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Work+ all categoriesFeaturedRecentPeopleAuthorsStudentsResearchersPublishersGovernment & NonprofitsBusinessesMusiciansArtists & DesignersTeachers+ all categoriesMost FollowedPopularSign Up Log In1First Page Previous Page Next Page / 77Sections SectionsSection 1 of 69 1. INTRODUCTIONp. 81.1 FUEL MANAGEMENT AND SAFETYp. 81.2 FUEL MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTp. 81.3 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EFFICIENT FUEL MANAGEMENTp. 81.4 BASIC FACTS REGARDING FUEL CONSUMPTIONp. 92. FLIGHT PLANNINGp. 102.1 EFFICIENT FLIGHT PLANNINGp. 102.2 STATISTICAL AND DISCRETIONARY FUELp. 102.3 ALTERNATE SELECTIONp. 102.4 RE-DISPATCH AND RE-CLEARANCE TECHNIQUESp. 122.5 FUEL TANKERINGp. 122.6 WEIGHT MANAGEMENTp. 122.7 CENTER OF GRAVITY MANAGEMENTp. 133. PRE-FLIGHT PROCEDURESp. 143.1 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROGRAMMINGp. 143.2 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) MANAGEMENTp. 154. START AND TAXIp. 184.1 ENGINE START-UP AND TAXIp. 185. DEPARTURE AND CLIMBp. 205.1 REDUCED THRUST TAKE-OFFp. 205.2 INITIAL CLIMB OUT PROFILE MANAGEMENTp. 206. CRUISE MANAGEMENTp. 226.1 LATERAL TRACK MANAGEMENTp. 226.2 VERTICAL PROFILE MANAGEMENT IN CRUISEp. 226.3 CRUISE SPEED MANAGEMENTp. 236.4 COST INDEX MANAGEMENTp. 247. DESCENTp. 267.1 FMS DESCENT PROFILE MANAGEMENTp. 267.2 DESCENT PROFILE MANAGEMENT FOR NON-FMS AIRCRAFTp. 288. APPROACH AND LANDINGp. 308.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE DECELERATED APPROACHp. 308.2 REDUCED FLAP LANDINGp. 328.3 IDLE ENGINE REVERSE ON LANDINGp. 338.4 ENGINE-OUT TAXI-INp. 339. MISSION MANAGEMENTp. 369.1 FLIGHT SCHEDULE AND FUEL MANAGEMENTp. 369.4 COST INDEX COMPUTATIONp. 429.5 FUEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (FUEL MI)p. 439.6 HIGH COST OF FULL THRUST TAKE-OFFp. 4610. MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONSp. 4810.1 INITIAL CONSIDERATIONSp. 4810.2 POTENTIAL MAINTENANCE ACTIONSp. 4810.3 ESTIMATED FUEL SAVINGSp. 5111. DISPATCH CONSIDERATIONSp. 5411.1 OBJECTIVES OF FLIGHT PLANNINGp. 5411.2 FLIGHT PLANNING CONSIDERATIONSp. 5411.3 ROUTE SELECTION AND PLANNINGp. 5411.4 ALTERNATE SELECTIONp. 5511.5 STATISTICAL DISCRETIONARY FUELSp. 5511.6 FUEL TANKERINGp. 5611.7 RE-DISPATCH TECHNIQUEp. 5711.8 FLIGHT DISPATCHER PILOT RELATIONSHIPp. 5711.9 FLIGHT WATCHp. 5712. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLp. 6012.1 OVERVIEWp. 6012.2 FUEL IS BURNED TO CARRY FUELp. 6012.3 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENTp. 6112.4 AT THE GATEp. 6212.5 TAXIING AND DEPARTUREp. 6212.6 CLIMBp. 6312.7 CRUISEp. 6312.8 SPEED AND VECTORINGp. 6312.9 DIRECT ROUTINGp. 6412.10 DESCENTp. 6512.11 HOLDINGp. 6512.12 APPROACH AND LANDINGp. 6512.13 WHAT CAN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS DO?p. 6613 FUEL AND EMISSIONS EFFICIENCY CHECKLISTp. 68Zoom Out Zoom In Fullscreen Exit FullscreenSelect View Mode View ModeSlideshowScroll Readcast Add a Comment Embed & Share Reading should be social! Post a message on your social networks to let others know what you're reading. Select the sites below and start sharing.Readcast this Document Login to Add a Comment Share & EmbedAdd to Collections Download this Document for FreeAuto-hide: on

Guidance Materialand Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement1st EditionEffective December 2004International Air Transport AssociationMontreal Geneva NOTICEThe material contained in this document represents acombination of inputs from a number of professionalairline and air traffic control sources, and is written fromthe perspective of aviation professional to aviationprofessional.Some airlines, pilots, engineers, dispatchers, andcontrollers may already be practicing thesetechniques. Others may have evaluated them andassessed that they are not suitable in their environment.IATA encourages you to review the material, toevaluate whether or not the noted procedurescould be safely applied in your area, and toprovide suggestions or share additional materialaimed at further enhancing professionalawareness of the critical importance of fuelconservation.DISCLAIMER:This guidance material is providedto allow airlines to identify potential areas for fueland environmental efficiency, and is not meant toimply that any action should be taken until further research has been undertaken, appropriate riskand safety evaluation conducted, regulatoryauthority obtained, and relevant airline policies,practices, or documentation amended Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and Environmental ManagementRef. No:9093-01ISBN 92-9195-444-6 2004 International Air Transport Association. All rights reserved.Montreal Geneva iTABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD................................................................ ................................................................................ ....... III 1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................... ......................................................................... 1 1.1 FUEL MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY.......................................................................... ......................... 1 1.2 FUEL MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT..................................................................... ......... 1 1.3 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EFFICIENT FUEL MANAGEMENT............................................................. 1 1.4 BASIC FACTS REGARDING FUEL CONSUMPTION..................................................................... ..... 2 2. FLIGHT PLANNING ................................................................................ ....................................................... 3 2.1 EFFICIENT FLIGHT PLANNING........................................................................ ................................... 3 2.2 STATISTICAL AND DISCRETIONARY FUEL............................................................................ .......... 3 2.3 ALTERNATE SELECTION....................................................................... ............................................. 3 2.4 RE-DISPATCH AND RE-CLEARANCE TECHNIQUES ....................................................................... 5 2.5 FUEL TANKERING ................................................................................ ............................................... 5 2.6 WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

................................................................................ ..................................... 5 2.7 CENTER OF GRAVITY MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ........................ 6 3. PRE-FLIGHT PROCEDURES...................................................................... .................................................. 7 3.1 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROGRAMMING..................................................................... ..... 7 3.2 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ........ 8 4. START AND TAXI............................................................................ ............................................................11 4.1 ENGINE START-UP AND TAXI............................................................................ .............................. 11 5. DEPARTURE AND CLIMB........................................................................... ................................................13 5.1 REDUCED THRUST TAKE-OFF........................................................................ ................................ 13 5.2 INITIAL CLIMB OUT PROFILE MANAGEMENT...................................................................... .......... 13 6. CRUISE MANAGEMENT ................................................................................ ..............................................15 6.1 LATERAL TRACK MANAGEMENT ................................................................................ .................... 15 6.2 VERTICAL PROFILE MANAGEMENT IN CRUISE.......................................................................... .. 15 6.3 CRUISE SPEED MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ................................. 16 6.4 COST INDEX MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ...................................... 17 7. DESCENT......................................................................... ............................................................................19 7.1 FMS DESCENT PROFILE MANAGEMENT ................................................................................ ....... 19 7.2 DESCENT PROFILE MANAGEMENT FOR NON-FMS AIRCRAFT.................................................. 21 8. APPROACH AND LANDING......................................................................... ..............................................23 8.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE DECELERATED APPROACH............................................................ 23 8.2 REDUCED FLAP LANDING......................................................................... ....................................... 25 8.3 IDLE ENGINE REVERSE ON

LANDING......................................................................... ................... 26 8.4 ENGINE-OUT TAXI-IN......................................................................... ............................................... 26 9. MISSION MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ......................................................29 9.1 FLIGHT SCHEDULE AND FUEL MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ....... 29 9.2: CALCULATION OF SAVINGS......................................................................... ................................... 29 9.3 MISSION MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ............................................. 33 9.4 COST INDEX COMPUTATION..................................................................... ...................................... 35 9.5 FUEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (FUEL MI)............................................................. 36 9.6 HIGH COST OF FULL THRUST TAKE-OFF........................................................................ .............. 39 Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagementii10. MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................. ......................................41 10.1 INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................. .............................................41 10.2 POTENTIAL MAINTENANCE ACTIONS......................................................................... ....................41 10.3 ESTIMATED FUEL SAVINGS......................................................................... ....................................44 11. DISPATCH CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................. ...............................................47 11.1 OBJECTIVES OF FLIGHT PLANNING........................................................................ .......................47 11.2 FLIGHT PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................. .........................47 11.3 ROUTE SELECTION AND PLANNING........................................................................ .......................47 11.4 ALTERNATE SELECTION ................................................................................ ..................................48 11.5 STATISTICAL DISCRETIONARY FUELS........................................................................... ................48 11.6 FUEL TANKERING....................................................................... .......................................................49

11.7 RE-DISPATCH TECHNIQUE....................................................................... .......................................50 11.8 FLIGHT DISPATCHER PILOT RELATIONSHIP.................................................................... ..........50 11.9 FLIGHT WATCH........................................................................... .......................................................50 12. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL......................................................................... ..................................................53 12.1 OVERVIEW........................................................................ ..................................................................53 12.2 FUEL IS BURNED TO CARRY FUEL ................................................................................ .................53 12.3 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT...................................................................... ........................................54 12.4 AT THE GATE ................................................................................ .....................................................55 12.5 TAXIING AND DEPARTURE....................................................................... ........................................55 12.6 CLIMB........................................................................... .......................................................................56 12.7 CRUISE.......................................................................... ......................................................................56 12.8 SPEED AND VECTORING....................................................................... ...........................................56 12.9 DIRECT ROUTING......................................................................... .....................................................57 12.10 DESCENT......................................................................... ...................................................................58 12.11 HOLDING......................................................................... ....................................................................58 12.12 APPROACH AND LANDING......................................................................... ......................................58 12.13 WHAT CAN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS DO?............................................................................. .59 13 FUEL AND EMISSIONS EFFICIENCY CHECKLIST....................................................................... ......61 Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement10 114. START AND TAXI4.1 ENGINE START-UP AND TAXIAvoid starting engines at the gate because it will not only increase fuel consumption and pollutionbut it can also be hazardous for ground personnel. If a departure slot time would result in

a longtaxi time and if gate occupancy permits, consider delaying the pushback and absorbing some of thedelay at the gate with the engine off.To minimize departure delays and ramp congestion, engine start-up and push-back proceduresshould be streamlined and coordinated. Inefficient procedures at busy airports can delay severalother aircraft with engines operating. Once a ramp crew has pushed back an airplane, the rampcrew must disconnect the tow bar and communication cord as soon as possible. To minimizepower requirements during initial roll out and minimize ground hazard, position the aircraft in theinitial taxi out direction. An engine-out taxi procedure should be considered when:Ramp and taxiway conditions permitThe aircraft weight is below maximum landing weightThe anticipated taxi time and specific aircraft system permits.If a flights weight is light, and the flight crew chooses to taxi with all engines running, the crew mayhave to ride the brakes. This can cause excessive wear and heating of the brakes. Cold soakedengines might require longer warm up time.Engine out taxi requires slightly more anticipation compared to taxiing with all engines operating.Crews that never use engine out taxi procedures will consider them awkward while crews whoconsistently use them will consider them routine.Before using engine out procedures, airlinesmust ensure that the SOPs regarding engine out taxi are well established and crewsproperly trained.When unanticipated delays are encountered during taxi-out, consider engine outtaxi or shutting down engines during extensive delays.On some engine types, the use of engine anti-ice on the ground will result in increased idle RPMand fuel consumption in addition to the possibility of foreign object damage. On slippery taxiways, itmight be difficult to stop the aircraft with engines spooled up. Momentarily turning off engine anti-icewill facilitate stopping. In congested ramp areas, delay turning on engine anti-ice to preventblasting due to spool up. If de-icing is to be performed at a centralized de-icing area and a longdeicing is anticipated, consider to shutting engines down during de-icing.4.1.1 Taxi speedsA lot of time can be made up or lost while taxiing. In ideal conditions, the recommended taxispeeds should be around 10 knots for maneuvering and on straight taxiways; however, speeds upto 30 knots are acceptable. Flight crews must remember that fuel burn with engines that are idlingon the ground equates approximately 25% of cruise power.4.1.2 Choice of Departure Runway vs. Taxi timesAt low-density airports, there might be a choice of departure runways. It is always difficult toestablish a trade off point regarding the cost of taxiing versus air-time but here is a rule of thumb.Strictly based on fuel consumption, it might be worthwhile to taxi 4 minutes for every minute of air-time saved. For example, a flight departing in a direction 180 degrees from the intended flightcourse may need to travel an extra 15 miles in the air. This will have to be made up at cruisealtitude at the cost of 2 minutes of air-time. In this case, it may be more cost efficient to taxi an Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement12extra 6 to 8 minutes. There are other considerations however; if a flight is late with severalconnections and a short turn around on arrival and if the selection of a different runway canpossibly result in additional ground delays, it might be worthwhile to use the most expeditiousrunway. Crew cost is another factor to consider. 135. DEPARTURE AND CLIMB5.1 REDUCED THRUST TAKE-OFFCompared to full thrust, the use of reduced thrust will not reduce fuel consumption during takeoff.However, it will preserve engine life and reduce fuel consumption over time. The majority of enginewear will occur at higher temperatures. For instance, a 1% reduction from full take off thrust willresult in a 10% saving in engine life. The first few degrees are the most damaging. Consistent useof

reduced thrust will more than double engine life and prevent rapid performance deterioration.Reduced thrust is also important on the first flight of the day when the engine core is cold. Whenpossible, avoid the use of engine anti-icing during takeoff as it will further increase the engineoperating temperature (EGT).Avoid using full thrust at the first sign of a slight tail wind. When calculating the required takeoff power, consider the tail wind component. In most cases, it will require a decrease of a few degreesin the assumed temperature and will still permit some reduction from full thrust.5.2 INITIAL CLIMB OUT PROFILE MANAGEMENTNote:The following departure procedures must be compatible with local noise abatement procedures.Speed and flap management on departure will greatly impact fuel consumption and flight time.Once the flight is airborne, the flaps and slats should be retracted as soon as possible. Althoughthe flaps and slats increase lift, they also increase drag and therefore increase fuel consumptionHowever, when departing in a direction opposite to the desired enroute course, there may be someadvantages to maintaining the takeoff flap setting and trading speed for altitude until the aircraftreaches the initial altitude where a turn to the on-course can be initiated. This will minimize thedistance away from the intended direction. It will also maintain a lower speed and allow for a faster turn rate to the on-course for a specific bank angle (when possible use bank angles of up to 30degrees). When the flight is within 90 degrees from the intended course, flight crews shouldaccelerate to normal climb speeds.If a flight is departing away from the intended course, and a turn cannot be initiated before a certainpoint from the departure course, then cleaning up the flaps and slats will improve departureefficiency. Speed should not be increased above minimum clean drag speed until the aircraft iswithin 90 degrees from the intended course. Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement14 156. CRUISE MANAGEMENT6.1 LATERAL TRACK MANAGEMENTMost efficient flight planning systems will consider all possible routes or portions thereof todetermine the most efficient routing between the airport of origin and the destination including theplanned departure runway and procedures, winds, temperatures at altitude, airways restrictions,NOTAMS, restricted areas, arrival procedures and expected landing runways, etc. The cost of airways and overflight charges must also be considered.The problem with many flight-planning systems is that the route analysis is based on a fixed Machnumber analysis of minimum time tracks. That is very simplistic and the ultimate objective of thesystem should be to find a minimum cost route based on Cost Index, looking at the routepossibilities vertically and laterally. Higher Cost Index values will tend to drive altitude selection tolower Flight Levels due to the higher True Air Speed values, assuming the system is optimizingbased on Cost Index and not on simplistic parameters.Failure to monitor overflight charges can result in several thousands of dollars in additionalcosts.Crews should attempt to fly the planned track as closely as possible while taking some short directroutings to minimize large turns at waypoints. It is important to adhere to the general routing of theflight plan. When accepting a long direct routing, there is also the danger of crossing restricted or military areas and when in doubt, it is desirable to adhere to the planned routing.On long flights, there could be some value in reevaluating the routing because after several hoursof flying, the wind forecast might have changed. Re-planning and re-filing the route after departurecan be difficult for the crews. ATC services will generally not accept changes to the planned routefrom the ground when a flight is airborne. In some cases, if the actual winds turn out to be differentthan those forecasted - a rare case in todays modern flight planning systems with accurate windand temperature data - there might be some value in re-optimizing the whole flight

plan and routing.The use of pre-determined routes and altitude capping should be avoided and the route optimizedaccording to the flight conditions for the day of operation, unless required due to heavy traffic,specific local procedures, or restricted by a preferred ATC route system.6.2 VERTICAL PROFILE MANAGEMENT IN CRUISEPlanning the most efficient vertical profile offers great potential savings. An accurate flight planningsystem will produce the best vertical profile based on the wind field at each waypoint, the aircraftweight, temperatures and the flight specific Cost Index (assuming the airline is using the correctCost Index values adapted to its cost structure and the flight planning system incorporates CostIndex values in its altitude selection process).Flight planning systems normally look at all available altitudes to achieve the minimum cost per ground mile. A properly optimized flight plan will provide the best altitude profile to be flown for thecurrent mission conditions. This may include descents to lower altitudes to take advantage of better wind / TAS combinations.In the case of a flight being forced to deviate from its flight planned altitude profile, the wind valuesfor the next usable flight levels above and below the planned altitudes should be available to assistthe crew in making tactical decisions. If forced away from the planned altitudes, crews shouldattempt to return to the flight planned vertical profile as soon as the restrictions are cancelled.Use FMS suggested optimum altitudes with care. Unless the wind field (including winds above andbelow planned altitudes) and temperatures at the planned waypoints are accurately inserted intothe FMS by either an automatic download or manually, the recommended FMS optimum altitude Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement16will be incorrect. Some older FMS versions will recommend a flight level based on weightregardless of winds or Cost Index. In the case of older generation or regional aircraft without FMSaltitude information available, the Aircraft Operating Manuals simply recommend altitudes normallybased on weight for LRC speeds (no wind or Cost Index input).Performance advisory systems are available for non-FMS aircraft, which enable the use of CostIndex speeds and altitude optimization. These systems are available in either in a booklet format,electronically as part of the Electronic Flight Bag system (EFB), or in a stand-alone system. Ideally,the optimization from these systems should be integrated to the flight planning system for greater flight planning accuracy and optimization.Cost Index optimization will result in substantial fuel and time savings, while balancing the time andfuel costs for a specific airline cost structure. They would also permit the use of tactical Cost Indicesfor day-to-day operation to accelerate flights when adverse winds are impacting on the on-timeperformance or during delays when several passenger connections are affected. The use of lower Cost Index values should also be available to reduce speed for flights arriving early therebyreducing fuel consumption and minimizing the chances of gate holds and possibly rampcongestion.If a flight is restricted to a lower than planned altitude for a significant time period such as oceancrossings, allow the Cost Index to determine the best Mach for that altitude. This process mayresult in additional time costs; however, there will be significant fuel savings. In some extremecases, it might even allow for the completion of the flight rather than diverting for fuel.If the actual aircraft weight differs significantly from the flight-planned weight, the best option is tore-compute the flight plan to achieve a better optimized vertical flight profile.On short flights, the most efficient vertical profile would be to continue climbing until intercepting

thedescent profile. However, this is not always practical. Most optimum altitude data for short flightswill assume a minimum cruise time of 5 minutes. Total air distance should be considered whenselecting the optimum altitude on short flights, including the departure and arrival runways andprocedures.6.3 CRUISE SPEED MANAGEMENTIn normal cruise conditions, FMS equipped aircraft should produce an optimized Mach number based on the selected Cost Index, the aircraft weight, altitude, temperature and wind conditions.The Cost Index should not be changed to control the Mach number. As the winds, weights and FLchange, regardless of how well they match the flight plan, allow the FMS to compute the bestMach.The above assumes that the Cost Index selected is properly optimized for a specific airlines coststructure. Manually overriding the FMS speed will normally result in a loss of efficiency either intime, fuel or both.Several aircraft types do not have FMS speed optimization. In this case, either a fixed Mach speedor Long Range Cruise (LRC) speed is typically used. LRC speed is equivalent to 99% of theMaximum Range Cruise (MRC) fuel burn but it does not account for the wind effect. Again, thereare optimization systems, paper or electronic, which provide an optimized Mach and improve thecruise efficiency from about 3 to 7% depending on flight conditions and altitude.The Cost Index selected for a flight should be based on actual airline cost structure. It should alsobe route specific since the price of fuel will often vary at each origin airport. However, the use of non standard Cost Index values can be used if the flight conditions for that day are different thanthe average. Higher head winds, last minute delays, curfews, slot times, gate constraints, down-line impact of on subsequent flight, etc. can increase a delay costs and the use of higher thannormal Cost Index can be utilized to minimize the delay cost. On the other hand, for an early arrival 238. APPROACH AND LANDING8.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE DECELERATED APPROACHThe most fuel-efficient arrival allows the descent profileto flow unrestricted into final approachwithout the use of engines thrust or speed brakes. The following should be considered:Since normally the descent speed below 10,000 feet is limited to 250 kts, that speed should bemaintained until ready to reduce speed to the minimum drag clean speed in preparation for theapproach phase.When feasible, use or request speed vectors to prevent excessive distance travel to establishthe aircraft on final approach. This will often require some initiative by the crew. Remember thatmost aircraft have a significant speed margin of almost 150 knots between VMOand cleanmaneuvering speed during the descent phase.Keep the aircraft clean! Flaps and slats are not designed as drag devices for slowing down butto produce lift. In the process, there is a significant drag increase. Continuous extension of flapat near limiting speeds also increases the risk of component failure. Note that ATC might notalways be aware of the clean maneuvering speed for your aircraft type. Often a word to themwill save an unnecessary early flap extension. Dont be afraid to retract the flaps should theapproach be extendedRequest the arrival sequence number from the Approach Controller on initial contact. Thismakes it easier to estimate the distance to touch down. Decide how to manage the energy andwhether to slow down early to minimum drag speed to prevent excessive downwind vectoring.Avoid dumping excess altitude too early or use of speed brakes to a cleared altitude and thenhaving to add power to fly level at that cleared altitude for an extended period of timeUnless assigned ahardspeed by ATC or by a specific procedure, do not hesitate to use speedcontrol to best advantage8.1.1 FMS ArrivalsMany airports use FMS arrivals. A well-designed FMS arrival should allow a flight to descend andmaneuver with the engines at idle and the engines spooling-up at the final approach fix, thussaving fuel.8.1.2 Visual ApproachesAlthough ATC expects the FMS arrival to be flown as planned, it is sometimes possible to performa Visual Approach from the downwind leg. A Visual Approach will save some additional

fuel.Calculations indicate that in some cases, fuel savings associated with Visual Approaches equal atotal of 2 minutes at idle power fuel flow (20 kg for the A320/B737). The distance traveled isreduced by approximately 3 miles for each of the downwind and final approach. The aircraftis assumed to roll out on final approach at approximately 2 miles back from the FAF whenconducting a Visual Approach.The Visual Approach offers an opportunity to best optimize all of the above recommendations.During FMS approaches, which are designed for IFR conditions, the use of a Visual Approach willnormally result in additional savings. Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement248.1.3 Decelerated Approaches (Low Noise Low Drag)Although this is an Airbus recommended procedure, it applies to most aircraft types. The LowNoise/Low Drag approach has been used to minimize noise in several countries for many years.The basic principles apply to other aircraft types with minor variations depending on specificcharacteristics.The advantages of the Decelerated Approach are as follows:Lower fuel consumption and emissionsLower noise levelsTime savingsFlexibility and ability to vary speed to suit ATCAnother advantage of using the Decelerated Approach is that it sets some clearly defined targetaltitudes and speeds to achieve during the approach. After a few approaches, it will result inimproved standards because most approaches at various airports will be completed in an identicalmanner. Presently, many crews will start flap selection at a distance that varies from over 20 milesto less than 5 miles from touchdown with little consistency from one approach to another.In the case of the Decelerated Approach, the slats and flaps selections are mainly a function of altitude above the ground rather than a distance to the touch down point. This permits improvedenergy management during the approach. Using the Final Approach Fix (FAF) to establish thestabilization altitude will lead to inconsistencies as the FAF can be located at a distance which canvary greatly from the runway threshold.Basically, the aircraft is kept in a clean configuration with the speed reducing to minimum dragclean speed until base leg or prior to turning final at approximately 3,000 feet above ground. At thatpoint, the initial slat selection is made and the speed adjusted to the slats only minimum dragspeed.If the aircraft intercepts the glide slope above 3,000 feet, slats/flaps selections should be delayeduntil reaching that target altitude. The ability to maintain speed on the glide slope in a cleanconfiguration will depend on the aircraft type, the landing weight and the wind component. If possible, use speed brakes to control speed rather than flap or gear extension to control speed.The next target is 2,000 feet AGL where the initial trailing flaps are selected (approximately 15degrees depending on the aircraft type). This normally occurs just outside the Final Approach Fixand a gradual reduction toward the final approach speed is started. When the flaps have reachedtheir intermediate position, the landing gear is lowered.The final landing flap selection is made to achieve approach stabilization by 1,000 feet AGL. Notethat the flight should be configured at the approach speed by 1,000 feet AGL. If by 500 AGL, theflight is not fully stabilized, a Go-Around should be considered.Flight crews will quickly become familiar with the Decelerated Approach and significant fuel savingswill result.8.1.4 High Head Winds on Final will result in long final legsWhen high winds (30 knots or more) are encountered on final approach, its effect on theintermediate approach pattern can be significant. Slower traffic will often cause the subsequenttraffic to back up and will result in very long final approach legs at low speed in a high dragconfiguration. Approach and Landing 25When this is anticipated, subject to ATC restrictions, the crew should attempt slow down as soon asthe situation is recognized (normally early downwind). All speeds above minimum drag clean speedshould be

traded for altitude even if that will make the flight appear high on final. The flights willlikely end up on a long approach and the extra altitude can be used up once the flight is turnedtoward final. It is not difficult to eliminate excess altitude on final approach when headwinds windsare strong.The idea is to reduce speed early, when possible, to minimize excessive downwind travel andgetting into a high drag configuration while on the final approach in a strong headwind. This isextremely inefficient and will consume a significant amount of fuel during the final leg.Slowing down early will improve the possibilities of maintaining the aircraft in a clean configurationas long as possible once on final. At this point, the previous traffic would have had time to moveforward. This should help position the flight for a low drag approach, which is even more critical in ahigh head wind situation.8.2 REDUCED FLAP LANDINGMost airplanes are certified to land without using full landing flaps. Some aircraft types even haveauto-land capability while using reduced flap settings. When conditions are appropriate, landing atless than full flap has some definite advantages. At the last flap setting more drag than lift isnormally generated. Reduced flap landings will not only reduce fuel consumption but alsodecrease chemical and noise emissions. When landing an airplane with reduced flaps, fuel burn isreduced by approximately 25 kg in fuel on an A320/B737 landing and 50 kg for an A340/B777 sizeaircraft.Some of the factors to consider when performing a reduced flap landing include:The landing weight;The runway length;The runway exit point and occupancy time;The runway surface conditions; Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement26Possible tail wind component on final approach; andBrake cooling during short turn around timesThe average increase in speed for reduced flap is landing is approximately 5 knots and the extralanding distance around 500 feet.Several airlines have made reduced flap landing procedures a standard.8.3 IDLE ENGINE REVERSE ON LANDINGWith the ever increasing price of fuel and environmental considerations, the use of idle enginereverse should be used whenever possible. The main advantages of using idle reverse on landinginclude:Reduction in fuel consumption;Reduction in environment emissions;Reduction in noise emissions;Better passenger comfort;Elimination of a high power cycle on the engines;Reduction of foreign object damage (FOD);Reduction in potential engine stall and re-ingestion;Increased engine reliability;Lower cooling time requirement before shutting engines down for engine-out taxi; andSlower engine performance deterioration.Most modern aircraft now use carbon brakes. Brake wear is more a function of the number of applications rather than the amount of braking used. Carbon brakes can withstand higher temperatures without loss of efficiency or fading. In the case of an airplane equipped with auto-brake capability, the braking selection will determine the rate of deceleration, and the stoppingdistance is generally identical to landing with full reverse thrust.When using idle reverse on landing, the following factors should be considered:Runway length and aircraft landing weight;Tailwind on final approach;Runway surface condition;Touch down point; andTurn around time.On long runways, idle reverse thrust can decelerate the aircraft sufficiently without using thebrakes.8.4 ENGINE-OUT TAXI-INUnder normal conditions, engine-out taxi-in should be a standard procedure. SOPs that are welldesigned encourage engine-out taxi with minimal work for the flight crew. When using the engine-out taxi procedure, anticipation is important and the aircraft must be kept moving. Flight crews willrequire training and familiarization with engine-out taxi procedures. Crews familiar with engine-out Approach and Landing 27taxi-in procedures follow the procedure after almost every landing. The main advantages are thefollowing:Reduction in fuel consumption;Reduction in pollution; andReduction in brake wear.Consider the following before apply engine-out taxi-in procedures:Taxiway surface conditions;Taxi-in time;Ramp congestion; andLocal airport regulations. Mission Management 339.3 MISSION MANAGEMENT9.3.1 The scheduleApproximately

50% of an overall airline budget is consumed by actually flying aircraft. Managersoften assume that this is just the cost of doing business when effectively there are manyopportunities to improve efficiency.An airline schedule will have a significant impact on efficiency. As discussed earlier, developing aschedule based on speeds resulting from the proper use of Cost Index optimization adjusted to theairlineReal costs (fuel and time) is essential to achieving efficiency. The schedule will not only determinethe way flights are subsequently operated to maintain On-Time Performance (OTP) but it will havea significant impact on the cost of operating a flight (fuel prices, crews, fleet planning and aircraftutilization, maintenance, connections, and so on).Therefore, assuming that the schedule is properly built, the next challenge is how to manage amission to minimize overall airline costs.The importance of accurate flight planning including the proper use of Cost Index, alternateselection, discretionary fuel addition based on appropriate risk management, tankering, etc, arediscussed in other sections.9.3.2 On-Time performanceNot only is On-Time Performance critical to customer satisfaction but operating on-time willminimize disruption costs. While departing on time is very important,arriving on schedule iseven more critical. If a flight is planned with a forecast late arrival, then an analysis of the latearrival costs should be made to determine whether or not the time should be recovered in flight,based on an analysis of the cost of the late arrival.Even early flights can increase cost, as they could have been operated at a lower Cost Index thusreducing fuel consumption. In addition, early arriving flights have other costs such as gate holdsand utilization, ramp congestion, additional ground staff, and so on. Late arriving flights on theother hand will not only incur the above mentioned costs but can have a serious impact onpassenger and baggage connections, curfews or slot times.The real cost of misconnections is most difficult to assess and will depend greatly oncircumstances. If a passenger misses his connection but is accommodated on an early connectingflight with empty seats - assuming of course that passenger did not have serious time constraintson arrival - then the impact of a delay can be minimal. But if the passenger misses an importantconnection, which negates the whole purpose of his trip, the consequences can be serious. Inaddition, when the passenger needs to be protected on another airline, most of the ticket revenuecan be lost.Finally, the loss of value passenger goodwill is hard to measure but may result in the passenger selecting other airlines for future travel. Late flights will also impact baggage connections, whichcan be a serious irritant for passengers. Some airlines spend millions of dollars delivering baggageto irate passengers every year. Late flights can have repercussions on numerous subsequentflights throughout the day and the cost of a late flight can rapidly multiply several times.It is therefore of utmost importance to develop an On-Time Performance culturenot only for flight crews but for every staff member, including passenger agents, servicing crews,maintenance, and gate planners, who can all influence the OTP. Staff has to be sensitized thatthere are great costs associated with any delay at all. Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement349.3.3 Managing the missionThe tactical use of Cost Index will play an important part on fuel consumption. Speeding up flightsshould not be a substitute for good ground handling practices or on-time departures. However, if onthe day of operation, the winds are stronger than usual - and this will result in a flight arriving latewith all the associated costs of a delay -

or when a delay is anticipated and there is enough time toplan or re-compute the flight plan, it might be better to speed up the flight (higher Cost Index) whenthe cost of the additional fuel is less than the anticipated delay costs.It is not always possible to increase the Cost Index sufficiently to compensate for the whole delay -but its impact could be mitigated.A close look at the connection distribution might yield a target arrival time that is achievable andresults in the minimum cost of operation. This would normally be done at the planning level usingproper cost analysis tools. There is no point speeding up a flight where there is no commercialvalue in doing so.One problem is when a flight encounters a last minute delay and the decision must be taken tominimize the disruption cost. Crews are normally not in a position to be able to assess such asituation although providing crews with a list of connections will certainly raise awareness on their part. The idea is to have the airlines Operations Control department perform an assessment anddetermine the course of action that will best minimize the cost of a delay.Some connecting flights might also be delayed and therefore there is no value in speeding up aflight to make those connections. Some other connecting passengers could easily beaccommodated on a later flight at minimal cost. The idea is that each situation is different and mustbe analyzed according to circumstances and on its own merit.The need for effective and timely coordination and communication capability between OperationsControl, Dispatch and station control and flight crews cannot be overstated.The question is whether there will be additional fuel on board to accelerate a flight in the event of alast minute delay. Airlines are normally aware of flights that have critical connections. They arealso aware that some of these high commercial value flights are likely to experience last minutedelays. On those specific flights, extra fuel should be boarded in spite of the additional cost of carrying the acceleration fuel. It is equivalent to buying an insurance policy. It could also in certaincircumstances prevent a diversion of a very high commercial value flight in case of a last minutehold on arrival.The question is how much additional fuel to carry. If a flight is already accelerated because of adverse winds or for some other reasons, there is no point carrying additional fuel as it cannot beused for acceleration purposes. There is also a limit as to how fast a flight should be accelerated.Airline policy should determine a maximum Cost Index beyond which excessive fuel is consumedfor little time gain.An adequate flight planning system should permit the calculation of all costs associated with aspecific flight plan including the available flight time flexibility. If the payload is affected by thecarriage of additional fuel, a cost analysis should determine whether to protect the payload or theconnections.9.3.4 The flight crewsFlight crews can play a major role in managing the flight.Being proactive to insure that flights depart on time is important. It is important to arrive early to theaircraft so that crews can ensure that there are no mechanical problems or Minimum Equipment Mission Management 35List [MEL] tasks to be performed, and brief the cabin crew on the need to be ready for on on-timedeparture.The flight plan package should include a list of connections with the connecting flights anddeparture times. While Operations Control and Dispatch have numerous flights to handle, crewsonly manage one flight at a time. They are often aware of problems before other departments.It isimportant to communicate and coordinate any change of situation

as soon as possible.Start up and ramp departure procedures should be efficient. Some airlines have long andcumbersome starting procedures that they block the ramp for 15 minutes or more, causing a tie upfor several other flights.Taxi speed should be reasonable. Valuable time can be lost by excessively slow taxi speeds.Crews that are consistently over schedule are probably loosing the best part of the block timeduring taxi. Airline contracts often have the strange characteristic of rewarding crews that arearriving late (schedule growth) often for no identifiable reasons.Once the flight is airborne, the arrival time can be estimated fairly accurately. If it is determined thatthe flight will be late at planned speeds, the crew should advise Operations Control or Dispatch of the forecast arrival time and a cost analysis of the late arrival should be performed. If it is decidedthat the flight should be accelerated, a new optimized flight plan should be computed with a newprofile and Cost Index, depending on the fuel available.It is critical for the crew to update the Estimated Arrival Time (ETA) as soon as possible to facilitatethe ground coordination such as gate planning, meeting the flight by ground crews, passenger agents to assist with tight connections and rearrange missed connections.An accurate ETA might also allow Operations Control to delay some connecting flights andsubsequently accelerate these flights keeping service to customers in mind while minimizingoperating costs. 9.4 COST INDEX COMPUTATIONThe Cost Index (CI) is a ratio between the costs of time versus the cost of fuel. Ideally, an airlineshould balance all its operating costs. For instance, operating at very high relative Mach willincrease the fuel cost but the time cost is lower and conversely, at lower Mach, the fuel cost isreduced but time cost increases. So how are these costs balanced?On-board Flight Management Systems or other flight profile optimizing systems can calculate theMach number and altitude to balance the time cost with the fuel cost once the time versus fuelcosts ratio (Cost Index) is known. This is why establishing a proper Cost Index for each aircrafttype for a specific airline cost is critical.How can this be done?By determining the various time and fuel costs, it is possible to determine the most efficient CI for aspecific aircraft type based on the airlines cost structure.Lets try an example using metric Cost Index units for an A320:Cost Index = Time Cost / Fuel costThe time costs include any item where the flight time has a direct impact on cost such as crew cost,incremental maintenance costs, etc. It is normally expressed in $/min. e.g.:Crew cost $ 7/minIncremental maintenance $15/minTotal time cost $22/min Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement36The cost of fuel is expressed in $/Kg e.g.: $0.60/kgSo the Cost Index should be $22/min divided by $0.60/Kg = a CI of 37As can be seen, airlines that have low time cost structure and high fuel prices should operate at lowCI and consequently lower speeds and visa versa. Since the price of fuel is different at everyairport, it would be reasonable to adjust the CI to be route specific.9.5 FUEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (FUEL MI)A well-structured Fuel MI enables airlines to track accurately all aspects of fuel usage.It shouldcompare flight-planning information with actual flight data for analysis.A well-structured FuelMI system should enable the monitoring and analysis of the following areas:9.5.1 Monitoring the accuracy of the flight planning systemThe Fuel MI should include sufficient data to monitor the accuracy and integrity of the flightplanning system. Confidence in the accuracy of the flight planning system will go a long way toreduce unnecessary fuel additives.9.5.2 Tracking of each aircraft fuel burn accuratelyFlight planning systems normally use a performance correction factor to match the system with theindividual aircraft performance. The ability to track each aircraft accurately is of the utmostimportance particularly for long-range flights. In the case where 100 tons

of fuel is consumedduring a long-range flight, a 1% error in planned fuel burn performance can result in the carriage of one ton of unnecessary fuel. This could also affect as many as 10 passengers or reduce cargo byone ton. In some cases, it could force an enroute fuel landing or arriving at destination with lessthan regulation fuel.Precisely tracking and managing an aircrafts specific fuel-burn is critical. It will prevent flight crewsfrom making their own subjective burn corrections, if they have no confidence in the accuracy of flight planning system.Note: Performance correction factors will need adjustments during initial aircraft introduction tomatch the manufacturers claimed performance with the optimization algorithm of the flight planningsystem. It will also need periodical adjustments during periods of heavy crew training or seasonallyfor situations such as winter operations, and so on.9.5.3 Monitoring Fuel on Board (FOB) and fuel upliftAsk these questions: Is the fuel boarded accurate? Is the fuel billing accurate?Tracking of fuel uplift will ensure proper invoicing. Do flight crews add fuel without coordinating withflight dispatch or load control? Unplanned additional fuel boarded will result in non-optimizedvertical and lateral profiles.Re-fuelers also have a tendency to board more fuel than required. Here are some frequentlyencountered situations and arguments from re-fuelers:That crews like a little extra fuel.Traffic is heavy todayThey did not want to reconnect for a couple of hundred of kilograms of fuelThe fueling gauges at the refueling station are different from the cockpitTheir supervisor told them to always board additional fuel Mission Management 37It is nice to have a round number for cross checking calculations, etc.In some cases, boarding fuel in excess of plan can exceed the aircrafts Maximum Takeoff Weight(MTOW), resulting in denied boardings, the need to de-fuel or departure delays.Depending on the aircraft type, experience has demonstrated that an average of 200 kg per flight(60 USG) is boarded above the planned fuel. This tendency of over fueling flights will consume 32metric tons per aircraft of additional fuel based on an annual utilization of 4,000 hours per year. Itwill also cost almost $US 16,000 for carriage alone not considering the potential revenue loss andwear and tear of the aircraft.9.5.4 Monitor the Fuel over Destination (FOD)Tracking the FOD will help monitor the flight planning efficiency and measure the carriage of unnecessary fuel. It will facilitate the development of a statistical approach to fuel planning andprovide guidelines to flight crews and dispatchers when boarding additional fuel. Remember,excessive landing fuel will increase wear and tear on the aircraft (brakes, engines).An accurate Fuel MI will facilitate the monitoring of airports where there are significant variationsfrom the planned landing fuel and ensure that sufficient fuel is carried to avoid possible diversions.It will highlight the cost of designatingexcessively long alternateswhen planning. Somedispatchers will use distant alternate airports, or the ones they are familiar with rather that the mostcost efficient alternate based on an actual probability of a diversion. If a diversion is unlikely and analternate airport is carried to satisfy regulatory requirements, select the closest suitable alternate.As the probability of a diversion increases, consider passenger convenience, aircraft recovery, crewduty times, etc. when selecting an alternate airport. Today, diversions are rare occurrences withmodern aircraft equipped with autoland capabilities, adequate airport facilities and accurateweather reporting.Statistics have demonstrated that on average, diversions occur one in every 1,000 flights of whichone third are due to mechanical reasons, another third for medical reasons and the other third for weather. In the case of weather diversions, it is often possible to anticipate the diversion during theflight-planning phase. (Fog, thunderstorms, excessive winds, etc.)9.5.5 Monitor fuel performance of flight crewsAn accurate Fuel MI system will permit the monitoring of the crews fuel performance. While theapproach should be based

on the principle of non-jeopardy, it is possible to determine the efficiencyof specific captains by monitoring a reasonable number of flights. . In practice, the variation in fuelburn between crews will be approximately 2-3% above or below the planned flight burn. This isparticularly evident for shorter flights because more time is spent maneuvering as opposed to thetime in cruise. Reducing the fuel burn per crew by one percent will result in a US$40,000 saving per aircraft on the fleet (A320 or B737). Being able to monitor fuel performance of flight crews willentice them to be more attentive to fuel efficiency, help the airline focus fuel training programs,monitor adherence to fuel saving SOPs and reward the good performers, The Fuel MI shouldprovide feedback to individual captains on how well they manage fuel compared to the averagecrew. The fuel MI system will also monitor the boarding of additional fuel (planned or unplanned) byflight crews. Because of the limited information available to flight crews during flight planning, therequested additional fuel is usually not required. 9.5.6 Monitor the planning efficiency of Flight DispatchersIn addition to planning the most cost efficient route and minimizing navigation charges (which in agood flight planning system should do almost automatically), dispatchers must make significantefforts to optimize discretionary fuel and reduce costs while at the same time minimizing the risk of diversions. In addition to maintaining an accurate flight planning system, the airline must provide Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement38dispatchers with the appropriate tools including statistical information, accurate and up-to-dateweather information, and trafficinformation (Airport ATC Demand Charts and graphical flight watch). The workload must beappropriate to allow for efficient flight planning. However, some dispatchers will systematicallyboard unnecessary discretionary fuel on flights resulting in significant additional costs incompatiblewith proper risk management techniques. In some cases, the cost of planning unnecessary fuel bysome dispatchers will cost the airline over US$100,000 per year before considering payload andwear on the aircraft. In addition, the flight watch provided by dispatchers, who more closelyoptimize fuel boarding, is in general of superior quality.9.5.7 Monitor Estimated Zero Fuel Weight (EZFW) and payload optimizationDispatchers will tend to overestimate the Estimated Zero Fuel Weight (EZFW) to avoid the lastminute requirement for additional fuel. This results in the boarding of unnecessary fuel, which iscostly especially on longer flights where it can affect payload. Accurate EZFWs are essential,especially for long-range flights. A proper Fuel MI system will help determine the lost opportunitiesand the cost of carrying the additional fuel. It will also facilitate the tracking of airports from wheremaximum EZFW errors occur because of poor load planning. On long-range flights, an airlineshould consider a fuel top-up policy just before departure. Re-optimizing the fuel and flight profilebefore departure will minimize the boarding of excess fuel and prevent a return to the gate in caseof last minute ZFW increases over the flight plan. It would also permit the boarding of additional fuelshould higher speeds (ideally higher Cost Indices) be required to speed up a flight due to a lastminute delay. Reassessing the alternate selection before departure might allow for the use of acloser alternate or dropping the alternate altogether as conditions (winds, forecasted ceiling andvisibility) could have changed significantly since the initial flight plan calculations.9.5.8 Develop efficient fuel saving procedures and monitor their effectivenessFuel MI will monitor the impact of introducing new fuel management procedures, updatednavigation, communication or aircraft systems and engines overhauls. 9.5.9 Monitor fuel cost for the various routesRoutes have to be re-assessed continuously and their cost impact evaluated. Fuel MI will helpmonitor unwarranted route or altitude restrictions on certain flights, identify fuel inefficient airportsand support arguments for procedure changes. 9.5.10 Taxi delays and gate hold including taxi fuelIn addition to accurately boarding the correct taxi fuel at specific airports,

closely monitoring taxitimes will help analyze their impact on on-time performance. Accurate taxi times and taxi fuel willdiscourage ad hoc fuel additions by dispatchers and crews. It will also allow the monitor block timesfor scheduling.9.5.11 Familiarize managers with the use the Fuel MI systemAre the managers trained to use the Fuel MI system and is the information distributed to thestakeholders? One reason fuel is consumed inefficiently is the lack of reliable statistics andappreciation of its effects on the airlines overall budget. Often, some managers believe there is Mission Management 39little they can do to save fuel or that a fuel surcharge on tickets will compensate for increase in fuelprices. In the case of Flight Operations, while safety is the primary responsibility, lack of upper management support, training and accountability of managers are the primary reasons for less thanoptimal fuel management performance.9.6 HIGH COST OF FULL THRUST TAKE-OFFMost engine manufacturers will agree that the maximum strain on an engine occurs during thetakeoff phase because the thermal shock is the greatest with the highest temperatures generated.While jet engines are highly reliable, a full thrust takeoff is when engine failures are most likely tooccur.The most common jet engine used today is the CFM 56 (B737/A320). For most airlines, theaverage time between hot section engine overhauls is approximately 20,000 hours or 10,000 cycles(assuming an average flight time of 2 hours). Experts agree that if full thrust was used for everytakeoff, the engine life would be reduced by about half. Overhauling the hot section of a CFM 56will cost approximately $1 million. A reduced thrust takeoff can save at least $100 per engine per takeoff in unnecessary wear and tear.Full thrust takeoffs will also cause more rapid performance deterioration and increase in specificfuel consumption. Crews should be conscious of the cost of high thrust takeoffs and avoid themwhen operationally feasible. Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and EnvironmentalManagement40 Fuel Action Plan Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport DocumentReport this document?Please tell us reason(s) for reporting this document Spam or junk Porn adult content Hateful or offensiveIf you are the copyright owner of this document and want to report it, please follow these directions to submit a copyright infringement notice.Report Cancel This is a private document. Info and Rating Reads:2,269Uploaded:05/26/2011Category:Art & DesignRated:Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial FollowEdwin SinginiSectionsshow allcollapse prev next 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 FUEL MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY 1.2 FUEL MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1.3 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EFFICIENT FUEL MANAGEMENT 1.4 BASIC FACTS REGARDING FUEL CONSUMPTION 2. FLIGHT PLANNING 2.1 EFFICIENT FLIGHT PLANNING 2.2 STATISTICAL AND DISCRETIONARY FUEL 2.3 ALTERNATE SELECTION 2.4 RE-DISPATCH AND RE-CLEARANCE TECHNIQUES 2.5 FUEL TANKERING 2.6 WEIGHT MANAGEMENT 2.7 CENTER OF GRAVITY MANAGEMENT 3. PRE-FLIGHT PROCEDURES 3.1 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROGRAMMING 3.2 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) MANAGEMENT 4. START AND TAXI 4.1 ENGINE START-UP AND TAXI

5. DEPARTURE AND CLIMB 5.1 REDUCED THRUST TAKE-OFF 5.2 INITIAL CLIMB OUT PROFILE MANAGEMENT 6. CRUISE MANAGEMENT 6.1 LATERAL TRACK MANAGEMENT 6.2 VERTICAL PROFILE MANAGEMENT IN CRUISE 6.3 CRUISE SPEED MANAGEMENT 6.4 COST INDEX MANAGEMENT 7. DESCENT 7.1 FMS DESCENT PROFILE MANAGEMENT 7.2 DESCENT PROFILE MANAGEMENT FOR NON-FMS AIRCRAFT 8. APPROACH AND LANDING 8.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE DECELERATED APPROACH 8.2 REDUCED FLAP LANDING 8.3 IDLE ENGINE REVERSE ON LANDING 8.4 ENGINE-OUT TAXI-IN 9. MISSION MANAGEMENT 9.1 FLIGHT SCHEDULE AND FUEL MANAGEMENT 9.4 COST INDEX COMPUTATION 9.5 FUEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (FUEL MI) 9.6 HIGH COST OF FULL THRUST TAKE-OFF 10. MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS 10.1 INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS 10.2 POTENTIAL MAINTENANCE ACTIONS 10.3 ESTIMATED FUEL SAVINGS 11. DISPATCH CONSIDERATIONS 11.1 OBJECTIVES OF FLIGHT PLANNING 11.2 FLIGHT PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 11.3 ROUTE SELECTION AND PLANNING 11.4 ALTERNATE SELECTION 11.5 STATISTICAL DISCRETIONARY FUELS 11.6 FUEL TANKERING 11.7 RE-DISPATCH TECHNIQUE 11.8 FLIGHT DISPATCHER PILOT RELATIONSHIP 11.9 FLIGHT WATCH 12. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL 12.1 OVERVIEW 12.2 FUEL IS BURNED TO CARRY FUEL 12.3 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 12.4 AT THE GATE 12.5 TAXIING AND DEPARTURE 12.6 CLIMB 12.7 CRUISE 12.8 SPEED AND VECTORING 12.9 DIRECT ROUTING 12.10 DESCENT 12.11 HOLDING 12.12 APPROACH AND LANDING 12.13 WHAT CAN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS DO? 13 FUEL AND EMISSIONS EFFICIENCY CHECKLIST Share & Embed Related Documents PreviousNext p. p. p. p. p. p. p.

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