Pest: In a broader sense pest is any biological entity that causes economic damage to a crop.

It can either be an insect or disease causing organism or micro-organisms. Weed: Any plant which is unwanted in the field is called as a weed crop. Annual crop loss due to insects: Rice-25%, Pulses-30%, Oil seeds-35%, Sugercane-20%, Cotton-50% During 1960’s at the time of green revolution, HYV seeds were introduced. Chemical fertilizers were necessary for these seeds. The excessive application of chemical fertilizer leads to the problems of pest. HYV seeds are susceptible to pest and diseases. Familiarization with classification of pests In 2 kingdom classification, organisms were classified as Plant kingdom and Animal kingdom by Carl Linnaeus. Further 5 kingdom classification came into existence, which was given by R H Whittaker. The main criterion for classification was as follows: Structure of the cell [Prokaryotic (organisms not having definite nucleus in their cells) and Eukaryotic (organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes)] 1st kingdom-Monera (all bacterial form, prokaryotic form) 2nd kingdom-Protista (based on body organisation, Protista-unicellular e.g. amoeba, paramecium etc.) 3rd kingdom-Plantae (capable of producing their own food) 4th kingdom-Animalia (consumers) 5th kingdom-Fungi (unicellular organism-yeast) Under each kingdom 7 step classification was being done. This step can be written as follows: Kingdom>Phylum>Class>Order>Family>Genus>Species Cockroaches (American)>Order- Orthoptera>Family- Blattidae>Genus- Pociplanta> Species- Americana Characteristic of phylum Arthropoda: 1. Presence of jointed appendages and jointed legs 2. Presence of exoskeleton made up of chitin 3. Segmented body 4. Body having haemolymph 5. Moulting through the growth Important classes of phylum Arthropoda 1. Class insecta E.g. …… 2. Class ceustacea E.g. crab, prawns etc 3. Class piplopoda E.g. Millipeades 4. Class chliopoda E.g. Centipeades 5. Class Arachinada E.g. Spiders, mites, scorpions etc. Characteristics of class insect 1) Body divided into head, thorax and abdomen. 2) Pair of antenna 3) Presence of compound eye 4) 3 pairs of legs 5) 2 pairs of wings 6) Thorax as pro-thorax, meso-thorax and meta-thorax *integument is the covering of the body to protect insect from the external environment. It provides structural strength. Integument can be called as exo-skeleton. It also protects the internal body organs. Integument is having two layers epidermis and cuticle. Outermost layer of cuticle is called epicuticle. It is very thin in nature. Exocuticle and endocuticle together called procuticle. Here it is to be mentioned that epicuticle is nonchitinous while exocuticle and endocuticle contains chitin. Cuticle is non-cellular in origin. Below epidermis there is a basal layer. Epidermis stands on basal membrane. Morphology of insects 1. Head: Formed by union of six segments. It consists of eye, antenna and mouth parts. Eyes are compound. Simple eye is called ocelli which is commonly 3 in number. Ocelli are photo receptor. There are two compound eyes. Compound eye is formed of basic unit called ommatidium. Antennae: Sensory structure of insect. Antennae are situated in between the eyes.

a proximal cords and a distant stipes. At this point we have to adopt control measures. weed killerscyrtobagous salvinea. 3. internal feeders. Mode of chemical reactions in their body 8. sporadic pest. Its basal portion consists of a large submentum and a small mentum.Mouth parts: There are several types of mouth parts present in different type of insects. Disseminate plant disease e. Ability to thrive in different conditions 7. Harmful insects a. Household pest e. parasitoids-ant. Mandibles: it lies immediately beneath the labrum one on either side and helps in biting and chewing food. Repeated intervention is . Difference in feeding behaviour in some cases 12.g. Reason for dominance of insects in animal kingdom 64% of the organism belongs to class insect and this is because of: 1. Making harvest difficult 2. Presence of exoskeleton helps to thrive in adverse climate conditions. The main constituents of mouth are: Labrum: It is a flat bi-lobed structure. pollinators-honeybee. Maxillae: It lies posterior to the mandibles. soil fertility promoters. Major pest. potential pest Key pest: Most severe and damaging pest. Control measures bring the population temporarily below . Storage pest d. Classification of pest: Key pest. High reproduction capacity of insects 5. Persistent and perennial threat to crops. Economic injury level (EIL): it is the lowest pest population density that causes the economic damage. crime detection. subterranean insects. piercing and sucking. Excretion is in the form of uric acid which help to reduce the loss of water 9. Some insects undergoes diapause (arresting the metabolic activities during adverse conditions) Economic classification of insects A.causing contamination and loss of quality of produce. foodfish feed-lizard feed-birds feed) Helpful insects Predators –dragon fly. Pest: any organism whose population increase to such an extent to cause economic loses to crops or nuisance and health hazard to human and his livestock. The basal portion of maxilla consists of two pieces. drugs. scavengers. injury to stored products. Productive insects (silk-silk worm-phycosamia ricini. ceranaindica. It is expressed in number of insect population Economic threshold level: it is the pest density at which control measures should be applied to prevent pest population reaching EIL. Variation in mouth parts they can feed differently 6. 2. Commonly known insect cockroach can be taken as example. Types of damage caused by insects to plant There are two types of damage caused by insects-direct and indirect Direct damage: chewing insects. Minor pest. bunchy top of banana. aesthetic value. Economically important 1. Capacity for their flights 3. It overhangs mouth. honey-apis dorsata-apis floina-a. Hypo pharynx: It lies in front of the labium between the two maxillae. Different mode of communication (chemical communication) 10. Public pest: mosquito b. Labrum: It lies ventrally as a medium structure. Animal pest 2.antimicrobial-antifungal. Indirect damage: 1. Crop pest c. Beneficial insects a. lac. Small size of the insects (smallest insect is equal to largest amoeba) 11. Butterfly can fly 90kph 4.

atmospheric pressure. birds etc. mites. toad. natural diseases-diseases caused by microorganisms Artificial method: these methods are under the control of man. rainfall and humidity. Under this condition there are three main factors: 1. Sporadic pest: Population is usually negligible. parasitic insects. Hairy caterpillars. Controlled by single application of insecticide. cut worms etc. Success or continuation does not depend upon man. which are necessary and used when harmful insects have not been held in check by natural agencies. 2. . No satisfactory control. rice hispa etc. leaf folders. Army worm on wheat. repeated control measures are necessary. Biotic factors: insect predators. Any change in cropping pattern or cultural practices bring the population above EIL. sugarcane borer. lakes. Cotton ball worm. sea. other enemies-frog. Climatic factors: Temperature. BPH. under favorable condition it may cross EIL. Potential pest: Population is below EIL under normal condition. diamond black moth. Thrips. raptiles. Crosses EIL under favorable conditions in certain years. Physical factors: mountain. Major pest: The population crosses EIL quiet frequently. soil structure. Residual population survives once the favorable season is over. Economic damage is avoided by timely intervention. air currents. rivers. rice stem borer. and gall midge Minor pest: Population is below EIL.trichograma-paddy stem borer.coccinelids. soil composition 3.required to control. light. Method of pest control Natural method: Igt checks the infestation without the interference by man.

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