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MAAE 2400 – Section C2 – Group 3
Submitted by: Franklin G. Hamilton ID #: [removed]
Date Performed: February 13, 2009 Date Submitted: April 3, 2009
Group Partners: [removed] [removed]
2 Combined Convection and Radiation Theory 3.1 Results for Conduction Heat Transfer 5. and the radiation and convection heat transfer modes. Natural convection is when a fluid comes in contact with a hot surface and its density decreases.2. we will look at both natural and forced convection.1 Natural Convection and Radiation 4.3 Aluminium 4.2 Results for Natural Convection and Radiation 5.0 Experimental Procedure 4.1.1 Conduction Heat Transfer Apparatus 3. Radiation is heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation. Table of Contents Summary List of Figures List of Symbols 1.1 Conduction Heat Transfer Theory 2.0 Discussion 7.1 Brass 4. We will compare the experimental data to see if this relationship is true.2.2 Combined Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Procedure 4. Forced convection is when the fluid moves upwards with assistance from a pump or fan for example.1 Conduction Heat Transfer Procedure 4. Fourier’s Law of conduction states that the amount of heat transferred will linearly decrease over length while staying within the same medium. brass.0 Conclusions 8.1.2 Steel 4.0 Description of Experiment and Apparatus 3. Convection is heat transfer by fluid motion. An example of this is the heat transfer from the sun through space.Summary The purpose of these experiments is to gain an understanding of conduction of heat transfer through solid media. and it requires no medium.3 Results for Forced Convection and Radiation 6.0 Introduction 2.0 Theory 2.0 Results 5.2 Combined Convection and Radiation Apparatus 4. in this case. steel.1. and aluminium. Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy through a solid medium. forcing it to rise upward.2 Forced Convection and Radiation 5.0 References Tables Figures i ii ii 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 10 .
List of Figures Table 1 Data Table for Brass Conduction Table 2 Data Table for Steel and Aluminium Conduction Table 3 Accepted values for thermal conductivity Table 4 Data Sheet for Natural Convection and Radiation Table 5 Data Sheet for Forced Convection and Radiation Table 6 Physical Properties for Air at Atmospheric Pressure Figure 1 Convection Heat Transfer Apparatus Figure 2 Combined Convection and Radiation Apparatus Figure 3 Temperature Gradient Chart for Brass Figure 4 Temperature Gradient Chart for Steel and Aluminium Figure 5 Convection Coefficient vs. Corrected Air Speed Graph List of Symbols Rate of Heat Transfer: Q [W] Thermal Conductivity: k [W/m-K] Temperature Gradient: dT/dx [K/m] Thermocouple Temperature: T1-10 [K] Area: A [m2] Diameter: D [m] Voltage: V [V] Current: I [A] Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient: U [W/m2K] Resistance: R [Ω] Input heat: Qin [W] Natural Convection Coefficient: hnat [W/m2K] Forced Convection Coefficient: hforced [W/m2K] Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient: hrad [W/m2K] Heat transferred by convection: Qconv [W] Heat transferred by radiation: Qrad [W] Total heat transferred: Qtot [W] Surface Temperature: Ts [K] Air Temperature: Ta [K] Nusselt Number: Nu [dimensionless] Reynolds Number: Re [dimensionless] Prandtl Number: Pr [dimensionless] Air Velocity: Ua [m/s] Corrected Air Velocity: Uc [m/s] Kinematic Viscosity of Air: v [m2/s] . Surface Temperature Figure 6 Surface Temperature vs.
linear equations of best fit were given as: Brass 9V y = 24.4009x Brass 24V y = 100. is given by: 𝑅 = 𝑈 Using the Microsoft Excel Trend line function.5) The thermal resistance. which could translate into monetary losses. and A is the cross-sectional area through which the heat is transferred (m2). Ti. 2.8013x Pre-Steel Post-Steel y = 24.608 . R. This is a value that tells us how good a medium is at transferring heat energy.1500x .0.2) The area of a circle is given by the diameter as such: 𝐴 = 4 𝐷 2 𝜋 (Equation 2. We are interested in how much heat energy is being converted into convective heat. It can be a very important factor for many aspects of product development. radiation will be a by-product of convection.1.0. Whichever the case. a linearly decreasing relationship of temperature over distance that we expect to observe through the thermocouples on the apparatus.1748x Brass 15V y = 51. If a product is using a material with undesirable thermal conductivity.1. The rate of heat transfer can also be calculated by the V.27 . the current (A): 𝑄 = 𝑉 ∙ 𝐼 (Equation 2.1. there could be efficiency losses. the voltage (V) and I. and final. such as a fluid coming into contact with a hot surface or it forced.0.0.1.3) The overall heat transfer coefficient.875 . ranging from insulators (low conductivity) to electrical circuits (high conductivity).0. U. k is the thermal conductivity (W/m-K). can be calculated by the first. and what is being converted into radiation. Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by fluid motion. dT/dx is the temperature gradient.1 Conduction Heat Transfer Theory Fourier’s Law of conduction gives us the following relationship: 𝑄 = −𝑘𝐴 𝑑𝑇 𝑑𝑥 (Equation 2.0 Introduction The thermal conductivity of a specimen is the most important factor to consider when testing for conduction.017 .1434x y = 25. by a fan or pump. Convection can occur naturally.0 Theory 2.663 .1) Where Q is the rate of heat transfer (W).1. temperature readings: 𝑄 𝐴 = 𝑈 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇𝑜 1 (Equation 2.1. This will give us an idea of the efficiency of the system of interest.4) (Equation 2. To.
which makes it possible to gather data inside the steel and aluminium specimens.0799x y = 13. Ts is the surface temperature. the Prandtl number.1) Where Qconv is the rate of convective heat transfer (W).25 𝐷 (Equation 2.62𝑅𝑒 0.4) 1+ 0.2.2 Combined Convection and Radiation Theory Newton’s law of cooling gives us an equation for convection: 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 = ℎ𝐴 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝑎 2 (Equation 2. Pr.25 0. We can also extrapolate values from this equation.Pre-Aluminium Post-Aluminium y = 36.466 . The convection coefficient is the most complicated part of this equation.163 .6) Where Uc is the corrected air velocity (m/s) defined as Uc=1. For natural convection in a horizontal. 2. we can derive the following formulas: 4 𝑄𝑟𝑎𝑑 = ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝐴 𝑇𝑠4 − 𝑇𝑎 (Equation 2.2. Nu. and the Nusselt number.8) (Equation 2.2. and Ta is the air temperature (K). Re.0. ℎ𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐 𝑒𝑑 = 𝑘∙𝑁𝑢 𝐷 0. by so applying Kirchhoff’s law for grey surfaces. k.7) We are also concerned with radiation. Values of v.0500x Where x is the position of the thermocouple in millimetres. h is the convection coefficient (W/m K).3 + 𝑈𝑐 𝐷 𝑣 (Equation 2.66 𝑃𝑟 (Equation 2.5 𝑃𝑟 0. and then interpolating for the correct values: 𝑇𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑚 = 𝑇𝑠 +𝑇𝑎 2 (Equation 2.2.3) However.2.22Ua where Ua is the air velocity (m/s) and v is the kinematic viscosity of air (m2/s). D is the diameter of the cylinder.9) ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝜎𝜀 4 𝑇𝑠4 −𝑇𝑎 𝑇𝑠 −𝑇𝑎 . heated cylinder.2. and y is the temperature of the thermocouple in degrees Kelvin.2. A is the surface area (m2). We will need several non-dimensional coefficients. using the following equation.5) 𝑅𝑒 = (Equation 2. we can use this simplified equation: ℎ𝑛𝑎𝑡 = 1. for forced convection. and Pr can be obtained by table 13-6.0. like the Reynolds number.5 𝑅𝑒 282000 𝑁𝑢 = 0. We can therefore deduce that the temperature gradient dT/dx is the slope for each equation. it becomes a little more complicated.4 0.32 𝑇𝑠 −𝑇𝑎 0.33 1+ 0.2.
After allowing the temperatures to stabilize. which are recording the temperatures. It passes by a thermocouple which records the air temperature. steel. conductive paste is applied to the surfaces of contact in order to minimize the loss of heat when transferring to another medium. the readings of thermocouples 1 through 8 were recorded. 3. The voltage was turned off. Note: there no thermocouples on the steel specimen. In all tests. This step was repeated for 15V and 24V. while keeping the water flow on. 2. See Figure 2. which we will assume to be 0. then finally into cooling water. 4.2 Steel 1.67·10-8 W/m2K4) and ε is the emissivity. 4.0 Description of Experiment and Apparatus 3. so we skipped thermocouples 4 and 5.5 litres per minute.1 Conduction Heat Transfer Procedure There are three parts to this procedure. Once the specimen was placed.1 Brass 1. and the brass specimen was removed.1. Then it passes through an anemometer. followed by a specimen of interest. with the water valve set to open (parallel to tube) and the water flow rate was set to 1. there are eight evenly spaced thermocouples placed along the specimens. which measures the air velocity. Turned on the front panel switch and cooling water.1. the current was recorded.0 Experimental Procedure 4. 2. The air continues up the shaft.1 Conduction Heat Transfer Apparatus From a heater. the voltage was set to 9V. which records the temperature of the cylinder.Where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (σ = 5. followed by a second brass specimen.95 for this experiment. the readings of thermocouples 1-3 and 6-8 were recorded. and aluminium. 3. See Figure 1. 4. 3. After the temperatures stabilized. while keeping the water flow on. The voltage was set to 9V. and the steel specimen was removed. brass. heat is passed through a brass specimen. and another thermocouple. as there are three specimens to be tested. where it comes into contact with a heated cylinder.2 Combined Convection and Radiation Apparatus Air flows up a shaft by a throttle plate. and again. and the current was recorded. The voltage was turned off. Finally the air is allowed to escape into the atmosphere through the top of the shaft. Along the way. .
and 60. Set the voltage to 5V. 3. The equipment was turned off after this test.1. 15. and 24V. The overall heat transfer coefficient for the brass-steel-brass composite was 583. thermocouples 9 and 10 were recorded. 17. After the temperatures stabilized. 6. and 38. respectively. The radiation heat transfer coefficient was 7. and 40. The fan was turned on. and for aluminium. 5. 4. and 19.10. and by radiation. 15V. 36.57.1 Natural Convection and Radiation 1. This step was repeated for 10V. 5. specimen. 12. 16. and the current was recorded.2 W.82. 4.2 Forced Convection and Radiation 1.48 W/m2K. 9.0 Results 5. The thermal conductivity of steel was calculated to be 21 W/m-K. .88. and 7 m/s. respectively.30 W.2. 23.1 Results for Conduction Heat Transfer As observed in Figure 3.10.2 Results for Natural Convection and Radiation There were four tests run for the natural convection and radiation experiment. The air velocity was set to 1 m/s by the throttle plate.01. 2.2. the thermal conductivity remains constant through the brass.62. Therefore.22. and 79.88 W/m2K. the second for forced convection and radiation. 114. The total heat transferred was then found to be 3. the thermal conductivity was calculated to be 95. After the temperatures stabilized.2.71.4 W/m2K. respectively.53 W. and 146. The first part is for natural convection and radiation. This step was repeated for air velocity 3.2. the temperature gradient for brass remains constant through the three regions (hot. The input heat for these tests was calculated to be 4. 2. The heat transferred by convection was 1. the current was also recorded. and 24 V. each with different voltages.39.62. 2. 5.4. cold). 1. with an average of 119 W/mK. 29. The equipment was turned off at the end of this test. 13.2 Combined Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Procedure There are two parts to this procedure.15.001714Ω.1.83.45. 15.01. and the voltage was kept at 20V.71.83 W. 15. thermocouples 9 and 10 were recorded.3 Aluminium 1. 4. 169 W/m-K. Refer to section 4. The natural convection coefficient was found to be 12. For the three tests of different voltages. Turned on the front panel switch. 16. and the thermal resistance was 0. 24 V. 12. 5. did not turn on the fan. 10. and 20. 5.
This is because the seal between the two mediums would not be a cohesive one. Observing Figure 3. Some likely sources of error would be that the insulation around the specimens was not perfect. respectively.64.60 W. 3. 1. This is consistent with Fourier’s Law of Conduction.07. 17. 44. . 9.27. as it requires the temperature to decrease linearly over increasing length. The input heat was calculated to be 66 W. Figure 2 shows a three-step decreasing linear trend for steel. 65. The corrected air velocity for the tests was calculated to be 1. and a noticeably large one for aluminium. 3. 6. 19.14. then back to brass).10. Observing Table 3. and 53. and 8.37 W/m2K. while steel is 25.65. and 14. and steel is the most insulative material.64. 5. and heat energy would dissipate into the spaces between them. 19.53. and 6. A third source of error could be that the temperatures were not given enough time to stabilize. it is apparent that aluminium is the most conductive material. and it is confirmed when checking Table 3.45 W. 35. and 7 m/s for the four tests. and by radiation. respectively. The average thermal conductivity for the three brass tests was 119 W/m-K.04. The steeper slope for the steel medium tells us that steel is a much less conductive material than brass.5. 12.39.88 W/m2K. we see that the accepted range for values is 110-128. The thermal conductivity of brass is in the 110-128 range. We notice that the sudden change in temperature gradient in consistent with the locations where the medium changes (from brass to steel. 85.22. which remained constant through the tests as the voltage and current was not changed. 6. we would expect to see a gap between the specimen and the bottom brass piece on the thermal resistance chart.66. There is a small difference in the calculated values of thermal conductivity for steel.74. 65. as it has the highest thermal conductivity. we notice a clear decreasing linear trend for all three sets of brass data. The radiation heat transfer coefficient was 25. as it has the lowest thermal conductivity. In the event that conductive paste was applied only to the top face of the specimen.54 m/s. One common application you might expect the thermal resistance to be advertised is fiber-glass insulation.90.60. with the differing factor this time being air speed. and 103. and 46. After analyzing the data for the three specimens for the conduction heat transfer experiment. The heat transferred by convection was 28. 52. and thus a loss of heat upon changing mediums. since it would be costeffective to use an insulator with the highest possible thermal resistance.25. The forced convection coefficient was 37. The total heat transferred was then found to be 48.05 W. skewing the results.66. We could also consider that the conductive paste was not applied properly. meaning some heat escaped through the insulation.0 Discussion The following is a discussion for the conduction heat transfer experiment. therefore the results of this test can be considered accurate.16.3 Results for Forced Convection and Radiation There were four tests run for the forced convection and radiation experiment.
that the radiation coefficient increases exponentially. while the natural coefficient begins to plateau. If the apparatus was modified so that the diameter increased. and unstable temperatures. A notable source of error is that the cylinder was mostly covered. For the first two voltage tests. we can see that all the major losses from the input heat to the total heat transferred are most likely due to losses in the heat transferred by convection. while the radiation heat transfer stagnates in the 5-20 W range.2. we notice that convective heat transfer arcs in the 30-60 W range. We might also consider the type of insulation used. Comparing the heat transferred by convection with the heat transferred by radiation. We would expect this intuitively because the same amount of heat is being transferred. . and remains the dominant heat transfer mode. Equations 2. because the calculated values of thermal conductivity were consistent with the accepted values.3 and 2. Since we noticed that the heat transferred by convection is the dominant mode of heat transfer.2.0 Conclusions The conductive heat transfer tests provided accurate data for brass and steel. and steel is the least conductive material. we notice that there is a loss of heat energy that becomes increasingly apparent with increasing voltage. we would expect the natural and forced convection coefficients to decrease. however it is being done so over a larger area. except for the top. Comparing the values of input heat with total heat transferred for the natural convection and radiation test. Aluminium is the most conductive material analyzed.4 confirm this. It is therefore quite apparent that the heat transferred by convection is. which was exposed. and the heat transferred by radiation remains in a lower range. the natural convection coefficient is more dominant than the radiation heat transfer coefficient. Therefore we can conclude that the efficiency of the apparatus in transferring heat by convection accounts for the largest sum of error. and the possibility of unstable temperatures.Now we will look at the convection and radiation heat transfer experiment. 7. We might also consider that the temperatures were not given enough time to stabilize before being recorded. but we notice by Figure 5. The natural convection and radiation test showed that radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. the heat transfer by radiation becomes the most dominant mode of heat transfer. constants). while the forced convection and radiation test showed that forced convection is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Sources of error could again include imperfect insulation. and relatively accurate data for aluminium. and we might as well consider the accuracy of the given data (dimensions. so very quickly.
0 References MAAE 2400 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Lab Manual Carleton University – December 2009 Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics Moran and Shapiro – 6th edition .8.
3 38.4 Q dT/dx K 8.51 2.9 52.5 75 90 105 36.7 18.4 8.4 76.5 62.55 -103.6 17.65 -400.001714 9 0.2 101 88.14 9 9.1 6.3 21.9 10.8 95.9 19.3 146.91 1.2 21.19 -174.91 8.9 Steel Aluminium V A Q dT/dx K U R 583.54 14.79 9.2 V Brass 9V Brass 15V Brass 24V 9 15 24 A 0.5 28.5 9.6 -801.1 57.95 8.1 15.8 11.4 0.9 16.5 52 46 40 33.1 33.47 9.2 34.5 35.9 14.45 22.19 -789.Tables Table 1 Data Table for Brass Conduction Position (mm) Brass 9V Brass 15V Brass 24V 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 24.9 115.4 12.2 9.7 28.7 7.7 22.3 168.9 24 21.2 19.56 Table 3 Accepted values for thermal conductivity Metal Brass Steel Aluminium k 110-128 25 180 .5 67.44 K avg 119 Table 2 Data Table for Steel and Aluminium Conduction Position (mm) Steel Aluminium 0 15 30 37.64 15.
48 38.62 5.9 304 296.37 46.3 66 471.6 2.81 0.4 21.22 3.60 6.64 37.10 2031.83 12.66 1304.03492 0.10 7.2 15.54 3337.15 16.2 19.53 60.15 12.74 48.00 0.53 19.88 1.62 21.88 20.15 20 3.88 14.71 6.45 53.66 17.3 21.07 25.05 .6 226 295 499 418.65 52.6817 1.01 12.6868 3.5 3.6 215 294.63 23.05 541.15 3.64 435.60 19.45 15 2.71 23.Table 4 Data Sheet for Natural Convection and Radiation Voltage Current T9 T10 Ta Ts Q in h nat h rad Q conv Q rad Q tot 5 0.62 16.29 18.01 24 3.39 29.22 355.03609 0.39 9.15 5 22.03847 0.43 0.39 9.82 1.64 28.75 488.9 496 295 769 79.15 4.14 65.56 0.10 10 1.25 44.15 646.30 40.03343 0.73 85.3 92 294.04 397 2.16 35.3 345 294 618 36 17.6847 6.80 65.6895 8.27 3 22.83 21.07 103.5 257 295 576 7 22.03 31.45 365.83 Table 5 Data Sheet for Forced Convection and Radiation Air Speed T9 T10 Ta Ts Voltage Current Q in T film v (x10-5) k Pr Uc Re Nu h forced h rad Q conv Q rad Q tot 1 23 373 296.90 12.57 13.
684 0.03003 0.0436 0.59 0.Table 6 Physical Properties for Air at Atmospheric Pressure T film v (x10-5) k Pr 300 1.79 0.02624 0.68 550 4.697 400 2.04659 0.68 600 5.076 0.708 350 2.03365 0.68 Figures Figure 1 Convection Heat Transfer Apparatus .434 0.689 450 3.03707 0.134 0.171 0.683 500 3.04038 0.
Figure 2 Combined Convection and Radiation Apparatus .
Figure 3 Temperature Gradient Chart for Brass Temperature Gradient Chart for Brass 110 100 90 80 Temperature (C) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Brass 9V Brass 15V Brass 20V Position (mm) Figure 4 Temperature Gradient Chart for Steel and Aluminium Temperature Gradient for Steel and Aluminium 40 35 30 Temperature (C) 25 20 Steel 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Aluminium Position (mm) .
Corrected Air Speed Graph Surface Temperature vs. Surface Temperature 45 40 35 h (W/m-m-K) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 Natural Radiation Surface Temperature (K) Figure 6 Surface Temperature vs. Corrected Air Speed 700 650 Surface Temperature (C) 600 550 500 450 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Corrected Air Speed (m/s) . Surface Temperature Convection Coefficient vs.Figure 5 Convection Coefficient vs.
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