Data interpretation

1) If 2) Naloxone is an opioid antagonist used to treat acute heroin overdose. A scientist has been using naloxone in a series of experiments to work out its KD, by adding it to a test tube containing a preparation of receptors, varying the concentration and measuring how much drug is bound. The proportional occupancy of any population of receptors by a drug is expressed using the following equation: 

where is the fraction of receptors occupied, D is the concentration of drug (M), and KD is the equilibrium dissociation constant of the drug (M). a. If 20% of the receptors are occupied at 0.4nM, what is the KD of naloxone? b. If 10 receptors are occupied by naloxone at 0.64nM, how many receptors are present in the preparation? c. How can we know that will have no units, given that we know how D and KD are measured? d. The scientist is measuring the amount of naloxone bound using a version of it that has been labelled with a radioactive isotope, which can be detected by a technique called liquid scintillation counting. The specific activity of [3H]-naloxone is 1 mCi/ml. Each 250µl bottle of [3H]-naloxone contains 80 µmol. One Curie (Ci) is equal to 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second. One receptor preparation has a reading on the counter of 2865 disintegrations per minute. Assuming the radioactivity picked up by the liquid scintillation counter is only coming from receptor-bound drug, what proportion of receptors have been bound?

3) You are on a climbing holiday with a friend when they fall and break both of their ankles. After assessing their condition you call mountain rescue and wait for them to arrive. The fractures do not seem to be life threatening, but it is winter and they are beginning to become hypothermic. Luckily you have to hand a set of scales, a cannula/bag/tubing and some table salt and sterile water, so you decide to make some IV fluids to warm them up. a. You want to make some 0.9% saline (NaCl) solution. A 1% solution is equal to If you want to make 1l of saline how much salt do you need? b. What molarity is a 0.9% NaCl solution if 1 mole of NaCl weighs 58.5g? c. What osmolarity is the same solution? d. You are about to give the fluids when you notice to your horror that the table salt you used in part a) also contains 0.01% potassium iodide (72 amu)! i. If you give a solution containing potassium ions intravenously, will the blood levels of potassium decrease, increase, or is more information needed? ii. Lethal injections contain 10-20 mEq/hour of potassium ions. Would the patient be in danger of death from your saline, assuming you were planning to give the saline at a rate of 150ml/hour?

9% solution of NaCl? . How much more table salt would you need to add in order to make the saline up to a 0.e.

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