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BH1107 Introduction to Organizational Behaviour

Qurban Ali

Compare and contrast TWO theories of motivation. Suggest how a team leader might use these theories to motivate their team. Motivation is essential in many aspects of life; especially in regards to how a leader is able motivate their sub-ordinates to be efficient to their highest level. This means that a leader, a very good leader, will need to understand the factors of motivation and incorporate them to some level. The definition most suited to describe motivation is, the simple reason of doing something (Armstrong and Stephens, 2005). There are many theories for motivation and they all consist of certain individual factors. These factors collectively influence people to behave in sync with how a leader wants them to behave. Motivation is divided into two certain types of theories; these are Content Theories and Process Theories. Content Theories believe, essentially, that people have all the same needs and to be motivated these needs must be realised. Process Theories recognises the differences in individuals and they highlight that to achieve motivation the needs of individuals must to be fulfilled by using cognitive processes. There are two main theories of motivation that most leaders; these are Maslows Needs theory and Vrooms Expectancy theory. This essay will compare and contrast similarities and differences between the two theories while suggesting how a leader would utilises these theories. The concept of Maslows theory is that the unsatisfied needs of a person brings upon stress and unbalance. To restore the equilibrium, a certain goal needs to be identified which is able satisfy and have a definitive outcome that meet the needs of the person. The Vroom's Theory is based on three things, Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence. These tie together to allow a formula to be written, Motivation = Valance x Expectancy x Instrumentality. This formula can be used to indicate and predict such things as job satisfaction, the likelihood of an individual staying in a job and the effort one might expend at work. Maslows theory is based upon the thought that human needs are instinctive in nature and have basis in our biogenetic and evolutionary heritage (Fincham and Rhodes. 2005), and it is unsatisfied needs that motivate behaviour (Armstrong and Stephens 2005). There are usually five levels to be achieved in Maslows Theory, known collectively as Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (Fig 1).

SelfActualization

High Order Needs

Self-Esteem

Social

Security Physiological
Fig 1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Deficiency Needs

BH1107 Introduction to Organizational Behaviour

Qurban Ali

This is set out first in three levels with the first level being physiological needs which include a hunger or simple animalistic needs i.e. warmth or shelter. The idea of physiological needs relates to needing the basic form of humanity and when these needs are met another level comes to fruition which is the need of Security. This level is where the collaborative fear of being in danger is knocked out. Level three consist of acknowledging the social needs of people. These levels are usually achieved by finding a suitable and comfortable relationship while also being supportive so the foundations of motivation can be built (Armstrong and Stephens, 2005). Maslow stated that these first three levels are the fundamentals or deficiency needs and are basic human needs. Once these three needs have been met we are then able to be motivated to achieve higher order needs. These higher orders needs include Self-esteem, which is the need for recognition and a belief in ones self. The fifth and final level are SelfActualization needs, which relate to the need to improve and finally reach our full potential (Fincham and Rhodes. 2005) Only 10% of people fulfil this last need so Maslow states that to most of us this is the need that will motivate our behaviour through our lives (Fincham and Rhodes, 2005). Utilising all levels will achieve in making a person fully motivated to their highest extent. Vrooms theory states that a person can have different sets of goals in life or at the work place and that they can be motivated if they believe that there is something to be achieved simultaneously between efforts of the person and how it affects the outcome. Recent research show a revived interest in Vrooms theory as it relates to training motivation, turnover and productivity loss in group performance, self-set goal, and goal level. Some argue that this theory should be combined with other motivation theories. Therefore, it is important to establish the validity of Vrooms theory and how motivation is achieved by employing the formula (Fig 2). (Hiriyappa, B. 2009)

Motivation = Valance x Expectancy x Instrumentality


Fig 2. Vrooms Theory of Motivation Better performance from a person is the result of a reward however this reward will need to satisfy an important need. Expectancy is what a person thinks they can achieve with they have skills they has and this differs between people and also coincides with the confidence of the person. It is the leaders duty to discover what resources, training, or supervision a person needs. Instrumentality is what the person will get from doing the task in hand. This can be mental gain or a different incentive i.e. bonus. These incentives are usually managed by leaders sticking to the promises of fulfilment towards the person. Valence is more to reward the person with a sense of accomplishment and fulfilment, which ultimately decides how motivated the person gets, and this can be achieved by many ways, ultimately achieving the satisfaction of the person. The main similarity with these two theories is the fact that they simply achieve an explanation of how motivation is demonstrated within society. Maslows theory was not initially intended to explain such a thing but with analysis you can see how it relates to motivation. Maslows theory essentially considers three fundamentals in achieving a level of motivation. Without these fundamentals being achieved the concept for motivation is lost and

BH1107 Introduction to Organizational Behaviour

Qurban Ali

the ultimate goal of a leader is unsuccessful. Vrooms theory also requires three essentials to be considered for motivation. The outcome of both theories is to bring the best out of people. However the most challenging and important aspect relates to their ability in making people do something outside of their comfort zone. Both theories attempt to explain motivation and how it can be achieved and it is in that fact that they are ultimately similar. The biggest difference between the two theories is Maslows Theory is categorised as a Content Theory while Vrooms Theory is a Process Theory. Content Theory assumes that people have the same set of needs and these needs are typically generalised. An example found for Maslows Theory, is to be content. This is personified with a student living at home. The student would have already achieved the first three levels of hierarchy so instead the focus would be on higher order levels of the Maslows hierarchy to achieve successful motivation. Maslows hierarchy does not always work, as Vrooms theory expresses the fact that there is a belief that behaviour depends upon people expectations concerning their ability to perform task and to simply be motivated. It argues the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way corresponds to the strength of expectations (Hiriyappa, B. 2009). This is a Process Theory, which means people have individual cognitive processes. An example would be I would like to prove my competence so that I might be considered for promotion. This is a positive valence as this is the wish to tackle something new and complies with the process theory as this is specific to one person. Motivation theories can be shown to be used throughout history and have been demonstrated by the greatest of leaders. These two theories can be used by any leader but most prominently are utilised in the workplace specifically by managers. Most leaders are brought up with one of these motivation theories and habitually continue on employing the same theory in their leadership. So when these two theories are implemented in the same workplace, conflict would usually arise as a difference of opinion would lead to de-motivation of the group, as unity is needed to make a team efficient. The best way to compare both theories and personify how a leader would use these theories is to incorporate this in a practical sense by using a manager trying to motivate their staff. A manager should do everything they can to satisfy all the needs of Maslows hierarchy however Maslows theory Was viewed by management writers as a theory which offered a number of predictions about what motivated people in society offering relatively full employment (Fincham and Rhodes, 2005). With the current economy, people would be more motivated by the first three Deficiency needs in Maslows hierarchy as these may have not been fully met. If a manager is to motivate someone without the luxuries of money, other aspects of employment could be used in motivation. The problem occurs as the manger can do everything in his power to make a person feel like they have the initial three levels but people are rarely and truly ever satisfied. Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, but not every man's greed (Mahatma Gandhi). In that knowledge lays a fault that Maslow did not take into consideration, Greed. Nevertheless, with the basic three levels of Maslows hierarchy achieved, a manger would need to concentrate on the higher order needs. A manager could use Maslows theory of motivation by completely relying and focusing on level four, which is self-esteem level. If the

BH1107 Introduction to Organizational Behaviour

Qurban Ali

employees feel good about themselves through praise or acknowledgments of successes, they would be motivated to further achieve. Vrooms Theory has a more personnel aspect towards people and this has the advantage over Maslows Theory as not all people have the same needs. Vrooms Expectancy theory already implements the need of self-worth as the theory includes the factor of Valance. Valence is the aspect of reward to people related to emotional fulfilment and contentment. This ultimately decides how motivated the person becomes, and a manager can achieve this by many ways such as money, promotion, time-off and benefits. A manager would firstly need to identify what the person values to get them motivated. With Valance achieved a manager would then need to incorporate Expectancy. Expectancy is what a person is capable of doing but it is managements job to discover what training and direction the staff need to reach this Expectancy. With Expectancy and Valance acknowledged, a manager would need to identify Instrumentality, which is what the staff will get from doing the task in hand. This can be through mental gain or a different incentive. Within the current economic climate the potential use of money as a motivator is difficult. It is the managers job is to find what really motivates the staff and to try to eliminate the threat of poor morale. If a workplace does achieve all three aspects of Vrooms Theory the staff would actually appreciate the management more which in turn will lead to a high morale at work. The theory relies on individual aspect but for a leader this would mean more time and effort as well as being consistent with all employees. This differs to Maslows theory which has the consistency and time saving aspects that all people have the same needs and are therefore treated the same. These Motivation theories have the intention of finding out the aspects of peoples emotions but only Vrooms Theory was designed specifically work in relation to motivation. However both theories can be applied. The best way a manager could motivate a group is to see that all levels of Maslows hierarchy or all of Vrooms factors are met. They both incorporate a reward system and so ultimately incorporating and integrating a reward system, it standardised or personal would lead to good motivation. In the workplace, a company should always incorporate a reward policy as people will be motivated if the work satisfies there social and psychological needs as well as their financial needs. A reward policy will not only motivate staff but comparisons between different employers and theirs reward polices can lead to retaining and hiring talented employees and this will increase overall efficiency. Really great people make you feel that you, too, can become great.(Mark Twain) and this ultimately described what a leader should accomplish.

References Armstrong, M. and Stephens, T. (2005) A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice, Kogan Page Ltd Fincham, R. and Rhodes, P. (2005) Principles of Organizational Behaviour, 4th Edition, Oxford University Press Hiriyappa, B. (2009) Organizational Behaviour, New Age International

BH1107 Introduction to Organizational Behaviour

Qurban Ali