." The verb let is transitive and therefore takes the objective case. "Give me _them_ flowers" should be "Give me _those_ flowers"; "I mean _them_ three"

should be "I mean those three." Them is the objective case of the personal pronoun and cannot be used adjectively like the demonstrative adjective pronoun. "I am as strong as _him_" should be "I am as strong as _he_"; "I am younger than _her_" should be "I am younger than _she_;" "He can write better than _me_" should be "He can write better than I," for in these examples the objective cases _him_, _her_ and _me_ are used wrongfully for the nominatives. After each of the misapplied pronouns a verb is understood of which each pronoun is the subject. Thus, "I am as strong as he (is)." "I am younger than she (is)." "He can write better than I (can)." Don't say " It is me ;" say " It is I " The verb To Be of which is is a part takes the same case after it that it has before it. This holds good in all situations as well as with pronouns. The verb To Be also requires the pronouns joined to it to be in the same case as a pronoun asking a question; The nominative I requires the nominative who and the objectives me , him , her , its , you , them , require the objective whom . " Whom do you think I am?" should be " Who do you think I am?" and " Who do they suppose me to be?" should be " Whom do they suppose me to be?" The objective form of the Relative should be always used, in connection with a preposition. "Who do you take me for?" should be " Whom do, etc." "Who did you give the apple to?" should be "Whom did you give the apple to," but as pointed out elsewhere the preposition should never end a sentence, therefore, it is better to say, "To whom did you give the apple?" After transitive verbs always use the objective cases of the pronouns. For " He and they we have seen," say " Him and them we have seen." Subject and predicate 1. Napoleon was banished. 2. Andre was captured. 3. Money is circulated. 4. Columbus was imprisoned. 5. Acorns are sprouting. 6. Bells are tolled. 7. Summer has come. 8. Sentences may be analyzed. 9. Clouds are reddening. 10. Air may be weighed. 11. Jehovah shall reign. 12. Corn is planted. 13. Grammarians will differ. 14. Snow is falling. 15. Leaves are rustling. 16. Children will prattle. 17. Crickets are chirping. 18. Eclipses have been foretold. 19. Storms may abate. 20. Deception may have been practiced. 21. Esau was hated. 22. Treason should have been punished. 23. Bees are humming. 24. Sodom might have been spared. Sentence Building

Prefix the little helping words in the _second column_ to such of the more important words in the _third column_ as with them will make complete predicates, and join these predicates to all subjects in the _first column_ with which they will unite to make good sense. 1 |2 | 3 | | Burgoyne | are | woven. Henry Hudson | was | defeated. Sparrows | can be | condensed. Comets | is | inhaled. Time | have been | worn. Turbans | may be | slacked. Lime | has been | wasted. Steam | could have been | seen. Air | must have been | deceived. Carpets | were | quarreling. One verb may consist of _two, three_, or _four_ words; as, _is singing, will be sung, might have been sung_. Form _verbs_ by combining the words in columns 2 and 3, and add these verbs to all the _nouns_ in column 1 with which they appropriately combine. 1 | 2 | 3 | | Laws | has been | published. Clouds | have been | paid. Food | will be | restored. Health | should have been | preserved. Taxes | may be | collected. Books | are | obeyed. Tenses Let the teacher give other verbs, and require the pupils to name and explain the different tenses. _I walk. Thou walkest. He walks. They walk_. In the second sentence, the verb _walk_ was changed by adding _est_; and in the third, it was changed by adding _s_. These changes are for the sake of agreement with the person of the subject. The verb ending in _est_ agrees with the subject _thou_ in the second person, and the verb ending in _s_ agrees with _he_ in the third person. In the fourth sentence, the subject is in the third person; but it is plural, and so the verb drops the _s_ to agree with they in the plural. Verbs are said to agree in +Person+ and +Number+ with their subjects. +DEFINITIONS+. +_Mode_ is that modification of the verb which denotes the manner of asserting the action or being+. +The _Indicative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a fact+. +The _Potential Mode_ asserts the power, liberty, possibility, or necessity of acting or being+. +The _Subjunctive Mode_ asserts the action or being as a mere condition, supposition, or wish+. +The _Imperative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a command or an entreaty+. +The _Infinitive_ is a form of the verb which names the action or being in a general way, without asserting it of anything+. +The _Participle_ is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an adjective or of a noun, and expressing the action or being as assumed+. +The _Present Participle_ denotes action or being as continuing at the time indicated by the predicate+. +The _Past Participle_ denotes action or being as past or completed at the time indicated by the predicate+. +The _Past Perfect Participle_ denotes action or being as completed at a time previous to that indicated by the predicate+. +_Tense_ is that modification of the verb which expresses the time of the action or being+.

+The _Present Tense_ expresses action or being as present+. +The _Past Tense_ expresses action or being as past+. +The _Future Tense_ expresses action or being as yet to come+. +The _Present Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at the present time+. +The _Past Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at some past time+. +The _Future Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being to be completed at some future time+. +_Number_ and _Person_ of a verb are those modifications that show its agreement with the number and person of its subject+. _Present_. _Past_. _Past. Par._ Be _or_ am, was, been. Begin, began, begun. Blow, blew, blown. Break, broke, broken. Choose, chose, chosen. Come, came, come. Do, did, done. Draw, drew, drawn. Drink, drank, drunk. Drive, drove, driven. Eat, ate, eaten. Fall, fell, fallen. Fly, flew, flown. Freeze, froze, frozen. Go, went, gone. Get, got, got _or_ gotten. Give, gave, given. Grow, grew, grown. Have, had, had. Know, knew, known. Lay, laid, laid. Lie, (to rest) lay, lain. Ride, rode, ridden. Ring, rang _or_ rung, rung. Rise, rose, risen. Run, ran, run. See, saw, seen. Set, set, set. Sit, sat, sat. Shake, shook, shaken. Sing, sang _or_ sung, sung. Slay, slew, slain. Speak, spoke, spoken. Steal, stole, stolen. Swim, swam _or_ swum, swum. Take, took, taken. Tear, tore, torn. Throw, threw, thrown. Wear, wore, worn. Write, wrote, written. The following irregular verbs are called +_Defective_,+ because some of their parts are wanting. _Present_. _Past_. | _Present_. _Past_.|

Can, could. | Will, would. May, might. | Must, ---Shall, should. | Ought, ---LESSON 92. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB +SEE+ IN THE SIMPLE FORM. +PRINCIPAL PARTS+. _Pres_. _Past_. _Past Par._ See, saw, seen. INDICATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. _Plural_. 1. I see, 1. We see, 2. You see, _or_ 2. You see, Thou seest, 3. He sees; 3. They see. PAST TENSE. 1. I saw, 1. We saw, 2. You saw, _or_ 2. You saw, Thou sawest, 3. He saw; 3. They saw. FUTURE TENSE. 1. I shall see, 1. We shall see, 2. You will see, _or_ 2. You will see, Thou wilt see, 3. He will see; 3. They will see. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I have seen, 1. We have seen, 2. You have seen, _or_ 2. You have seen, Thou hast seen 3. He has seen; 3. They have seen. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I had seen, 1. We had seen, 2. You had seen, _or_ 2. You had seen, Thou hadst seen, 3. He had seen; 3. They had seen. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I shall have seen, 1. We shall have seen, 2. You will have seen, _or_ 2. You will have seen, Thou wilt have seen, 3. He will have seen; POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I may see, 2. You may see, _or_ Thou mayst see, 3. He may see; PAST TENSE. 1. I might see, 2. You might see, _or_ Thou mightst see, 3. He might see; PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I may have seen,

2. You may have seen, _or_ Thou mayst have seen, 3. He may have seen; PAST PERFECT TENSE. 3. They will have seen. _Plural_. 1. We may see, 2. You may see, 3. They may see. 62 1. We might see, 2. You might see, 3. They might see. 1. We may have seen, 2. You may have seen 3. They may have seen. English grammar _Singular_. _Plural_. 1. I might have seen, 1. We might have seen, 2. You might have seen, _or_ 2. You might have seen, Thou mightst have seen, 3. He might have seen; 3. They might have seen. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. _Plural_. 1. If I see, 1. If we see, 2. If you see, _or_ 2. If you see, If thou see, 3. If he see; 3. If they see. IMPERATIVEMODE. PRESENT TENSE. 2. See (you _or_ thou); 2. See (you). INFINITIVES .PRESENT TENSE. To see. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. To have seen. PARTICIPLES. PRESENT. PAST. PAST PERFECT. Seeing, Seen, Having seen. +To the Teacher+.--Let the pupils prefix _do_ and _did_ to the simple present _see_, and thus make the _emphatic form_ of the present and the past tense. Let _can_ and _must_ be used in place of _may_; and _could_, _would_, and _should_, in place of _might_. Require the pupils to tell how each tense is formed, and to note all changes for agreement in number and person. A majority of modern writers use the _indicative_ forms instead of the _subjunctive_, in all of the tenses, unless it may be the _present_. The _subjunctive_ forms of the verb _to be_ are retained in the present and the past tense. Let the pupils understand that the mode and tense forms do not always correspond with the

actual meaning. _The ship sails next week. I may go to-morrow_. The verbs _sails_ and _may go_ are _present_ in form but _future_ in meaning. _If it rains by noon, he may not come_. The verb _rains_ is _indicative_ in form but _subjunctive_ in meaning. The plural forms, _You saw, You were_, etc., are used in the _singular_ also. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB--SIMPLE FORM. Fill out the following forms, using the principal parts of the verb _walk. Pres., walk; Past, walked; Past Par., walked_. INDICATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. ural_. 1. I _Pres_ /, 1. We / _Pres_ /, 2. You / _Pres_ /, 2. You / _Pres_ /, Thou / _Pres_ /est, 3. He / _Pres_ /s; 3. They / _Pres_ /. PAST TENSE 1. I / _Past_ /, 1. We / _Past_ /, 2. You / _Past_ /, 2. You / _Past_ /, Thou / _Past_ /st, 3. He / _Past_ /; 3. They / _Past_ /. FUTURE TENSE. 1. I _shall_ / _Pres_ /, 1. We _will_ / _Pres_ /, 2. You _will_ / _Pres_ /, 2. You _will_ / _Pres_ /, Thou _wil-t_ / _Pres_ /, 64 3. He _will_ / _Pres_ /; 3. They _will_ / _Pres_ /. PRESEN T PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _have_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _ha-st_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _ha-s_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _have_ /_Past Par._/. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _had_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _had_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _had_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _had_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _had-st_

/_Past Par._/, 3. He _had_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _had_ /_Past Par._/. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _shall have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _will have_ _Past Par._, 2. You _will have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _will have_ _Past Par._, Thou _wil-t have_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _will have_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _will have_ _Past Par._. POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT TENSE. 1. I _may_ / _Pres._ /, 1. We _may_ / _Pres._ /, 2. You _may_ / _Pres._ /, 2. You _may_ / _Pres._ /, Thou _may-st_ / _Pres._ /, 3. He _may_ / _Pres._ /; 3. They _may_ / _Pres._ /. PAST TENSE. 1. I _might_ / _Pres._ /, 1. We _might_ / _Pres._ /, 2. You _might_ / _Pres._ /, 2. You _might_ / _Pres._ /, Thou _might-st_ / _Pres._ /, 3. He _might_ / _Pres._ /; 3. They _might_ / _Pres._ /. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _may have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _may have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _may have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _may have_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _may-st have_ /_Past Par._/, 3. He _may have_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _may have_ /_Past Par._/. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I _might have_ /_Past Par._/, 1. We _might have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _might have_ /_Past Par._/, 2. You _might have_ /_Past Par._/, Thou _might-st 65 have_ /_Past Par._/,

3. He _might have_ /_Past Par._/; 3. They _might have_ /_Past Par._/. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. _Plural_. 1. If I / _Pres._ /, 1. If we / _Pres._ /, 2. If you / _Pres._ /, 2. If you / _Pres._ /, If thou / _Pres._ /, 3. If he / _Pres._ /; 3. If they / _Pres._ /. IMPERATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. 2. / _Pres._ / (you _or_ thou); 2. / _Pres._ / (you). INFINITIVES. PRESENT TENSE. To / _Pres._ /. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. To _have_ /_Past Par._/. PARTICIPLES. PRESENT. PAST. PAST PERFECT. /_Pres./ing_. /_Past Par._/ _Having /Past Par./_ +To the Teacher+.--Let the pupils fill out these forms with other verbs. In the indicative, present, third, singular, _es_ is sometimes added instead of _s_; and in the second person, old style, _st_ is sometimes added instead of _est_. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB BE. In studying this Lesson, pay no attention to the line at the right of each verb. INDICATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I am----, 2. You are---- _or_ Thou art----, 3. He is----; PAST TENSE. 1. I was----, 2. You were----, _or_ Thou wast----, 3. He was----; FUTURE TENSE. 66 1. I shall be----,

2. You will be----, _or_ Thou wilt be----, 3. He will be----; PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I have been----, 2. You have been---- _or_ Thou hast been----, 3. He has been----; PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I had been----, 2. You had been---- _or_ Thou hadst been----, 3. He had been----; FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. I shall have been----, 2. You will have been---- _or_ Thou wilt have been----, 3. He will has been----; POTENTIAL MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. I may be----, 2. You may be---- _or_ Thou mayst be----, 3. He may be----; PAST TENSE. 1. I might be----, 2. You might be---- _or_ Thou mightst be----, _Plural_. 1. We are----, 2. You are----, 3. They are----. 1. We were----, 2. You were----, 3. They were----. 1. We shall be----, 2. You will be----, 3. They will be----. 1. We have been----, 2. You have been----, 3. They have been----. 1. We had been----, 2. You had been----, 3. They had been----. 1. We shall have been----, 2. You will have been----, 3. They will have been----. _Plural_. 1. We may be----, 2. You may be----,

3. They may be----. 1. We might be----, 67 2. You might be----, 68 3. He might be----; 3. They might be----. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 1. I may have been----, 1. We may have been----, 2. You may have been---- _or_ 2. You may have been----, Thou mayst have been----, 3. He may have been----; 3. They may have been----. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 1. I might have been----, 1. We might have been----, 2. You might have been---- _or_ 2. You might have been----, Thou mightst have been----, 3. He might have been----; 3. They might have been----. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. _Singular_. 1. If I be----, 2. If you be---- _or _ If thou be----, 3. If he be----; PAST TENSE. 1. If I were----, 2. If you were---- _or_ If thou wert----, 3. If he were----; IMPERATIVE MODE. PRESENT TENSE. 2. Be (you _or_ them)----; INFINITIVES. PRESENT TENSE. To be----. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. To have been----. PARTICIPLES. PRESENT. PAST. Being----. Been. _Plural_. 1. If we be----, 2. If you be----, 3. If they be----. 1. If we were----, 2. If you were----,

3. If they were----. 2. Be (you)------. PAST PERFECT. Having been----. +To the Teacher+.--After the pupils have become thoroughly familiar with the verb _be_ as a principal verb, teach them to use it as an auxiliary in making the +Progressive Form+ and the +Passive Form+. The _progressive form_ may be made by filling all the blanks with the _present participle_ of some verb. 70 The _passive form_ may be made by filling all the blanks with the _past participle_ of a _transitive_ verb. Notice that, after the past participle, no blank is left. In the progressive form, this participle is wanting; and, in the passive form, it is the same as in the simple. AGREEMENT OF THE VERB. +To the Teacher+.--For additional matter, see pp. 163-167. +_Remember_+ that the verb must agree with its subject in number and person. Give the person and number of each of the following verbs, and write sentences in which each form shall be used correctly. _Common forms_.--Does, has=ha(ve)s, is, am, are, was, were. _Old forms_.--Seest, sawest, hast=ha(ve)st, wilt, mayst, mightst, art, wast. When a verb has two or more subjects connected by _and_, it must agree with them in the plural. _A similar rule applies to the agreement of the pronoun_. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. +Model+.--Poverty and obscurity _oppresses_ him who thinks that _it is oppressive_. Wrong: the verb _oppresses_ should be changed to _oppress_ to agree with its two subjects, connected by _and_. The pronoun _it_ should be changed to _they_ to agree with its two antecedents, and the verb _is_ should be changed to _are_ to agree with _they_. Industry, energy, and good sense is essential to success. Time and tide waits for no man. The tall sunflower and the little violet is turning its face to the sun. The mule and the horse was harnessed together. Every green leaf and every blade of grass seem grateful. +Model+.--The preceding sentence is wrong. The verb _seem_ is plural, and it should be singular; for, when several singular subjects are preceded by _each_, every_, or _no_, they are taken separately. Each day and each hour bring their portion of duty. Every book and every paper were found in their place. When a verb has two or more singular subjects connected by _or_ or _nor_, it must agree with them in the singular. _A similar rule applies to the agreement of the pronoun_. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. One or the other have made a mistake in their statement. Neither the aster nor the dahlia are cultivated for their fragrance. Either the president or his secretary were responsible. Neither Ann, Jane, nor Sarah are at home. To foretell, or to express future time simply, the auxiliary _shall_ is used in the first person, and _will_ in the second and third; but when a speaker determines or promises, he uses _will_ in the first person and _shall_ in the second and third. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. I will freeze, if I do not move about. You shall

feel better soon, I think. She shall be fifteen years old to-morrow. I shall find it for you, if you shall bring the book to me. You will have it, if I can get it for you. He will have it, if he shall take the trouble to ask for it. He will not do it, if I can prevent him. I will drown, nobody shall help me. I will be obliged to you, if you shall attend to it. We will have gone by to-morrow morning. You shall disappoint your father, if you do not return. I do not think I will like the change. Next Tuesday shall be your birthday. You shall be late, if you do not hurry. ERRORS IN THE FORM OF THE VERB. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. +Model+.--Those things _have_ not _came to-day_. Wrong, because the past _came_ is here used for the past participle _come_. The present perfect tense is formed by prefixing _have_ to the _past participle_. I done all my work before breakfast. I come in a little late yesterday. He has went to my desk without permission. That stupid fellow set down on my new hat. _Set_ is generally transitive, and _sit_ is intransitive. _Lay_ is transitive, and _lie_ is intransitive. He sat the chair in the corner. Sit that plate on the table, and let it set. I have set in this position a long time. That child will not lay still or set still a minute. I laid down under the tree, and enjoyed the scenery. Lie that stick on the table, and let it lay. Those boys were drove out of the fort three times. I have rode through the park. I done what I could. He has not spoke to-day. The leaves have fell from the trees. This sentence is wrote badly. 72 He throwed his pen down, and said that the point was broke. He teached me grammar. I seen him when he done it. My hat was took off my head, and throwed out of the window. The bird has flew into that tall tree. I was chose leader. ar I have began to do better. I begun this morning. My breakfast was ate in a hurry. Your dress sets well.

That foolish old hen is setting on a wooden egg. He has tore it up and throwed it away. William has took my knife, and I am afraid he has stole it. This should be well shook. I begun to sing, before I knowed what I was doing. We drunk from a pure spring. I thought you had forsook us. His pencil is nearly wore up. He come, and tell me all he knowed about it. REVIEW questions +To the Teacher+.--See "Scheme," p. 187. How many modifications have verbs? Ans.--_Five; viz., voice, mode, tense, number, and person_. Define voice. How many voices are there? Define each. Illustrate. What is mode? How many modes are there? Define each. What is an infinitive? What is a participle? How many different kinds of participles are there? Define each. Illustrate. What is tense? How many tenses are there? Define each. Illustrate. What are the number and the person of a verb? Illustrate. What is conjugation? What is synopsis? What are auxiliaries? Name the auxiliaries. What are the principal parts of a verb? Why are they so called? How does a verb agree with its subject? When a verb has two or more subjects, how does it agree? Illustrate the uses of _shall_ and _will_. +To the Teacher+.--Select some of the preceding exercises, and require the pupils to write the parsing of all the verbs. See Lessons 34, 35, 48, 49, and 56. +Model for Written Parsing--Verbs+.--_The Yankee, selling his farm, wanders away to seek new lands_. CLASSIFICATION. MODIFICATIONS. SYNTAX . _Verbs_. _Kind_. _Voice_. _Mode_. _Tense_. _Num_. _Per_. *selling Pr. Par., Ir., Tr. Ac.----- -----Mod. of _Yankee_. wanders Reg., Int. --- Ind. Pres. Sing. 3d. Pred. of " *seek Inf, Ir.,Tt, Ac. --" -----Prin. word in phrase Mod. of _wanders_. 73

[Footnote *: Participles and Infinitives have no _person_ or _number_.] SENTENCE-BUILDING. Participles sometimes partake of the nature of the noun, while they retain the nature of the verb. Build each of the following phrases into a sentence, and explain the nature of the participle. +Model+.-- ----_in building a snow fort_. They were engaged _in building a snow fort_. The participle _building_, like a noun, follows the preposition _in_, as the principal word in the phrase; and, like a verb, it takes the object complement _fort_. ---- by foretelling storms. ---- by helping others. ---- on approaching the house. -----in catching fish. Use the following phrases as subjects. Walking in the garden----. His writing that letter----. Breaking a promise----. Use each of the following phrases in a complex sentence. Let some of the dependent clauses be used as adjectives, and some, as adverbs. ---- in sledges. ---- up the Hudson. ---- down the Rhine. ---- through the Alps. ---with snow and ice.---- into New York Bay.---- on the prairie.---- at Saratoga. Build a short sentence containing all the parts of speech. Expand the following simple sentence into twelve sentences. Astronomy teaches the size, form, nature, and motions of the sun, moon, and stars. Contract the following awkward compound sentence into a neat simple sentence, Hannibal passed through Gaul, and then he crossed the Alps, and then came down into Italy, and then he defeated several Roman generals. Change the following complex sentences to compound sentences. When he asked me the question, I answered him courteously. Morse, the man who invented the telegraph, was a public benefactor. When spring comes, the birds will return. Contract the following complex sentences into simple sentences by changing the verb in the dependent clause to a participle. Notice all the other changes. A ship which was gliding along the horizon attracted our attention. I saw a man who was plowing a field. When the shower had passed, we went on our way. I heard that he wrote that article. That he was a foreigner was well known. I am not sure that he did it. Every pupil who has an interest in this work will prepare for it. 74 Change the following compound sentences to complex sentences. +Model+.--Morning dawns, and the clouds disperse. When morning dawns, the clouds disperse. Avoid swearing; it is a wicked habit. Pearls are valuable, and they are found in oyster shells. Dickens wrote David Copperfield, and he died in 1870. Some animals are vertebrates, and they have a backbone. each of the following sentences as much as you can. Indians dance. The clock struck. The world moves. MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS. CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS.

I have got that book at home. +Model+.--Wrong, because _have_, alone, asserts possession. _Got_, used in the sense of _obtained_, is correct; as, _I have just got the book_. Have you got time to help me? There is many mistakes in my composition. +Model+.--Wrong, because _is_ should agree with its plural subject _mistakes_. The adverb _there_ is often used to introduce a sentence, that the subject may follow the predicate. This often makes the sentence sound smooth, and gives variety. There goes my mother and sister. Here comes the soldiers. There was many friends to greet him. It ain't there. +Model+.--_Ain't_ is a vulgar contraction. Correction--It _is not_ there. I have made up my mind that it ain't no use. 'Tain't so bad as you think. Two years' interest were due. Every one of his acts were criticised. I, Henry, and you have been chosen. +Model+.--Wrong, for politeness requires that you should mention the one spoken to, first; the one spoken of, next; and yourself, last. He invited you and I and Mary. Me and Jane are going to the fair. I only want a little piece. He is a handsome, tall man. Did you sleep good? How much trouble one has, don't they? He inquired for some tinted ladies' note-paper. 75 You needn't ask me nothing about it, for I haven't got no time to answer. Him that is diligent will succeed. He found the place sooner than me. Who was that? It was me and him. If I was her, I would say less. Bring me them tongs. Us boys have a base-ball club. Whom did you say that it was? Who did you speak to just now? Who did you mean, when you said that? Where was you when I called? There's twenty of us going. Circumstances alters cases. Tell them to set still. He laid down by the fire. She has lain her book aside. It takes him everlastingly. That was an elegant old rock.

ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 1. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 2. Strike! till the last armed foe expires! 3. You wrong me, Brutus. 4. Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? 5. Why stand we here idle? 6. Give me liberty, or give me death! 7. Thy mercy, O Lord, is in the heavens, and thy faithfulness reacheth unto the clouds. 8. The clouds poured out water, the skies sent out a sound, the voice of thy thunder was in the heaven. 9. The heavens declare his righteousness, and all the people see his glory. 10. The verdant lawn, the shady grove, the variegated landscape, the boundless ocean, and the starry firmament are beautiful and magnificent objects. 11. When you grind your corn, give not the flour to the devil and the bran to God. 12. That which the fool does in the end, the wise man does at the beginning. 13. Xerxes commanded the largest army that was ever brought into the field. 14. Without oxygen, fires would cease to burn, and all animals would immediately die. 15. Liquids, when acted upon by gravity, press downward, upward, and sideways. 16. Matter exists in three states--the solid state, the liquid state, and the gaseous state. 17. The blending of the seven prismatic colors produces white light. 18. Soap-bubbles, when they are exposed to light, exhibit colored rings. 19. He who yields to temptation debases himself with a debasement from which he can never arise. 20. Young eyes that last year smiled in ours Now point the rifle's barrel; And hands then stained with fruits and flowers Bear redder stains of quarrel. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION. 76 +Capital Letters+.--The first word of (1) a sentence, (2) a line of poetry, (3) a direct quotation making complete sense or a direct question introduced into a sentence, and (4) phrases or clauses separately numbered or paragraphed should begin with a capital letter. Begin with a capital letter (5) proper names and words derived from them, (6) names of things personified, and (7) most abbreviations. Write in capital letters (8) the words _I_ and _O_, and (9) numbers in the Roman notation. [Footnote: Small letters are preferred where numerous references to chapters, etc., are made.] +Examples+.--1. The judicious are always a minority. 2. Honor and shame from no condition rise; Act well your part, there all the honor lies. 3. The question is, "Can law make people honest?" 4. Paintings are useful for these reasons: 1. They please; 2. They instruct. 5. The heroic Nelson destroyed the French fleet in Aboukir Bay. 6. Next, Anger rushed, his eyes on fire. 7. The Atlantic ocean beat Mrs. Partington. 8. The use of _O_ and _oh_ I am now to explain. 9. Napoleon II. never came to the throne. +Period+.--Place a period after (1) a declarative or an imperative sentence, (2) an abbreviation, and (3) a number written in the Roman notation. For examples see 1, 7, and 9 in the sentences above. +Interrogation Point+.--Every direct interrogative sentence or clause should be followed by an interrogation point. +Example+.--King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets?

+Exclamation Point+.--All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the exclamation point. +Example+.--Oh! bloodiest picture in the book of time! +_Comma_+.--Set off by the comma (1) a phrase out of its natural order or not closely connected with the word it modifies; (2) an explanatory modifier that does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it; (3) a participle used as an adjective modifier, with the words belonging to it, unless restrictive; (4) the adjective clause, when not restrictive; (5) the adverb clause, unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies; (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so; (7) a direct quotation introduced into a sentence, unless _formally_ introduced; (8) a noun clause used as an attribute complement; and (9) a term connected to another by or and having the same meaning. Separate by the comma (10) connected words and phrases, unless all the conjunctions are expressed; (11) independent clauses, when short and closely connected; and (12) the parts of a compound predicate and of other phrases, when long or differently modified. +_Examples_+.--l. In the distance, icebergs look like masses of burnished metal. 2. Alexandria, the capital of Lower Egypt, is an ill-looking city. 3. Labor, diving deep into the earth, brings up long-hidden stores of coal. 4. The sun, which is the center of our system, is millions of miles from us. 5. When beggars die, there are no comets seen. 6. Gentlemen, this, then, is your verdict. 7. God77 said, "Let there be light." 8. Nelson's signal was, "England expects every man to do his duty." 9. Rubbers, or overshoes, are worn to keep the feet dry. 10. The sable, the seal, and the otter furnish us rich furs. 11. His dark eye flashed, his proud breast heaved, his cheek's hue came and went. 12. Flights of birds darken the air, and tempt the traveler with the promise of abundant provisions. +_Semicolon_+.--Independent clauses (1) when slightly connected, or (2) when themselves divided by the comma, must be separated by the semicolon. Use the semicolon (3) between serial phrases or clauses having a common dependence on something that precedes or follows; and (4) before _as, viz., to wit., namely, i. e._, and _that is_, when they introduce examples or illustrations. +_Examples_+.--1. The furnace blazes; the anvil rings; the busy wheels whirl round. 2. As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him. 3. He drew a picture of the sufferings of our Saviour; his trial before Pilate; his ascent of Calvary; his crucifixion and death. 4. Gibbon writes, "I have been sorely afflicted with gout in the hand; to wit, laziness." +_Colon_+.--Use the colon (1) between the parts of a sentence when these parts are themselves divided by the semicolon; and (2) before a quotation or an enumeration of particulars when formally introduced. +_Examples_+.--l. Canning's features were handsome; his eye, though deeply ensconced under his eyebrows, was full of sparkle and gayety: the features of Brougham were harsh in the extreme. 2. To Lentullus and Gellius bear this message: "Their graves are measured." +_Dash_+.--Use the dash where there is an omission (1) of letters or figures, and (2) of such words as _as_, _namely_, or _that is_, introducing illustrations or equivalent expressions. Use the dash (3) where the sentence breaks off abruptly, and the same thought is resumed after a slight suspension, or another takes its place; and (4) before a word or phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. The dash may be used (5) instead of marks of parenthesis, and may (6) follow other marks, adding to their force.

+_Examples_+.--1. In M------w, v. 3-11, you may find the "beatitudes." 2. There are two things certain in this world--taxes and death. 3. I said--I know not what. 4. I never would lay down my arms--_never_-- NEVER--+NEVER+. 5. Fulton started a steamboat----he called it the Clermont--on the Hudson in 1807. 6. My dear Sir,--I write this letter for information. +_Marks of Parenthesis_+.--Marks of parenthesis may be used to enclose what has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence. +Example+.--The noun (Lat. _nomen_, a name) is the first part of speech. +_Apostrophe_+.--Use the apostrophe (1) to mark the omission of letters, (2) in the pluralizing of letters, figures, and characters, and (3) to distinguish the possessive from other cases. +_Examples_+.--1. Bo't of John Jones 10 lbs. of butter. 2. What word is there one-half of which is _p's_? 3. He washed the disciples' feet. 78 +_Hyphen_+.--Use the hyphen (-) (1) between the parts of compound words that have not become consolidated, and (2) between syllables when a word is divided. +_Examples_+.--1. Work-baskets are convenient. 2. Divide _basket_ thus: _bas-ket_. +_Quotation Marks_+--Use quotation marks to enclose a copied word or passage. If the quotation contains a quotation, the latter is enclosed within single marks. +_Example_+---The sermon closed with this sentence: "God said, 'Let there be light.'" +_Brackets_+.--Use brackets [ ] to enclose what, in quoting another's words, you insert by way of explanation or correction. +_Example_+.--The Psalmist says, "I prevented [anticipated] the dawning of the morning." SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS. +_To the Teacher_+.--It is very profitable to exercise pupils in combining simple statements into complex and compound sentences, and in resolving complex and compound sentences into simple statements. In combining statements, it is an excellent practice for the pupil to contract, expand, transpose, and to substitute different words. They thus learn to express the same thought in a variety of ways. Any reading-book or history will furnish good material for such practice. A few examples are given below. +_Direction_+.--Combine in as many ways as possible each of the following groups of sentences:-+_Example_+.--This man is to be pitied. He has no friends. 1. This man has no friends, and he is to be pitied. 2. This man is to be pitied, because he has no friends. 3. Because this man has no friends, he is to be pitied. 4. This man, who has no friends, is to be pitied. 5. This man, having no friends, is to be pitied. 6. This man, without friends, is to be pitied. 7. This friendless man deserves our pity. 1. The ostrich is unable to fly. It has not wings in proportion to its body. 2. Egypt is a fertile country. It is annually inundated by the Nile. 3. The nerves are little threads, or fibers. They extend, from the brain. They spread over the whole body.

4. John Gutenberg published a book. It was the first book known to have been printed on a printing-press. He was aided by the patronage of John Paust. He published it in 1455. He published it in the city of Mentz. 5. The human body is a machine. A watch is delicately constructed. This machine is more delicately constructed. A steam-engine is complicated. This machine is more complicated. A steam-engine is wonderful. This machine is more wonderful. You see that short statements closely related in meaning may be improved by being combined. But young writers frequently use too many _ands_ and other connectives, and make their sentences too long. 79 Long sentences should be broken up into short ones when the relations of the parts are not clear. As clauses may be joined to form sentences, so sentences may be united to make _paragraphs_. A +_paragraph_+ is a sentence or a group of related sentences developing one point or one division of a general subject. The first word of a paragraph should begin a new line, and should be written a little farther to the right than the first words of other lines. +_Direction_+.--Combine the following statements into sentences and paragraphs, and make of them a complete composition:-Water is a liquid. It is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. It covers about three-fourths of the surface of the earth. It takes the form of ice. It takes the form of snow. It takes the form of vapor. The air is constantly taking up water from rivers, lakes, oceans, and from damp ground. Cool air contains moisture. Heated air contains more moisture. Heated air becomes lighter. It rises. It becomes cool. The moisture is condensed into fine particles. Clouds are formed. They float across the sky. The little particles unite and form rain-drops. They sprinkle the dry fields. At night the grass and flowers become cool. The air is not so cool. The warm air touches the grass and flowers. It is chilled. It loses a part of its moisture. Drops of dew are formed. Water has many uses. Men and animals drink it. Trees and plants drink it. They drink it by means of their leaves and roots. Water is a great purifier. It cleanses our bodies. It washes our clothes. It washes the dust from the leaves and the flowers. Water is a When predicate verbs immediately follow their subjects, there is little danger of errors in agreement, except that _was_ is often used incorrectly for _were_, and _don't_ for _doesn't_. The chief object of introducing these exercises here is to train the pupils' observation so that they will readily and naturally note the agreement of the subject and predicate when these terms are transposed, or are separated by other words. To determine the correct form of the verb in such cases, let the pupils see how it sounds when placed immediately after its subject. We suggest exercises like the following:-1 is are 2 was were 3 has have 4 does do 5 comes

come 6 goes go 7 thinks think 8 writes write Exercise 1. 80 1 Group One find hear say sit tell get lose sell stick win 1 They__ ___________ the apartment that they had in Gandia for a very good price. 2 He___________ __ me his name but now I've forgotten it. 3 We__ ___________ home at three o'clock last night. 4 Sorry I'm late. I was__________ ___ in traffic. 5 Valencia FC__________ ___ The King's Cup in 1999. 6 I____________ _ the news about The World Trade Centre on the radio. 7 We entered the restaurant, _____________ a table and sat down. 8 Sorry. I didn't hear what you _____________. 9 We were all a bit hot and tired so we all________ _____ down on the grass. 10 I've__ _______ ____ three umbrellas this month. Terrible! I'm so careless. 2 Group Two be break X2 come see steal become choose freeze speak 1 I've never__________ ___ to Caceres. 2 Have you___________ __ Sarah today? 3 Mr Aznar__ _______ ____ president in 1996. 4 Has Beatriz________ _____ back from lunch yet? 5 Rita____________ _ her leg skiing. 6 What colour have you _____________for the curtains? 7 It was so cold that the lake _____________over. 8 She____________ _ fluent French on holiday last year. 9 My purse's been__________ ___. 10 A friend's kid________ _____ my stereo. 3 Group Three drive fall give ride take eat forget hide shake write 1 We__ ___________ all night to get to France. 2 Have you ever_________ ____ a horse? 3 I've__ _______ ____ a letter to my bank manager. 4 We__ ___________ hands at the end of the meeting. 5 She had a headache so she _____________ an aspirin. 6 I____________ _ too much for dinner yesterday and I feel fat. 7 My sister_____________ me a watch for Christmas. 8 He___________ __ over on the wet floor and broke his wrist. 9 She____________ _ the money under the mattress. 10 Blast! We________ _____ to buy milk. Exercise 2. Sports Stars Last week, Venus and Serena Williams played each other in the final of a tennis tournament. Venus is now fourth in the world, and her younger sister Serena is really happy because she has moved up to third.

The two sisters have already come a long way from the poor area in California where they were born. It was full of violence and drugs, and the girls father, Richard, wanted to move to a safer place. They moved in 1991 and they have never looked back. Richard started to train Venus when she was four, and says: The first time I took Venus to the tennis court, I told my wife: We have a champion. She played in her first big tournament in 1996. She hasnt won Wmbledon yet, but she has already reached important finals such as the US Open. Serena has continued to improve and she has made fantastic progress. In 1999, she won the US Open, but she hasnt won the singles yet. Has tennis ever caused problems between sisters? Weve played each other before and it hasnt worried usyet!, says Venus. If she wins, Serena jokes, Mama says she has to do the dishes! Questions: 1. Why are the sister unusual? 2. What kind of bacground are they from? 3. Who helped the to succeed? 4. How do the two sisters get on at home? Exercise 3. What happened? What has happened? Study these sentences. Pay close attention to the words in italics. What happened? What has happened? I wrote to him last month. The train hasjust left the station. I bought this car last year. Ivealready seen that film. He came to see me this morning. He has been abroad for six years. I saw him ten minutes ago. Have youever met him before? I havenever met himbefore. I have not finished workyet. There have been a great number of accidentsla tely. 82 Exercise 6. Find the regular verb in each line and write it into the gap. Example: say, lose, dance,

sing -_____ Answer: say, lose, dance, sing -dance 1. read, feel, play, see 2. listen, do, go, make 3. know, help, say, think 4. like, write, forget, eat 5. take, bring, cut, clean 6. watch, be, have, meet 7. put, buy, cook, teach 8. catch, find, answer, lose Exercise 7. Fill in the missing forms of the phrases. Use the long form of the auxiliary only. Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle 1 I played 2 she has listened 3 you work 4 Andrew cleaned 5 we count 6 I have helped 7the brothers live 8 he has watched 9 they started 10 Susan looks Exercise 8. In each sentence choose the correct form of verb. Exercise 9. Choose teh correct answer. 1 1. I__________ _____ _____ in 1960. was born have been born were born 2 I____________ _____ ___ in this city for many years, and I still enjoy the place. has lived Lived have lived 3 I____________ __to high school here, and now I am a full time teacher.

has gone went 83 have gone 4 Freddy and Ivan__________ ____ in this university since 1980, and next year they plan to study abroad. have worked has worked Worked 5 I____________ this morning at 8 o'clock. waken up woken up have waken up woke up 6 Our friends____________ _ for almost 2 years. They are going to celebrate their anniversary in three weeks. was married is married be married have been married 7 Last night, I______ TV for an hour, and now I don't have time to do my homework.have watched watched has watched watches 8 She____________ my best friend for two years. We talk on the phone everyday. is was were has been 9 Monica________ _____ her first baby a month ago. has had have has had 10 My wife and I________ _____ _ Paris last summer. This year we want to go again. visited visits have visited has been there Exercise 10. 1. Where's your wallet? I don't know. ILOSE it.

2. IBE in London two years ago and IHAVE a great time. 3. Look! SomeoneDAMAGE the bus stop. It looks terrible! 4. HowYOU/BREAK your arm? By accident? 5. My parents are a happy couple. They BE MARRIED for ten years. 6. YOU/SEE Mary yesterday? I couldn't find her anywhere. 84 7. Jane plays the piano. ShePLAY it for two years and she's brilliant. 8. Ann isn't here. SheLEAVE the house but she should be back in an hour. 9. My grandfatherDIE in 1989 and my grandmotherLIVE alone since then. 10.Her brother is a writer. He WRITE many books and they're really good. 11.What time YOU/GO to bed? Around 11 p.m or even later? 12.Where YOU/BE last night? YOU/GO to Mary's party? 13.My room is clean. JUST/CLEAN it and it looks better now. 14.Oh, they are here! When THEY/ARRIVE? 15.Shakespeare WRITE many plays and they're all famous. 16.INOT/DRINK anything today so I'm very thirsty. Can I ask you for some water, please? 17.Is Monica here? No, she NOT/COME yet. She must be on her way. 18.IWORK at school for two years and then I left it because I was fed up with teaching. 19.The daysBE very windy recently and some trees have even been destroyed. 20.WhatYOU/SAY ? Could you repeat it, please? The Past Perfect Continuous Tense Fill in the blanks with had (hadnt) +been + a present participle. EXAMPLES: a.- (protest) When the war in Vietnam finally ended, people all over the world had been protesting against it for many years. b.- (get) Everything in our garden was dying because we hadnt been getting any rain for more than five months. 1.- (go) Fred and Peggy____________ ____ together for three years before they finally got married. 2.- (make) He lost his job because he________ _____ _ (causing) trouble at the office. He was a real troublemaker. 3.- (bother) I had to go to the dentist because a tooth____________ _____ _ me for a month; (take) I_________ _______ ___ care of myself. 4.- (rain) When the monsoon finally ended, it__________ _____ ___ for more than a month. 5.- (wait) When they finally had their baby boy, they_____________ _____ ___ for more than seven years. Now complete the following sentences orally or on a separate piece of paper.

EXAMPLE:c.- I wasnt surprised by the Directors decision to suspend Jim from the school because hed been making a great deal of trouble for a long time. 85 6.- When the rain finally stopped 7.- When I finally found a good job 8.- When our daughter finally became a medical doctor 9.- My eyes were very tired last night because 10.- My feet were very tired last night because 11.- Johns father had to go to the doctor because 12.- The patient wasnt feeling well because 13.- When we finally reached the top of Mt. Everest 14.- When our plane finally landed at JFK (Kennedy Airport in New York) 15.- When my alarm clock rang 16.- When my girlfriend/boyfriend finally got to our meeting place 17.- When they finally got married 18.- When the surgeon finally finished the operation 19.- We were tired yesterday morning because our baby 20.- He was kicked out of (suspended from) school because he 21.- When the concert finally ended 22.- When I finished my homework last night 86